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Applications of Computers in Orthodontics

Dept of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, SDMCDS, Dharwad sem1b / sb / 13/09/04


Applications of Computers in Orthodontics
Contents

1. Introduction 6. Classification of Applications


2. History of Computer 7. Survey
Technology and Systems
8. Results
3. Computer – Hardware
4. Computer – Software 9. Summary
5. History of Technology in 10. Bibliography
Orthodontics

Application of computers in orthodontics – Contents sem1/sb/09-04


Computer

A computer is any device used to process


information according to a well-defined procedure

The word ‘Computer’ was originally used to


describe people employed to do arithmetic
calculations, with or without mechanical aids, but
was transferred to the machines

Application of computers in orthodontics – Introduction sem1/sb/09-04


Reason for computer technology system

Principally technology is used to solve

Input
Processing
Output
Communication problems

Application of computers in orthodontics – Introduction sem1/sb/09-04


History of Information Technology and Systems

Four Basic Periods of Information Technology

1. Pre mechanical
2. Mechanical
3. Electromechanical
4. Electronic

Application of computers in orthodontics – History sem1/sb/09-04


The Premechanical Age: 3000 B.C. - 1450 A.D. The
First Calculators: The Abacus
The First Information Processor

Application of computers in orthodontics – History sem1/sb/09-04


Charles Babbage - Eccentric English Mathematician

1792-1871

The Difference Engine The Analytical Engine

Application of computers in orthodontics – History sem1/sb/09-04


The Electromechanical Age: 1840 - 1940.

•The discovery of ways to harness electricity by


Benjamin Franklin was the key advance made during
this period.

•Information could now be converted into electrical


impulses.

Application of computers in orthodontics – History sem1/sb/09-04


Alan Mathison Turing
Father of Modern Computer Science

British mathematician Concept of algorithm and


and cryptographer computation: the Turing
machine

Designed one of the


FIRST electronic
"Can machines think?" programmable digital
computers
THE COLOSSUS

1954 1912

Application of computers in orthodontics – History sem1/sb/09-04


The Electronic Age: 1940 - Present

The Four Generations of Digital Computing

• The First Generation (1951-1958) Punch Cards


• The Second Generation (1959-1963) Transistors
• The Third Generation (1964-1979) Integrated Circuits
• The Fourth Generation (1979-Present) VLSIC

Application of computers in orthodontics – Recent past sem1/sb/09-04


The Fourth Generation (1979-present)

1. CPU = Central Processing Unit


2. Personal computers or PCs
IBM - 1981
Apple Mac - 1984
3. MS-DOS
4. Graphical User Interfaces

Application of computers in orthodontics – Present sem1/sb/09-04


Know Your Computer
Hardware

Input Devices

Central Processing Unit

Memory

Output Devices

Peripherals

Application of computers in orthodontics – Hardware sem1/sb/09-04


Know Your Computer
Hardware
Let us see how does our computer ‘Boot Up’

Switch >

Power >

Power Good Signal >

Mother board Ready >

Application of computers in orthodontics – Hardware sem1/sb/09-04


Know Your Computer
Hardware

B I O S (Basic input output device)


Involuntary function

E E PROM – Electronically Erasable Programmable


Read Only Memory

Application of computers in orthodontics – Hardware sem1/sb/09-04


Know Your Computer
Hardware

CMOS
Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

Stores the configuration of the hardware

Application of computers in orthodontics – Hardware sem1/sb/09-04


Know Your Computer
Hardware

Hard Disk first handshake protocol


Request for HD to Read Track 0 (System files of operating system)
Triggers startup of Operating System
OS is ready and Displayed on the screen
OS is ready to run any software

Application of computers in orthodontics – Hardware sem1/sb/09-04


Know Your Computer
Software

• All the Operating Systems are stored in the Hard Disk


• All Data is stored in a Hexadecimal Code
• Program Files are stored in Alphanumeric formats:

- Executable file .exe


- Movies .dat
- AutoCAD .dwg
- Corel Draw .cdr
- System Files .sys

Application of computers in orthodontics – Software sem1/sb/09-04


Know Your Computer
Software

• Earlier with OS like DOS most


applications were Text based

• Graphics were available but difficult to


work and No Real Time images

• WYSIWYG

Application of computers in orthodontics – Software sem1/sb/09-04


Know Your Computer
Software

•Today Graphics have developed to such a extent that real time


images are created on the screen

•Advent of Digital peripherals and Data Acquisition Systems


has opened the use age of computers in the field of
Orthodontics

Application of computers in orthodontics – Software sem1/sb/09-04


Classification of Applications

1. Academic 2. Clinical

3. Graphic 4. Research

5. Manufacturer 6. Miscellaneous

Application of computers in orthodontics – Classification sem1/sb/09-04


Academic Applications
Administration

•THE "PAPERLESS PRACTICE"


Charles A. Lewis

1991- To optimize efficiency

1994 - Hardware technology progressed to required


levels for the first orthodontic Paperless Practice to begin
operation in Florida

Application of computers in orthodontics – Academic sem1/sb/09-04


Academic Applications
Administration

Appeared unanimous that paperless operation is


cost effective, improves efficiency, and reduces
stress for patients, doctor, and staff.

Still then, only we can ultimately decide whether


operating in paperless mode is right for our
practice

Application of computers in orthodontics – Academic sem1/sb/09-04


Computer Applications

• What is Graphic application?

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical /Graphic Application

Graphics

Software applications that convey information Pictorially are called


Graphic applications

Visualized on the screen or VDU - CRT / LCD / Plasma Screen etc..

Important Terminology – Pixel, Bitmap, Gray Scale, Resolution,


Contrast, Density, Display, Enhancement, Quality…

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

What is a DIGITAL IMAGE?

DIGITAL IMAGES are


electronic snapshots taken of a
scene or scanned from
documents, such as
photographs, manuscripts,
printed texts, and artwork

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

• Digital Image
• Matrix of square pieces

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
Clinical / Graphic / Research Application
Pixel Values
bitonality of image - each pixel is assigned a tonal value, in this
example
0 for black and
1 for white.

Each ‘0 and 1’ is called as – BIT

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

In a 2-bit image, there are four possible


combinations:
00, 01, 10, and 11

"00“ represents black


"11" represents white
"01" equals dark gray
"10" equals light gray

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

Two Compression Technique’s

i. Lossy compression ii. Lossless compression


JPEG ITU-T.6**
JBIG/JBIG2 JBIG/JBIG2
Wavelet Wavelet
ImagePac LZW
Deflate
TIFF 6.0

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

Image Quality

a) Spatial resolution

b) Optical density

c) Image display

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

Image Quality / Spatial summation

• Spatial Summation – It’s the ability to record and


differentiate separate images of small objects closely
placed

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

Optical Density

• Blackness or Whiteness

• Algorithm of the ratio of light incident to the light


transmitted by the film

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

Image Display

• Controlled by Display monitor


• No of Raster Images v/s Vector Images
• 625 lines used usually
• 2048 lines improves image quality tremendously

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
Clinical / Graphic / Research Application
Dynamic Range

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

• Prerequisite for a digital camera

• CCD Silicon sensor preferred over a CMOS


sensor
• 4MP and above for a professional user
• Compression Ratio, Noise, Jaggies, Optical
zoom… issues to be seen

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

• Flash, Red eye reduction, Macro mode, Video


clip recording with audio, Voice recording,
MP3 playback and Web cam are important
features
• Optical view finder v/s LCD display
• Expandable memory supports cards like CF,
SD/MMC, xD or Memory stick

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic / Image Archiving – Digital Image sem1/sb/09-04
Applications of Computers in Clinics
• Conventional v/s Computerised Clinics
• CT Scan
• MRI
• Digital Radiography - DENOPTIX
• Cephalometric Analysis –
RMO’s Jiffy Orthodontic Evaluation
PorDios
DIGICEPH
DIGIGRAPH
• Computer aided Space Analysis
• Computer aided Tooth Width Analysis
• VTO/VTP

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic Application

Conventional Computerised

• Case Paper • Data Sheet


• Impression & Diagnostic Casts • 3D Photography
• Radiographs • RVG, Digital Radiography
• Manual Tracing • Digitised Tracing
• Cephalometric Analysis • Advanced software's
• Diagnostic Set-up • VTO / VTP
• Treatment-Preformed System • Treatment-Customised
• Mid Term Evaluation • Continuous Monitoring

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic Application

•Orthodontic correction and orthognathic surgery - a


routine procedure for the correction of facial and dental
deformity

•Pre-operative surgical planning is still a major


undertaking, requiring the collaboration

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

•Inadequate planning, at this early stage can lead to an


increase incidence failure and lessens the likelihood of the
patients expectations being meet

•The most commonly used method of planning is to cut up


profile photographs - magnified to the same size as the
standardized lateral skull radiographs

•These are then superimposed over the cephalographs.

