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15

DYNAMICS

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Kinematics of

Lecture Notes:

Rigid Bodies

J. Walt Oler

Texas Tech University

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Contents

Introduction Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane

Translation Motion

Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Velocity Analysis of Plane Motion in Terms of a

Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Acceleration Parameter

Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Sample Problem 15.6

Representative Slab Sample Problem 15.7

Equations Defining the Rotation of a Rigid Sample Problem 15.8

Body About a Fixed Axis Rate of Change With Respect to a Rotating

Sample Problem 5.1 Frame

General Plane Motion Coriolis Acceleration

Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Sample Problem 15.9

Motion Sample Problem 15.10

Sample Problem 15.2 Motion About a Fixed Point

Sample Problem 15.3 General Motion

Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Plane Sample Problem 15.11

Motion Three Dimensional Motion. Coriolis

Sample Problem 15.4 Acceleration

Sample Problem 15.5 Frame of Reference in General Motion

Sample Problem 15.15

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 2

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Introduction

• Kinematics of rigid bodies: relations between

time and the positions, velocities, and

accelerations of the particles forming a rigid

body.

• Classification of rigid body motions:

- translation:

• rectilinear translation

• curvilinear translation

- rotation about a fixed axis

- general plane motion

- motion about a fixed point

- general motion

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Translation

• Consider rigid body in translation:

- direction of any straight line inside the

body is constant,

- all particles forming the body move in

parallel lines.

• For any two particles in the body,

r r r

rB = rA + rB A

• Differentiating with respect to time,

r r r r

r&B = r&A + r&B A = r&A

r r

vB = v A

All particles have the same velocity.

• Differentiating with respect to time again,

&rr&B = &rr&A + &rr&B A = &rr&A

r r

aB = a A

All particles have the same acceleration.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 4

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Rotation About a Fixed Axis. Velocity

• Consider rotation of rigid body about a

fixed axis AA’

r r

• Velocity vector v = dr dt of the particle P is

tangent to the path with magnitude v = ds dt

∆s = ( BP )∆θ = (r sin φ )∆θ

ds ∆θ

v= = lim (r sin φ ) = rθ& sin φ

dt ∆t →0 ∆t

r

r dr r r

v= =ω ×r

dt

r r r

&

ω = ω k = θ k = angular velocity

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Rotation About a Fixed Axis. Acceleration

• Differentiating to determine the acceleration,

r

r dv d v r

a= = (ω × r )

dt dt

r r

dω r r dr

= ×r +ω ×

dt dt

r

dω r r r

= ×r +ω ×v

dt

r

dω r

• = α = angular acceleration

dt

r r r

&&

= α k = ω& k = θ k

vectors,

r r r r r r

a = α × r + ω ×ω × r

r r

α × r = tangential acceleration component

r r r

ω × ω × r = radial acceleration component

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 6

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Rotation About a Fixed Axis. Representative Slab

• Consider the motion of a representative slab in

a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

r r r r r

v = ω × r = ωk × r

v = rω

r r r r r r

a = α × r + ω ×ω × r

r r r

= α k × r − ω 2r

normal components,

r r r

at = αk × r a t = rα

r r

an = −ω 2 r a n = rω 2

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 7

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Equations Defining the Rotation of a Rigid Body

About a Fixed Axis

• Motion of a rigid body rotating around a fixed axis is

often specified by the type of angular acceleration.

dθ dθ

• Recall ω = or dt =

dt ω

dω d 2θ dω

α= = 2 =ω

dt dt dθ

• Uniform Rotation, α = 0:

θ = θ 0 + ωt

ω = ω0 + αt

θ = θ 0 + ω 0t + 12 α t 2

ω 2 = ω 02 + 2α (θ − θ 0 )

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 8

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 5.1

SOLUTION:

• Due to the action of the cable, the

tangential velocity and acceleration of

D are equal to the velocity and

acceleration of C. Calculate the initial

angular velocity and acceleration.

• Apply the relations for uniformly

accelerated rotation to determine the

velocity and angular position of the

Cable C has a constant acceleration of 9

pulley after 2 s.

in/s2 and an initial velocity of 12 in/s,

both directed to the right. • Evaluate the initial tangential and

normal acceleration components of D.

Determine (a) the number of revolutions

of the pulley in 2 s, (b) the velocity and

change in position of the load B after 2 s,

and (c) the acceleration of the point D on

the rim of the inner pulley at t = 0.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 9

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 5.1

SOLUTION:

• The tangential velocity and acceleration of D are equal to the

velocity and acceleration of C.

r r

r r

(v ) = (v ) = 12 in. s →

D 0 C 0

(a )

D t = aC = 9 in. s →

(vD )0 (aD )t 9

ω0 =

12

= = 4 rad s α= = = 3 rad s 2

r 3 r 3

• Apply the relations for uniformly accelerated rotation to

determine velocity and angular position of pulley after 2 s.

