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Eighth Edition

CHAPTER VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

15
DYNAMICS
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Kinematics of
Lecture Notes:
Rigid Bodies
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Contents
Introduction Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane
Translation Motion
Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Velocity Analysis of Plane Motion in Terms of a
Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Acceleration Parameter
Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Sample Problem 15.6
Representative Slab Sample Problem 15.7
Equations Defining the Rotation of a Rigid Sample Problem 15.8
Body About a Fixed Axis Rate of Change With Respect to a Rotating
Sample Problem 5.1 Frame
General Plane Motion Coriolis Acceleration
Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Sample Problem 15.9
Motion Sample Problem 15.10
Sample Problem 15.2 Motion About a Fixed Point
Sample Problem 15.3 General Motion
Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Plane Sample Problem 15.11
Motion Three Dimensional Motion. Coriolis
Sample Problem 15.4 Acceleration
Sample Problem 15.5 Frame of Reference in General Motion
Sample Problem 15.15
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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Introduction
• Kinematics of rigid bodies: relations between
time and the positions, velocities, and
accelerations of the particles forming a rigid
body.
• Classification of rigid body motions:
- translation:
• rectilinear translation
• curvilinear translation
- rotation about a fixed axis
- general plane motion
- motion about a fixed point
- general motion

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Translation
• Consider rigid body in translation:
- direction of any straight line inside the
body is constant,
- all particles forming the body move in
parallel lines.
• For any two particles in the body,
r r r
rB = rA + rB A
• Differentiating with respect to time,
r r r r
r&B = r&A + r&B A = r&A
r r
vB = v A
All particles have the same velocity.
• Differentiating with respect to time again,
&rr&B = &rr&A + &rr&B A = &rr&A
r r
aB = a A
All particles have the same acceleration.
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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rotation About a Fixed Axis. Velocity
• Consider rotation of rigid body about a
fixed axis AA’

r r
• Velocity vector v = dr dt of the particle P is
tangent to the path with magnitude v = ds dt
∆s = ( BP )∆θ = (r sin φ )∆θ
ds ∆θ
v= = lim (r sin φ ) = rθ& sin φ
dt ∆t →0 ∆t

• The same result is obtained from


r
r dr r r
v= =ω ×r
dt
r r r
&
ω = ω k = θ k = angular velocity

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rotation About a Fixed Axis. Acceleration
• Differentiating to determine the acceleration,
r
r dv d v r
a= = (ω × r )
dt dt
r r
dω r r dr
= ×r +ω ×
dt dt
r
dω r r r
= ×r +ω ×v
dt
r
dω r
• = α = angular acceleration
dt
r r r
&&
= α k = ω& k = θ k

• Acceleration of P is combination of two


vectors,
r r r r r r
a = α × r + ω ×ω × r
r r
α × r = tangential acceleration component
r r r
ω × ω × r = radial acceleration component
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Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rotation About a Fixed Axis. Representative Slab
• Consider the motion of a representative slab in
a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

• Velocity of any point P of the slab,


r r r r r
v = ω × r = ωk × r
v = rω

• Acceleration of any point P of the slab,


r r r r r r
a = α × r + ω ×ω × r
r r r
= α k × r − ω 2r

• Resolving the acceleration into tangential and


normal components,
r r r
at = αk × r a t = rα
r r
an = −ω 2 r a n = rω 2
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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Equations Defining the Rotation of a Rigid Body
About a Fixed Axis
• Motion of a rigid body rotating around a fixed axis is
often specified by the type of angular acceleration.

dθ dθ
• Recall ω = or dt =
dt ω
dω d 2θ dω
α= = 2 =ω
dt dt dθ

• Uniform Rotation, α = 0:
θ = θ 0 + ωt

• Uniformly Accelerated Rotation, α = constant:


