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# Alignment surveys

or
Route surveys
Introduction
•Deals with the surveys of linearprojects
OR
Surveys of a narrow strip of highways,roads,
railroads, pipe lines, canals etc.
Route surveys
Linear portion Curved portion
• Using rope Depending on type of curve,
• Using theodolite different methods are
- Plunging or employed
- Reversing
Curves
• Curves are generally used on highways and railways where it is necessary to
change the alignment

• When two straights of a highway or railway are at some angle to each other,
a curve is introduced between them to avoid an abrupt change in direction
and to make the vehicle move safely, smoothly and comfortably

## • A curve is provided at the intersection of the two straights to effect a gradual

change in the direction.

## • This change in direction of the straights may be in a horizontal or a vertical

plane, resulting in the provision of a horizontal or a vertical curve,
respectively.
Curves
Horizontal Curve
• A horizontal curve is provided at the point where
the two straight lines intersect in the horizontal
plane
• When the curve is provided in the horizontal plane,
it is known as a horizontal curvePlan View
Curves
Vertical Curve
• A vertical curve is provided at the point where the
two straight lines at different gradients intersect in
the vertical plane
• In such a case, a parabolic curved path is provided
in the vertical plane in order to connect the
gradients for easy movement of the vehicles Plan
View
Change in horizontal alignment

IN

OUT

Change in vertical
alignment
Different Forms of Curves

Curve

Horizontal Vertical
Curve Curve

## Simple Compound Reverse Broken back Spiral Summit Sag

Curve Curve Curve Curve Curve Curve Curve
Type of horizontal curves
i. Simple circular curve
A simple curve is a circular
arc connecting two
tangents.

## ii. Compound Curve

• A curve which is
composed up of two or
more circular arcs of
• Centre of all curvesis
located at sameside.
Type of horizontal curves
iii. Reverse curve
A reverse curve consists of
two circular arcs tangent to
each other, with their
centers on opposite sidesof
the alignment.
iv.Broken back curve
•The combination of a short
length of tangent (lessthan
100 ft) connecting two
circular arcs that have
centers on the same side is
called a broken-back curve.
Type of horizontal curves
v. Spiral curve
• Curves whose radius decreases uniformly from
infinity at the tangent to the curve it meets
• Radius changes at every point in spiral length
• Radius of straight line is same as that of Earth
Elements of a simple circular curve
1. Back tangent : The tangent line before the beginning of the curve is called the
back tangent or the rear tangent.
2. Forward tangent : The tangent line after the end of the curve is called the
forward tangent.
3. Point of Intersection (PI) : The point where the back tangent when produce
forward and forward tangent when produced backward meet, is called the point
of intersection.
4. Intersection angle (I) : The angle between the back tangent and the forward
tangent at PI is called the intersection angle.
5. External distance (E) : It is the distance between the point of intersection and
the middle point of the curve.
Elements of a simple circular curve (Conti.)
6. Angle of Deflection (Δ) : The angle Δ through which the forward tangent
deflects is called deflection angle of the curve. It may be either to the left
or the right.
7. Point of curvature (P.C.) : It is the point on the back tangent at the
beginning of the curve, where the alignment changes from a tangent to a
curve. The point of curvature is also called the beginning of curve (B.C.)
8. Point of Tangency (P.T.) : It is the point on the forward tangent at the end
of the curve where the alignment changes from a curve to a tangent. It is
also called the Ending of curve (E.C.)
9. Tangent distance (T) : It is the distance between the point of curvature
(PC) and the point of intersection
10.Length of the curve (L) : The total length of the curve from the beginning
of curve to the Ending of curve is called length of curve.
Elements of a simple circular curve (Conti.)
11.Long chord (C) : The chord joining the point of the curvature (BC) and the
point of tangency (EC), is called a long chord.
12.Normal chord : A chord between two successive regular pegs on the curve, is
called a normal chord.
13.Sub-chord : When a chord is shorter than the normal chord, it is called a sub-
chord.
14.Mid-ordinate (M) : it is the distance between the middle point (C) of the
curve and the middle point (D) of the long chord.
15.Right-hand curve : If the curve deflects to the right of the direction of the
progress of survey, it is called the right-hand curve.
16.Left-hand curve : If the curve deflects to the left of the direction of the
progress of survey, it is called the left-hand curve.
SIMPLE CIRCULAR CURVE Deflection angle
between back
Point where tangent and fore
back tangent tangent
and fore
tangent
meets Where
Where curve
curve ends
starts