( )

ω = ω 0 + αt = 4 rad s + 3 rad s 2 (2 s ) = 10 rad s

( )

θ = ω 0t + 12 αt 2 = (4 rad s )(2 s ) + 12 3 rad s 2 (2 s )2

= 14 rad

⎛ 1 rev ⎞

N = (14 rad )⎜ ⎟ = number of revs N = 2.23 rev

⎝ 2π rad ⎠

r

vB = rω = (5 in.)(10 rad s ) vB = 50 in. s ↑

∆y B = rθ = (5 in.)(14 rad ) ∆y B = 70 in.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 10

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 5.1

• Evaluate the initial tangential and normal acceleration

components of D.

(arD )t = arC = 9 in. s →

(aD )n = rDω02 = (3 in.)(4 rad s )2 = 48 in s2

= 92 + 482 aD = 48.8 in. s 2

(aD )n

tan φ =

(aD )t

48

=

9 φ = 79.4°

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

General Plane Motion

a rotation.

• General plane motion can be considered as the

sum of a translation and rotation.

• Displacement of particles A and B to A2 and B2

can be divided into two parts:

- translation to A2 and B1′

- rotation of B1′ about A2 to B2

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 12

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion

arbitrary reference point A and a simultaneous rotation

about A.

r r r

vB = v A + vB A

r r r

v B A = ω k × rB A v B A = rω

r r r r

v B = v A + ω k × rB A

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion

velocity vB of end B and the angular velocity ω in terms of vA, l, and θ.

• The direction of vB and vB/A are known. Complete the velocity diagram.

vB vA vA

= tan θ = = cosθ

vA v B A lω

v B = v A tan θ vA

ω=

l cosθ

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 14

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion

• Selecting point B as the reference point and solving for the velocity vA of end A

and the angular velocity ω leads to an equivalent velocity triangle.

• vA/B has the same magnitude but opposite sense of vB/A. The sense of the

relative velocity is dependent on the choice of reference point.

• Angular velocity ω of the rod in its rotation about B is the same as its rotation

about A. Angular velocity is not dependent on the choice of reference point.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 15

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.2

SOLUTION:

• The displacement of the gear center in

one revolution is equal to the outer

circumference. Relate the translational

and angular displacements. Differentiate

to relate the translational and angular

velocities.

• The velocity for any point P on the gear

The double gear rolls on the may be written as

stationary lower rack: the velocity of r r r r r r

vP = v A + vP A = v A + ωk × rP A

its center is 1.2 m/s.

Determine (a) the angular velocity of Evaluate the velocities of points B and D.

the gear, and (b) the velocities of the

upper rack R and point D of the gear.

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.2

SOLUTION:

• The displacement of the gear center in one revolution is

equal to the outer circumference.

For xA > 0 (moves to right), ω < 0 (rotates clockwise).

xA θ

=− x A = − r1θ

2π r 2π

y

Differentiate to relate the translational and angular

velocities.

x

v A = − r1ω

vA 1.2 m s r r r

ω =− =− ω = ωk = −(8 rad s )k

r1 0.150 m

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.2

r r r r r r

• For any point P on the gear, vP = v A + vP A = v A + ωk × rP A

velocity of point B:

r r r r r r r r r

vR = vB = v A + ωk × rB A vD = v A + ωk × rD A

r r r r r r

= (1.2 m s )i + (8 rad s )k × (0.10 m ) j = (1.2 m s )i + (8 rad s )k × (− 0.150 m )i

r r

= (1.2 m s )i + (0.8 m s )i

r r r r r

vR = (2 m s )i vD = (1.2 m s )i + (1.2 m s ) j

vD = 1.697 m s

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.3

SOLUTION:

• Will determine the absolute velocity of

point D with

r r r

vD = vB + vD B

r

• The velocity v B is obtained from the

given crank rotation data.

r

The crank AB has a constant clockwise • The directions of the absolute velocity v D

r

angular velocity of 2000 rpm. and the relative velocity v D B are

determined from the problem geometry.

For the crank position indicated,

determine (a) the angular velocity of • The unknowns in the vector expression

the connecting rod BD, and (b) the are the velocity magnitudes v D and v D B

velocity of the piston P. which may be determined from the

corresponding vector triangle.

• The angular velocity of the connecting

rod is calculated from v D B .