ω = ω0 + αt
θ = θ 0 + ω 0t + 12 α t 2
ω 2 = ω 02 + 2α (θ − θ 0 )
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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 5.1
SOLUTION:
• Due to the action of the cable, the
tangential velocity and acceleration of
D are equal to the velocity and
acceleration of C. Calculate the initial
angular velocity and acceleration.
• Apply the relations for uniformly
accelerated rotation to determine the
velocity and angular position of the
Cable C has a constant acceleration of 9
pulley after 2 s.
in/s2 and an initial velocity of 12 in/s,
both directed to the right. • Evaluate the initial tangential and
normal acceleration components of D.
Determine (a) the number of revolutions
of the pulley in 2 s, (b) the velocity and
change in position of the load B after 2 s,
and (c) the acceleration of the point D on
the rim of the inner pulley at t = 0.
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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 5.1
SOLUTION:
• The tangential velocity and acceleration of D are equal to the
velocity and acceleration of C.
r r
r r
(v ) = (v ) = 12 in. s →
D 0 C 0
(a )
D t = aC = 9 in. s →

(vD )0 = rω0 (aD )t = rα


(vD )0 (aD )t 9
ω0 =
12
= = 4 rad s α= = = 3 rad s 2
r 3 r 3
• Apply the relations for uniformly accelerated rotation to
determine velocity and angular position of pulley after 2 s.
( )
ω = ω 0 + αt = 4 rad s + 3 rad s 2 (2 s ) = 10 rad s
( )
θ = ω 0t + 12 αt 2 = (4 rad s )(2 s ) + 12 3 rad s 2 (2 s )2
= 14 rad
⎛ 1 rev ⎞
N = (14 rad )⎜ ⎟ = number of revs N = 2.23 rev
⎝ 2π rad ⎠
r
vB = rω = (5 in.)(10 rad s ) vB = 50 in. s ↑
∆y B = rθ = (5 in.)(14 rad ) ∆y B = 70 in.
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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 5.1
• Evaluate the initial tangential and normal acceleration
components of D.
(arD )t = arC = 9 in. s →
(aD )n = rDω02 = (3 in.)(4 rad s )2 = 48 in s2

(arD )t = 9 in. s2 → (arD )n = 48 in. s2 ↓

Magnitude and direction of the total acceleration,

aD = (aD )t2 + (aD )n2


= 92 + 482 aD = 48.8 in. s 2

(aD )n
tan φ =
(aD )t
48
=
9 φ = 79.4°

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
General Plane Motion

• General plane motion is neither a translation nor


a rotation.
• General plane motion can be considered as the
sum of a translation and rotation.
• Displacement of particles A and B to A2 and B2
can be divided into two parts:
- translation to A2 and B1′
- rotation of B1′ about A2 to B2
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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion

• Any plane motion can be replaced by a translation of an


arbitrary reference point A and a simultaneous rotation
about A.
r r r
vB = v A + vB A
r r r
v B A = ω k × rB A v B A = rω
r r r r
v B = v A + ω k × rB A

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion

• Assuming that the velocity vA of end A is known, wish to determine the


velocity vB of end B and the angular velocity ω in terms of vA, l, and θ.
• The direction of vB and vB/A are known. Complete the velocity diagram.

vB vA vA
= tan θ = = cosθ
vA v B A lω
v B = v A tan θ vA
ω=
l cosθ
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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion

• Selecting point B as the reference point and solving for the velocity vA of end A
and the angular velocity ω leads to an equivalent velocity triangle.
• vA/B has the same magnitude but opposite sense of vB/A. The sense of the
relative velocity is dependent on the choice of reference point.
• Angular velocity ω of the rod in its rotation about B is the same as its rotation
about A. Angular velocity is not dependent on the choice of reference point.
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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.2
SOLUTION:
• The displacement of the gear center in
one revolution is equal to the outer
circumference. Relate the translational
and angular displacements. Differentiate
to relate the translational and angular
velocities.
• The velocity for any point P on the gear
The double gear rolls on the may be written as
stationary lower rack: the velocity of r r r r r r
vP = v A + vP A = v A + ωk × rP A
its center is 1.2 m/s.
Determine (a) the angular velocity of Evaluate the velocities of points B and D.
the gear, and (b) the velocities of the
upper rack R and point D of the gear.

