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AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON EFFECT OF STEEL SLAG

AND CEMENT ON THE SUBGRADE OF THE PAVEMENT


A thesis submitted to the
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University
In partial fulfilment of the award of the degree of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
In
SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING ENGINEERING
By
D.S.S.S. ANNAPURNA
(166Q1D1916)

Under the guidance of


Mrs. P MEHER LAVANYA, M.Tech
Assistant Professor,
Dept. of Civil Engineering

KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY-II


(Approved by AICTE New Delhi &Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada)

Yanam Road, Matlapalem, Talarevu Mandal, Korangi, Andhra Pradesh-533461.

JUNE 2018

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY


KAKINADA – 533003
KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING &TECHNOLOGY-II
(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi & Affiliated to JNT University, Kakinada)

KORANGI

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project work entitled “AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON
EFFECT OF STEEL SLAG AND CEMENT ON THE SUBGRADE OF THE
PAVEMENT” being submitted by D.S.S.S. ANNAPURNA (166Q1D1916) in partial
fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree Master of Technology in SOIL
MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING ENGINEERING to the
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kakinada is a record of bonafide work carried
out by her under my guidance and supervision. The results in this thesis have not been
submitted to any other University or Institute for the award of any degree.

roject Guide Head of the Department

Mrs. P.MEHAR LAVANYA, M.Tech; Dr.Ch. BAVANARAYANA, Ph.D

Assistant Professor Professor

External Examiner
KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING &TECHNOLOGY -II

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

M.TECH THESIS EVELUATION REPORT


This Thesis Entitled AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON EFFECT OF STEEL SLAG
AND CEMENT ON THE SUBGRADE OF THE PAVEMENT” Being Submitted By
D.S.S.S. ANNAPURNA Bearing Registered No.166Q1D1916 Of 2016-2018 Batch In Partial
Fulfilment Of The Requirement For The Award Of The Degree Of MASTER OF
TECHNOLOGY In SOIL MECHANICS AND FOUNDATION ENGINEERING, JNTU
KAKINADA Has Been Approved
.

Examiners
1. Project Guide

P.Meher Lavaanya, M.Tech

Assistant Professor …………………………

2. Head Of The Department

Dr. Ch. Bavanarayana

Professor ………………………….

3.External Professor …………………………….


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude and respect towards my project guide Mrs.P.
MEHER LAVANYA, M.Tech. Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Kakinada Institute of engineering and technology-II, for his excellent guidance right from the
section of project and his valuable suggestions throughout the project work. It would be very
difficult to complete this project without his timely help and tremendous support.

Immense thanks are due to Dr. Ch. BAVANARAYANA, Head of the Department, Civil
Engineering Department, for his valuable suggestions and providing the facilities in the
Department.

I am extremely indebted to Mrs. P. MEHER LAVANYA in Civil Engineering Department


for his timely invaluable and suggestions of project co-ordinator for this project work.

I express my sincere thanks to Dr. A. RAVI KUMAR, Principal, in Civil Engineering


Department of KIET Engineering College, for giving us this opportunity.

I express my sincere thanks to our beloved MANAGEMENT, for providing support and
stimulating environment for developing the project.

I am much thankful to the Teaching and Non-Teaching Staff who helped in gathering the
needed information.

I express my sincere thanks to my parents and almighty for giving this opportunity.

With Sincere regards,

D.S.S.S. Annapurna

(166Q1D1916)
DECLARATION

This is to certify that the dissertation titled “AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON EFFECT

OF STEEL SLAG AND CEMENT ON THE SUBGRADE OF THE PAVEMENT” is a

bonafide work done by me, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the

degree M.Tech. In Soil Mechanics & Foundation Engineering and submitted to the

Department of Civil Engineering, KAKINADA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING &

TECHNOLOGY, Korangi.

I also declare that this project is a result of my own effort and that has not been copied from

anyone and I have taken only citations from the sources which are mentioned in the

references.

This work was not submitted earlier at any other University or Institute for the award of any

degree.