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

• Radiographic and photographic registration and superimposition


are approximate because of the inherent distortion

• The image geometry of the camera that took the photograph and
the X-ray machine that took the radiograph are different

• The radiographic photographic superimposition is carried out


manually using the soft tissue profile and is subject to human error

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

•Computer packages - have partially replaced the manual


method of simulating orthognathic and maxillofacial
operations

•A digital camera is used to capture the facial profile

•Skeletal and dental landmarks are digitized from the lateral


cephalograph and superimposed on the facial image

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

•Bone-face registration - the surgeon can analyze the face and


plan the operation

•Main drawback - analysis and prediction of pre and post


operative appearance were limited to two dimensions

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

• Obtaining a 3D image of the


underlying skeletal hard tissue is
•To address these problems a routinely carried out using
truly 3D modality of planning
is required • Computerized tomography (CT)

• Magnetic resonance imaging


(MRI)

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

Many techniques for 3D soft tissue capture are available including

Biostereometrics Moiré scanning


Morph analysis Sterolithography
Laser scanning Ultrasonography and
Direct digitization Stereo photogrammetry

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

Disadvantages

•Laser scanning takes along time to complete and eyes need to


be closed,

•Morphanalysis - extremely elaborate, expensive, complicated


and time consuming technique

•Ultrasonography is in its experimental stage and there are


major problems with data acquisition, reduction and storage

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

•The most promising method of soft


tissue capture is stereo
photogrammetry

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

• Computerised Tomography
• 1972 - Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Lab England
• 1979 – First image of human body
• Sliced images are referred to as tomograms and a computer is
necessary to generate the pictures - Computed Tomography

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Computerised Tomography

• Principle

An image of a layer within


the body is produced while
the images of the structures
above and below that layer
are made invisible by
blurring

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Computerised Tomography

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Computerised Tomography

• CT for the evaluation of the TMJ


was introduced by Wegener and
colleagues for demonstrating bone
abnormalities within the TMJ.
• Determining changes in bone
density
• Internal derangement - arthrosis is
suspected –
• Planning treatment or operations on
jaws and TMJ diseases and
deformities

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Micro Computed Tomography

• Principally the same as CT - The reconstructed cross


sections are confined to a much smaller area

• Significantly reduces radiation dosage

• Clinically used to evaluate alveolar remodeling


(osteoblastic/osteoclastic activity) as well as bone
dehiscence and root resorption

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Magnetic Resonance Imaging

• Emission imaging
• Essentially imaging of water in
the tissue
• When images are displayed;
intense signals show as white
and weak ones as black.

Cortical bone and teeth with low


presence of hydrogen are poorly
imaged and appear black

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Magnetic Resonance Imaging

• Assessing diseases of the • MRI can clearly


TMJ differentiate the soft tissue
• Cleft lip and palate components
• Tonsillitis and adenoiditis • Preferred imaging
• Cysts and infections technique when
information regarding the
• Tumors articular disc or the
presence of adhesions,or
joint effusion is desired

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

Denoptix

• Digital radiographic technique


• Better than CCD sensor attached to computer
• Phosphor imaging plates to capture and store images
• Advantages
- Alternative to conventional film
- Same machine and settings
- No dark room required
- Environment friendly- no heavy metal wastage
- Can be reused thousands of times
- Transmission of images
- Saving staff time

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

• Phosphor plate

PROTECTIVE LAYER

PHOSPHOR LAYER

SUPPORT

BACKING LAYER

BAR CODE LABEL

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


• Imaging cycle

1.Load intraoral or panoramic


imaging plate
5. Erase imaging plates
for reuse

2. Take X ray
Image on computer

3. Mount imaging plates in carousel 4. Place in scanner & Scan images


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

• Digital images can be manipulated using


software filters

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

• Digital Cephalometry

• Digitization is a process by which analog information is


converted into digital form

- Indirect computer digitization of the ceph


- Direct computer digitization of the ceph

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Digital Cephalometry

Indirect digitization

Digitizing tablet Mouse

Electronic pen Cross hair cursor

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

• Digitizing tablet with cross hair cursor


– Fine electronic grid- 0.009mm
– Two wires arranged in a cross hair pattern embedded in a glass
window (Bulls Eye)

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

Modes of Digitisation

Point Mode
• Connecting discretely digitised landmarks with lines and curves
• Time consuming but accurate
• Preferred for predictive treatment planning
• Precise positioning – adv in research applications

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

Modes of Digitisation
Stream Mode
• Stream of coordinate points are recorded as we trace radiographic
contour
• Operator uses a cursor
• Technique sensitive
• Needs skill to operate
• Landmark identification is less accurate

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

Cephalometric Analysis

• Static Cephalometric functions


• Dynamic Cephalometric functions

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

• RMO’s Jiffy Orthodontic • PorDios – Purpose On


Evaluation Request Digitiser Input
Output System

• 1960 – First to provide • IBM Compatible machines


computer aided • Multilingual
Cephalometric analysis • Cephalometrc analysis
• Produce a data base file

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application
DIGICEPH

• Developed by IIT and • Ceph placed on digitizer


AIIMS – New Delhi • Point mode used to move
• Computerised ceph cursor
digitisation • Stream mode to finish and
• Automatic analysis come out of system
• Plot superimposition • X – Y co-ordinates are
• 13 Ceph analysis recorded and analysed

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Digigraph

• Introduced by Dolphin
imaging systems
• Non radiographic system
• Video imaging is also
possible
• VTO

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Digigraph

Cumu
Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Perc
computer literate

Yes

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Digigraph

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Digigraph

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Computer Aided Space Analysis

• Chen Hsing Yen • Advantage


• Bolton ratio • Time saving
• Tooth size relation of U & L
arches
• Overjet and Overbite • Disadvantages
• Posterior intercuspation • Direct measurement of 3D
• Arch length object – potential error!

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Computerised Tooth Width Analysis

• Christopher T.C.Ho & • Five Screens


Terrence.J.Freer Patient details
• Ho Freer Graphical analysis Mesiodistal tooth width
• Digital calipers or manual input Tooth width ratio
through VB 3.0 for Windows Tooth width excess
Graphic display

Advantages
Convenient, Consistent and Easy to operate

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


Clinical / Graphic / Research Application

Most widely used

• G A C’s – VISTADENT
• Dolphin imaging systems and 3M’s – DOLPHIN
• ORAMETRIX’s

Application of computers in orthodontics – Clinical / Graphic sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

• Occlusal Splints
• CAD
• Planning Surgeries
Computer Aided Designing
• Bone Implants
• CAM
• Restorations
Computer Aided Manufacturing
• Designing structures for
FEAnalysis
• Appliances and
equipment

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

• Engineers and draftsmen used the drawing board


drawings on paper with ink or pencil
• Instruments (trisquare, protractor, etc.) are used on it
to draw parallel, perpendicular or oblique lines

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

• Also known as a drafting table, or draughting table

• Sketchpad was a revolutionary program written by Ivan


Sutherland in 1963

• Novel method of Human-computer interaction

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

A computer display, monitor or screen is a computer


peripheral device capable of showing still or moving images
generated by a computer and processed by a graphics card

Monitors generally conform to one or more display standards


•Cathode ray tube (CRT)
•Liquid crystal display (LCD)
•Plasma display
•Video projector
• A light pen

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

•A graphical user interface (or GUI, pronounced "gooey")

•The graphical user interface was invented by researchers at the Stanford


Research institute

•First commercial applications of CAD were in large companies in


automotive and aerospace industry, as well as in electronics

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

Advantages
•Reuse of design components
•Ease of design modification and versioning
•Automatic generation
•Validation/verification against specifications and rules
•Simulation without building a physical prototype
•Output of design directly to manufacturing facilities

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

•A wire frame model is an electronic


representation of a 3-dimensional or physical
object.

•Solid modeling studies unambiguous


representations, models, of solid objects suitable
for computer processing. It is also known as
volume modeling

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

•Primary uses of solid modeling are for CAD,


computer graphics and animation,

•Rapid prototyping
•Medical testing and
•Visualization of scientific research.

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

Application of CAD / CAM

•CNC stands for Computer Numerically Controlled


•Lathes
•Milling machines
•Grinding wheels
•Drills

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

Application of CAD / CAM

•Finite element analysis (FEA) is the application of the


finite element method to the analysis of static or dynamic
physical objects and systems

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

The GRAAL Techinique

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM
Computer Aided Designing

• In Dentistry

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM
Procedure for designing a splint or a restoration

• Surface geometry of casts scanned by 3D laser surface


scanner

• Facial morphology – 3D triangular facets – connecting


spatial coordinates –landmarks from frontal & lateral
Cephalograms

• 3D virtual image for surgical simulation

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research/Clinical / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM
Procedure for designing a splint or a restoration

• 3D virtual image used to plan the amount and direction of


bone displacement – post surgically

• Surgical splint designed on this image

• 3D graphic image of surgical splint is transferred to a laser


lithography unit for polymerization

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Clinical / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

• INCOGNITO Bracket System


Rapid Prototyping technology is used
for the actual manufacturing of the
lingual brackets

• Elan And Orthos by Craig


Andreiko

• Invisalign by Zia Chisthi

Application of computers in orthodontics – Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM
Incognito

a. The bracket body is designed independently of the


bracket base

b. Filler spaces such as those occurring in the


individualized positioning of prefabricated brackets
is avoided

c. Arch wire runs parallel to the tooth surface hence


gives it, its characteristic platform shape in the
anterior segment

Application of computers in orthodontics – Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

c. The actual bracket body can consequently be much


more delicately shaped The resulting arch wire
morphology differs substantially from the previously
customary design
d. Such arch wires can be precision-manufactured using
the bending robot describe under production

Application of computers in orthodontics – Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM
Invisalign Braces

• Invisalign braces invented by . Zia Chishti along with business


Zia Chishti, are transparent, partner Kelsey Wirth, founded
removable, and moldable. Align Technology in 1997 to
Unlike regular braces, Invisalign develop and manufacture the
braces can be removed for teeth braces, first made available to
cleaning. A series of braces are the public in May, 2000.
worn in succession each created
by a computer

Application of computers in orthodontics – Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


CAD / CAM

The Wave Spring


Vogt W
J Clin Orthod . 2004 May ; 38(5): 288-
91

The Butterfly System


Bowman SJ, Carano A
J Clin Orthod . 2004 May ; 38(5): 274-
87

Application of computers in orthodontics –Manufacturing / Articles sem1/sb/09-04


The Butterfly System

• The Butterfly System improves upon the straightwire concept


with seven unique features
• PROGRESSIVE POSTERIOR TORQUE
• REVERSIBLE SECOND PREMOLAR ROOT ANGULATION
• PREVENTATIVE MANDIBULAR ANTERIOR TORQUE
• MANDIBULAR ANTERIOR PROGRESSIVE ANGULATION
• CONVERTIBLE TUBES WITH -6° ANGULATION
• VERTICAL SLOT FOR CONVENIENCE AND VERSATILITY
• A VERSATILE SYSTEM