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.2
SOLUTION:
• The displacement of the gear center in one revolution is
equal to the outer circumference.
For xA > 0 (moves to right), ω < 0 (rotates clockwise).
xA θ
=− x A = − r1θ
2π r 2π

y
Differentiate to relate the translational and angular
velocities.
x
v A = − r1ω
vA 1.2 m s r r r
ω =− =− ω = ωk = −(8 rad s )k
r1 0.150 m

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.2
r r r r r r
• For any point P on the gear, vP = v A + vP A = v A + ωk × rP A

Velocity of the upper rack is equal to Velocity of the point D:


velocity of point B:
r r r r r r r r r
vR = vB = v A + ωk × rB A vD = v A + ωk × rD A
r r r r r r
= (1.2 m s )i + (8 rad s )k × (0.10 m ) j = (1.2 m s )i + (8 rad s )k × (− 0.150 m )i
r r
= (1.2 m s )i + (0.8 m s )i
r r r r r
vR = (2 m s )i vD = (1.2 m s )i + (1.2 m s ) j
vD = 1.697 m s

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.3
SOLUTION:
• Will determine the absolute velocity of
point D with
r r r
vD = vB + vD B
r
• The velocity v B is obtained from the
given crank rotation data.
r
The crank AB has a constant clockwise • The directions of the absolute velocity v D
r
angular velocity of 2000 rpm. and the relative velocity v D B are
determined from the problem geometry.
For the crank position indicated,
determine (a) the angular velocity of • The unknowns in the vector expression
the connecting rod BD, and (b) the are the velocity magnitudes v D and v D B
velocity of the piston P. which may be determined from the
corresponding vector triangle.
• The angular velocity of the connecting
rod is calculated from v D B .
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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.3
SOLUTION:
• Will determine the absolute velocity of point D with
r r r
vD = vB + vD B
r
• The velocity vB is obtained from the crank rotation data.
rev ⎞⎛ min ⎞⎛ 2π rad ⎞
ω AB = ⎛⎜ 2000 ⎟⎜⎜ ⎟⎟⎜ ⎟ = 209.4 rad s
⎝ min ⎠⎝ 60 s ⎠⎝ rev ⎠
vB = ( AB )ω AB = (3 in.)(209.4 rad s )
The velocity direction is as shown.
r
• The direction of the absolute velocity vD is horizontal.
r
The direction of the relative velocity vD B is
perpendicular to BD. Compute the angle between the
horizontal and the connecting rod from the law of sines.
sin 40° sin β
= β = 13.95°
8 in. 3 in.

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.3

• Determine the velocity magnitudes vD and vD B


from the vector triangle.
vD vD B 628.3 in. s
= =
sin 53.95° sin 50° sin76.05°

vD = 523.4 in. s = 43.6 ft s vP = vD = 43.6 ft s


vD B = 495.9 in. s

r r r vD B = lω BD
vD = vB + vD B vD B 495.9 in. s
ω BD = =
l 8 in. r
r
= 62.0 rad s ω BD = (62.0 rad s )k

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Plane Motion
• Plane motion of all particles in a slab can always be
replaced by the translation of an arbitrary point A and a
rotation about A with an angular velocity that is
independent of the choice of A.

• The same translational and rotational velocities at A are


obtained by allowing the slab to rotate with the same
angular velocity about the point C on a perpendicular to
the velocity at A.

• The velocity of all other particles in the slab are the same
as originally defined since the angular velocity and
translational velocity at A are equivalent.

• As far as the velocities are concerned, the slab seems to


rotate about the instantaneous center of rotation C.

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Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Plane Motion
• If the velocity at two points A and B are known, the
instantaneous center of rotation lies at the intersection
of the perpendiculars to the velocity vectors through A
and B .

• If the velocity vectors are parallel, the instantaneous


center of rotation is at infinity and the angular velocity
is zero.

• If the velocity vectors at A and B are perpendicular to


the line AB, the instantaneous center of rotation lies at
the intersection of the line AB with the line joining the
extremities of the velocity vectors at A and B.

• If the velocity magnitudes are equal, the instantaneous


center of rotation is at infinity and the angular velocity
is zero.

