Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 46

1 8

L
2 01 7 -
20
2

L
FA
@
Managing Mass Communications:
AR
D
Advertising, Sales Promotions,
I
HA and
Events and Experiences,
A
Public Relations
R D
R
FO
E D
CT
R I
S T Marketing Management, 15th ed
R E
1 8
2 0
7 -
Chapter Questions 01
2
L L
FA
@ Program. PP 608- 614.
1. R
Developing and Managing an Advertising
A
2. Choosing Media. Page 615 - 661 I D
H A
3. Sales Promotion. Page 622A- 626.
R
4. Events and Experiences.D Page 626- 628.
R
5. FO 629 - 631.
Public Relations. Page
E D
CT
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 2
1 8
2 0
7 -
01
2
L L
FA
@
AR
I D
HA
A
D R
R
FO
E D
CT
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 3
1 8
2 0
7 -
zenithmedia 01
2
L L
• Predicts global ad expenditure will Fgrow A 4.0% in
@
2017, reaching US$558 billionDA R
by the end of the year
I
HA
A
D R
R
FO
E D
C T
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 4
1 8
2 0
7 -
01
2
L L
FA
@
AR
I D
HA
A
D R
R
FO
E D
CT
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 5
1 8
2
Figure 20.1 The Five M’s of Advertising 0
7 -
01
2
L L
FA
@
AR
ID
HA
A
D R
R
FO
E D
CT
R I
S T
R E
© Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 6
1 8
2 0
Developing an Advertising Program
7 -
01
2
L L
Setting Objectives
FA
@
AR
D
Deciding on the Budget
I
HA
Developing theA Campaign
D R
O R
FDeciding on Media
E D
TC Making Measurement Plans
R I
S T
R E
1 8
Advertising Objectives 2 0
7 -
01
2
L L
Informative FA
Persuasive
@
advertising AR
advertising
I D
HA
Reminder A Reinforcement
D R
R
advertising advertising
FO
E D
C T
R I
S T
R E
© Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 8
1 8
2 0
7 -
Advertising Objectives 01
2
L L
FA
• Advertising objectives must flow @
from earlier
R
decisions about target market,Abrand positioning, and
I D
the marketing program. A H
A
D R
• Advertising objective is a specific communications
R
FO level to be accomplished with a
task and achievement
ED in a specific period of time
specific audience
T
IC
T R
ES
R
© Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 9
1 8
2 0
7 -
Advertising Objectives 01
2
L L
FA
1. Informative advertising aims to @ create brand
awareness and knowledge ofAR new products or new
I D
HA
features of existing products
A
D R
R
2. Persuasive advertisingFO aims to create liking,
E D
preference, conviction, and purchase of a product
or service. C T
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 10
1 8
2 0
7 -
Persuasive advertising 01
2
L L
FA
@
AR
I D
HA
A
D R
R
FO
E D
CT
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 11
1 8
2 0
7 -
Advertising Objectives 01
2
L L
FA
3. Reminder advertising aims to stimulate @ repeat
purchase of products and services. AR
I D
HA
A
D R
4. Reinforcement advertising aims to convince current
purchasers theyFO
R
made the right choice
E D
C T
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 12
1 8
2 0
7 -
Deciding on the Advertising Budget
01 2
L L
FA
• Although advertising is treatedRas @a current expense,
A
D in building brand
I
part of it is really an investment
equity and customer loyalty. HA
A
D R
R
FO
E D
C T
R I
S T
R E
© Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 13
1 8
Factors to Consider in Setting an Advertising-2Budget 0
1 7
20
L L
Stage in the product life cycle FA
@
Market share and A R
consumer base
I D
H A
A
Competition and clutter
D R
R Advertising frequency
FO
E D Product substitutability
C T
R I
S T
R E
© Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 14
1 8
2 0
7 -
Advertising Elasticity 01
2
L L
FA
 The predominant response function @ for
advertising is often concaveAbut R can be S-shaped
I D
HA
A
 When it is S-shaped,
R
D some positive amount of
R
FO
advertising is necessary to generate any sales
impact, but salesE D increases eventually flatten out
C T
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 15
1 8
2 0
7 -
Developing the Advertising Campaign
01 2
L L
• Advertisers employ both art and science FA to develop
the message strategy or positioning @ of an ad (what it
AR
attempts to convey about the brand
I D ) and its creative
strategy (how it expressesHthe A brand claims).
A
D R
• They use three steps: R
FO
E D
C T
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018
1 8
2 0
-
Developing the Advertising Campaign
17
20
L L
FA
1. Message generation and evaluation, @
AR
D
2. Creative development and execution,
I
3. Social-responsibility review. HA
A
D R
R
FO
E D
CT
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018
1 8
2 0
-
Developing the Advertising Campaign
17
20
L L
1. Message generation and evaluation,
FA
 Advertisers seek “the big idea” that@connects with
AR
consumers rationally and emotionally, distinguishes
the brand from competitors, A ID is broad and flexible
and
H media, markets, and
enough to translate to different
A
time periods R
D
R
 A good ad normally FO focuses on one or two core
E D
selling propositions.
C T
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018
1 8
2 0
-
Developing the Advertising Campaign
17
20
L L
1. Message generation and evaluation,
FA
@ the probability of
 The more themes explored, the higher
finding an excellent one. AR
I D
HA
A of creative dramatically by
 Marketers can cut the cost
D R
using consumers as their creative team, a strategy
R
sometimes called “open sourcing” or “crowdsourcing.”
FO
E
 Consumer-Generated
D
T
C failure.
Advertising can be pure genius or
I
a regrettable
R
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018
1 8
Developing the Advertising Campaign 0
-2 7
1
20
L L
A
2. Creative development and execution
F
@
• The ad’s impact depends not only
A R on what it says but,
often more important, on how I D it says it.
HA
A
• Every advertising medium
D R has advantages and
disadvantages. R
FO
E D
C T
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018
1 8
Developing the Advertising Campaign 0
-2 7
1
20
L L
A
2. Creative development and execution
F
a. Television is generally acknowledged as the @ most powerful
advertising medium and reaches a broad AR spectrum of consumers
at low cost per exposure. I D
HA
b. Print media can provide detailed A product information and
effectively communicate D R and usage imagery.
user
R
c. Radio’s main advantage FO is flexibility—stations are very targeted,
ads are relatively E Dinexpensive to produce and place, and short
C T
closings for Ischeduling them allow for quick response.
T R
E S
R
© Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018
1 8
2 0
7 -
Print Ad Components 01
2
L L
FA
@
AR Picture
I D
HA
A
D R
R
FO
Headline