Application of computers in orthodontics –Manufacturing / Articles sem1/sb/09-04


The Butterfly System

Application of computers in orthodontics –Manufacturing / Articles sem1/sb/09-04


The Wave Spring
Super-Elastic Nitanium Coil Spring

Application of computers in orthodontics –Manufacturing / Articles sem1/sb/09-04


The Wave Spring
Super-Elastic Nitanium Coil Spring

Application of computers in orthodontics –Manufacturing / Articles sem1/sb/09-04


Bending Art System (B A S)

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Bending Art System (B A S)

• Fischer-Brandies. H. and Orthuber Wolfgang invented BAS


in 1983
• 1st prototype of BAS manufactured in 1993

• Components of BAS
1. Stereoscopic camera
2. Personal computer and its software
3. Arch wire bending device

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Bending Art System
Stereoscopic camera

• A camera with its flat film has been described as a perfect


perspective machine, which has proved artists were wrong
for centuries

• The keystone effect, which is such a nuisance in


stereoscopy, is part of the perspective laws

• Converging verticals, which are such a nuisance in


architectural photography, are only a problem because of
the ‘laws of perspective’

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Bending Art System
Stereoscopic camera

• Our two eyes look at the world around us and our brain is
able to combine the two slightly different views from each
eye to produce three dimensional (3-D) perception

• Machine vision algorithms work on 2-D cases

• Three dimensional information is obtained using special


purpose sensors like acoustics, radar, or laser range finders

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Bending Art System
Stereoscopic camera

• Technique called stereo vision, similar in concept to human


binocular vision, is to use two cameras to obtain two images
from which distance information can be obtained

• Compared to the alternatives mentioned above, stereo vision


has the advantage that it achieves the 3-D acquisition
without energy emission or moving parts

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Bending Art System
Stereoscopic camera

• Stereoendoscopy,
Stereo radiographs

• scanning electron
microscope

• surveillance

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Bending Art System
Stereoscopic camera

• Digital photogrammetry, • Stereo lithography,


remote sensing stereo sculpting

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Bending Art System
Stereoscopic camera

• Stereoscopic camera consists of CCD which can


be directly used in the patients mouth
• Procedure
- SS measuring plates placed on the bracket
slots & molar tubes
- Mirror of camera moves two times forward
and backward
- Scans using White light

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Bending Art System
Stereoscopic camera

• Accuracy of camera – mean


measuring error btw 2 close marks -
.0178 + .0188 and .0228 + .0245
• Arch form selected with
superimposition of occlusal view
• MD, BL, extrusive, intrusive, torque,
rotational dimensions are specified

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Bending Art System
Arch Wire Bending Component

• Three components

> Holding cone


> Inner cone
> Partial cone

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


Bending Art System
Arch Wire Bending Component

- Round wire and Rectangular wire used


- SS, TMA or Ni-Ti wires
-Bending begins only after all bends are manipulated
- Approximately takes 5 – 7 min

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


Bending Art System
Arch Wire Bending Component

Accuracy of bends
- 0.016 x 0.016 and 0.016 x 0.022 inch Ribbon wise and Edge wise
- 6 - 54 degree angulations repeated 15 times

- Ribbon wise – 0.016” x 0.022” showed error of 0.43 + 0.11 degrees

- Edge wise – 0.16” x0.022” showed error of 0.87 + 0.42 degrees

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


Bending Art System

Advantages Disadvantages

• Precision arch wires • Time required for the insertion


• Rapid fabrication of measuring plates and their
• Fabricate full size passive arch identification
wires for surgical cases • Clinical judgment still vital
• T loop L loop construction • Steel wire easily deformed
• Utility arches made
• Patient data base

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


Bending Art System (B A S)

• The system SureSmile (from Orametrix)

• Developed on the basis of the Bending Art System (BAS) introduced


in 1994

• Combination of three-dimensional image processing, computer-


assisted diagnosis, planning and realization of the treatment,

• Permits high quality orthodontia

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


Structured Light Vision

• Shape from structured light is


based on active triangulation

• A very simple technique to


achieve depth information with
the help of structured light is to
scan a scene with a laser plane
and to detect the location of the
reflected stripe

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Structured Light Vision

• The depth information can be


computed out of the distortion
along the detected profile
• In order to get dense range
information the laser plane has
to be moved in the scene
• Structured light vision
techniques greatly simplify the
process of triangulating the
position of a point in space

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Structured Light Vision

• Using structured light


techniques, one can do realtime
navigation
• This is because one is able to
project a beam with known
coordinates
• This provides information about
at least one aspect of the
geometry in front of the camera,
so the triangulation equations
are much easier

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Structured Light Vision

• Structured light vision is to


project a light beam of known
geometry onto a scene and then
use a video camera to observe
how it is distorted by objects

• Using simple geometric


formulas, we can reconstruct the
shape of those objects

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Structured Light Vision

• CCD cameras will detect


infrared laser beams quite well
(some cameras are more
sensitive to infrared light).
• A diode laser projects light
down onto a spinning mirror
which is 45 degrees from the
vertical axis
• This projects a plane of light
360 degrees around the scanner
as the motor turns

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Structured Light Vision

• Self-scanning laser diode


projecting a beam onto the
region in front of it; above
is the camera.

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Structured Light Vision

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Structured Light Vision

• The first image is what the


camera sees with the laser on

• The second image is what the


camera sees with the laser off

• The third image is the


mathematical difference of the
two

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Structured Light Vision

• By subtracting the first two


images, only the difference
between them is left: the
laser projection

• This will aid in map


building

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04
Coded Light Approach

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Structured Light
- Projection of a structure of lines or grids onto the face
- As the projected pattern is distorted by the contours of
face, this distorted pattern is recorded by a digital camera

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


3D Photography / Scanning

• Visual3D™ is a hardware independent 3D Motion


Analysis software package for visualizing and
analyzing motion capture data

• It has advanced biomechanics capabilities for


sophisticated needs of clinical researchers and clinics

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


3D Photography / Scanning

• How does the OraScanner work?


The OraScanner captures 3-D images by taking pictures of
teeth
The OraScanner uses a flashing white light (non-laser) much
like a video camera so the scanner can see the teeth

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


3D Photography / Scanning

• Why take pictures of the teeth?

The OraScan provides a record of our teeth


To see what teeth look like at the beginning of treatment
or at any stage of treatment
This enables determine optimum orthodontic treatment,
monitor results, and provide very accurate custom
appliances to move teeth quickly

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


3D Photography / Scanning

How long does it take to make an OraScan?

The OraScan takes between 20 and 40 minutes. Several


factors such as size of the mouth, tooth crowding, and
amount of space around the teeth affect the length of time
that a scan takes

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


3D Photography / Scanning

• A revolutionary new technology for orthodontics:

• SureSmile is shown to reduce orthodontic treatment times


through diagnostic imaging and appliance customization

• SureSmile is a unique new solution for orthodontics that


enables 3-D scanning of teeth rather than use of
conventional 2-D images.

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


3D Photography / Scanning

• SureSmile is a unique, state-of-


the-art imaging, treatment
planning, and appliance design
system which gives precise
customized orthodontic care

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


3D Photography / Scanning

• There are three components to SureSmile:

• OraScanner a white light (non-laser) scanner that creates an accurate


3-D image of our teeth

• Diagnostic and treatment planning software

• Precision Appliance ServiceSM creates custom arch wires

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


3D Photography / Scanning

Rather than using a standard bracket prescription that requires multiple


wire adjustments,

The orthodontist uses a customized wire that requires very few


adjustments, which will decrease treatment time

As a custom wire is used, teeth move to the desired positions more


directly, resulting in reduced treatment time.

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


3D Photography / Scanning

• How does SureSmile decrease the amount of time to wear


braces?

• Successful tooth movement depends on three major factors:


• Physiology
• Orthodontic mechanics
• Patient compliance.

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


Cone beam Technique

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


Cone beam Technique

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


Cone beam Technique

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


Cone beam Technique

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research / Manufacturing sem1/sb/09-04


Pulsed- Laser Holography

• LASER
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

• Dennis Graber – 1965 with the advent of LASER realized


his idea of Holography

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Pulsed- Laser Holography

• HOLOGRAPHY

Means of creating a unique photographic image


without the use of a lens

The photographic recording of the image is called a


hologram, which appears to be an unrecognizable
pattern of stripes

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Pulsed- Laser Holography

• A moving object can be made to appear to be at rest when a hologram


is produced with the extremely rapid and high-intensity flash of a
pulsed ruby laser

• The duration of such a pulse can be less than 1/10,000,000 of a


second; and, as long as the object does not move more than 1/10 of a
wavelength of light

• This short time interval, a usable hologram can be obtained

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Pulsed- Laser Holography

• Laser Holography is used to forecast the longitudinal tooth


displacement by evaluating the initial displacement on the
dry skull.