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 19

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.3

SOLUTION:

• Will determine the absolute velocity of point D with

r r r

vD = vB + vD B

r

• The velocity vB is obtained from the crank rotation data.

rev ⎞⎛ min ⎞⎛ 2π rad ⎞

ω AB = ⎛⎜ 2000 ⎟⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎜ ⎟ = 209.4 rad s

⎝ min ⎠⎝ 60 s ⎠⎝ rev ⎠

vB = ( AB )ω AB = (3 in.)(209.4 rad s )

The velocity direction is as shown.

r

• The direction of the absolute velocity vD is horizontal.

r

The direction of the relative velocity vD B is

perpendicular to BD. Compute the angle between the

horizontal and the connecting rod from the law of sines.

sin 40° sin β

= β = 13.95°

8 in. 3 in.

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.3

from the vector triangle.

vD vD B 628.3 in. s

= =

sin 53.95° sin 50° sin76.05°

vD B = 495.9 in. s

r r r vD B = lω BD

vD = vB + vD B vD B 495.9 in. s

ω BD = =

l 8 in. r

r

= 62.0 rad s ω BD = (62.0 rad s )k

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Plane Motion

• Plane motion of all particles in a slab can always be

replaced by the translation of an arbitrary point A and a

rotation about A with an angular velocity that is

independent of the choice of A.

obtained by allowing the slab to rotate with the same

angular velocity about the point C on a perpendicular to

the velocity at A.

• The velocity of all other particles in the slab are the same

as originally defined since the angular velocity and

translational velocity at A are equivalent.

rotate about the instantaneous center of rotation C.

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Plane Motion

• If the velocity at two points A and B are known, the

instantaneous center of rotation lies at the intersection

of the perpendiculars to the velocity vectors through A

and B .

center of rotation is at infinity and the angular velocity

is zero.

the line AB, the instantaneous center of rotation lies at

the intersection of the line AB with the line joining the

extremities of the velocity vectors at A and B.

center of rotation is at infinity and the angular velocity

is zero.

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Plane Motion

• The instantaneous center of rotation lies at the intersection of

the perpendiculars to the velocity vectors through A and B .

v v v

ω= A = A v B = ( BC )ω = (l sin θ ) A

AC l cosθ l cosθ

= v A tan θ

rotated about C.

• The particle at the center of rotation has zero velocity.

• The particle coinciding with the center of rotation changes

with time and the acceleration of the particle at the

instantaneous center of rotation is not zero.

• The acceleration of the particles in the slab cannot be

determined as if the slab were simply rotating about C.

• The trace of the locus of the center of rotation on the body

is the body centrode and in space is the space centrode.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 24

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.4

SOLUTION:

• The point C is in contact with the stationary

lower rack and, instantaneously, has zero

velocity. It must be the location of the

instantaneous center of rotation.

• Determine the angular velocity about C

based on the given velocity at A.

• Evaluate the velocities at B and D based on

The double gear rolls on the their rotation about C.

stationary lower rack: the velocity

of its center is 1.2 m/s.

Determine (a) the angular velocity

of the gear, and (b) the velocities of

the upper rack R and point D of the

gear.

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.4

SOLUTION:

• The point C is in contact with the stationary lower rack

and, instantaneously, has zero velocity. It must be the

location of the instantaneous center of rotation.

• Determine the angular velocity about C based on the

given velocity at A.

v 1.2 m s

v A = rAω ω= A= = 8 rad s

rA 0.15 m

• Evaluate the velocities at B and D based on their rotation

about C.

vR = vB = rBω = (0.25 m )(8 rad s )

r r

vR = (2 m s )i

rD = (0.15 m ) 2 = 0.2121 m

vD = rDω = (0.2121 m )(8 rad s )

vD = 1.697 m s

r r r

vD = (1.2i + 1.2 j )(m s )

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.5

SOLUTION:

• Determine the velocity at B from the

given crank rotation data.

• The direction of the velocity vectors at B

and D are known. The instantaneous

center of rotation is at the intersection of

the perpendiculars to the velocities

The crank AB has a constant clockwise through B and D.

angular velocity of 2000 rpm. • Determine the angular velocity about the

For the crank position indicated, center of rotation based on the velocity

determine (a) the angular velocity of at B.

the connecting rod BD, and (b) the • Calculate the velocity at D based on its

velocity of the piston P. rotation about the instantaneous center

of rotation.

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.5

SOLUTION:

• From Sample Problem 15.3,

r r r

vB = (403.9i − 481.3 j )(in. s ) vB = 628.3 in. s

β = 13.95°

• The instantaneous center of rotation is at the intersection

of the perpendiculars to the velocities through B and D.

rotation based on the velocity at B.

γ B = 40° + β = 53.95°

γ D = 90° − β = 76.05° vB = (BC )ω BD

vB 628.3 in. s

ω BD = = ω BD = 62.0 rad s

BC CD 8 in. BC 10.14 in.

= =

sin 76.05° sin 53.95° sin50°

• Calculate the velocity at D based on its rotation about

the instantaneous center of rotation.

