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Strengthening of wide-flange columns under load

Article  in  Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering · February 2011

DOI: 10.1139/l90-094


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Hesham Marzouk
Ryerson University


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Strengthening of wide-flange columns under load
Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial Universiq of Newfoundland, St. John's, Nfld., Canada APB 3x5

Department of Civil Engineering, Universify of Arizona, Tucson, A% 85721, &bS.A.
Received July 2 1, 1989
Revised manuscript accepted April 17, I990

The present work deals with formulation of theoretical and analytical methods leading to the development of column
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strength curves. The fomulations were developed for both elastic and inelastic behaviour. Two types of reinforcement have
been developed for strengthening the W-shape columns under load. Since the column strength curves are based in part on
the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses, it is extremely important to consider the new pattern of residual stresses
due to welding process. Also, the welding sequence will affect the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses. Theoretical
fomulations leading to a closed-form solution for the prediction of critical load were developed for two types of strengthening
using the superposition of original residual, new welding, and initial loading stresses. A nonlinear finite element analysis
based on the large deformation theory of stability was used to predict the strengthened column critical load. It takes into
consideration the effect of cooling residual stresses and new welding residual stresses. The formulations were incorporated
with gradual penetration of yielding, the spreading of inelastic zones along the member length, the presence of residual
stresses, and strain hardening of the material. Experiments were carried out to determine the actual capacity of strengthened
columns. Seven specimens were tested using two and four strengthening plates. The welding stresses were measured through
a series of experiments, and it was found that the parabolic distribution is a very close approximationto the actual new welding
stress distribution,
Key words: reinforcement of steel columns, welding stresses, welding sequence, strengthening of existing structures, buck-
ling, steel plating, finite element.
For personal use only.

Cet article traite de 1'Claboration de mCthodes thCoriques et analytiques en vue de dCvelopper des courbes de rhistsnce
des poteaux. Ces formules ont CtC ClaborCes p u r les comporgemeglts Clastique et inClastique. Deux types d'arnmture ont CtC
dCveloppCs pour renforcer les pteaux en forme de W, soumis B des charges. hisque les csurbes de rCsistance des poteaux
sont fonction en partie de l'ampleur et de la rkpartition des contraintes rksiduelles, il est extrkrnement important de tenir
compte du nouveau schema des contraintes rCsiduelles causCes par le processus de soudure. En outre, I'ordonnancement de
la soudure influencera l'ampleur et la repartition des contraintes rCsiduelles. Des formules thkoriques qui rCsultent en une
solution de forme fermCe pour la prevision de Ba charge critique ont CtC ClaborCes pour deux types de renforcement, B l'aide
de la superposition des contraintes rCsidrnelles originales, des csntraintes de chargement initiales et des nouelelles contraintes
produites par la soudure. Une andyse non linCaire par la mCthode des ClCments finis a permis de prCdire la charge critique
du psteau renfsrck. Elle prend en considCration l'effet des csntraintes rCsiduelles de refroidissement et des nouvelles
contraintes rCsiduelles dues B la soudure. Les formules ont Cte intCgrCes B la dispersion des zones inClastiques le long de 1,616-
ment, la prCsence de contraintes rCsiduelles et Be durcissement h froid du matCriau. Des expkriences ont etC effectukes afin
de dCteminer la capacitC rCelle des poteaux renforcks. Sept Cchantillons ont BtC soumis B des essais a l'aide de deux et de
quatre plaques de renforcement. Les contraintes dues B la soudure ont CtC mesurCes de manikre expkrimentale. On a constat6
que la repartition parabolique Chit une approximation trks prks de la rkpartition rCelle des nouvelles csntraintes de ssudure.
Mots cl& : renforcement des poteaux d'acier, contraintes dues B la soudure, ordonnancement de la soudure, renforcement
de structures exishntes, Wambage, plaques d9acier, ClCment fini.
[Traduit par la revue]

Can. B. Civ. Bng. 17, 835-843 (1990)