With Sincere regards,

D.S.S.S. ANNAPURNA

(166Q1D1916)
INDEX PG.NO’S

LIST OF CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

ABSTRACT 1

CHAPTER-1:INTRODUCTION 2-15

1. Exapnsive Soil. 2
1.1 Introduction.
1.2 Characterization of Expansive Soils. 4
1.3 Remedial Measures to Overcome Problems of Expansive Soil 4
1.3.1 Stiffening of foundation and superstructure 5
1.3.2 Mat Foundation 5
1.3.3 Under reamed Pile Foundations 6
1.3.4 Cohesive Non-swelling (CNS’S) layer method 6
1.3.5 Soil Replacement 7
1.3.6 Surcharge Loading 8
1.3.7 Heat Treatment 8
1.3.8 Pre-wetting 9
1.3.9 Reinforcement Technique 9
1.4 Steel Slag 10-11
1.5 Binders 12-15

CHAPTER- 2 SOIL STABILISATION 16-21


2.1 Stabilization 16

2.2 Mechanisms of Stabilization


17 2.3 Different Type of Stabilization 17

2.3.1. Mechanical stabilization 17-18

2.3.2 Chemical stabilization 19-20

2.3.3. Geosynthetic stabilization 20-21

2.4 Objective 21

2.5 Thesis Organization 21

CHAPTER 3: REVIEW LITERATURE 22-31

3.1 Introduction 22-26

3.2 Steel Slag 26-30


3.3 Binders 30-31

CHAPTER 4: MATERIALS & METHODOLOGY 32-47

4.1 Introduction 32

4.2 Materials 32

4.2.1Soil 32

4.2.2 Steel Slag 33

4.2.3 Binders 34

4.3 Laboratory Experimentation

4.3.1 Atterberg Limits

4.3.1.1 Liquid Limit 34-36

4.3.1.2 Plastic Limit 36-37

4.3.1.3 Shrinkage Limit 38-39

4.3.2 Compaction Properties 39-41

4.3.3 Differential Free Swell 41-42

4.3.4 Strength Tests 43

(a) CBR Sample Preparation 43-44

(b) UCS Sample Preparation 45-47

CHAPTER-5 DISCUSSIONS ON TEST RESULTS 48-56


5.1 Introduction 48

5.2 Laboratory test Results on Soil Stabilization 48

5.2.1 Effect of Additives on Atterberg Limits 49

5.2.2 Effect of Additives on DFS 51

5.2.3 Effect of Additives on MDD & OMC 52

5.2.4 Effect of Additives on CBR 53

5.2.5 Effect of Additives on Shear Strength Properties 55

5.3 Summary 56

5.4 Scope of Future Work 56


CHAPTER-6: CONCLUSIONS 57-58

REFERENCES 59-63
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE
DETAILS OF THE FIGURES
NO’S

Plate 1.1 Shows the Expansive soil

Plate 1.2 Shows the stiffening of foundation & super structure

Plate 1.3 Shows the mat foundation

Plate 1.4 Shows the CNS layer

Plate 1.5 Shows the surcharge loading

Plate 1.6 Shows the pre wetting

Plate 1.7 Shows the reinforced soil

Plate 1.8 Shows the steel slag

Plate 1.9 Shows the cement

Plate 2.1 Shows the Mechanical stabilization

Plate 2.2 Shows the chemical stabilization

Plate 2.3 Shows the geosynthetic stabilization

Plate 4.1 Shows the sample of steel slag

Plate 4.2 Shows the sample of cement

Plate 4.3 Shows the testing of liquid limit

Plate 4.4 Shows the testing of plastic limit

Plate 4.5 Sample after test

Plate 4.1 Black Cotton Soil.

Plate 4.2 Polyethylene waste.

Plate 4.3 Author Conducting Liquid Limit Test

Plate 4.4 Author Conducting Liquid Limit Test

Plate 4.5 Author Conducting Plastic Limit Test


LIST OF TABLES

Table No’s Details of the tables

Table – 1.1 Chemical constituents of Steel Slag

Table – 1.2 Chemical constituents of cement

Table – 4.1 Properties of soil

Table – 4.2 Properties of Steel Slag

Table – 5.1 Effect of Steel Slag & Cement on Index Properties of expansive soil

Table – 5.2 Effect of Steel Slag & Cement on DFC of expansive soil

Table – 5.3 Effect of Steel Slag & Cement on MDD & OMC of expansive soil

Table – 5.4 Effect of Steel Slag & Cement on CBR of expansive soil

Table – 5.5 Shows the variation of UCS with Expansive soil

Table – 5.6 Shows the Optimum Percentage of different Additives


LIST OF GRAPHS

Table No’s Details of the Graphs

Graph-1 Shows the Variation of Atterberg Limits with Expansive Soil

Graph-2 Shows the Variation of DFS with Expansive Soil

Graph-3 Shows the Variation of MDD with Expansive Soil

Graph-4 Shows the Variation of OMC with Expansive Soil

Graph-5 Shows the Variation of CBR with Expansive Soil

Graph-6 Shows the Variation of Expansive Soil