the curve
The tangent The tangent
line before line after the
the beginning end of the
of the curve curve is called
is called the the forward
Back tangent tangent
Length of curve isthe
Distance from point Bto
curve distance from
PI is External distance
BCto EC
Tangent length is the
length from BCto PI

## The longest possible

chord of the circular
curve is long chord Longest distance from
(LC). long chord to curve is
mid-ordinate.

Internal
angle

## Terms used in simple circular curve

Geometry of simple circularcurve
Geometry of simple circularcurve
Geometry of simple circularcurve

## 180° - 90° - (90° -Δ/2)

Geometry of simple circularcurve

90° - Δ/2
Geometry of simple circularcurve
180° = (90-Δ/2)+(90- Δ/2) + x
x=Δ
Geometry of simple circularcurve
1. Tangent length (T)

𝐼𝑛∆𝑂 − 𝑃𝐼−𝐵𝐶,
∆ 𝑇
𝑡𝑎𝑛 =
2 𝑅

⇒ 𝑇 = 𝑅 𝑡𝑎𝑛
2

## 2. Length of Long Chord (LC)

𝐼𝑛∆𝑂𝐵 −𝐵𝐶,
𝐿𝐶

𝑆𝑖𝑛 = 2
2

⇒ 𝐿𝐶 = 2𝑅 𝑆𝑖𝑛
2
Geometry of simple circularcurve
3. External distance/ordinate (E)

𝐼𝑛∆𝑂 − 𝑃𝐼−𝐵𝐶,
PI − O= R +E
∆ 𝑅
Cos =
2 𝑅 +𝐸
⇒ E =RCos ∆/2 −1 −𝑅

⇒ 𝐸 = R 𝑆𝑒𝑐 −1
2
Geometry of simple circularcurve
4. Mid ordinate (M)
𝐼𝑛∆𝑂𝐵 −BC,
𝐷𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒𝐵𝑂 = 𝑅 −𝑀
∆ 𝑅 −𝑀
𝐶𝑜𝑠 =
2 𝑅

−𝑀 = 𝑅 𝐶𝑜𝑠 −𝑅
2

𝑀 = 𝑅 1 −𝐶𝑜𝑠
2
5. Length of Curve(L)
𝑠=𝑟𝜃
𝐿 =𝑅 ∆
2𝜋
𝐿= 𝑅∆
360°
Geometry of simple circularcurve
6. Chainages