E D
Copy
CT
R I Signature

S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 22
1 8
2 0
Social-responsibility review. 7 -
01
Legal and Social Issues 2
L L
FA
@ use false
• Advertisers must not make false claims,
AR
I
demonstrations, or create ads withD the capacity to deceive,
HA
even if no one is actually deceived.
A
D R
• Sellers in the UnitedRStates are legally obligated to avoid
FO
bait-and-switch advertising that attracts buyers under false
pretenses. TED
I C
T R
ES
R
© Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 23
1 8
2 0
7 -
Choosing Media 01
2
L L
Variable in Choosing Media: FA
@
AR
i. deciding on desired reach, frequency, and impact;
I D types;
HA
ii. choosing among major media
A vehicles; and
iii. selecting specific media
R
D and geographical allocation.
R
iv. setting media timing
FO
E D
CT
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 24
1 8
Choosing Media 2 0
7 -
01
2
LL and impact;
i. Deciding on desired reach, frequency,
FA
@
• Media selection is finding the most cost-effective media to deliver
the desired number and type of exposuresAR to the target audience.
I D
A or households exposed to a
 Reach (R). number of different persons
H
A once during a specified time
particular media schedule at least
D R
 Frequency (F). number ofRtimes within the specified time period that
an average person or FO
household is exposed to the message
E D
C T
 Impact (I). qualitative value of an exposure through a given medium
I
Rfor repetition is forgetting.
T
• A key reason
S
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 25
1 8
2 0
7 -
Choosing Media 01
2
L L
ii. choosing among major media types; FA
@
Media planners make their choices AR by considering
I D
HA
factors such as :
a. target audience media A habits,
D R
R
b. product characteristics,
O
F
c. message requirements, and
E D
d. cost. CT
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 26
1 8
2 0
7 -
01
2
L L
FA
@
AR
I D
HA
A
D R
R
FO
E D
CT
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 27
1 8
Choosing Media 2 0
7 -
01
ii. choosing among major media types; 2
L L including many
• Place advertising, or out-of-home advertising, is a broad category
F
creative and unexpected forms to grab consumers’ attention A where they work, play, and,
of course, shop. @
A
• Billboards use colorful, digitally produced graphics,
R
I D backlighting, sounds, movement, and