BC = 10.14 in. CD = 8.44 in.

vD = (CD )ω BD = (8.44 in.)(62.0 rad s )

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane Motion

r r r

aB = a A + aB A

r

• Relative acceleration a B A associated with rotation about A includes

tangential and normal components,

r

( )

r r

a B A = α k × rB A

t

a B A = rα

t

( )

r

( )n r

a B A = −ω 2 rB A a B A = rω 2

n

( )

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 29

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane Motion

r r

• Given a A and v A ,

r r

determine a B and α .

r r r

aB = a A + aB A

r

( r

)n (

= a A + aB A + aB

r

A t)

r

• Vector result depends on sense of a A and the

relative magnitudes of a A and (a B A )

n

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 30

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane Motion

r r r

• Write a B = a A + a B A in terms of the two component equations,

+

→ x components: 0 = a A + lω 2 sin θ − lα cosθ

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Analysis of Plane Motion in Terms of a Parameter

• In some cases, it is advantageous to determine the

absolute velocity and acceleration of a mechanism

directly.

x A = l sin θ y B = l cosθ

v A = x& A v B = y& B

= lθ& cosθ = −lθ& sin θ

= lω cosθ = −lω sin θ

a A = &x&A a B = &y&B

= −lθ& 2 sin θ + lθ&& cosθ = −lθ& 2 cosθ − lθ&&sin θ

= −lω 2 sin θ + lα cosθ = −lω 2 cosθ − lα sin θ

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.6

SOLUTION:

• The expression of the gear position as a

function of θ is differentiated twice to

define the relationship between the

translational and angular accelerations.

gear is obtained by adding the

acceleration of the gear center and the

The center of the double gear has a

relative accelerations with respect to the

velocity and acceleration to the right of

center. The latter includes normal and

1.2 m/s and 3 m/s2, respectively. The

tangential acceleration components.

lower rack is stationary.

Determine (a) the angular acceleration

of the gear, and (b) the acceleration of

points B, C, and D.

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.6

SOLUTION:

• The expression of the gear position as a function of θ

is differentiated twice to define the relationship

between the translational and angular accelerations.

x A = − r1θ

v A = − r1θ& = − r1ω

vA 1.2 m s

ω =− =− = −8 rad s

r1 0.150 m

a A = −r1θ&& = −r1α

aA 3 m s2

α =− =−

r1 0.150 m

r r

( )r

α = α k = − 20 rad s 2 k

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.6

• The acceleration of each point

is obtained by adding the

acceleration of the gear center

and the relative accelerations

with respect to the center.

The latter includes normal and

tangential acceleration

components.

r r r r r

( r

aB = a A + aB A = a A + aB A + aB A

t n

) ( )

r r r r

= a A + α k × rB A − ω 2 rB A

( 2 r

) ( r

) r r

= 3 m s i − 20 rad s k × (0.100 m ) j − (8 rad s ) (− 0.100 m ) j

2 2

( 2 r

) ( 2 r

= 3 m s i + 2 m s i − 6.40 m s j ) (

2 r

)

r

( r

) ( r

aB = 5 m s 2 i − 6.40 m s 2 j ) aB = 8.12 m s 2

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.6

r r r r r r 2r

aC = a A + aC A = a A + α k × rC A − ω rC A

( 2 r

) ( r

) r r

= 3 m s i − 20 rad s k × (− 0.150 m ) j − (8 rad s )2 (− 0.150 m ) j

2

( r

) ( r

) (

= 3 m s 2 i − 3 m s 2 i + 9.60 m s 2 j

r

)

r

ac = 9.60 m s j(2 r

)

r r r r r r r

aD = a A + aD A = a A + α k × rD A − ω 2 rD A

( 2 r

) ( r

) r

= 3 m s i − 20 rad s k × (− 0.150 m )i − (8 rad s )2 (− 0.150m )i

2 r

( r

) ( r

) (

= 3 m s 2 i + 3 m s 2 j + 9.60 m s 2 i

r

)

r

( 2 r

aD = 12.6 m s i + 3 m s j) ( 2 r

)

aD = 12.95 m s 2

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 36

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.7

SOLUTION:

• The angular acceleration of the

connecting rod BD and the acceleration

of point D will be determined from

r r r r

(r

)t (

aD = aB + aD B = aB + aD B + aD B

r

)n

• The acceleration of B is determined from

the given rotation speed of AB.

constant clockwise angular velocity of r

(r

) (r

)

a D , a D B , and a D B are

t n

2000 rpm. determined from the geometry.

For the crank position shown,

• Component equations for acceleration

determine the angular acceleration of

of point D are solved simultaneously for

the connecting rod BD and the

acceleration of D and angular

acceleration of point D.

acceleration of the connecting rod.

