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Comparison between Cellular Generations

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International Journal of Engineering, Applied and Management Sciences Paradigms, Vol. 22, Issue 01
Publishing Month: March 2015
An Indexed and Referred Journal
ISSN (Online): 2320-6608

Comparison between Cellular Generations

Ahmed Suliman Mohammed Ahmed1, Dr. Khalid Hamid Bilal2 and Dr. Amin Babiker A/Nabi Mustafa3
Department of communication, Faculty of engineering Al-Neelain University Khartoum, Sudan

Abstract a detailed overview of second

This paper investigates different methods generation mobile technology. In
of mobile technology. As a result of the section 4 third generation systems and
wide use of mobile and rapid deployment its types are discussed. Section 5 gives
of wireless networks, we made a information about the possible fourth
comparison between all cellular
generations such as 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G and
generation technologies. Section 6 5th
5G. And we got on the differences between generations a Technology vision and
each generation from the other. This rapid Conclusion is contained in section 7.
progress in wireless networks it grew from
the challenges, Nowadays, a rapid growth 2. First Generation
in mobile technology has satisfied the
customer needs to determine the best and
highest quality of services provided by the
The first generation mobile systems are
wireless networks. based on analog technology. The first
Keywords: Cellular Generations, 1G, technology uses frequency modulation
2G, 3G, 4G and 5G. (FM) and frequency division duplexing
(FDD), frequency division multiple
1. Introduction access (FDMA). The common
signaling channels were used in first
generation cellular systems. Due to the
Today’s market of wireless
use of analog technology the analog
communications is developed at a very
speech signals are provided by the first
rapid growth. This development causes
generation wireless systems. The data
due to the increasing number of
transmission between base station and
subscribers. In today’s life the mobile
mobile user not enough and the low
phone is very essential tool for
data rate necessitates the next
everyone. Since the mid 1990’s the
generation cellular systems. in the first
cellular communication industry has a
generation the transmission is not
growth. Wireless communication
secure due to systems are depend on
networks have become much more
analog systems ,whereas the second
deployment. When the cellular concept
generation systems uses digital
was first developed in the 1960’s and
modulation so, provides secure
1970’s. Increasing demand in wireless
transmission of data.
communication should be the rapid
growth of cellular network for achieve
the customers need and also for other A. AMPS
service providers.
The wireless communication is a AMPS are the first U.S. cellular
strong, viable voice and data transport telephone system called advanced
mechanism. The cellular systems mobile phone system. The AMPS
should be able to support the higher system uses 7-cell reuse pattern with
data traffic as well as higher spectrum provisions for sectoring and cell
efficiency. splitting to increase capacity when
In section 2 the first generation needed.
systems are discussed. Section 3 gives
International Journal of Engineering, Applied and Management Sciences Paradigms, Vol. 22, Issue 01
Publishing Month: March 2015
An Indexed and Referred Journal
ISSN (Online): 2320-6608

AMPS uses frequency modulation the analog speech signals, low data rate
(FM) and frequency division duplex and insufficient data communication
(FDD) for radio transmission. It uses there is an emerging demand of the
FDMA multiple access, Channel next generation wireless system that
bandwidth is 30 KHz. In the United provides high speed data
States transmissions from mobile to communication as well as voice
base stations (reverse link) use transmission. Thus, the analog
frequency between 824-849MHz, technology in first generation is
while base station transmits to mobile replaced by digital technology in 2G
(Forward link) using frequencies wireless systems. Instead of analog
between 869MHz and 894MHz. Data frequency modulation (FM) technique
rate of AMPS on control channel is 10 the digital modulation techniques are
kbps used in second generation. The access
techniques used in second generation
B. ETACS are TDMA (time division multiple
access) and CDMA (code division
European Total Access multiple access) along with the
Communication systems (ETACS) was frequency division duplexing (FDD)
developed in Mid-1980’s and is technique. By using the second
virtually identical to AMPS except it is generation technologies the system
scaled to fit in 25 KHz channels used capacity is three times greater than the
throughout Europe. Another difference first generation analog systems. Due to
between AMPS and ETAC is how the the increase in spectrum efficiency is
telephone number of each subscriber three times compared to the first
(called the mobile identification generation analog systems.
number or MIN) is formatted, due to
the need to accommodate different The standards in 2G technologies are
country codes throughout Europe as categorized by following types:
opposed to area codes in U.S.
i) GSM (global system for
Figure1 Cellular Subscriber mobile)
Growth Worldwide
It is very popular and widely used 2G
technologies by most of the
subscribers. The GSM supports 8 times
slotted users for every 200 KHz radio
channels. The popular features of GSM
are short messaging service (SMS).
SMS allows the users to send a data in
alphanumerical format to the other user
by simply dialing the user’s mobile
phone number. The uplink frequency
(from base station to mobile station) is
890-915 MHz and downlink frequency
(from mobile station to base station) is
935-960 MHz. The carrier separation
3. Second Generation for GSM is 200 KHz and bandwidth of
GSM is 25MHz. It uses time division
multiple access technique along with
The second generation mobile the frequency division duplexing. In
technology is a based on of first GSM the 0.3 Gaussian minimum shift
generation mobile technology. Due to key (GMSK) modulation is used at the
International Journal of Engineering, Applied and Management Sciences Paradigms, Vol. 22, Issue 01
Publishing Month: March 2015
An Indexed and Referred Journal
ISSN (Online): 2320-6608