HA and fitness equipment, as well as in


unusual—even 3D—images
• Public Spaces: movie screens, airplane bodies,
A elevators, and other public places
R
classrooms, sports arenas, office and hotel
• Product Placement: some Marketers D pay others don’t. to appearances in movies/
R
FO$40 m for the rights to have James Bond drink its beer
television.
• Skyfall: Heineken paid almost
instead of his traditionalDvodka martini,
T E
consumers makeIC
• Point of Purchase: shopper marketing; appeal of point-of-purchase advertising is that
R many brand decisions in the store (shopping carts, cart straps, aisles,
T in-store demonstrations, live sampling, and instant coupon machines
S
and shelves and
E
R
28
© Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018
1 8
2 0
7 -
Choosing Media 01
2
L L
iii. selecting specific media vehicles; FA
• The media planner must choose the most cost-effective@
chosen media type. AR vehicles within each

I D
• Media planners rely on measurement
media cost and then calculate the H
A services (audience size), composition,
cost per thousand persons reached.
A
• Audience quality
D
• Audience-attention probability
R
• Editorial quality (prestigeR
F O and believability)

• Media planners E
D
T are using more sophisticated measures of effectiveness and
C in mathematical models to arrive at the best media mix
I
employing them
R
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 29
1 8
2 0
7 -
Choosing Media 01
2
L L
iv. setting media timing and geographical FA allocation.
@
AR
• The advertiser makes both a macroscheduling and a
microscheduling decision. AID
H
A
• The macroscheduling decision relates to seasons and
the business cycle. DR
R
• The microschedulingFO decision calls for allocating
E D
advertising expenditures within a short period to obtain
T
maximumCimpact.
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 30
1 8
2 0
7 -
Choosing Media 01
2
iv. setting media timing and geographicalL Lallocation.
A F communications
• The chosen pattern should meet the marketer’s
objectives and consider three factors. R
@
• Buyer turnover expresses the rate Iat
A
D which new buyers enter the
A continuous the advertising
market; the higher this rate, theHmore
should be. A
R
• Purchase frequency is theDnumber of times the average buyer buys
the product during theO Rperiod; the higher the purchase frequency,
F the advertising should be.
D
the more continuous
E
• The forgettingTrate is the rate at which the buyer forgets the brand;
I C
the higherRthe forgetting rate, the more continuous the advertising
T
shouldSbe.
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 31
1 8
Choosing Media 2 0
7 -
01
iv. setting media timing and geographical allocation. 2
• In launching a new product, the advertiser must choose L L among continuity,
concentration, flighting, and pulsing. F A
@
• Continuity means exposures appear evenly
A R throughout a given period.
• Concentration calls for spending all the I D advertising dollars in a single
period. HA
A a period, followed by a period with no
• Flighting calls for advertising during
D
advertising, followed by a secondR period of advertising activity.
O R
• Pulsing is continuous advertising at low levels, reinforced periodically by
F
waves of heavier activity.
E D
C T
• A company must allocate its advertising budget over space as well as over
time.
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 32
1 8
2 0
Media Selection 7 -
01
2
L L
A
• FReach
@
AR • Frequency
I D
HA • Impact
A • Exposure
D R
R
FO
E D
CT
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 33
1 8
2 0
-
Developing the Advertising Campaign