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Instantaneous Center of Rotation in Plane Motion
• The instantaneous center of rotation lies at the intersection of
the perpendiculars to the velocity vectors through A and B .
v v v
ω= A = A v B = ( BC )ω = (l sin θ ) A
AC l cosθ l cosθ
= v A tan θ

• The velocities of all particles on the rod are as if they were


rotated about C.
• The particle at the center of rotation has zero velocity.
• The particle coinciding with the center of rotation changes
with time and the acceleration of the particle at the
instantaneous center of rotation is not zero.
• The acceleration of the particles in the slab cannot be
determined as if the slab were simply rotating about C.
• The trace of the locus of the center of rotation on the body
is the body centrode and in space is the space centrode.
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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.4
SOLUTION:
• The point C is in contact with the stationary
lower rack and, instantaneously, has zero
velocity. It must be the location of the
instantaneous center of rotation.
• Determine the angular velocity about C
based on the given velocity at A.
• Evaluate the velocities at B and D based on
The double gear rolls on the their rotation about C.
stationary lower rack: the velocity
of its center is 1.2 m/s.
Determine (a) the angular velocity
of the gear, and (b) the velocities of
the upper rack R and point D of the
gear.

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.4
SOLUTION:
• The point C is in contact with the stationary lower rack
and, instantaneously, has zero velocity. It must be the
location of the instantaneous center of rotation.
• Determine the angular velocity about C based on the
given velocity at A.
v 1.2 m s
v A = rAω ω= A= = 8 rad s
rA 0.15 m
• Evaluate the velocities at B and D based on their rotation
about C.
vR = vB = rBω = (0.25 m )(8 rad s )
r r
vR = (2 m s )i

rD = (0.15 m ) 2 = 0.2121 m
vD = rDω = (0.2121 m )(8 rad s )
vD = 1.697 m s
r r r
vD = (1.2i + 1.2 j )(m s )

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.5
SOLUTION:
• Determine the velocity at B from the
given crank rotation data.
• The direction of the velocity vectors at B
and D are known. The instantaneous
center of rotation is at the intersection of
the perpendiculars to the velocities
The crank AB has a constant clockwise through B and D.
angular velocity of 2000 rpm. • Determine the angular velocity about the
For the crank position indicated, center of rotation based on the velocity
determine (a) the angular velocity of at B.
the connecting rod BD, and (b) the • Calculate the velocity at D based on its
velocity of the piston P. rotation about the instantaneous center
of rotation.

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.5
SOLUTION:
• From Sample Problem 15.3,
r r r
vB = (403.9i − 481.3 j )(in. s ) vB = 628.3 in. s
β = 13.95°
• The instantaneous center of rotation is at the intersection
of the perpendiculars to the velocities through B and D.

• Determine the angular velocity about the center of


rotation based on the velocity at B.
γ B = 40° + β = 53.95°
γ D = 90° − β = 76.05° vB = (BC )ω BD
vB 628.3 in. s
ω BD = = ω BD = 62.0 rad s
BC CD 8 in. BC 10.14 in.
= =
sin 76.05° sin 53.95° sin50°
• Calculate the velocity at D based on its rotation about
the instantaneous center of rotation.
BC = 10.14 in. CD = 8.44 in.
vD = (CD )ω BD = (8.44 in.)(62.0 rad s )

vP = vD = 523 in. s = 43.6 ft s

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane Motion

• Absolute acceleration of a particle of the slab,


r r r
aB = a A + aB A
r
• Relative acceleration a B A associated with rotation about A includes
tangential and normal components,
r
( )
r r
a B A = α k × rB A
t
a B A = rα
t
( )
r
( )n r
a B A = −ω 2 rB A a B A = rω 2
n
( )
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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane Motion

r r
• Given a A and v A ,
r r
determine a B and α .
r r r
aB = a A + aB A
r
( r
)n (
= a A + aB A + aB
r
A t)

r
• Vector result depends on sense of a A and the
relative magnitudes of a A and (a B A )
n

• Must also know angular velocity ω.


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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Absolute and Relative Acceleration in Plane Motion

r r r
• Write a B = a A + a B A in terms of the two component equations,
+
→ x components: 0 = a A + lω 2 sin θ − lα cosθ

+ ↑ y components: − a B = −lω 2 cosθ − lα sin θ

• Solve for aB and α.