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.7

SOLUTION:

• The angular acceleration of the connecting rod BD and

the acceleration of point D will be determined from

r r r r r

(

aD = aB + aD B = aB + aD B + aD B )t (

r

)n

• The acceleration of B is determined from the given rotation

speed of AB.

α AB = 0

aB = rω AB

2

= (123 ft )(209.4 rad s)2 = 10,962 ft s2

r

( ) r r

aB = 10,962 ft s (− cos 40°i − sin 40° j )

2

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.7

r r

• The directions of the accelerations aD , aD ( )

B t , and (a

r

D B )n are

determined from the geometry.

r r

aD = m aD i

From Sample Problem 15.3, ωBD = 62.0 rad/s, β = 13.95o.

(aD B )n = (BD )ω BD

2

= (12

8 ft )(62.0 rad s )2 = 2563 ft s 2

(aD B )t = (BD )α BD = (128 ft )α BD = 0.667α BD

The direction of (aD/B)t is known but the sense is not known,

r r

(

r

)t

aD B = (0.667α BD )(± sin 76.05°i ± cos 76.05° j )

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 39

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.7

simultaneously.

r r r r r

( )t (

r

aD = aB + aD B = aB + aD B + aD B )n

x components:

− aD = −10,962 cos 40° − 2563 cos13.95° + 0.667α BD sin 13.95°

y components:

0 = −10,962 sin 40° + 2563 sin 13.95° + 0.667α BD cos13.95°

r

( )r

α BD = 9940 rad s 2 k

aD = −(9290 ft s ) i

2 r

r

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.8

SOLUTION:

• The angular velocities are determined by

simultaneously solving the component

equations for

r r r

vD = vB + vD B

by simultaneously solving the component

In the position shown, crank AB has a

equations for

constant angular velocity ω1 = 20 rad/s

r r r

counterclockwise. aD = aB + aD B

Determine the angular velocities and

angular accelerations of the connecting

rod BD and crank DE.

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.8

SOLUTION:

• The angular velocities are determined by simultaneously

solving the component equations for

r r r

vD = vB + vD B

r r r r r r

vD = ω DE × rD = ω DE k × (− 17i + 17 j )

r r

= −17ω DE i − 17ω DE j

r r r r r r

vB = ω AB × rB = 20k × (8i + 14 j )

r r

= −280i + 160 j

r r r r r r

vD B = ω BD × rD B = ω BD k × (12i + 3 j )

r r

= −3ω BD i + 12ω BD j

y components: − 17ω DE = +160 + 12ω BD

r r r r

ω BD = −(29.33 rad s )k ω DE = (11.29 rad s )k

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 42

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.8

• The angular accelerations are determined by

simultaneously solving the component equations for

r r r

aD = aB + aD B

r r r 2 r

aD = α DE × rD − ω DE rD

r r r r r

= α DE k × (− 17i + 17 j ) − (11.29 ) (− 17i + 17 j )

2

r r r r

= −17α DE i − 17α DE j + 2170i − 2170 j

r r r 2 r 2 r r

aB = α AB × rB − ω AB rB = 0 − (20 ) (8i + 14 j )

r r

= −3200i + 5600 j

r r r 2 r

aD B = α BD × rB D − ω BD rB D

r r r r r

= α B D k × (12i + 3 j ) − (29.33)2 (12i + 3 j )

r r r r

= −3α B D i + 12α B D j − 10,320i − 2580 j

x components: − 17α DE + 3α BD = −15,690

y components: − 17α DE − 12α BD = −6010

r

(

α BD = − 645 rad s k

2

r

) r

(

α DE = 809 rad s k

2

r

)

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 43

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Rate of Change With Respect to a Rotating Frame

• With respect to the rotating Oxyz frame,

r r r r

Q = Qx i + Q y j + Qz k

()

r&

&

r

&

r

&

r

Q Oxyz = Qx i + Q y j + Qz k

r&

() &

r

&

r

&

r r& r& r&

Q OXYZ = Q x i + Q y j + Qz k + Q x i + Q y j + Qz k

&

r

&

r

&

r

()

r&

• Qx i + Q y j + Qz k = Q Oxyz = rate of change

with respect to rotating frame.