Introduction Faculty of Engineering of Memorial University s f Newfound-

As a result of changes in the environmental design require- land. The research program is mainly comprised of proposing
ments, many old steel structures for chemical plants, power a theoretical method to develop column strength curves and
plants, and processing mines now face the problem of chaaag- verifying its validity through experiments. The column
ing their process equipment to meet new environmental code strength curves are partly dependent on the mgnitude and dis-
requirements. In most s f these cases, new pieces of equipment tribution of residual stresses. In the case of columns strength-
such as scrubbers and filters are introduced to the process ened under load, the new welding residual stresses are also to
cycle. These equipmeaats are usually very heavy and create be taken into consideration. It must be realized that the analy-
massive loads on the existing structure. Hence, existing sis s f a strengthened loaded steel column is more complex than
columns need to be strengthened to carry new loads. that of strengthened column under no load.
A research program was designed and carried out at the
Stability analysis
NOTE:Written discussion of &is paper is welcomed and will be Column design specifications consider the entire reduction
received by the Editor until February 28, 1991 (address inside front of strength of s t e l columns to be the result of either residual
cover). stresses or initial imperfections. The Canadian code and a
Printed in Canada i Impritnk au Canada
836 CAW. J. CIV. ENG. VOL. 17. 1990

number of other specifications until the early 1970s have used

steel design formulas which are basically a curve fitted to FIRST AND \10nn V SECOND AND
experimental data in the inelastic region, with the Eder elastic FOURTH WELD
curve k i n g used for elastic region. Since the column strength
curves are based in part on the magnitude amad distribution of
residual stresses, extreme care should be exercised in deter-
mining the capacity of an existing column that is being rein-
forced. The welding process will create a new pattern of
residual stress in the reinforced column. Also, the sequence s f
welding to the reinforced column will affect the pattern and
distribution of residud stresses.
The critical buckling stress as developed by Euler is
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The above equation is vdid in the elastic range. In the

inelastic region, Young's modulus is to be replaced by the tan-
gent modulus as proposed by Shanley's method (1947). There-
fore, 111 can be rewritten as ' OF WELDING ONLY
140 MPa
FIG. 1. Strengthening by two plates and welding stresses.
(0 - - - 0 ) experimental; (-1 assumed values.

The original residual stresses in the column can be assumed

as a parabolic stress distribution in the second degree, with and integration of stresses to evaluate the column strength
maximum tensile and compressive stresses not exceeding one curve. The critical load for the entire column is obtained by
For personal use only.

third of the yield stresses a$ recommended by Structural Sta- integrating individual stress distributions in flanges, web, and
bility Research Council (SSRC) (Johnston 1976). plates along their reference axes, multiplying by the respective
Immediately after the welds are applied, the adjacent metal thicknesses, and summing them up.
cools and shrinks. The stresses developed in that area are ten- Wesidaal and wekding stresses
sile while the rest of the section is placed in compression. A For the case sf a W shape reinforced by two plates to the
value of one quarter of the yield stress was assumed asbthe flanges, the stresses can be represented as follows.
maximum value of compression, and tension is a second-
degree parabola. This distribution is different from the distri- Residual stresses
bution suggested by ABpsten and Tall (1970) for heavy welded Flanges:
shapes where welding stresses were not very predominant.
As the compressive load on the member progressively
increases, the individual fibres across the section show an
increase in compressive stress. When the load is at certain level Web:
(this can be varied as a total percentage of yield load), the
column is strengthened by welding plates. Two types of strength-
ening have been proposed for this investigation: ( i ) strengthen-
ing by two plates welded to flanges from outside as shown in
Fig. 1 and (ii) strengthening by four plates welded to flanges
Welding stresses
from inside as illustrated in Fig. 2. The new additional stresses
in the existing flange as a result of welding, for the case of
strengthening by two plates, are shown in Fig. 1, while the
web is hardly affected by any welding stress. For the case of
strengthening by four plates, both the existing flange and web
will experience additional welding stresses as illustrated in Web :
Fig. 2. At the time sf welding, as mentioned earlier, high ten-
sile stresses are introduced. Depending upon the welding crww = 0 (strengthening by two plates)
stress pattern, some fibres are relieved of stress and some C61
other fibres are burdened with more stress. The original (strengthening by four plates)
residual stresses in the column are well known, the loading
stress can be cdculated, and the new welding stresses are esti- Plate :
mated; therefore the strengthened column capacity can be
determined from the column strength curve by using the super-
position of the three types of stresses and the tangent modulus.
The superposition of stresses can be evaluated at each load
increment by integration or by other numerical methods. In Strengthening by twv plates
this paper, the theoretical method is based on the superposition The existing residual and new welding stresses are superirn-