data rate of 270.833kbps. The voice The channel data rate is somewhat
channels per carrier are 8 and the different compared to IS-136 and is 42
frame period is 4.615ms.Allows kbps and carrier separation is 25 KHz.
multiple users on a single channel.
GSM includes various types of Tele iv) Interim standard 95(IS-95)
services and data services. The tele
services include emergency calling, This 2G standard is very popular and
fax, videotext, and teletext. The data also known as cdmaone. This standard
services also called as bearer services uses code division multiple access
which include computer to computer (CDMA) with frequency division
communication and packet switched duplexing. It supports 64 voice
traffic. One of the most popular channels per carrier that are
features of GSM is subscriber identity orthogonally coded. The upload
module (SIM) which gives a unique channel frequency for IS-95 is 824-849
identity to each subscriber. MHz and the download channel
frequency is 869-894 MHz. The
ii) Interim Standard 136(IS-136) carriers are separated by 1.25MHz
frequency. The signal is modulated by
This standard also known as North binary phase shift keying (BPSK)
American digital cellular (NADC). The modulation with quadrature spreading
IS-136 supports 3 times slotted users at the data rate of 1.2288 Mchips /sec.
for each 30 KHz. This technique also Although, the 2G standard mobile
uses time division multiple access technologies provides efficient voice
(TDMA) with frequency division data transmission but the internet
duplexing (FDD). The forward channel browsing applications are at very lower
frequency is 1850-1910 MHz and speeds. . So, for providing higher data
reverse channel frequency is 1930- rate transmission for internet browsing
1990 MHz. the channel bandwidth is applications, e-mail services the 2G
60MHz. The 45 DQPSK (differential standards are modified and a new
quadrature phase shift keying) type standard called 2.5 G standard is
modulation techniques are used. The developed with backward
channel data rate is 46.6kbps. compatibility with 2G standard. The
2.5G technologies uses wireless
iii) Pacific digital cellular (PDC) application protocols (WAP) by which
the web pages are viewed by the users
The forward and reverse link in a compressed form. . The 2.5G
frequencies are similar to that of IS- technology is evolved from the
136. Multiple access technique is time standards (GSM, PDC, IS-95and IS-
division multiple access (TDMA) with 136) in 2G technologies. Figure shows
frequency division duplexing (FDD). various upgrade paths

International Journal of Engineering, Applied and Management Sciences Paradigms, Vol. 22, Issue 01
Publishing Month: March 2015
An Indexed and Referred Journal
ISSN (Online): 2320-6608

Fig No (2) Evolution of Mobile system to 3G:

For 2G technologies and also for 3G. general packet radio service (GPRS)
In, 2.5G IS-95B standard is evolved includes features of both GSM, IS-136
from the cdma-one standard in 2G and PDC. It provides a packet data
which uses channel bandwidth od 1.25 access which is suited for non- real
MHz. The high speed circuit switched time internet usage, fax, e-mail, web
data (HSCSD) is evolved from GSM browsing where the downloading
standard which allows individual user speed is greater than uploading speed.
to use consecutive time slots to obtain The enhanced data rate for GSM
the higher speed data access on the evolution is more advanced GSM
GSM networks. It uses 200 KHz standard which is designed from the
channel bandwidth and provides common features of GSM and IS-136.
transmission rate up to 57.6 kbps. The It is also referred as enhanced GPRS.