()

• Frame Oxyz rotates about r r

fixed axisr OA with angular • If Q were fixed within Oxyz then Q& OXYZ is

velocity Ω equivalent to velocity of a point in a rigid

r& r& r& rbodyr

r attached to Oxyz and Qx i + Q y j + Qz k = Ω × Q

• Vector function Q(t ) varies

in direction and magnitude. • With respect to the fixed OXYZ frame,

r&

Q () = Q

OXYZ

r&

() r r

+ Ω×Q

Oxyz

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 44

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Coriolis Acceleration

• Frame OXYr is fixed and frame Oxy rotates with angular

velocity Ω .

r

• Position vector rP for the particle P is the same in both

frames but the rate of change depends on the choice of

frame.

r r& r r

v P = (r )OXY = Ω × r + (r& )Oxy

or F for short. Let P’ be a point on the slab which

corresponds instantaneously to position of particle P.

r r

v P F = (r& )Oxy = velocity of P along its path on the slab

r

v P ' = absolute velocity of point P’ on the slab

r r r

v P = v P′ + v P F

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 45

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Coriolis Acceleration

• Absolute acceleration for the particle P is

r r& r r r d r&

a P = Ω × r + Ω × r OXY + (r )Oxy

( & )

dt

[ ]

r r r r

but, (r& )OXY = Ω × r + (r& )Oxy

d r&

dt

[ r&

] r r

(r )Oxy = (r )Oxy + Ω × (r& )Oxy

&

r& r r r r r r

a P = Ω × r + Ω × (Ω × r ) + 2Ω × (r& )Oxy + (&r&)Oxy

r r r r r

v P = Ω × r + (r& )Oxy

r r

= v P′ + v P F • Utilizing the conceptual point P’ on the slab,

r& r r r r

a P′ = Ω × r + Ω × (Ω × r )

r

r r

a P F = (&r&) Oxy

r r r

a P = a P′ + a P F + 2Ω × (r& )Oxy

r r r

= a P′ + a P F + ac

r r r r v

ac = 2Ω × (r )Oxy = 2Ω × v P F = Coriolis acceleration

&

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 46

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Coriolis Acceleration

• Consider a collar P which is made to slide at constant

relative velocity u along rod OB. The rod is rotating at

a constant angular velocity ω. The point A on the rod

corresponds to the instantaneous position of P.

• Absolute acceleration of the collar is

r r r r

a P = a A + a P F + ac

where

r& r r r r

a A = Ω × r + Ω × (Ω × r )

r

a A = rω 2

r r

a P F = (&r&)Oxy = 0

r r r

a c = 2Ω × v P F ac = 2ωu

tangential vectors shown

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Coriolis Acceleration

• Change in velocity over ∆t is represented by the

sum of three vectors

r

∆v = RR ′ + TT ′′ + T ′′T ′

• TT ′′ is due to change in direction of the velocity of

point A on the rod,

TT ′′ ∆θ

lim = lim v A = rωω = rω 2 = a A

∆t →0 ∆t ∆t →0 ∆t

r& r r r r

recall, a = Ω × r + Ω × (Ω × r )

r

r r r a = rω 2

at t , v = vA + u A A

r r r

at t + ∆t , v ′ = v A′ + u ′ • R R ′ and T ′′T ′ result from combined effects of

relative motion of P and rotation of the rod

⎛ RR ′ T ′′T ′ ⎞ ∆θ ∆r ⎞

lim ⎜⎜ + ⎟⎟ = lim ⎛⎜ u +ω ⎟

∆t →0⎝ ∆t ∆t ⎠ ∆t →0⎝ ∆t ∆t ⎠

= uω + ωu = 2ωu

r r r

recall, ac = 2Ω × v P F ac = 2ωu

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 48

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.9

SOLUTION:

• The absolute velocity of the point P

may be written as

r r r

v P = v P′ + v P s

r

v P of pin P are calculated from the

radius and angular velocity of disk D.

r

• Direction of velocity v P′ of point P’ on

S coinciding with P is perpendicular to

Disk D of the Geneva mechanism rotates

radius OP.

with constant counterclockwise angular

velocity ωD = 10 rad/s. r

• Direction of velocity v P s of P with

At the instant when φ = 150o, determine respect to S is parallel to the slot.

(a) the angular velocity of disk S, and (b) • Solve the vector triangle for the

the velocity of pin P relative to disk S. angular velocity of S and relative

velocity of P.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 49

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.9

SOLUTION:

• The absolute velocity of the point P may be written as

r r r

vP = vP ′ + vP s

calculated from radius and angular velocity of disk D.

vP = Rω D = (50 mm )(10 rad s ) = 500 mm s

From the law of cosines,

r 2 = R 2 + l 2 − 2 Rl cos 30° = 0.551R 2 r = 37.1 mm

sinβ sin 30° sin 30°

= sin β = β = 42.4°

R r 0.742

The interior angle of the vector triangle is

γ = 90° − 42.4° − 30° = 17.6°

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.9

• Direction of velocity of point P’ on S coinciding with P is

perpendicular to radius OP. From the velocity triangle,

151.2 mm s

= rω s ωs =

37.1 mm

r r

ω s = (− 4.08 rad s )k

r r r

vP s = (477 m s )(− cos 42.4°i − sin 42.4° j )

vP = 500 mm s

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.10

SOLUTION:

• The absolute acceleration of the pin P may

be expressed as

r r r r

a P = a P′ + a P s + ac

S is determined as in Sample Problem 15.9.

acceleration equation is the instantaneous

In the Geneva mechanism, disk D angular acceleration of Disk S.

rotates with a constant counter-

clockwise angular velocity of 10 • Resolve each acceleration term into the

rad/s. At the instant when ϕ = 150o, component parallel to the slot. Solve for

determine angular acceleration of the angular acceleration of Disk S.

disk S.