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Analysis of Plane Motion in Terms of a Parameter
• In some cases, it is advantageous to determine the
absolute velocity and acceleration of a mechanism
directly.
x A = l sin θ y B = l cosθ

v A = x& A v B = y& B
= lθ& cosθ = −lθ& sin θ
= lω cosθ = −lω sin θ

a A = &x&A a B = &y&B
= −lθ& 2 sin θ + lθ&& cosθ = −lθ& 2 cosθ − lθ&&sin θ
= −lω 2 sin θ + lα cosθ = −lω 2 cosθ − lα sin θ

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.6
SOLUTION:
• The expression of the gear position as a
function of θ is differentiated twice to
define the relationship between the
translational and angular accelerations.

• The acceleration of each point on the


gear is obtained by adding the
acceleration of the gear center and the
The center of the double gear has a
relative accelerations with respect to the
velocity and acceleration to the right of
center. The latter includes normal and
1.2 m/s and 3 m/s2, respectively. The
tangential acceleration components.
lower rack is stationary.
Determine (a) the angular acceleration
of the gear, and (b) the acceleration of
points B, C, and D.

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.6
SOLUTION:
• The expression of the gear position as a function of θ
is differentiated twice to define the relationship
between the translational and angular accelerations.
x A = − r1θ
v A = − r1θ& = − r1ω
vA 1.2 m s
ω =− =− = −8 rad s
r1 0.150 m

a A = −r1θ&& = −r1α

aA 3 m s2
α =− =−
r1 0.150 m
r r
( )r
α = α k = − 20 rad s 2 k

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.6
• The acceleration of each point
is obtained by adding the
acceleration of the gear center
and the relative accelerations
with respect to the center.
The latter includes normal and
tangential acceleration
components.

r r r r r
( r
aB = a A + aB A = a A + aB A + aB A
t n
) ( )
r r r r
= a A + α k × rB A − ω 2 rB A
( 2 r
) ( r
) r r
= 3 m s i − 20 rad s k × (0.100 m ) j − (8 rad s ) (− 0.100 m ) j
2 2

( 2 r
) ( 2 r
= 3 m s i + 2 m s i − 6.40 m s j ) (
2 r
)
r
( r
) ( r
aB = 5 m s 2 i − 6.40 m s 2 j ) aB = 8.12 m s 2

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.6

r r r r r r 2r
aC = a A + aC A = a A + α k × rC A − ω rC A

( 2 r
) ( r
) r r
= 3 m s i − 20 rad s k × (− 0.150 m ) j − (8 rad s )2 (− 0.150 m ) j
2

( r
) ( r
) (
= 3 m s 2 i − 3 m s 2 i + 9.60 m s 2 j
r
)
r
ac = 9.60 m s j(2 r
)
r r r r r r r
aD = a A + aD A = a A + α k × rD A − ω 2 rD A
( 2 r
) ( r
) r
= 3 m s i − 20 rad s k × (− 0.150 m )i − (8 rad s )2 (− 0.150m )i
2 r

( r
) ( r
) (
= 3 m s 2 i + 3 m s 2 j + 9.60 m s 2 i
r
)
r
( 2 r
aD = 12.6 m s i + 3 m s j) ( 2 r
)
aD = 12.95 m s 2
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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.7
SOLUTION:
• The angular acceleration of the
connecting rod BD and the acceleration
of point D will be determined from
r r r r
(r
)t (
aD = aB + aD B = aB + aD B + aD B
r
)n
• The acceleration of B is determined from
the given rotation speed of AB.

Crank AG of the engine system has a • The directions of the accelerations


constant clockwise angular velocity of r
(r
) (r
)
a D , a D B , and a D B are
t n
2000 rpm. determined from the geometry.
For the crank position shown,
• Component equations for acceleration
determine the angular acceleration of
of point D are solved simultaneously for
the connecting rod BD and the
acceleration of D and angular
acceleration of point D.
acceleration of the connecting rod.