Table no (1)2nd Generation Cellular and Cordless Systems

System IS-54 GSM IS-95 CT-2 ,Asia CT-3 DECT

country USA Europe USA Europe DCT-90 Europe
y (DS)
BS(MHZ) 869-894 935-960 869-894 864-868 862-866 1800-1900
MS(MHZ) 824-849 890-915 824-849
Frequency fixed fixed fixed Dynamic Dynamic Dynamic
International Journal of Engineering, Applied and Management Sciences Paradigms, Vol. 22, Issue 01
Publishing Month: March 2015
An Indexed and Referred Journal
ISSN (Online): 2320-6608

Speech 7-95 13 8(Variable 32 32 32
rate(kbps rate)
Channel 48.6 270.833 1228.8 72 640 1152
Bit rate
Channel ½ rate ½ rate ½ rate None CRC CRC
coding convolutio convolutio forward
n n 1/3 rate

4. Third Generation synchronous code division multiple

access (TD-SCDMA) and enhanced
The third generation (3G) wireless data for GSM evolution (EDGE). The
systems provide backward W-CDMA is also called as universal
compatibility for 2G and 2.5G. The 3G mobile telecommunication system
technology is originally designed for (UMTS). The W-CDMA uses both
higher speed internet access and frequency division duplexing (FDD)
various types of web browsing and time division duplexing (TDD).
applications. The 3G standard provides This technique is backward compatible
various attractive services one of it is with GSM and forward channel
video conferencing which enables bandwidth is 5 GHz. The data rate is
multiple called parties that can up to 2 Mbps. Its spectral efficiency is
communicate face to face though they six times greater than GSM system.
are at a long distance. This service is The TD-SCDMA is a popular GSM
very useful in case of business compatible standard. It has 1.6 MHz
industries where various conferences bandwidth and uses TDD duplexing
are performed by video conferencing. technique. The channel bit rate is up to
The 3G also provides multimedia 2.227 Mbps.
services, video calling, gaming
services and internet access at a very B. 3 GPP-2(3G partnership
high data rate. project for CDMA-2000
The 3G standard is categorized in two
types which are as follows: This 3G technology is backward
compatible to 2G CDMA technique i.e.
A. 3GPP (3G partnership project IS-95 and 2.5G technique i.e.IS-95 B.
for wideband CDMA standard) The CDMA -2000 standard uses both
FDD and TDD duplexing methods.
This standard is based on backward The downlink frequency can be
compatibility with GSM and IS-136/ implemented using either direct
PDC. The 3 GPP standards involves spreading or multi carrier and uplink
wideband code division multiple frequencies supports the simultaneous
access (W-CDMA), time division combination of multicarrier and direct

International Journal of Engineering, Applied and Management Sciences Paradigms, Vol. 22, Issue 01
Publishing Month: March 2015
An Indexed and Referred Journal
ISSN (Online): 2320-6608

spreading. The 3G – CDMA 2000 _200 users for 5 MHz, 400 users in
1xRTT (radio transmission larger spectrum allocations
technology) implies a single 1.25 MHz Flexible spectrum use maximizes
radio channel. The data rate is up to 2 flexibility
Mbps. _ 1.4, 3/3.2, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz
_ All frequencies of IMT-2000: x4 450
5. Fourth Generation MHz to 2.5 GHz

The fourth generation mobile Key Principles:

communication system is developed
after the third generation (3G) mobile The OFDM technology is similar
phone standards. A fourth generation technology as FDM (Frequency
system (4G) provides various features division multiplexing) technology but a
which are not involved in Third technological difference is that in
generation standards or any other OFDM the sub carriers are
generation before 3G orthogonally spaced to each other to
Long Term Evolution (LTE) was Start reduce the interference. It also reduces
in 2009/2010 with major operators in the Frequency selective fading which
Asi (NTTDoCoMo) and North affects severely the transmitted signal
America Western European will follow at a channel. Due to the orthogonal
very closely arrangement of subcarriers the cross-
Initial deployments will focus on “Hot talk between sub channels is
Zone” areas to maximize access to eliminated. One advantages of OFDM
high data users is that inter carriers guard bands are
The Hot zone coverage will be driven not necessary.
by distributed BTS solutions for high OFDM also improves the spectral
density, high Data speed areas efficiency. The OFDM technology
Compelling LTE Performance: uses a fast Fourier transform (FFT) to
Peak LTE throughput (high spectral convert the time domain signal in to
efficiency) frequency domain signal
-DL: 100Mb/s SISO; 173Mb/s 2x2 OFDMA (DL) / SC-FDMA (UL):
MIMO; 326Mb/s 4x4 MIMO for 20 Robust modulation in dense
MHz environments
-UL: 58Mb/s 16QAM / 86Mb/s Increased spectral efficiency,
64QAM (based on 1 Tx UE) Simplified Rx design _ cheaper UE,
Spectrum efficiency Scalable - go beyond 5 MHz limitation
_DL: 3-4 times HSDPA for MIMO MIMO: Increased link capacity
(2,2) _Multiple-input, multiple-output UL&
_UL: 2-3 times E-DCH for MIMO(1,2) DL
Ultra low Latency _ Collaborative MIMO (UL)
_Reduced call setup times (50-100ms) _ Overcome multi-path interference
& RTT (10ms from UE to server) IP Core: flat, scalable
Capacity _ Short TTI: 1 ms (2 ms for HSPA)

