
Abstract Neural network is recently showing a good promise of converters and drives, but its application in estimation, particularly
for application in power electronics and motion control systems. with timevarying input signals, is practically new. The present work
So far, it has been applied for a few cases, mainly in the control explores feedforward neural network technique for estimation of
of converters and drives, but its application in estimation is feedback signals of a direct vectorcontrolled (DVC) induction motor
pratically new. This paper explores the application of neural drive.
network for estimation of feedback signals in induction motor Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of a DVC drive system where
drive system. A feedforward neural network receives the the estimation of feedback signals, such as rotor flux ( ~ 3unit ,
machine terminal signals at the input and calculates flux, torque vectors ( ~ 0 ,~sinee)
9 ~ and torque (Te) are indicated by a DSP as
and unit vectors (cos@, and sine,) at the output which are then well as a neural network. The estimated torque can be used in an
used in the control of a direct vectorcontrolled drive system. additional feedback loop within the speed control loop, if desired. In
The threelayer network bas been trained extensively by a DVC drive system, the feedback signals are calculated fiom the
NeuralWorks Professional ryPlus program to emulate the DSP machine terminal voltages and currents by using the following
based computational characteristics. The performance of the equations 131:
estimator is good and is comparable to that of DSPbased
estimation. The drive system has been operated in the wide
torque and speed regions independently with DSPbased
estimator and neural networkbased estimator, and are shown to
have comparable performance. The neural network estimator
has the advantages of faster execution speed, harmonic ripple
immunity and fault tolerance characteristics compared to DSP
based estimator.
L INTRODUCTION
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normalization^
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DSP NETWORK
j ==TOR / ESTlMAToR
............ "............................... .
Fig. 1. Block diagram of direct vector controlled induction motor drive showing DSP based and neural network based
feedback signal estimation.
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slope
adjustment by a
The weight w in series with the transfer function 0 helps
adjusting its slope, as indicated in Fig. 3. The nonlinear transfer
function associated with the neurons gives nonlinear mapping
property of the network and helps performing highly nonlinear
computations, such as multiplication, division and squarerooting,
besides addition and substraction, as indicated in (3)  (10). The input
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1 variable frequency variable magnitude nearsinusoidal signals are
converted to perunit form through the normalizer gains, and then
&er computation, the output are brought back to actual values
through the denormalizer gains, as indicated.
The feedforward neural network is usually trained by back
propagation training algorithm first proposed by Rumelhart, Hinton
Fig. 3. Hyperbohotan transfer function with adjustable slope and Williams in 1986. The distributed weights in the network
contribute to the distributed intelligence or "associative memory"
property of the network. With the network initially untrained, i.e.,
with the weights selected at random, the output signal pattern will
totally mismatch the desired output pattern for a given input pattern.
Xl The: actual output pattern is compared with the desired output
\
patt em and the weights are adjusted by the backpropagation
algorithm until the pattern matching occurs, i.e., the pattern errors
beoome acceptably small. The network training is highly automated
and is usually performed offline through a PCbased Simulator
pro,yam, such as Neuralworks Professional IllpLUS [6]. The
pariicular Simulator program has a graphical interface where all the
hWtI setups are done via dialog boxes. It is possible to add some visual
instruments like rms error gauge, weight histogram and cofision
matrices for helping the user to see whether the training is
converging. The Simulator can use ASCII, binary or commented
ASCII files for training. The network topology can be edited to
change the connections, delete weights or to implement different
transfer functions.
Fig. 4.Structure of neural element with the transfer function The training procedure used in the present project can be
summarized as follows:
473
25
Simulate the induction motor drive system, as shown in Fig.