• Initial tooth displacement has been measured by means of


laser measuring techniques -

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Pulsed- Laser Holography

• Holography
• Speckle interferometry
• Laser reflection technique

• These techniques are non-invasive (non-


destructive testing) and permit the measurement
of small tooth and bone displacements varying
between 0.5 and 15 microns

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Pulsed- Laser Holography

• Holography Stand Table


Prevents any Vibration

• Laser pointer

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Pulsed- Laser Holography

• Split Beam
Reflection
Technique

• Laser Gas or
Semiconductor
Laser former

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Pulsed- Laser Holography

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Pulsed- Laser Holography

• Beam splitter is a piece of


GLASS fitted to a plastic holder

• The beam which passes through


the splitter is called the
OBJECT beam

• REFERENCE beam is the one


which is reflected from the
splitter

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Pulsed- Laser Holography

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Pulsed- Laser Holography

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Pulsed- Laser Holography

Pulsed laser holography in studies of


bone motions and deformations

Unification of finite element methods

High precision hologrammetry

Holographic determination of rigid-


body motions and application of the
method to orthodontics

Determination of arbitrary tooth


displacements

R. J. Pryputniewicz, C. J. Burstone, and W. W. Bowley

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Finite Element Method

• Finite Element term coined by Argyris


• First introduced to the Dental arena in the 1970’s
and was documented by Moss

• Advantages
Accuracy
Reproducibility
No usage of materials
Generation of intra material results

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Finite Element Method

Basic Steps involved

1. Preprocessing
2. Processing
3. Post processing

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Finite Element Method

Pre-processing

• Modelling of the structure being studied


• Most crucial step in the FEA
• The structure being studied is discretised into
smaller units termed ELEMENTS
• Each Element is free to be displaced in all
three planes of space

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Finite Element Method

• The element co-ordinates (x,y,z) can be either:


a. Global Co-ordinate system
b. Local Co-ordinate system

• Categories of Elements:
Shell Element
Beam Element
Truss Element

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Finite Element Method

• Elements are connected at certain points termed NODES


• This joining of Elements into Nodes and eliminating
duplicate Nodes is termed as MESHING
• The Mesh size is a crucial determinant of the accuracy
of the result
• Mesh size is inversely related to the time involved in the
analysis

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Finite Element Method

Possibilities of modelling of complex structures

a. 3-D CT scanning
b. 3-D Laser scanner
c. Voxel modelling

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Finite Element Method

Processing

a. Solving of differential equations


b. Assemblage into matrices
c. Summation of matrix equations

The equation of simplest linear static analysis is represented


as [F] = {K} {u}
The non-linear analysis is solved usually by what is termed as
the Newton-Raphson Method

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Finite Element Method

• Post-processing:

a. Graphical Output
b. Numerical Output
c. Animated Output

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Finite Element Method

• Software's for Finite Element Analysis Studies

• ANSYS
• NASTRAN / PARTRAN
• ALGOR
• NISE

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Finite Element Method

•Originally developed for aerospace structural analysis

•FEA has grown to provide a convenient and speedy tool


for approximation of the solution to a wide variety of
complicated engineering problems

•In the hands of a competent user, the method of FEA can


produce accurate, reliable approximate solutions, at a
small fraction of the cost of more rigorous, closed-form
analyses

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Finite Element Method

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is a numerical method


which provides solutions to problems that would otherwise
be difficult to obtain

•In terms of fracture, FEA most often involves the


determination of stress intensity factors

•FEA, however, has applications in a much broader range


of areas; for example, fluid flow and heat transfer

•While this range is growing, one thing will remain the


same: the theory of how the method works

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Finite Element Method

•OtherAlternative Methods

oBoundary Element Method


oComputational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
oDiscrete Element Method
oFinite Difference Method
oFinite Strip Method
oFinite Volume Method

Application of computers in orthodontics – Hardware sem1/sb/09-04


Finite Element Method

Finite element analysis for

Static structural analysis

Steady-state thermal analysis

Free vibrational analysis

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Applications of Computers in Orthodontics

Dr Sangamesh B 1 st
Yr PG

Dept of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, SDMCDS, Dharwad sem1b / sb / 24/09/04


Nano Technology

• Definition of "nanotechnology"

• “Molecular nanotechnology"

• “Molecular manufacturing."

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Nano Technology

• Manufactured products are made from atoms


• The properties of those products depend on how those atoms
are arranged
• If we rearrange the atoms in coal we can make diamond
• If we rearrange the atoms in sand (and add a few other trace
elements) we can make computer chips
• If we rearrange the atoms in dirt, water and air we can make
potatoes.

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Nano Technology

• Today's manufacturing methods are very crude at


the molecular level

• Casting, grinding, milling and even lithography


move atoms in great thundering statistical herds

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Nano Technology

• This technology gets essentially every atom


in the right place

• And also make almost any structure


consistent with the laws of physics that we
can specify in molecular detail

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Nano Technology

"The principles of physics, as far as we can see, do not


speak against the possibility of maneuvering things
atom by atom."

• We need to apply at the molecular scale the concept


that has demonstrated its effectiveness at the
macroscopic scale: making parts go where we want
by putting them where we want!

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Nano Technology

• There are two more concepts commonly


associated with nanotechnology:

• Positional assembly

• Massive parallelism

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Nano Technology

• Positional assembly implies an interest in molecular


robotics, e.g., robotic devices that are molecular both in
their size and precision.
• These molecular scale positional devices are likely to
resemble very small versions of their everyday macroscopic
counterparts.
• Positional assembly is frequently used in normal
macroscopic manufacturing today, and provides tremendous
advantages.

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Nano Technology

• One robotic arm assembling molecular parts is going to take


a long time to assemble anything large — so we need lots of
robotic arms: this is what we mean by Massive parallelism

• While earlier proposals achieved Massive parallelism


through self replication, today's "best guess" is that future
molecular manufacturing systems will use some form of
convergent assembly

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Nano Technology

• Imagine trying to build a Tooth, Periodontal


Ligament and Bone with both hands tied behind
your back!

• The idea of manipulating and positioning individual


atoms and molecules is still new and definitely
difficult to comprehend

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Nano Technology

• In this process vast numbers of small parts are assembled by


vast numbers of small robotic arms into larger parts, those
larger parts are assembled by larger robotic arms into still
larger parts, and so forth

• If the size of the parts doubles at each iteration, we can go


from one nanometer parts (a few atoms in size) to one meter
parts (almost as big as a person) in only 30 steps

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Nano Technology

• Within minutes to hours.Orthodontic


Nanorobots could directly manipulate
periodontal tissues allowing rapid and
painless tooth movements

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Nano Technology

• Nano Materials

• Nano Electronics

• Nano Biotechnology

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Nano Technology

• Nano Biotechnology: research is being carried out in the


following areas:

• Novel Surfactants or nano particles for respiratory diseases

• Nano particles as catalysts- the Bhasma concept- their


enhanced activity due to nano particles

• Nano composites for dental and orthodontics use

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Nano Technology

• Nano-technology was first used in dentistry with Prime&Bond®NT


by DENTSPLY in 1997

• In 2003, Ceram.X combined nano-technology with methacrylate-


modified polysiloxane, a component of technical ceramics

• The result was nano-ceramic technology and led to higher fracture


toughness and reduced monomer leakage in comparison to other
filling materials

• The Future : Nano-Ceramic Restorative Materials

Application of computers in orthodontics – Research sem1/sb/09-04


Classification of Applications

Miscellaneous
Storage of Data

Web Designing

Communication

Education - COAST /CAL / CASMAS

Application of computers in orthodontics –Classification sem1/sb/09-04


Classification of Applications

Storage of Data

ORTHOCAST
ORTHOCAD
GEODIGM CORP

Application of computers in orthodontics –Classification sem1/sb/09-04


Miscellaneous
Storage of data

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


Miscellaneous
Storage of data

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


Miscellaneous
Storage of data

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


Miscellaneous
Storage of data

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


Miscellaneous
Storage of data

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


Miscellaneous
Storage of data

• Storage • Multiple sites


• Retrieval • Automatic
• Diagnostics • Backup
• Communication • Integration
• Convenience • Pricing

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


Miscellaneous
Storage of data

• Ease of Use
• GEODIGM CORP - emodels™ • Increased Efficiency
• Interdisciplinary Treatment
Planning
• Precision
• Savings
• Secure Online Storage
• Enhanced Revenues
• Improved Access
• Cost Effective Solution
• Speed

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


Hosting a web page
The History of HTML

Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1990

•Web hosting language


HTTP (hyper text transfer protocol)
HTML(hyper text markup language)
URL (universal resource locators)

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


Communication

Patient Perspective

• Searching Websites for specialists


• Net Appointments
• Net Consultation
• Net Counselling
• Inter Speciality Referencing
• VTP demo to patient
• Evidence Based Dentistry

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


Communication

Orthodontist’s Perspective

• Searching Websites for Information


• Medline, Pub med, NML…
• Net Discussion
• Net Conferencing
• Multispeciality Tele Surgery

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


Computer Program

Zerobase

Dr Sarver’s Edu Prog

CAL/PBL

CASMAS

COAST

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


Computer Program

• The ZeroBase computer program :


Dr Carl Gugino and Dr Ivan Dus - 3M Unitek
• Diagnosis
• Digital imaging
• Visual treatment planning
• Morphing (including long-range growth forecasting)
• Visual treatment charts
• Communication
• Patient education

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


Computer Education

• Dr. Sarver : Step-by-step procedures


necessary to create a PowerPoint
program designed to assist in patient
presentations

• Technical aspects of creating a


powerful presentation and well as the
marketing philosophy behind the
techniques

• Virtual private networks (VPN) which


will provide real-time access to patient
diagnostic and treatment data
Dr. Sarver

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


Computer-aided Learning (CAL)

• Package for teaching the Index of Orthodontic Treatment


Need (IOTN) dental students.