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For personal use only.

FIG. 2. Strengthening by four plates and welding stresses. (8- - -@) experimental; (-1 assumed values.

posed by adding corresponding formulations for webs and attained, because the integrals can be evaluated as follows:
flanges respectively.

Web :
Web :

Plates :
The above two equations can be modified to take into con-
sideration the initial loading stress, F, due to loading and the
incremental stress, f, afer strengthening of the column. The
final forms of the superimposed stress distribution for flanges The previous formulations are for the critical load in the
and webs are given by elastic region, but this may not always be the case. At lower
Flanges : slenderness ratios, the critical load is attained only in the
remaining plastic range of stress. Hence the critical load
becomes a factor dependent on the remaining elastic portion
in the cross section. The following formulations correspond to
critical loads for flanges, web, and plates in the inelastic
Web : region. As the axial compressive load on the column
increases, the tips of the flanges yield first, followed by the
middle of the web and then yielding progressively spreads
towards the junctions of flanges and web. The plates will yield
completely only after the original column section has yielded
The superimposed distributions for the flanges, web, and fully. The closed-form solution for critical loads can be calcu-
strengthening plates are shown in Fig. 3. The critical load for lated as follows:
the entire colvmn is obtained by integrating individual stress
distributions of flanges, webs, and plates along their reference Flanges:
axis, multiplying by respective thicknesses, and summing
them up. A closed-form solution for the critical load is
CAW. a. cnv. ENG. VOL. 17, 1990


Tension 1 Compression

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For personal use only.



FIG. 3. Final superimposed stress distribution for W section.

Web: Plates:

As explained before, the critical loads have to be evaluated

in the inelastic region also. By employing similar steps used
Plates: earlier, the following three equations are obtained:
Flanges :

Strengthening by four plates

The formulations are almost identical to those obtained Web:
earlier by the superpssition technique, except that the welding
stresses which are zero in the web for the case of strengthening
by two plates have a distribution for the case of strengthening
by four plates. This leads to changes in the derivation of criti-
cal load carried by the web.
The new set of equations for this type of strengthening is Plates:
given in the final form below. These equations correspond to
elastic formulations.
Flanges :

Finite element stability anaIysis

In the previous section, a theoretical method of superposi-
Web : tion and integration s f stresses was used to evaluate the
column strength curve mmudly for the strengthened W-shape
columns. In this section, a computer-oriented approach is used