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Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.7
SOLUTION:
• The angular acceleration of the connecting rod BD and
the acceleration of point D will be determined from
r r r r r
(
aD = aB + aD B = aB + aD B + aD B )t (
r
)n
• The acceleration of B is determined from the given rotation
speed of AB.

ω AB = 2000 rpm = 209.4 rad s = constant


α AB = 0
aB = rω AB
2
= (123 ft )(209.4 rad s)2 = 10,962 ft s2
r
( ) r r
aB = 10,962 ft s (− cos 40°i − sin 40° j )
2

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 38


Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.7

r r
• The directions of the accelerations aD , aD ( )
B t , and (a
r
D B )n are
determined from the geometry.
r r
aD = m aD i
From Sample Problem 15.3, ωBD = 62.0 rad/s, β = 13.95o.
(aD B )n = (BD )ω BD
2
= (12
8 ft )(62.0 rad s )2 = 2563 ft s 2

(arD B )n = (2563 ft s2 )(− cos13.95°ir + sin13.95° rj )


(aD B )t = (BD )α BD = (128 ft )α BD = 0.667α BD
The direction of (aD/B)t is known but the sense is not known,
r r
(
r
)t
aD B = (0.667α BD )(± sin 76.05°i ± cos 76.05° j )
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 39
Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.7

• Component equations for acceleration of point D are solved


simultaneously.
r r r r r
( )t (
r
aD = aB + aD B = aB + aD B + aD B )n
x components:
− aD = −10,962 cos 40° − 2563 cos13.95° + 0.667α BD sin 13.95°

y components:
0 = −10,962 sin 40° + 2563 sin 13.95° + 0.667α BD cos13.95°

r
( )r
α BD = 9940 rad s 2 k
aD = −(9290 ft s ) i
2 r
r

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 40


Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.8
SOLUTION:
• The angular velocities are determined by
simultaneously solving the component
equations for
r r r
vD = vB + vD B

• The angular accelerations are determined


by simultaneously solving the component
In the position shown, crank AB has a
equations for
constant angular velocity ω1 = 20 rad/s
r r r
counterclockwise. aD = aB + aD B
Determine the angular velocities and
angular accelerations of the connecting
rod BD and crank DE.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 41


Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.8
SOLUTION:
• The angular velocities are determined by simultaneously
solving the component equations for
r r r
vD = vB + vD B

r r r r r r
vD = ω DE × rD = ω DE k × (− 17i + 17 j )
r r
= −17ω DE i − 17ω DE j
r r r r r r
vB = ω AB × rB = 20k × (8i + 14 j )
r r
= −280i + 160 j
r r r r r r
vD B = ω BD × rD B = ω BD k × (12i + 3 j )
r r
= −3ω BD i + 12ω BD j

x components: − 17ω DE = −280 − 3ω BD


y components: − 17ω DE = +160 + 12ω BD

r r r r
ω BD = −(29.33 rad s )k ω DE = (11.29 rad s )k
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 42
Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.8
• The angular accelerations are determined by
simultaneously solving the component equations for
r r r
aD = aB + aD B
r r r 2 r
aD = α DE × rD − ω DE rD
r r r r r
= α DE k × (− 17i + 17 j ) − (11.29 ) (− 17i + 17 j )
2
r r r r
= −17α DE i − 17α DE j + 2170i − 2170 j
r r r 2 r 2 r r
aB = α AB × rB − ω AB rB = 0 − (20 ) (8i + 14 j )
r r
= −3200i + 5600 j
r r r 2 r
aD B = α BD × rB D − ω BD rB D
r r r r r
= α B D k × (12i + 3 j ) − (29.33)2 (12i + 3 j )
r r r r
= −3α B D i + 12α B D j − 10,320i − 2580 j
x components: − 17α DE + 3α BD = −15,690
y components: − 17α DE − 12α BD = −6010
r
(
α BD = − 645 rad s k
2
r
) r
(
α DE = 809 rad s k
2
r
)
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 43
Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Rate of Change With Respect to a Rotating Frame
• With respect to the rotating Oxyz frame,
r r r r
Q = Qx i + Q y j + Qz k
()
r&
&
r
&
r
&
r
Q Oxyz = Qx i + Q y j + Qz k

• With respect to the fixed OXYZ frame,


r&
() &
r
&
r
&
r r& r& r&
Q OXYZ = Q x i + Q y j + Qz k + Q x i + Q y j + Qz k

• Frame OXYZ is fixed.