• CAL is effective in our setting it could be a valuable aid in


orthodontic teaching

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


CASMAS

Evaluation of skeletal maturation is important information for


treatment planning

A new system developed named “CASMAS” (Computer


Aided Skeletal Maturity Assessment System)

Automatically evaluate skeletal maturation

The mandibular growth prediction using bone age obtained by


CASMAS

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


COAST

• Dr Sunil Kapila

• Conduct Keynote Lectures

• Paper presentations

• Only on Orthodontic
Advances in Science and
Technology

Application of computers in orthodontics – Miscellaneous sem1/sb/09-04


Usage of Computers by PG’s and Staff at
SDMCDS

A Pilot Survey

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


STRUCTURE OF PRESENTATION

• Objective
• Method
• Sample Data
• Questionnaire
• Findings
• Classifying Hardware & Software
• Limitations
• Results and Implications

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


OBJECTIVE

• To assess the usage of computers among


Dentists (Staff & Students) at SDMCDS

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Sub Objectives

• The usage of computers is currently more for


information seeking and communication (emails)
• Knowledge of hardware
• Knowledge of software
• Extent of usage
• Importance of usage
• Perception of how user friendly the computer

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Method

• Target Audience
– Each respondent is an individual who is either a Faculty or PG Student at
SDMCDS

• Sample Size
– 53 Respondents from Orthodontics, Periodontics, Implantology and Pedodontic
departments were analyzed

• Methodology
– Structured Questionnaires were administered amongst the respondents

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


SAMPLE DATA

• Age
24 - 30 : 34
31- 39 : 9
Missing : 10
Total : 53

• Occupation
PG Students - BDS : 39
Faculty - MDS : 14
Total : 53

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


SAMPLE DATA

• All 53 respondents were using computers


and were literate on usage of computers.

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Department-wise Respondents

Department Frequency

Implant
• Implantology 1

Perio

• Orthodontics 30

Ortho • Pedodontics 8
Pedo

• Periodontics 14

• Total 53
FINDINGS
computer literate
Missing

Yes

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


FINDINGS
research

Missing

No

Yes

research
Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid No 29 54.7 55.8 55.8
Yes 23 43.4 44.2 100.0
Total 52 98.1 100.0
Missing System 1 1.9
Total 53 100.0

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


FINDINGS
seminar - prez
Missing

No

Yes

seminar - prez
Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid No 3 5.7 5.8 5.8
Yes 49 92.5 94.2 100.0
Total 52 98.1 100.0
Missing System 1 1.9
Total 53 100.0

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


FINDINGS
email
Missing

No

Yes

email
Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid No 2 3.8 3.8 3.8
Yes 50 94.3 96.2 100.0
Total 52 98.1 100.0
Missing System 1 1.9
Total 53 100.0

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


FINDINGS

information
Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid No 7 13.2 13.5 13.5
Yes 45 84.9 86.5 100.0
Total 52 98.1 100.0
Missing System 1 1.9
Total 53 100.0

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


FINDINGS
own computer
Missing

No

Yes

own computer
Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid No 9 17.0 17.3 17.3
Yes 43 81.1 82.7 100.0
Total 52 98.1 100.0
Missing System 1 1.9
Total 53 100.0
Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
FINDINGS
configuration
50

40

30

20

Frequency
10
Std. Dev = .42
Mean = .78

0 N = 50.00
0.00 .50 1.00

configuration

configuration
Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid No 11 20.8 22.0 22.0
Yes 39 73.6 78.0 100.0
Total 50 94.3 100.0
Missing System 3 5.7
Total 53 100.0

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Use of Computers for…

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation

email 52 0 1 .96 .19


seminar - prez 52 0 1 .94 .24
information 52 0 1 .87 .34
data storage 52 0 1 .79 .41
chat 52 0 1 .60 .50
research 52 0 1 .44 .50
graphic 52 0 1 .27 .45
net conferencing 52 0 1 .19 .40
hosting web page 52 0 1 .15 .36
CAD 52 0 1 7.69E-02 .27
CAM 52 0 0 .00 .00
Valid N (listwise) 52

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Use of Computers for…
Report
seminar - net hosting
NEWDEPT research graphic prez email chat conferencing information web page data storage CAD CAM
Ortho Mean .43 .33 1.00 .97 .77 .13 .90 .10 .83 .13 .00
N 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30
Std. Deviation .50 .48 .00 .18 .43 .35 .31 .31 .38 .35 .00
Sum 13 10 30 29 23 4 27 3 25 4 0
Minimum No No Yes No No No No No No No No
Maximum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
% of Total Sum 56.5% 71.4% 61.2% 58.0% 74.2% 40.0% 60.0% 37.5% 61.0% 100.0% .
Pedo Mean .88 .25 .75 1.00 .38 .38 .88 .13 .88 .00 .00
N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Std. Deviation .35 .46 .46 .00 .52 .52 .35 .35 .35 .00 .00
Sum 7 2 6 8 3 3 7 1 7 0 0
Minimum No No No Yes No No No No No No No
Maximum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
% of Total Sum 30.4% 14.3% 12.2% 16.0% 9.7% 30.0% 15.6% 12.5% 17.1% .0% .
Perio Mean .15 7.69E-02 .92 .92 .38 .23 .85 .31 .62 .00 .00
N 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13
Std. Deviation .38 .28 .28 .28 .51 .44 .38 .48 .51 .00 .00
Sum 2 1 12 12 5 3 11 4 8 0 0
Minimum No No No No No No No No No No No
Maximum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
% of Total Sum 8.7% 7.1% 24.5% 24.0% 16.1% 30.0% 24.4% 50.0% 19.5% .0% .
Implant Mean 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.00 .00 .00
N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Std. Deviation . . . . . . . . . . .
Sum 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Minimum Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No
Maximum Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No
% of Total Sum 4.3% 7.1% 2.0% 2.0% .0% .0% .0% .0% 2.4% .0% .
Total Mean .44 .27 .94 .96 .60 .19 .87 .15 .79 7.69E-02 .00
N 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52
Std. Deviation .50 .45 .24 .19 .50 .40 .34 .36 .41 .27 .00
Sum 23 14 49 50 31 10 45 8 41 4 0
Minimum No No No No No No No No No No No
Maximum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
% of Total Sum 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% .

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


HARDWARE
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
windows 50 0 1 .82 .39
key board 50 0 1 .82 .39
monitor 50 0 1 .82 .39
hard disk 50 0 1 .80 .40
processor 50 0 1 .80 .40
RAM 50 0 1 .78 .42
mouse 50 0 1 .78 .42
CD drive 50 0 1 .78 .42
floppy drive 50 0 1 .74 .44
memory stick 50 0 1 .26 .44
DOS 49 0 1 .18 .39
combo drive 50 0 1 .18 .39
others 49 0 1 .12 .33
linux 50 0 0 .00 .00
Valid N (listwise) 48

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Hardware
Report
NEWDEPT RAM processor hard disk floppy drive CD drive memory stick monitor mouse key board combo drive windows linux DOS others
Ortho Mean .86 .86 .83 .66 .76 .31 .79 .76 .79 .28 .76 .00 .14 .14
N 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 28 29
Std. Deviation .35 .35 .38 .48 .44 .47 .41 .44 .41 .45 .44 .00 .36 .35
Sum 25 25 24 19 22 9 23 22 23 8 22 0 4 4
Minimum No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Maximum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
% of Total Sum 64.1% 62.5% 60.0% 51.4% 56.4% 69.2% 56.1% 56.4% 56.1% 88.9% 53.7% . 44.4% 66.7%
Pedo Mean .57 .43 .57 .71 .71 .29 .57 .71 .71 .14 .71 .00 .14 .17
N 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6
Std. Deviation .53 .53 .53 .49 .49 .49 .53 .49 .49 .38 .49 .00 .38 .41
Sum 4 3 4 5 5 2 4 5 5 1 5 0 1 1
Minimum No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Maximum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
% of Total Sum 10.3% 7.5% 10.0% 13.5% 12.8% 15.4% 9.8% 12.8% 12.2% 11.1% 12.2% . 11.1% 16.7%
Perio Mean .69 .85 .85 .92 .85 .15 1.00 .85 .92 .00 1.00 .00 .31 7.69E-02
N 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13
Std. Deviation .48 .38 .38 .28 .38 .38 .00 .38 .28 .00 .00 .00 .48 .28
Sum 9 11 11 12 11 2 13 11 12 0 13 0 4 1
Minimum No No No No No No Yes No No No Yes No No No
Maximum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
% of Total Sum 23.1% 27.5% 27.5% 32.4% 28.2% 15.4% 31.7% 28.2% 29.3% .0% 31.7% . 44.4% 16.7%
Implant Mean 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 .00 1.00 1.00 1.00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 .00
N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Std. Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sum 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0
Minimum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Maximum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
% of Total Sum 2.6% 2.5% 2.5% 2.7% 2.6% .0% 2.4% 2.6% 2.4% .0% 2.4% . .0% .0%
Total Mean .78 .80 .80 .74 .78 .26 .82 .78 .82 .18 .82 .00 .18 .12
N 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 49 49
Std. Deviation .42 .40 .40 .44 .42 .44 .39 .42 .39 .39 .39 .00 .39 .33
Sum 39 40 40 37 39 13 41 39 41 9 41 0 9 6
Minimum No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Maximum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
% of Total Sum100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% . 100.0% 100.0%

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Software - Purpose
Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation


ppt 50 0 1 .96 .20
word 49 0 1 .92 .28
win amp 50 0 1 .68 .47
photoshop 50 0 2 .68 .51
others 15 0 3 .60 .83
corel draw 50 0 1 .52 .50
games 50 0 1 .48 .50
excel 50 0 1 .48 .50
flash 50 0 1 .46 .50
real player 50 0 1 .44 .50
acrobat 50 0 1 .42 .50
digicam 50 0 1 .38 .49
outlook 50 0 1 .34 .48
photo editor 49 0 1 .29 .46
frontpage 50 0 1 .20 .40
autocad 50 0 1 .16 .37
50 0 1 .12 .33