to investigate the same problem. The finite element method is modating both geometric and materid nonlinearities. Also, it
used to analyze the behviour of strengthened column under is applicable to both elastic and inelastic responses. For inelas-
load. A number of researchers (Korm and Galambos 1968; tic response, [27] can be written as
Hofmeister et al. 1971) have presented finite element models
for the analysis of beam columns. Ra~asekaranand Murray
(1973) extended the application of the method to beam and where [ K i ] is the inelastic element tangent stiffness matrix
beam-column analysis, in the inelastic range of material and is a fbanction of geometric and material nonlinearities.
response, for beams of arbitrary thin walled, open cross (A@) is the vector of incremental forces evduated for an
section. inelastic element.
El-Zanaty and Murray (1983) developed a general formula-
tion for both the elastic and inelastic nonlinear anmdlyses of
multistorey frames. The effect of axial loads on the stiffhess
Exprimental program
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of the stmcture was taken into account. The formulations were A series of experiments consisting of nine axial compressive
incorporated with gradual penetration of yielding, the spread- test specimens om two sizes of W shapes, namely, W200 x 27
ing of inelastic zones dong the member length, the presence and W150 x 22, were carried out at the Structural Laboratory
of residual stresses, and strains hardening sf the material. of Memorid University. The slenderness ratio of the columns
This method was adopted and modified to account for the ranged from 46 to IW. The limited capacity of the laboratory
mew welding stresses. The proposed finite element analysis loading equipment and the testing frame decided the find size
uses a simple beam element. It takes into consideration the and length of the test specimens. Test results of W200 x 27 and
effect of cooling residual stresses and new welding stresses. &%TI50 x 22 specimens are presented in this paper. Table 1
The totd strain can be evaluated by adding the residual strain, summarizes the geometric properties of all W shapes tested.
existing load strain, and new welding strain; therefore, the The steel for the W shapes, strengthening plates, and rollers
total strain is given as were all of grade G464.21-M-300W. Two types sf strengthen-
ing plate arrangements were tested for determining the critical
load. The columns were tested for pin-ended condition and
in which e~ is the total axial strain, E, is the strain in column, column end fixture details as recommended by Estuar and Tall
For personal use only.

ew is the residual strain, and EW is the new welding strain. (1967) m d Temple et al. (1986).
This was accomplished by adding new subroutine-called weld- Two end bearing plates were welded to all the specimens to
ing strains to the original program. Lagrangian coordinate sys- get a uniform load on the column. Two roller plates containing
tem was used in the development of the original finite element a central semicircular grove were welded to the end bearing
program by El-Zanaty and Murray (1988). plates to simulate the pin-end condition. Two reference speci-
The strain -displacement equation for the nonlinear formu- mens sf W200 ~ 2 and 7 W150 x22 without any plate rein-
lation can be written as given by El-Zanaty and Murray forcement were tested using the previous test setup to estimate
(1983). the column capacity of the unreinforcement sections.

I Test setup
1251 eZ = ud, + -[(ud)"
(~6)" - yv{ The schematic diagram of the test setup is shown in Fig. 4.
The strains developed at the time of welding were measured
by strain gauges located at one-third, middle, and two-third
levels as indicated in Fig. 5. The strain gauges were installed
to flanges, web, and strengthening plates, The instrumentation
The principle of virtual work can be expressed as follows: of flanges depended on the type of strengthening. When
strengthening was done from inside, strain gauges were
1261 6 W = I , oz6czdV - ( Q ) (6q) = 0 planted on the outside flanges and vice versa. Lateral deflec-
The above equation may be rewritten using three defined tions were recorded at mid and third points of the test column.
stress resultant, since the displacements are functions of a dis- LVDTs and dial gauges were used to record deflection. Two
crete set of M displacement coordinate, qi.Then, by differen- rams sf 670 kN capacity each, connected to a single mechani-
tiating with respect to 6qi, [26] yields the basic Newton- cal jack through a T-joint, were used to provide the required
Raphson equation and can be adopted for both geometric and load for the test. It was found that strain gauges can be used
material nonlinearity as detailed by Rajasekaran and Murray for measuring the welding strains in the temperature range
(1973). 2364 -318°C (450 - 600°F) by using a special kind sf heat
Assembling the element equations by the direct stiffness pro- shield.
cedure, the total set of equilibrium equations can be written as Test procedure
The columns were installed in position and aligned verti-
cally. Proper care was taken to ensure that there was no eccen-
in which [KT] is the structure tangent stiffness matrix; ( A r ) is tricity. The load was applied axially to the column. Before the
the assembled vector of incremental nodal displacements; and strengthening plates were welded to the flanges, the column
( M )is the assembled vector of incremental nodal forces, was preloaded to about 40% of its yield load. The plates were
called the unbalanced forces. first put in position and clamped to the flanges, then they were
Once [27] is assembled, the Newton -Waphson method can tack welded to the flanges. A predetermined welding sequence
be used to solve for the load-deformation characteristics of illustrated in Figs. Z and 2 was followed. This technique was
the structure. based on field investigation and actual strengthening of
The basic Newton -Waphson equation is capable of accom- columns carried out at a chemical plant in Regina, Saskatche-
840 CAN. J. CIV. ENG. VOL. 17, 1990