&
r
&
r
&
r
()
r&
• Qx i + Q y j + Qz k = Q Oxyz = rate of change
with respect to rotating frame.

()
• Frame Oxyz rotates about r r
fixed axisr OA with angular • If Q were fixed within Oxyz then Q& OXYZ is
velocity Ω equivalent to velocity of a point in a rigid
r& r& r& rbodyr
r attached to Oxyz and Qx i + Q y j + Qz k = Ω × Q
• Vector function Q(t ) varies
in direction and magnitude. • With respect to the fixed OXYZ frame,
r&
Q () = Q
OXYZ
r&
() r r
+ Ω×Q
Oxyz
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 44
Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Coriolis Acceleration
• Frame OXYr is fixed and frame Oxy rotates with angular
velocity Ω .
r
• Position vector rP for the particle P is the same in both
frames but the rate of change depends on the choice of
frame.

• The absolute velocity of the particle P is


r r& r r
v P = (r )OXY = Ω × r + (r& )Oxy

• Imagine a rigid slab attached to the rotating frame Oxy


or F for short. Let P’ be a point on the slab which
corresponds instantaneously to position of particle P.
r r
v P F = (r& )Oxy = velocity of P along its path on the slab
r
v P ' = absolute velocity of point P’ on the slab

• Absolute velocity for the particle P may be written as


r r r
v P = v P′ + v P F
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 45
Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Coriolis Acceleration
• Absolute acceleration for the particle P is
r r& r r r d r&
a P = Ω × r + Ω × r OXY + (r )Oxy
( & )
dt
[ ]
r r r r
but, (r& )OXY = Ω × r + (r& )Oxy
d r&
dt
[ r&
] r r
(r )Oxy = (r )Oxy + Ω × (r& )Oxy
&
r& r r r r r r
a P = Ω × r + Ω × (Ω × r ) + 2Ω × (r& )Oxy + (&r&)Oxy
r r r r r
v P = Ω × r + (r& )Oxy
r r
= v P′ + v P F • Utilizing the conceptual point P’ on the slab,
r& r r r r
a P′ = Ω × r + Ω × (Ω × r )
r
r r
a P F = (&r&) Oxy

• Absolute acceleration r forr the particle P becomes


r r r
a P = a P′ + a P F + 2Ω × (r& )Oxy
r r r
= a P′ + a P F + ac
r r r r v
ac = 2Ω × (r )Oxy = 2Ω × v P F = Coriolis acceleration
&
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 46
Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Coriolis Acceleration
• Consider a collar P which is made to slide at constant
relative velocity u along rod OB. The rod is rotating at
a constant angular velocity ω. The point A on the rod
corresponds to the instantaneous position of P.
• Absolute acceleration of the collar is
r r r r
a P = a A + a P F + ac
where
r& r r r r
a A = Ω × r + Ω × (Ω × r )
r
a A = rω 2
r r
a P F = (&r&)Oxy = 0
r r r
a c = 2Ω × v P F ac = 2ωu

• The absolute acceleration consists of the radial and


tangential vectors shown

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 47


Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Coriolis Acceleration
• Change in velocity over ∆t is represented by the
sum of three vectors
r
∆v = RR ′ + TT ′′ + T ′′T ′
• TT ′′ is due to change in direction of the velocity of
point A on the rod,
TT ′′ ∆θ
lim = lim v A = rωω = rω 2 = a A
∆t →0 ∆t ∆t →0 ∆t
r& r r r r
recall, a = Ω × r + Ω × (Ω × r )
r
r r r a = rω 2
at t , v = vA + u A A
r r r
at t + ∆t , v ′ = v A′ + u ′ • R R ′ and T ′′T ′ result from combined effects of
relative motion of P and rotation of the rod
⎛ RR ′ T ′′T ′ ⎞ ∆θ ∆r ⎞
lim ⎜⎜ + ⎟⎟ = lim ⎛⎜ u +ω ⎟
∆t →0⎝ ∆t ∆t ⎠ ∆t →0⎝ ∆t ∆t ⎠
= uω + ωu = 2ωu
r r r
recall, ac = 2Ω × v P F ac = 2ωu
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 48
Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.9
SOLUTION:
• The absolute velocity of the point P
may be written as
r r r
v P = v P′ + v P s