1, by PCSII"0N. 17
Generate the input/output data table for different operating h
The design and training of a neural network for satisfactory 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.o
performance requires very time consuming iterative procedure with TIME (s)
large training data table. Fortunately, the Simulator program highly
automates the training procedure. The selection of hidden layer
neurons may require several stages of iteration. If the number is Fig. 6. Torque estimator performance with fourtenone network
small, the error will not converge to the satisfactory level. Again, if
the number is too large, the network will tend to memorize (lookup Being encouraged with the feasibility of estimation and
table function) rather than learn. After satisfactory training with the performance improvement with larger number of hidden layer
help of Simulator program, the weights are downloaded to the neurons, it was decided to design the &Ufledged estimator with
prototype network. fourtwentyfour network, as shown in Fig. 2. As mentioned before,
there is no unique way to determine the optimum number of hidden
layer neurons. To some extent, it involves trialanderror iteration
III. ESTIMATOR PERFORMANCE procedure. Figs. 7(a)  7(d) show, respectively, the torque, flux, cos0
e and sine, output of the estimator &er success&l training of the
In the beginning, it was decided to estimate the torque (Td only network with a very large number of data sets. As before, the drive
with a simple fourfiveone network to validate the feasibility of system operates with variable frequency but with a constant PWh4
estimation. A 5 hp DVC induction motor drive system, shown in Fig. carrier frequency of 15 kHz. Therefore, the input idsS
1, with pure inertia load was simulated with the flux and speed current waves are reasonably harmonicfree. The ripple gene2tek;
control loops open but with a constant ids* (i.e., constant flux). A the network is evident on torque and flux, but the unit vector signals
triangular bidirectional iqs* profile was injected to generate the are clean. Again, the estimator ripple frequency has some
proportional torque profile, as indicated in Fig. 5. As a result, the correspondence with the motor fundamental frequency. For example,
machine speed varies correspondingly generating variable frequency at time below 0.2 s and above 0.8 s in Fig. 7, the fundamental
variable magnitude $*, $ ,, &, and ib, waves. frequency is very low showing the corresponding low ripple
frequency on the estimated torque. The overall performance of the
An inputloutput data table (with 10,000 points) was used to
neural network based estimator appears to be very encouraging. Fig.
8 shows the estimator performance for the same conditions as above
train the network. The network performance, although somewhat
crude in comparison with the actual torque, indicates the correct except the switching frequency is low (2 kHz). At low switching
trend for estimation. The rms threshold error was reasonably low frequency, the input idsS and iqsS current waves have larger harmonic
inspite of large output ripple which was found to be present even at ripple, but the estimator output is relatively immune to this input
constant torque condition ( see torque step in Fig. lO(a)). The ripple ripple.
amplitude can be attenuated to some extent with a low pass filter of This noiseimmune performance of neural network is
small time constant. Fig. 6 shows improvement of the estimato. particularly important for drive system feedback signals estimation
performance when the hidden layer neurons were increased from fi. with low switching freauencv. such as GTO inverters. Otherwise, any
v .
to ten. attempt to reduce the riiple by a low pass filter, will cause
474
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TIME (s) TIME (s)
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hndamental frequency sensitive phase lag which may not ' 
acceptable. Fig. 9 shows the validity of flux estimation in the IV.SYSTEM SIMULATION STUDY AND
constant torque as well as in fieldweakening regions. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON
NEURAL NETWORK
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Fig.10. Performance comparison of vector controlled drive system for stepped load torque and constant
speed (1 195 rpm) (a) Torque, (b) Flux, (c) Cosine wave and (d) Sine wave (Left column indicates DSP
based estimation and the right column indicates neural network based estimation)
476
DSP NEURAL NETWORK
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Fig.10. Performance comparison of vector controlled drive system for stepped load toque and constant
speed (1 195 rpm) (a) Torque, (b) Flux, (c) Cosine wave and (d) Sinewave (Ldt column Se DSP
based estimation and the right column indicates neural network based estimation)
w
W
& 500  \
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Fig.11. Performance comparison of vector controlled drive system with q d ~ dspeed profile @ure
inertia load) (a) Speed (b) Torque, (c) Flux, (d) Cosine wave and (e) Sic wave ( I column
, & indicates
DSP based estimation and the right column indicatesn d network based esthtim)
477
NEURAL NETWORK
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TIME (s) e) TIME (s)
Fig.11. Performance comparison of vector controlled drive system with cycled speed protile (pure
inertia load) (a) Speed @) Torque, (c) Flux, (d) Cosine wave and (e) Sine wave (Left column indicates
DSP based estimation and the right column indicates neural network based estimation)
478
V. CONCLUSION
VL REFERENCES
[I] J. Lawrence, Introduction to Neural Networks, California
Scientific Software Press, 1993.
[2] E.S. Sinencio and C. Lau (Ed.), Artificial Neural Networks,
IEEE Press, NY,1992.
[3] B.K. Bose, Power Electronics and AC Drives, Prentice Hall,
1986.
[4]B.K. Bose, "Expert system, I k z y logic and neural network
applications in power electronics and motion control", Proceedings
of the IEEE, August 1994 (to be published).
[SI D.H. Nguyen and B. Widrow, "Neural networks for selfleaming
control systems", IEEE Control Sys. Mag. vol. 10, pp.1823, April
1990.
[6] "Using Neuralworks Professional 11Plus", Neuralware
Reference Manual, 1992
[7] S. Weerasooriya and M.A. ElSharkawi. "Identification and
control of a dc motor using backpropagation neural networks",
IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, vol. 6,pp. 663669,Dec. 1991.
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