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.10

SOLUTION:

• Absolute acceleration of the pin P may be expressed as

r r r r

aP = aP′ + aP s + ac

r r

β = 42.4° ω S = (− 4.08 rad s )k

r r r

vP s = (477 mm s )(− cos 42.4°i − sin 42.4° j )

aP = Rω D 2

= (500mm )(10 rad s )2 = 5000 mm s 2

r

( ) r

aP = 5000 mm s (cos 30°i − sin 30° j )

2 r

r r r

aP′ = (aP′ )n + (aP′ )t

r

( ) r

(aP′ )n = rω S (− cos 42.4°i − sin 42.4° j )

2 r

r r

(arP′ )t = (rα S )(− sin 42.4°i + cos 42.4° j )

r r

(arP′ )t = (α S )(37.1mm )(− sin 42.4°i + cos 42.4° j )

note: αS may be positive or negative

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 53

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.10

• The direction of the Coriolis acceleration is obtained

r

by rotating the direction of the relative velocity vP s

by 90o in the sense of ωS.

r r

r

( )

ac = 2ω S vP s (− sin 42.4°i + cos 42.4 j )

r r

= 2(4.08 rad s )(477 mm s )(− sin 42.4°i + cos 42.4 j )

( ) r

= 3890 mm s 2 (− sin 42.4°i + cos 42.4 j )

r

r

• The relative acceleration aP s must be parallel to

the slot.

perpendicular to the slot,

37.1α S + 3890 − 5000 cos17.7° = 0

α S = −233 rad s

r r

α S = (− 233 rad s )k

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Motion About a Fixed Point

• The most general displacement of a rigid body with a

fixed point O is equivalent to a rotation of the body

about an axis through O.

• With the instantaneous axis of rotation and angular

r

velocity ω , the velocity of a particle P of the body is

r

r dr r r

v= =ω ×r

dt

and the acceleration of the particle P is

r

r r r r r r r dω

a = α × r + ω × (ω × r ) α= .

dt

r

• The angularr acceleration α represents the velocity of

the tip of ω .

r

• As the vector ω moves within the body and in space,

it generates a body cone and space cone which are

tangent along the instantaneous axis of rotation.

• Angular velocities have magnitude and direction and

obey parallelogram law of addition. They are vectors.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 55

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

General Motion

• For particles A and B of a rigid body,

r r r

vB = v A + vB A

the body relative to AX’Y’Z’ is the motion of a

body with a fixed point

r r r r

v B = v A + ω × rB A

r r r

aB = a A + aB A

r r r

(

r r r

= a A + α × rB A + ω × ω × rB A )

• Most general motion of a rigid body is equivalent to:

- a translation in which all particles have the same

velocity and acceleration of a reference particle A, and

- of a motion in which particle A is assumed fixed.

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.11

SOLUTION:

r r r r

With ω1 = 0.30 j ω 2 = 0.50k

r r r

r = 12 cos 30°i + sin 30° j )

(

r r

= 10.39i + 6 j

r r r

The crane rotates with a constant ω = ω1 + ω 2

angular velocity ω1 = 0.30 rad/s and the

boom is being raised with a constant • Angular acceleration of the boom,

r r& r& r& r& r r

angular velocity ω2 = 0.50 rad/s. The α = ω1 + ω 2 = ω 2 = (ω 2 )Oxyz + Ω × ω 2

length of the boom is l = 12 m. r r

= ω1 × ω 2

Determine:

• angular velocity of the boom, • Velocity of boom tip,

r r r

• angular acceleration of the boom, v =ω ×r

• velocity of the boom tip, and • Acceleration of boom tip,

• acceleration of the boom tip. r r r r r r r r r r

a = α × r + ω × (ω × r ) = α × r + ω × v

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 57

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.11

SOLUTION:

• Angular velocity of the boom,

r r r

ω = ω1 + ω 2 r r

r

ω = (0.30 rad s ) j + (0.50 rad s )k

• Angular acceleration of the boom,

r r& r& r& r& r r

α = ω1 + ω 2 = ω 2 = (ω 2 )Oxyz + Ω × ω 2

r r r r

= ω1 × ω 2 = (0.30 rad s ) j × (0.50 rad s )k

r

( 2 r

α = 0.15 rad s i )