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Software - Purpose
Report
NEWDEPT word ppt access excel dos outlookfrontpage
netmeetngspss statistica lisrelanthropac
acrobat
photoshopflash win amp
publisher
real player
3d smax maya autocad
corel draw
photo editor
digicamgame
Ortho Mean .93 1.00 .10 .53 .13 .30 .27 .13
6.67E-02 .10
6.67E-023.33E-02 .50 .90 .60 .70 .17 .50 .13
6.67E-02 .27 .73 .34 .50 .57
N 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 29 30 30
Std. Deviation
.25 .00 .31 .51 .35 .47 .45 .35 .25 .31 .25 .18 .51 .40 .50 .47 .38 .51 .35 .25 .45 .45 .48 .51 .50
Sum 28 30 3 16 4 9 8 4 2 3 2 1 15 27 18 21 5 15 4 2 8 22 10 15 17
Minimum No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Maximum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
% of Total62.2%
Sum 62.5%100.0% 66.7% 80.0% 52.9% 80.0% 66.7%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 71.4% 79.4% 78.3% 61.8% 83.3% 68.2% 66.7%100.0%100.0% 84.6% 71.4% 78.9% 70.8%
Pedo Mean 1.00 1.00 .00 .63 .00 .38 .00 .25 .00 .00 .00 .00 .13 .25 .25 .75 .00 .38 .00 .00 .00 .13 .13 .13 .50
N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Std. Deviation
.00 .00 .00 .52 .00 .52 .00 .46 .00 .00 .00 .00 .35 .46 .46 .46 .00 .52 .00 .00 .00 .35 .35 .35 .53
Sum 8 8 0 5 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 6 0 3 0 0 0 1 1 1 4
Minimum Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Maximum Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
% of Total17.8%
Sum 16.7% .0% 20.8% .0% 17.6% .0% 33.3% .0% .0% .0% .0% 4.8% 5.9% 8.7% 17.6% .0% 13.6% .0% .0% .0% 3.8% 7.1% 5.3% 16.7%
Perio Mean .80 .82 .00 .18
9.09E-02 .36 .18 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .36 .36 .18 .55
9.09E-02 .27 .18 .00 .00 .18 .18 .27 .18
N 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11
Std. Deviation
.42 .40 .00 .40 .30 .50 .40 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .50 .50 .40 .52 .30 .47 .40 .00 .00 .40 .40 .47 .40
Sum 8 9 0 2 1 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 2 6 1 3 2 0 0 2 2 3 2
Minimum No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Maximum Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
% of Total17.8%
Sum 18.8% .0% 8.3% 20.0% 23.5% 20.0% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% 19.0% 11.8% 8.7% 17.6% 16.7% 13.6% 33.3% .0% .0% 7.7% 14.3% 15.8% 8.3%
Implant Mean 1.00 1.00 .00 1.00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 .00 1.00 .00 .00 .00 1.00 1.00 .00 1.00
N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Std. Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sum 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1
Minimum Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes
Maximum Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes No Yes
% of Total 2.2%
Sum 2.1% .0% 4.2% .0% 5.9% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% 4.8% 2.9% 4.3% 2.9% .0% 4.5% .0% .0% .0% 3.8% 7.1% .0% 4.2%
Total Mean .92 .96
6.00E-02 .48 .10 .34 .20 .12
4.00E-026.00E-024.00E-022.00E-02 .42 .68 .46 .68 .12 .44 .12
4.00E-02 .16 .52 .29 .38 .48
N 49 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 49 50 50
Std. Deviation
.28 .20 .24 .50 .30 .48 .40 .33 .20 .24 .20 .14 .50 .51 .50 .47 .33 .50 .33 .20 .37 .50 .46 .49 .50
Sum 45 48 3 24 5 17 10 6 2 3 2 1 21 34 23 34 6 22 6 2 8 26 14 19 24
Minimum No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Maximum Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
% of Total Sum
100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0%100.0% 100.0%100.0%100.0%

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Software – Extent of Usage
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
ppt 52 0 3 2.63 .77
word 52 0 3 2.44 .87
win amp 51 0 3 1.61 1.28
others 11 0 3 1.45 1.13
photoshop 48 0 3 1.44 1.05
games 49 0 3 1.41 1.15
real player 49 -2 3 .98 1.27
corel draw 47 -2 3 .96 1.32
acrobat 48 -2 3 .94 1.10
digicam 46 0 3 .85 1.23
photo editor 47 0 3 .70 1.14
excel 49 -2 3 .67 .88
flash 47 0 3 .53 .83
outlook 50 -1 3 .42 .81
netmeetng 49 -1 3 .33 .83
publisher 46 0 2 .17 .49
3d smax 46 0 2 .11 .43
dos 47 -1 2 8.51E-02 .41
autocad 46 -2 3 6.52E-02 .57
access 47 -2 2 6.38E-02 .48
frontpage 46 -1 1 4.35E-02 .29
anthropac 46 -2 1 -2.17E-02 .33
spss 46 -2 1 -2.17E-02 .33
maya 46 -2 0 -4.35E-02 .29
lisrel 46 -2 0 -4.35E-02 .29
statistica 46 -2 0 -4.35E-02 .29
Valid N (listwise) 9
Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04
Software – Extent of Usage
Report

NEWDEPT word ppt access excel dos outlookfrontpage netmeetng spss statistica lisrel anthropacacrobatphotoshop flash win amppublisherreal player3d smax maya autocadcorel draw photo editordigicam games
Ortho Mean 2.63 2.736.67E-02 .83 .13 .376.67E-02 .233.33E-02 .00 .003.33E-02 1.07 1.57 .60 1.47 .20 .973.33E-02 .00 .17 1.37 .77 .93 1.48
N 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 29
Std. Deviation .56 .64 .25 .83 .43 .72 .25 .68 .18 .00 .00 .18 1.01 .94 .86 1.38 .48 1.22 .18 .00 .59 1.30 1.19 1.28 1.12
Sum 79 82 2 25 4 11 2 7 1 0 0 1 32 47 18 44 6 29 1 0 5 41 23 28 43
Minimum limited
dont uusedont uuse
dont uusedont uuse
dont uusedont uuse
dont uusedont uusedont uuse
dont uusedont uusedont uuse
dont uusedont uusedont uusedont uuse
dont uusedont uusedont uusedont uusedont uusedont uusedont uuse dont u
use
Maximum extensiveextensivelimited extensivemoderatemoderatelimited extensivelimited limited extensiveextensiveextensiveextensivemoderateextensivelimited extensiveextensiveextensive extensiveextens
dont uuse
dont uuse dont uuse
use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use
% of Total Sum
62.2% 59.9% 66.7% 75.8% 100.0% 52.4% 100.0% 43.8% . . . . 71.1% 68.1% 72.0% 53.7% 75.0% 60.4% 20.0% . 166.7% 91.1% 69.7% 71.8% 62.3%
Pedo Mean 2.63 2.63 .25 1.00 .00 .67 .00 1.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.00 .75 .25 2.43 .00 1.80 .00 .00 .00 .67 1.00 1.00 1.83
N 8 8 4 5 4 6 3 6 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 7 3 5 3 3 3 3 3 3 6
Std. Deviation .52 .52 .50 .71 .00 .82 .00 1.26 .00 .00 .00 .00 1.15 1.50 .50 .53 .00 1.30 .00 .00 .00 1.15 1.73 1.73 1.47
Sum 21 21 1 5 0 4 0 6 0 0 0 0 4 3 1 17 0 9 0 0 0 2 3 3 11
Minimum moderatemoderate moderate
dont uuse
dont uusedont uuse
dont uusedont uuse
dont uusedont uusedont uuse
dont uusedont uusedont uuse
dont uusedont uuse dont uuse
dont uusedont uusedont uusedont uusedont uusedont uusedont uuse dont u
use use use
Maximum extensiveextensivelimited moderate moderate extensive moderateextensivelimited extensive extensive moderateextensive extensiveextens
dont uuse dont uuse dont uuse
dont uuse
dont uusedont uuse dont uuse dont uuse
dont uusedont uuse
use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use
% of Total Sum
16.5% 15.3% 33.3% 15.2% .0% 19.0% .0% 37.5% . . . . 8.9% 4.3% 4.0% 20.7% .0% 18.8% .0% . .0% 4.4% 9.1% 7.7% 15.9%
Perio Mean 1.85 2.38 .00 .15
-1.28E-17 .31
-1.17E-17 .23 -.15 -.15 -.15 -.15 .54 1.31 .46 1.38 .15 .54 .31 -.15 -.157.69E-02 .46 .62 .92
N 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13
Std. Deviation 1.34 1.12 .82 .90 .41 .95 .41 .83 .55 .55 .55 .55 1.27 1.18 .88 1.19 .55 1.20 .75 .55 .55 1.04 .97 1.04 .95
Sum 24 31 0 2 0 4 0 3 -2 -2 -2 -2 7 17 6 18 2 7 4 -2 -2 1 6 8 12
Minimum
dont uuse
dont uuse -2 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 dont uusedont uuse dont uusedont uuse -2 dont uuse -2 -2 -2 dont uusedont uuse dont u

Maximum extensiveextensivemoderatemoderatelimited extensivelimited moderate extensiveextensivemoderateextensivemoderateextensivemoderate extensiveextensive extensiveextens


dont uusedont uusedont uusedont uuse dont uusedont uuse
use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use
% of Total Sum
18.9% 22.6% .0% 6.1% .0% 19.0% .0% 18.8% . . . . 15.6% 24.6% 24.0% 22.0% 25.0% 14.6% 80.0% . -66.7% 2.2% 18.2% 20.5% 17.4%
Implant Mean 3.00 3.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 1.00 1.00 3.00
N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Std. Deviation . . . . . . . . . .
Sum 3 3 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 1 3
Minimum extensiveextensive limited moderate moderatemoderate extensive extensive limited extens
limited use
use use use use use use use use use use
Maximum extensiveextensive limited moderate moderatemoderate extensive extensive limited extens
limited use
use use use use use use use use use use
% of Total Sum2.4% 2.2% 3.0% 9.5% 4.4% 2.9% 3.7% 6.3% 2.2% 3.0% 4.3%
Total Mean 2.44 2.636.38E-02 .678.51E-02 .424.35E-02 .33
-2.17E-02-4.35E-02-4.35E-02-2.17E-02 .94 1.44 .53 1.61 .17 .98 .11
-4.35E-026.52E-02 .96 .70 .85 1.41
N 52 52 47 49 47 50 46 49 46 46 46 46 48 48 47 51 46 49 46 46 46 47 47 46 49
Std. Deviation .87 .77 .48 .88 .41 .81 .29 .83 .33 .29 .29 .33 1.10 1.05 .83 1.28 .49 1.27 .43 .29 .57 1.32 1.14 1.23 1.15
Sum 127 137 3 33 4 21 2 16 -1 -2 -2 -1 45 69 25 82 8 48 5 -2 3 45 33 39 69
Minimum
dont uusedont uuse -2 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -2 -2 -2 -2 dont uusedont uuse
dont uuse
dont uuse -2 dont uuse -2 -2 -2 dont uusedont uuse
dont u