TABLE1. Geometric properties of the tested specimens

Specimen Length No. of dimensions
Test No. size (m) plates (mm)
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For personal use only.

FIG. 5. Strain gauge instrumentation.

tant role in the development of the column strength curve. The

stresses due to welding were measured for both types of
strengthening using the suggested sequence. Figures 1 and 2
indicate the experimental stress values plotted over the
assumed stress distribution. The strain measurements indicate
that tensile stresses of 98.04 MBa were developed at the flange
tips and compressive stresses of 97.07 MPa at the centre. The
plate stress measurements showed that the stresses due to
welding were of the same order as in the flanges. The web
strain measurements show that tensile stresses of 98.25 MPa
occur near the web -flange junction and compressive stresses
FIG.4. Test setup. in the same range near the centre for the case of strengthening
by four plates. Also, it was found that web stress distribution
is significantly affected only when the strengthening was done
wan, as designed by the first author. The strain gauges were from inside. The strain measurements suggested that the actual
coated with three coats of air-drying polyurethane (M-COAT stresses due to welding are higher, in the order of 0.3a,
A) after they were placed in position. The strain gauges were instead of the originally assumed value of 0 . 2 5 ~as~recorn-
also protected by a special kind of heat shield to prevent them mended by some research investigations on heavy structural
from getting destroyed at the time of welding. The welding steel shapes, such as Alpsten and Tall (1970).
operation for W-shape column under load is illustrated in Cohmn test results
Fig. 6. The column was allowed to cool down to room temper- The column strength curve, in general, followed the Euler
ature. The load on the column was allowed to drop down as curve in the higher slenderness ratio ranges (beyond 80 -95),
a result sf the welding operation to simulate the loaded column then started deviating very significantly. The behaviour of the
in a real building, since the magnitude of some residual two series, W150 x 22 and W200 x 27, were very similar. The
stresses will change as a result of the welding procedure. After column strength curves have been plotted as a graph of
the welding was completed, the load was then increased in slenderness ratio versus ratio of critical stress to yield stress
increments. Specimen No. 2 during testing is shown in Fig. 7. for the two sections. Figure 8 correspond to column strength
curves for two and four plates strengthening of the W2W x 27
Test results m d discussisn section.
Measurement sf welding stresses The welding operation was carried out according to the pre-
The stress developed at the time of welding plays an impor- determined welding sequences as illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2.
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For personal use only.

FIG. 6. Strengthening of a steel column under load. FIG.7. Typical specimen during testing.

The welding operation lasted about 4 -5 h . The columns were

under constant observation throughout the welding operation.
The observation resulted in the finding that the load on the
columns dropped gradually and stabilized at a particular load-
ing. Table 2 contains the load of stabilization after the welding
operation is over. This gradual dropping of load can be attrib-
uted to the new welding stresses and shortening sf the speci-
mens, resulting in tensile forces induced in the strengthening
plates. Ht is evident from Table 2 that the specimens strength-
ened by four plates have more drop of the applied load owing
to the fact that more welding stresses were introduced to these
specimens. Also, it is a factor dependent on the extent to
which welding residual stresses affect stress pattern in the W 1 5 0 x 22
loaded column. When strengthening is done by four plates, the rTHEORY - FOUR PLATES
column strength curve deviates from Euler curve at slender- h THEORY - T W O PLATES