𝑃𝐼= 𝐵𝐶 + 𝑇 𝐸𝐶 = 𝐵𝐶 +𝐿
Degree of thecurve

D=(100/R)x(180/pi)
Numerical No. 1
•Two tangent lines meet at a station 3200+15.
The radius of the circular curve which meeting
these two tangents is 1200 ft. The deflection
angle of the two tangents is measured
through theodolite and is found 14°. Find the
length of the curve and the stationing of point
of commencement and point of termination.
Also, find the other parameters which are
length of long chord, mid ordinate, external
distance and degree of the curve.
Numerical No. 2
•The two tangent lines ABI and CDI are joined with
a circular curve of radius 1600 m. The length AB
and CDare each 1200m. The point of intersection
(I) is inaccessible therefore, it is notpossible to
measure deflection angle directly. But the angle at
point Band Dare measured as<ABD=123°48’and
<BDC=126°12’. The distance between point Band
D above the curve is also measured and is found to
be BD=1485
m. Calculate the chainage of C, points where
circular curve starts and ends if chainage of A is
10+000. Also calculate the deflection angle
between the two tangentlines.
Numerical No. 3
•A circular curve of 800m radius has been setout
connecting two tangents which are deflected by
an angle of 42°. It is decided for construction
reasons that the mid point of the curve will be
moved 4m towards the centre. The alignment of
the tangents is to remain unchanged.
Calculate
i. The radius of new curve
ii. The tangent length distance for new point of
commencement.
iii. Chainage of New EC if chainage of New
BC is 20+000
Numerical No. 4
•The centre line of a new railway is to be setout
along a valley. The first tangent has a bearing of
75°, whilst the connecting tangent has a bearing
of 120°. Due to the sight conditions, it has been
decided to join the tangents with a compound
curve. The first curve is of 500m radius
commences at point PC which is situated 300 m
from point of intersection and deflects through an
angle of 25° before joining the second curve.
Calculate the radius of the second curve and the
distance of the second tangent from point of
intersection.
Layout of simple circularcurve
Methods to layout simple circular curveare,

## 1. Laying out a curve by offsets from Longchord

2. Laying out a curve by offsets fromtangent
3. Laying out a curve by Deflection Angle (Rankinemethod)
Layout of simple circularcurve

𝑦 = 𝐷𝐴 = 𝐷𝑂 −𝐴𝑂
𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑂𝐶𝐷,
𝑂𝐷 = 𝑅2 −𝑥2
𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒𝑂𝐴𝑇1,
𝐴𝑂 = 𝑅2 − 𝐿𝐶/2 2

𝑦 = 𝑅2 −𝑥2 - 𝑅2 −(𝐿𝐶/2) 2
Layout of simple circularcurve

## x= Distance along the

long chord (LC) having
zero at LC/2.
y= offset distance
from LC to curve

𝑦= 𝑅2 − 𝑥2 − 𝑅2 − 𝐿𝐶/2 2
Layout of simple circularcurve

𝑦 = 𝑅 −𝐸𝑂
And,
𝐸𝑂 = 𝑅2 −𝑥2
∴𝑦=𝑅 − 𝑅2 −𝑥2

𝑥2
𝑦 =𝑅 − 𝑅2 −𝑥2 𝐸𝑥𝑎𝑐𝑡 𝑦= (𝐴𝑝𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒)
2𝑅
Numerical No. 5
•Prepare layout data for a curve having radius of
580 ft and deflection angle of 42 deg. PI has
chainage of 125+32. Calculate the staking out
data for offset from long chord at half
stations.

x (ft) Y (ft)
Numerical No. 6
•Prepare layout data for a curve having radius of
680 ft and deflection angle of 46 deg. PI has
chainage of 125+39. Calculate the staking out
data at full station for offset from long chord at
half stations.
•Prepare layout data for a curve having radius of
580 ft and deflection angle of 42 deg. PI has
chainage of 125+32. Calculate the staking out
data for offset from Tangent at half stations.
3. Rankine method:
3. Rankine method:
𝑠=𝑟𝜃
𝐴𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑇1𝑎 = 𝑅 2𝛿 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑠
𝑅
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑒𝐴𝑟𝑐ℎ 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ ≤
20
𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑒,
𝐶ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑑 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ𝑇1𝑎 = 𝑅 2𝛿 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑠
𝜋
𝐶𝐿 = 2𝑅𝛿 × 𝑑𝑒𝑔𝑟𝑒𝑒𝑠
180°
𝑂𝑅
𝐶𝐿
𝛿 = 28.65 ×
Numerical No. 7
•Prepare layout data for a curve having radius of
580 ft and deflection angle of 42 deg. Calculate
the staking out data using Rankine method. PIhas
chainage of 228+62
No. Chainage CL 𝛿 (deg min sec) Cumulative 𝛿
No. Chainage CL 𝛿 (deg min sec) Cumulative 𝛿