• Velocity of boom tip,

r r r

i j k

r r r

v =ω ×r = 0 0.3 0.5

10.39 6 0

r r r r r

r r r

ω1 = 0.30 j ω 2 = 0.50k v = −(3.54 m s )i + (5.20 m s ) j − (3.12 m s )k

r r r

r = 10.39i + 6 j

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.11

• Acceleration of boom tip,

r r r r r r r r r r

a = α × r + ω × (ω × r ) = α × r + ω × v

r r r r r r

i j k i j k

r

a = 0.15 0 0+ 0 0.30 0.50

10.39 6 0 −3 5.20 − 3.12

r r r r r

= 0.90k − 0.94i − 2.60i − 1.50 j + 0.90k

r

( ) (

2 r

) (

2 r 2

a = − 3.54 m s i − 1.50 m s j + 1.80 m s k

r

)

r r r r

ω1 = 0.30 j ω 2 = 0.50k

r r r

r = 10.39i + 6 j

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Three-Dimensional Motion. Coriolis Acceleration

• With respect to the fixed frame OXYZ and rotating

frame Oxyz,

()

r&

Q = Q

OXYZ

r&

() r r

+ Ω×Q

Oxyz

frame Oxyz or F for short. The absolute velocity can

be expressed as

r r r r

v P = Ω × r + (r& )Oxyz

r r

= v P′ + v P F

• The absolute acceleration can be expressed as

r& r r r r r r

a P = Ω × r + Ω × (Ω × r ) + 2Ω × (r& )Oxyz + (&r&)Oxyz

r r

r r r

= a p′ + a P F + ac

r r r r r

ac = 2Ω × (r )Oxyz = 2Ω × v P F = Coriolis acceleration

&

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Frame of Reference in General Motion

• With respect to OXYZ and AX’Y’Z’,

r r r

rP = rA + rP A

r r r

vP = v A + vP A

r r r

aP = a A + aP A

AX’Y’Z’ can be found in terms of the velocity

and acceleration of P relative to Axyz.

r r

r r r

(

v P = v A + Ω × rP A + r&P A )

Axyz

r r

= v P′ + v P F

r& r r r r

a P = a A + Ω × rP A + Ω × (Ω × rP A )

Consider: r r

- fixed frame OXYZ, r r

+ 2Ω × (r&P A ) + (&r&P A )

r

- translating frame AX’Y’Z’, and

Axyz Axyz

- translating and rotating frame Axyz r r r

or F. = a P′ + a P F + ac

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.15

SOLUTION:

• Define a fixed reference frame OXYZ at O

and a moving reference frame Axyz or F

attached to the arm at A.

• With P’ of the moving reference frame

coinciding with P, the velocity of the point

P is found from

r r r

For the disk mounted on the arm, the v P = v P′ + v P F

indicated angular rotation rates are

• The acceleration of P is found from

constant. r r r r

a P = a P′ + a P F + a c

Determine:

• the velocity of the point P, • The angular velocity and angular

• the acceleration of P, and acceleration of the disk are

r r r

• angular velocity and angular ω = Ω +ωD F

acceleration of the disk. r r& r r

α = (ω )F + Ω × ω

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 62

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.15

SOLUTION:

• Define a fixed reference frame OXYZ at O and a

moving reference frame Axyz or F attached to the

arm at A.

r r r r r

r = L i + Rj rP A = Rj

r r r r

Ω = ω1 j ω D F = ω2k

with P, the velocity of the point P is found from

r r r

v P = v P′ + v P F

r r r r r r r

v P′ = Ω × r = ω1 j × (Li + Rj ) = −ω1L k

r r r r r r

v P F = ω D F × rP A = ω 2 k × Rj = −ω 2 R i

r r r

v P = −ω 2 R i − ω1L k

Edition

Eighth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics

Sample Problem 15.15

• The acceleration of P is found from

r r r r

a P = a P′ + a P F + a c

r r r r r 2 r

a P′ = Ω × (Ω × r ) = ω1 j × (− ω1Lk ) = −ω1 Li

r

r r

( r

a P F = ω D F × ω D F × rP A )

r

r r 2 r

= ω 2 k × (− ω 2 R i ) = −ω 2 R j

r r r

a c = 2Ω × v P F

r r r

= 2ω1 j × (− ω 2 R i ) = 2ω1ω 2 Rk

r 2 r 2 r r

a P = −ω1 L i − ω 2 Rj + 2ω1ω 2 Rk

• Angular velocity and acceleration of the disk,

r r r r r r

ω = Ω +ωD F ω = ω1 j + ω 2 k

r r& r r

α = (ω )F + Ω × ω

r r r r

= ω1 j × (ω1 j + ω 2 k )

r

α = ω1ω 2 i

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 64

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