ness ratio of around 95 but more predominantly below Euler. - EUhER

This leads to a general conclusion that at higher slenderness 9 EXPT. - FOUR PLATES
ratios the behaviour of the column is not affected by either
residual or welding stresses, as the critical buckling stress is
attained before the yielding of the entire cross section of the I I I L I
csHumn. The significant deviation in the lower slenderness Q 30 60 90 120 C50 180

ratio range suggests that the columns in this range have to be SLENDERNESS RAT 10
thoroughly analyzed before the strengthening operation is car- FIG. 8. Column curve for the strengthened column.
ried out. Similar argument can be extended t s the columns in
the intermediate range slenderness ratio. This can be attributed
to the welding stresses developed in the web during the weld- colum, strengthening by two plates is preferable than strength-
ing operation. Since the welding points are far from the web ening by four plates, since strengthening by two plates provided
in the case of strengthening by two plates, the deviation is not 15 -20 % increase in the column strength for the same slender-
as much as in the case of strengthening by four plates. ness ratio. However, consideration has to be given to factors
This leads to a significant conclusion that for a particular Bike accessibility of the flanges, feasibility, etc.
CAN. J. CIV. ENG. VOL. 14, 1990

TABLE2. Theoretical and experimental co1umn capacity

The~retical Ultimate
Specimen Type of Strengthening Stabilized estimated recorded
Test No. size strengthening load (kN) load (kN) load (kN) load (kN)
1 W200 X 27 2 plates, outside 395 250 1010 1015
2 W200x27 2 plates, outside 395 260 1070 1065
3 W200 X 27 4 plates, inside 395 130 1075 960
4 W 150 x 22 2 plates, outside 440 430 1310 1280
5 W 150 x22 2 plates, outside 440 436 1305 1200
6 W150 ~ 2 2 2 plates, outside 440 430 11 15 8050
7 W150 X 22 4 plates, inside 440 405 1070 1050
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*Based on the given expressions.

The measured mid-span deflections have been plotted against 1350

the corresponding load levels to obtain load -deflection curves
as illustrated in Fig. 9 for the test results sf W 1 5 0 ~ 2 2 STRENGTHENING BY 2 PLATES
strengthened column.
The failure mode for the specimens was attained by gradual
lateral deflection, without twisting of the cross section, and
subsequent formation of a localized bend, usually near mid-
height. None of the columns exhibited any unusual behaviour
at the time of failure.
The failure of the specimens was characterized as usual by
the excessive mid-height deflections and sudden surging down
For personal use only.

of the Ioad. In fact, the strain measurements could not be

recorded at the instant of failure because of the sudden drop
in load level. All the deflected shapes were one-half wave W 150 x %2
shapes. X TEST NO. 5
The suggested classical stability theoretical analysis and 5 TEST NO. 7
finite element analysis produce results to within 10% of the
recorded column capacity. The calculated theoretical capacity
of the specimens using the proposed analyticd method and the
recorded test results are given in Table 2.