Maximum extensiveextensivemoderateextensivemoderateextensivelimited extensivelimited limited extensiveextensiveextensiveextensivemoderateextensivemoderate extensiveextensiveextensive extensiveextens


dont uuse
dont uuse dont uuse
use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use use
% of Total Sum
100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% . . . . 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% . 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Software – Importance
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
ppt 48 0 2 1.92 .40
word 48 0 2 1.87 .44
win amp 47 0 2 1.23 .89
photoshop 47 -2 2 1.00 .96
corel draw 47 -1 2 .94 .92
games 47 -1 2 .74 .94
digicam 46 -2 2 .70 1.05
acrobat 47 -2 2 .66 1.03
flash 47 -2 2 .64 .85
others 11 0 2 .64 .81
excel 46 -2 2 .59 .91
real player 47 -2 2 .55 .97
photo editor 45 -2 2 .47 .89
outlook 45 -2 2 .16 .82
frontpage 45 -2 2 .11 .61
publisher 45 -2 2 .11 .80
netmeetng 45 -2 2 .11 .86
dos 45 -2 2 8.89E-02 .63
access 45 -2 2 2.22E-02 .66
autocad 45 -2 2 -2.22E-02 .78
spss 45 -2 2 -6.67E-02 .62
anthropac 45 -2 1 -.11 .57
statistica 45 -2 1 -.11 .57
3d smax 45 -2 1 -.11 .49
maya 45 -2 1 -.13 .50
lisrel 45 -2 1 -.13 .55
Valid N (listwise) 11

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Software – Importance
Report
NEWDEPT word ppt access excel dos outlook frontpagenetmeetng spss statistica lisrel anthropac acrobat photoshop flash win amp publisherreal player3d smax maya autocad corel drawphoto editor digicam games
Ortho Mean 1.93 2.00 .11 .76 .14 .11 .18 .18-3.57E-02 1.04E-17-3.57E-02-3.57E-02 .80 1.20 .77 1.30 .25 .50 -.18 -.11 .11 1.20 .54 .86 .77
N 30 30 28 29 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 30 30 30 30 28 30 28 28 28 30 28 28 30
Std. Deviation .25 .00 .63 .79 .59 .63 .48 .77 .51 .54 .51 .58 1.03 .81 .86 .92 .80 1.01 .55 .50 .88 .89 .96 .97 .94
Sum 58 60 3 22 4 3 5 5 -1 0 -1 -1 24 36 23 39 7 15 -5 -3 3 36 15 24 23
Minimum somewha
very not not not not at all not not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not
t 0 0 0 0
important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important import
important
Maximum somewhasomewha somewhasomewhasomewhasomewha somewhasomewha
very very very very very very very very very very very very very very very very very
t t t t t t t t
important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important import
important important important important important important important important
% of Total Sum 64.4% 65.2% 300.0% 81.5% 100.0% 42.9% 100.0% 100.0% . . . . 77.4% 76.6% 76.7% 67.2% 140.0% 57.7% . . . 81.8% 71.4% 75.0% 65.7%
Pedo Mean 2.00 2.00 -.25 .13 -.38 .13 -.38 .25 -.38 -.38 -.38 -.38 -.13 4.86E-17 .13 1.13 -.38 .63 .13 -.38 -.38 .50 .13 .38 .88
N 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8
Std. Deviation .00 .00 .89 1.36 .74 1.25 .74 1.39 .74 .74 .74 .74 .83 .93 .64 .83 .74 .74 .35 .74 .74 .76 .83 1.30 .83
Sum 16 16 -2 1 -3 1 -3 2 -3 -3 -3 -3 -1 0 1 9 -3 5 1 -3 -3 4 1 3 7
Minimum very very not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not not at all not at all not at all not not at all
0 0 0 0 0
important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important
Maximum somewha somewha somewha somewha
very very very very very somewhat very very very very very very
t 0 0 0 0 0 0 t t 0 t 0 0
important important important important important important important important important important important import
important important important important
% of Total Sum 17.8% 17.4% -200.0% 3.7% -75.0% 14.3% -60.0% 40.0% . . . . -3.2% .0% 3.3% 15.5% -60.0% 19.2% . . . 9.1% 4.8% 9.4% 20.0%
Perio Mean 1.56 1.56 2.43E-17 .38 .38 .13 .38 -.25 .13 -.25 -.25 -.13 .75 1.25 .63 1.00 .13 .50 -.13 .00 -.13 .38 .50 .56 .38
N 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 8
Std. Deviation .88 .88 .53 .74 .52 .83 .74 .46 .83 .46 .46 .35 .89 1.04 .92 .93 .83 1.07 .35 .00 .35 .92 .76 1.13 1.06
Sum 14 14 0 3 3 1 3 -2 1 -2 -2 -1 6 10 5 8 1 4 -1 0 -1 3 4 5 3
Minimum not not not not not not not not not not not not not not
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
important important important important important important important important important important important important important import
Maximum somewha somewha
very very very very very very very very very very very very very very very very
t t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important import
important important
% of Total Sum 15.6% 15.2% .0% 11.1% 75.0% 14.3% 60.0% -40.0% . . . . 19.4% 21.3% 16.7% 13.8% 20.0% 15.4% . . . 6.8% 19.0% 15.6% 8.6%
Implant Mean 2.00 2.00 .00 1.00 .00 2.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 2.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 .00 2.00 .00 .00 .00 1.00 1.00 .00 2.00
N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Std. Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sum 2 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 2
Minimum somewha somewha
very very very very somewhat very very somewhatsomewhat very
0 t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 t 0 0 0 0 0
important important important important important important important important important import
important important
Maximum somewha somewha
very very very very somewhat very very somewhatsomewhat very
0 t 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 t 0 0 0 0 0
important important important important important important important important important import
important important
% of Total Sum2.2% 2.2% .0% 3.7% .0% 28.6% .0% .0% . . . . 6.5% 2.1% 3.3% 3.4% .0% 7.7% . . . 2.3% 4.8% .0% 5.7%
Total Mean 1.87 1.92 2.22E-02 .59 8.89E-02 .16 .11 .11-6.67E-02 -.11 -.13 -.11 .66 1.00 .64 1.23 .11 .55 -.11 -.13-2.22E-02 .94 .47 .70 .74
N 48 48 45 46 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 47 47 47 47 45 47 45 45 45 47 45 46 47
Std. Deviation .44 .40 .66 .91 .63 .82 .61 .86 .62 .57 .55 .57 1.03 .96 .85 .89 .80 .97 .49 .50 .78 .92 .89 1.05 .94
Sum 90 92 1 27 4 7 5 5 -3 -5 -6 -5 31 47 30 58 5 26 -5 -6 -1 44 21 32 35
Minimum not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not at all not not at all not at all not
0 0 0
important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important import
Maximum somewhasomewhasomewha somewhasomewha
very very very very very very very very very very very very very very very very very very very very
t t t t t
important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important important import
important important important important important
% of Total Sum
100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% . . . . 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% . . . 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Software – User friendly
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
word 44 2 3 2.86 .35
ppt 44 1 3 2.75 .49
games 37 -1 3 2.05 1.37
win amp 39 -1 3 1.92 1.46
photoshop 37 0 3 1.78 1.06
acrobat 36 0 3 1.75 1.30
digicam 35 -1 3 1.46 1.52
others 7 0 3 1.43 1.40
corel draw 34 0 3 1.24 1.28
real player 34 -1 3 1.21 1.43
excel 35 -1 3 1.20 1.16
photo editor 32 0 3 1.19 1.33
outlook 30 -1 3 .97 1.33
flash 34 -1 3 .74 1.02
netmeetng 29 -1 3 .72 1.13
frontpage 28 -1 3 .57 1.10
autocad 28 0 3 .43 .84
access 27 -1 3 .41 .89
dos 28 -1 3 .32 .77
publisher 29 -1 3 .28 .88
spss 26 -1 2 .12 .52
3d smax 28 -1 1 7.14E-02 .38
lisrel 26 -1 1 3.85E-02 .34
maya 27 -1 1 3.70E-02 .34
statistica 27 -1 1 3.70E-02 .34
anthropac 26 -1 1 .00 .28
Valid N (listwise) 4

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Software – User friendly
Report