International Journal of Engineering, Applied and Management Sciences Paradigms, Vol. 22, Issue 01
Publishing Month: March 2015
An Indexed and Referred Journal
ISSN (Online): 2320-6608

Table No (2) deference between 3G and 4G specification

specification 3G 4G
Frequency band 1.5-2.8 GHz 2-8 GHz
Band width 5-20MHz 5-20MHz
Date rate Up to Mbps 20 Mbps or more
Access Wideband CDMA Multi-carrier-CDMA or
FEC Turbo codes Concatenated codes
Switching Circuit / packet packet
Top speeds 200kmph 200kmph

Table No (3) Applicability and performance of wireless technologies

International Journal of Engineering, Applied and Management Sciences Paradigms, Vol. 22, Issue 01
Publishing Month: March 2015
An Indexed and Referred Journal
ISSN (Online): 2320-6608

Fig No (3)2G/3G and LTE Architecture Comparison

In LTE, compared to existing 2G or 3G a no of advantages over the present 4g

technologies, there is one network element less technology.
for the user plan Between the UE and the 5G wireless networks will support
external network. When a 2G/3G UE sends a 1,000-fold gains in capacity
packet in UL, it passes through 4 Network connections for at least 100 billion
Element before reaching the PDN. In LTE like devices, 10 GB/s individual user
there is not equivalent to the BSC/RNC, there experience capable of extremely low
are only 3 network elements. That means lower latency and response times.
latency. Deployment of these networks will
emerge between 2020 and 2030
5G: A Technology Vision 5G radio access will be built upon both
new radio access technologies (RAT)
5G stands for 5th generation and evolved existing wireless
technologies (LTE, HSPA, GSM and
wireless technology it is a name
which is used in some of the research Breakthroughs in wireless network
paper and going to become a next innovation will also drive economic
major phage of mobile and societal growth in entirely new
telecommunication beyond the current ways
4G standard. It is a concept which is 5G will realize networks capable of
only theory not real.It changes the way providing zero-distance connectivity
we are using wireless device by between people and connected
providing very high bandwidth. It adds machines.

International Journal of Engineering, Applied and Management Sciences Paradigms, Vol. 22, Issue 01
Publishing Month: March 2015
An Indexed and Referred Journal
ISSN (Online): 2320-6608

Fig No (4) mobile service type for each cellular:

Table No (4) Summarizes the key differences between various mobile

technologies and their suitability to meet the needs of each of the use-case

Technology 1G 2G 3G 4G 5G
Design Began 1970 1980 1990 2000
Implementatio 1981 1991 2001 2010 2020
Services Analog Digital voice, Higher Higher Higher
voice short message capacity, capacity, capacity,
data rates completely IP- completely
up to 2 Oriented, IP-
Mbps multimedia Oriented,
,data to multimedi
hundreds of a,data10
megabits Gb/s
Standards AMPS, TDMA,CDMA,G WCDMA Single standard
NMT 2000
Data Rate NA 14.4 kbps 2 Mbps >200 Mbps 10 Gbps
Core Network PSTN PSTN Packet Internet

6. Conclusion and in the second generation occurred

improve relatively has become digital
In this study we observed the extent of system plays a role in the technology
is a evolution has happened in such a of communications and in the third
short period of the telecommunications generation improvement in the level of
industry has been noticed in the first voice quality and increased data
generation relies on technology service clearly For better performance
analogue and no place to serve the data we have to make 3G as IP based which
International Journal of Engineering, Applied and Management Sciences Paradigms, Vol. 22, Issue 01
Publishing Month: March 2015
An Indexed and Referred Journal
ISSN (Online): 2320-6608

will allow higher data transmission [5] 4GWireless– Advances and

rate. We have to use only packet Challenges Suresh R. Borkar
switching so that we can achieve Adjunct Faculty, Dept of ECE, Ill
higher internet speed avoid circuit Instt. of Tech.
switching which makes internet speed sureshbo@hotmail.com Apr 14,
slow occurred in the fourth generation 2006 International Journal of
a big jump is all IP and the 5G (5th Emerging Technology and
generation mobile networks projects to Advanced Engineering Website:
denote the next major phase of mobile www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459,
telecommunications standards beyond Volume 2, Issue 10, October 2012)
the current 4

This paper presented a detailed survey

of development of mobile technologies
and the journey from 1G to 4G. From
all above discussion it can be revealed
that mobile technologies are developed
at very rapid growth. The 1G mobile
systems gives a start up to the cellular
concept while, 2G systems provides
various features to the users. The 3G
mobile systems provide various
attractive multimedia services. 4G
system increases the data rates to a
great extent. It also has high spectrum
utilization ratio and low transmitting


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