Summary and concllusi~ns

A theoretical, experimental, and analytical investigation was
conducted to investigate the capacity and to develop the
column strength curve for the strengthened W shape under
load. The following specific conclusions can be summarized
from the present investigation.
1. The column strength curve for a strengthened column can MID- DEFLECTION (mm)
be estimated using tangent and s u ~ e r ~ o s i - FIG.9. Load versus deflection cumes for strengfhenedW 150 x 22.
tion of initial cooling residual stresses, welding residual stress,
initial loading stress, and incremental stress for both elastic
and inelastic formulations. more for strengthening by four plates than for strengthening
2. The welding residual stress distribution can be repre- by two plates.
sented by a second-degree parabolic distribution with maxi- 6. A finite element formulation based on the elastic and inelas-
mum compressive and tensile stresses not exceeding one third tic nonlinear analyses of frames, the gradual penetration of yield-
of the yield stress, cry. Originally, welding stresses were ing, and the spreading of the inelastic zone along the members
thought to be in the order of one quarter of the yield stress as was modified to predict the capacity and to develop the column
recommended by other researchers on heavy steel sections. strength curve for the strengthened W shape under load.
3. Welding sequences play a significant role in obtaining a 7. Strengthening by two plates welded to the flanges from
desired welding stress distribution favourable to the strength the outside is recommended over strengthening by four plates
of the column. Two welding sequences were recommended for welded to the flanges from the inside, since strengthening by
the two types of strengthening. two plates gave column strengths 15-20% higher for the
4. The proposed theoretical method produces theoretical same slenderness ratio.
results to within 10% of the actual recorded column capacity.
5. The column strength curve, in general, followed the
Euler curve in the higher slenderness ratio ranges (beyond 951, This research was supported by the Natural Sciences and
then started deviating very significantly. The deviation is much Engineering Research Council of Canada. The authors are
thankful to Prof. B. W. Murray of the University of Alberta H height of web
for providing his research reports on the inelastic behaviour of unyielded height of web
multistorey steel frames and ,the finite element programs for moment of inertia of the entire section
frame analysis. moment of inertia of the unyielded section
effective length constant
ALPSTEN,G. A., and TALL,L. 1970. Residual stresses in heavy length of column
welded shapes. Welded Research Supplement, 49: 93s - 105s. slenderness ratio
EL-ZANATY, M., and MURRAY, D. W. 1980. Finite element programs flange thickness
for frame analysis. Structural Engineering Report No. 84, Univer-
strengthening plate thickness
sity sf Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.
1983. Nonlinear finite element analysis s f steel frames. web thickness
ASCE Structural Journal, 109: 353 -368. flange critical elastic load
ESTUAR,E R., and TALL, L. 1967. Testing of pinned-end steel flange critical inelastic load
Can. J. Civ. Eng. Downloaded from www.nrcresearchpress.com by Hubei university on 06/06/13

colunmns. ASTM STB 419, American Society for Testing and web critical elastic load
Materials, New York, NY. web critical inelastic load
HOFMEISTER, L. B., GREENBAUM, G. A., and EVENSON, D. A. 1971. plate critical elastic load
Large strain elastoplastic finite element analysis. American Insti- plate critical inelastic load
tute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Journal, 9: 1248- 1254. a row vector for applied forces
JOHNSTON, B. D. 1976. Guide to stability design criteria for metal critical stress
structures. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
MORN,A., and GALAMBOS, T. V. 1968. Behaviour of elastic-plastic
yield stress
frames. ASCE Structural Journal, 94: 1119- 1142. residual stress distribution in flange
MURRAY, D. W., EL-ZARATY, M., and BJORHOVDE, R. f 980. Inelastic residual stress distribution in web
behaviour of multistory steel frames. Structural Engineering welding stress distribution in flange
Report No. 83, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta. welding stress distribution in web
RAJASEKAREN, S., and MURRAY, B, W. 1973. Finite elenment solution superimposed stress distribution in flange
of inelastic beanm equations. ASCE Structural Journal, 99: 1025 - superimposed stress distribution in web
1041. superimposed stress distribution in plates
SHANLEY, F. R. 1947. Inelastic column theory. Journal of Aeronauti-
For personal use only.

residual strain
cal Science, 14(5): 26 1. total axial strain
TEMPLE,M. C., SCHEPERS, J. A., and KENNEDY, D. J. L. 1986. Inter-
connection of starred angle compression members. Canadian Jour-
new welding strain
ma1 of Civil Engineering, 13: 693 - 699. existing column strain
tangent stiffness matrices
List of symbols inelastic tangent stiffness matrices
assembled vector of incremental nodal forces
B width of flange assembled vector of incremental displacements
B' unyielded width of flange vector of nodal displacement
b width of strengthening plate vector of nodal forces
b' unyielded width of strengthening plate inelastic vector of nodal forces
E modulus of elasticity horizontal and vertical displacements of point o,
F existing steel stress due to loading respectively
f stress increment

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