7
Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness2 01
L L
FA seeks to
• Communication-effect research, called copy testing,
determine whether an ad is communicating@effectively
AR
I
• Pretest critics maintain that agenciesD
H A can design ads that
test well but may not necessarily perform well in the
A
marketplace.
D R
• Proponents maintain O R that useful diagnostic information can
Fpretests should not be used as the sole
emerge and that
E D
C T
decision criterion anyway.
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 34
1 8
2 0
7 -
01
2
L L
FA
@
AR
I D
HA
A
D R
R
FO
E D
CT
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 35
1 8
2 0
-
Developing the Advertising Campaign
7
Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness2 01
L L
FA
• Sales-Effect Research @
AR
I
• The fewer or more controllable other D factors such as features
HAmeasure advertising’s effect on
and price are, the easier it is to
sales. A
R
D to measure in direct marketing
R
• The sales impact is easiest
FO in brand or corporate image-building
situations and hardest
advertising. ED
C T
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 36
1 8
2 0
Figure 18.2 Relationship among Trial, 7 -
Awareness, and the Exposure Function 201
L L
FA
@
AR
I D
HA
A
D R
R
FO
E D
CT
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 37
1 8
02
7 -
Figure 18.3 Classification of Advertising Timing Patterns1
20
L L
FA
@
AR
I D
HA
A
D R
R
FO
E D
C T
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 38
1 8
0 2
7 -
1
Figure 18.4 Formula for Measuring Sales Impact of Advertising
20
L L
FA
@
Companies want to AR
I D
HA
know whether they
are overspending or
A
underspending on
advertising D R
R
FO
E D
C T
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 39
1 8
2 0
Sales Promotion 7 -
01
2
L L
FA
@
AR
I D
HA
A
D R
R
FO
E D
CT
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 40
1 8
2 0
7 -
Sales Promotion 01
2
L L
FA
• Sales promotion, a key ingredient in@marketing
A R
campaigns, consists of a collection of incentive tools,
mostly short term, designedAtoID stimulate quicker or
H
A
greater purchase of particular products or services by
D
consumers or the trade R
R
FO
E D
CT
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 41
1 8
2 0
Sales Promotion Tactics 7 -
01
2
Consumer-directed Trade-directedLL
• Samples • Price offs FA
@
• Coupons R
• Allowances
A
• Cash refund offers I D goods
• Free
• Price offs H A
• Sales contests
A
• Premiums
D R • Spiffs
• Prizes R • Trade shows
FO
• Patronage rewards • Specialty advertising
E
• Free trialsD
T
ICpromotions
• Tie-in
R
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 42
1 8
2 0
Using Sales Promotions 7 -
01
2
L L
FA
Establish objectives
@
Select tools
AR
I D
HA
Develop program
A
R
DPretest
R
FO
E DImplement and control
CT
R I
S T Evaluate results
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 43
1 8
2 0
Using Sponsored Events 7 -
01
2
L L
Establish objectives FA
@
AR
I D
Choose Aevents
H
A
R
D programs
R
Design
FO
E D
C T Measure effectiveness
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 44
1 8
2 0
Steps in the CEM Framework 7 -
01
2
L L
Analyze the customer’s experiential FA world
@
AR
I D
Build the experiential platform
HA
A
D R
Design the brand experience
R
FO the customer interface
Structure
E D
T
CEngage in continuous innovation
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 45
1 8
2 0
Decisions in Marketing PR 7 -
01
2
L L
FA
Establish objectives
@
R
Choose messages
A
I D
Choose H
A
vehicles
A
R
DImplement
R
FO
E D Evaluate results
CT
R I
S T
R E © Dr A Haidar@FALL 2017-2018 46