NEWDEPT word ppt access excel dos outlook frontpage netmeetng spss statistica lisrel anthropac acrobat photoshop flash win amp publisher real player 3d smax maya autocad corel drawphoto editor digicam games
Ortho Mean 2.86 2.82 .12 1.00 .16 .65 .47 .74 5.88E-02 .00 .00 -5.56E-02 1.76 1.72 .57 1.81 .20 1.00 5.26E-02 .00 .53 1.33 1.09 1.42 2.09
N 28 28 17 22 19 17 19 19 17 18 18 18 25 25 23 26 20 22 19 18 19 24 22 24 22
Std. Deviation .36 .48 .60 1.20 .60 1.27 1.12 1.28 .56 .34 .34 .24 1.27 .98 .95 1.55 .83 1.48 .40 .34 .96 1.27 1.34 1.56 1.44
Sum 80 79 2 22 3 11 9 14 1 0 0 -1 44 43 13 47 4 22 1 0 10 32 24 34 46
Minimum moderate limited
not user not user not user not user not user
user user -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly
friendly friendly
Maximum extremely extremely moderate extremely moderate extremely extremely extremely moderate limited limited extremely extremely extremely extremely extremely extremely limited limited
extremely extremely extremely extremely extrem
not user
user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user useruser user user user
friendly
friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly
friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly
% of Total Sum 63.5% 65.3% 18.2% 52.4% 33.3% 37.9% 56.2% 66.7% 33.3% .0% .0% . 69.8% 65.2% 52.0% 62.7% 50.0% 53.7% 50.0% 83.3% .0%
76.2% 63.2% 66.7% 60.5%
Pedo Mean 2.88 2.50 1.33 1.60 .50 1.80 .50 .67 .50 .50 .50 .50 2.00 1.50 1.00 2.20 .50 1.75 .50 .50 .50
1.00 2.50 2.75 2.29
N 8 8 3 5 2 5 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 4 3 5 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 7
Std. Deviation .35 .53 1.53 1.14 .71 1.30 .71 .58 .71 .71 .71 .71 1.73 1.00 1.00 1.30 .71 1.26 .71 .71 .71
1.41 .71 .50 1.11
Sum 23 20 4 8 1 9 1 2 1 1 1 1 6 6 3 11 1 7 1 1 1 2 5 11 16
Minimum moderate moderate moderate moderate
not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not use
user user user user
friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly
friendly friendly friendly friendly
Maximum extremely extremely extremely extremely limited extremely limited limited limited limited limited limited extremely moderate moderate extremely limited extremely limited limited limited moderate extremely extremely extrem
user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user
friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly
% of Total Sum 18.3% 16.5% 36.4% 19.0% 11.1% 31.0% 6.2% 9.5% 33.3% 100.0% 100.0% . 9.5% 9.1% 12.0% 14.7% 12.5% 17.1% 50.0% 100.0% 8.3% 4.8% 13.2% 21.6% 21.1%
Perio Mean 2.86 2.71 .71 1.57 .71 .86 .86 .71 .14 .00 .00 .00 1.57 2.14 1.00 2.00 .43 1.29 .00 .00 .14 .86 1.00 .86 1.57
N 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7
Std. Deviation .38 .49 .95 1.13 1.11 1.21 1.21 .95 .38 .00 .00 .00 1.51 1.46 1.29 1.41 1.13 1.38 .00 .00 .38 1.46 1.41 1.46 1.51
Sum 20 19 5 11 5 6 6 5 1 0 0 0 11 15 7 14 3 9 0 0 1 6 7 6 11
Minimum moderate moderate
not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not user not use
user user
friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly
friendly friendly
Maximum extremely extremely moderate extremely extremely extremely extremely moderate limited extremely extremely extremely extremely extremely extremely limited extremely extremely extremely extrem
not user not user not user not user not user
user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user
friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly
friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly
% of Total Sum 15.9% 15.7% 45.5% 26.2% 55.6% 20.7% 37.5% 23.8% 33.3% .0% .0% . 17.5% 22.7% 28.0% 18.7% 37.5% 22.0% .0% .0% 8.3% 14.3% 18.4% 11.8% 14.5%
Implant Mean 3.00 3.00 1.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 3.00
N 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Std. Deviation . . . . . . . . . . .
Sum 3 3 1 3 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 3
Minimum extremely extremely limited extremely moderate moderate moderate extremely extremely moderate moderate extrem
user user user user user user user user user user user user
friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly
Maximum extremely extremely limited extremely moderate moderate moderate extremely extremely moderate moderate extrem
user user user user user user user user user user user user
friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly
% of Total Sum 2.4% 2.5% 2.4% 10.3% 3.2% 3.0% 8.0% 4.0% 7.3% 4.8% 5.3% 3.9%
Total Mean 2.86 2.75 .41 1.20 .32 .97 .57 .72 .12 3.70E-02 3.85E-02 .00 1.75 1.78 .74 1.92 .28 1.21 7.14E-02 3.70E-02 .43 1.24 1.19 1.46 2.05
N 44 44 27 35 28 30 28 29 26 27 26 26 36 37 34 39 29 34 28 27 28 34 32 35 37
Std. Deviation .35 .49 .89 1.16 .77 1.33 1.10 1.13 .52 .34 .34 .28 1.30 1.06 1.02 1.46 .88 1.43 .38 .34 .84 1.28 1.33 1.52 1.37
Sum 126 121 11 42 9 29 16 21 3 1 1 0 63 66 25 75 8 41 2 1 12 42 38 51 76
Minimum moderate limited
not user not user not user not user not user
user user -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly
friendly friendly
Maximum extremely extremely extremely extremely extremely extremely extremely extremely moderate limited limited limited extremely extremely extremely extremely extremely extremely limited limited extremely extremely extremely extremely extrem
user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user user
friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly friendly
% of Total Sum100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% . 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Understanding
Hardware and Software
• Basics of Hardware
• Standard Software for regular usage
(communication, documents and presentations)
• Standard Software for programming better
(accuracy, precision and digitized) Orthodontics
• Standard Software for advanced data analysis

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Classification of Software
•SOFTWARE FOR REGULAR USAGE

• Microsoft Word • MS DOS


• Microsoft Power point • Microsoft Outlook
• Microsoft Access • Microsoft Frontpage
• Microsoft Excel • Net Meeting

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Classification of Software

ENTERTAINMENT

• Win amp
• Real player
• Juke Box
• Windows Media Player
• Games

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Classification of Software
ADVANCED USAGE

• Adobe Acrobat Reader • 3d smax


• Flash • Maya
• Corel draw • AutoCAD
• MS Photo editor • WinZip
• Adobe Photoshop • Digicam Software
• Microsoft publisher • Nero Express
• Anti Virus Norton, Sophos… • MSC Nastran, Patran

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Classification of Software

• SOFTWARE FOR ADVANCED DATA ANALYSIS

•SPSS
•Statistica
•LISREL
•Anthropac

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows®) &
Statistica

• These software are used to analyze quantitative data.


They have an advantage over Microsoft excel in
performing advanced data analysis

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Analyzing data with SPSS

All we have to do is:


• Get our data into SPSS. We can open a previously saved SPSS data file; read
a spreadsheet, database, or text data file; or enter your data directly in the
Data Editor.

• Select a procedure from the menus to calculate statistics or to create a chart.

• Select the variables for the analysis. The variables in the data file are
displayed in a dialog box for the procedure.

• Run the procedure and look at the results. Results are displayed in the
Viewer.

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


LISREL

• LISREL is used to analyze abstract variables - their


path of occurance.

• Primarily intended for Structural Equation

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Anthropac

• This is a software that is used to analyze bulk


qualitative data in word documents

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


LIMITATIONS

• The questionnaire had some jargons which were not


comprehended rightly by the respondents – This has
resulted in the output with lower awareness of
certain software and program’s though in reality it
might not be so.

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Sub Objectives - Results

• The usage of computers is currently more for


information seeking and communication (emails) –
accepted
• Knowledge of hardware – Average
• Knowledge of software - Low
• Extent of usage – Very low
• Importance of usage - High
• Perception of how user friendly the computer - High

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


RESULTS and IMPLICATIONS

• From the information available (applications of


computers in Orthodontics)– we find that we have
immense potential of producing low cost, efficient
and accurate work using computers.

• This survey indicates that there is a need to create


awareness of some of the software and
institutionalize the same to be in the forefront in
usage of computers in Dentistry

Application of computers in orthodontics – Survey sem1/sb/09-04


Bibliography

1. William R. Proffit, Henry W. Fields, Contemporary Orthodontics,


Third Edition,2000 - Mosby
2. Leslie. G. Farkas, Anthropometry of the Head and Face, Second
Edition,1994 – Raven press New York
3. Gurukeerat Singh, Text Book of Orthodontics, First Edition, 2004 –
Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi
4. William R. Proffit, Raymond P. White Jr, David M. Sarver,
Contemporary Treatment in Orthodontics, 2003 – Mosby
5. Athanasios E. Athanasiou, Orthodontic Cephalometry,1995 –
Mosby-Wolfe

Application of computers in orthodontics sem1/sb/09-04


Bibliography

6. Alexander Jacobson, Radiographic Cephalometry-From Basics to


Video imaging,1995 – Quintessence Publishing Co,Inc
7. CHIP – Sept 2004, Vol 1, Issue 11
8. Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopaedia
9. Computers in Orthodontics - Seminar presented by Dr Siju M.
George, Dept of Orthodontics, SDMCDS

Application of computers in orthodontics sem1/sb/09-04


Bibliography

10. Karnataka State Dental Journal -Promise of Molecular


Nanotechnology, Sahil Narula. Vol 23,No 2, May2004 Pg48-52

11. AJO - Manual and computer-aided space analysis: a


comparative study Schirmer UR, Wiltshire WA. , Am J Orthod
Dentofacial Orthop. 1997 Dec;112(6):676-80
-OrthoCAD Bracket Placement Solution W. R. Redmond et
al, AJO/DO, May 2004
-Comparison of measurements made on digital and plaster
models M. Santoro et al, AJO/DO July 2003

Application of computers in orthodontics sem1/sb/09-04


Bibliography

12. JCO -The Wave Spring, Vogt W, J Clin Orthod. 2004


May ; 38(5): 288-91
-The Butterfly System, Bowman SJ, Carano A
J Clin Orthod. 2004 May ; 38(5): 274-87
-The Cutting Edge - Age Old Questions W. R.
Redmond, JCO, Feb. 2004

Application of computers in orthodontics sem1/sb/09-04


Bibliography

13. Websites
www.google search.com\
www.msnsearch.com\
www.orthocad.com\
www.geodigm.com\
www.ormco.com\

Application of computers in orthodontics sem1/sb/09-04