• Magnitude and direction of velocity


r
v P of pin P are calculated from the
radius and angular velocity of disk D.
r
• Direction of velocity v P′ of point P’ on
S coinciding with P is perpendicular to
Disk D of the Geneva mechanism rotates
radius OP.
with constant counterclockwise angular
velocity ωD = 10 rad/s. r
• Direction of velocity v P s of P with
At the instant when φ = 150o, determine respect to S is parallel to the slot.
(a) the angular velocity of disk S, and (b) • Solve the vector triangle for the
the velocity of pin P relative to disk S. angular velocity of S and relative
velocity of P.
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 49
Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.9
SOLUTION:
• The absolute velocity of the point P may be written as
r r r
vP = vP ′ + vP s

• Magnitude and direction of absolute velocity of pin P are


calculated from radius and angular velocity of disk D.
vP = Rω D = (50 mm )(10 rad s ) = 500 mm s

• Direction of velocity of P with respect to S is parallel to slot.


From the law of cosines,
r 2 = R 2 + l 2 − 2 Rl cos 30° = 0.551R 2 r = 37.1 mm

From the law of cosines,


sinβ sin 30° sin 30°
= sin β = β = 42.4°
R r 0.742
The interior angle of the vector triangle is
γ = 90° − 42.4° − 30° = 17.6°

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 50


Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.9
• Direction of velocity of point P’ on S coinciding with P is
perpendicular to radius OP. From the velocity triangle,

vP′ = vP sin γ = (500 mm s )sin 17.6° = 151.2 mm s


151.2 mm s
= rω s ωs =
37.1 mm
r r
ω s = (− 4.08 rad s )k

vP s = vP cos γ = (500 m s )cos17.6°


r r r
vP s = (477 m s )(− cos 42.4°i − sin 42.4° j )

vP = 500 mm s

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 51


Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.10
SOLUTION:
• The absolute acceleration of the pin P may
be expressed as
r r r r
a P = a P′ + a P s + ac

• The instantaneous angular velocity of Disk


S is determined as in Sample Problem 15.9.

• The only unknown involved in the


acceleration equation is the instantaneous
In the Geneva mechanism, disk D angular acceleration of Disk S.
rotates with a constant counter-
clockwise angular velocity of 10 • Resolve each acceleration term into the
rad/s. At the instant when ϕ = 150o, component parallel to the slot. Solve for
determine angular acceleration of the angular acceleration of Disk S.
disk S.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 52


Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.10
SOLUTION:
• Absolute acceleration of the pin P may be expressed as
r r r r
aP = aP′ + aP s + ac

• From Sample Problem 15.9.


r r
β = 42.4° ω S = (− 4.08 rad s )k
r r r
vP s = (477 mm s )(− cos 42.4°i − sin 42.4° j )

• Considering each term in the acceleration equation,


aP = Rω D 2
= (500mm )(10 rad s )2 = 5000 mm s 2
r
( ) r
aP = 5000 mm s (cos 30°i − sin 30° j )
2 r

r r r
aP′ = (aP′ )n + (aP′ )t
r
( ) r
(aP′ )n = rω S (− cos 42.4°i − sin 42.4° j )
2 r
r r
(arP′ )t = (rα S )(− sin 42.4°i + cos 42.4° j )
r r
(arP′ )t = (α S )(37.1mm )(− sin 42.4°i + cos 42.4° j )
note: αS may be positive or negative
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 53
Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.10
• The direction of the Coriolis acceleration is obtained
r
by rotating the direction of the relative velocity vP s
by 90o in the sense of ωS.
r r
r
( )
ac = 2ω S vP s (− sin 42.4°i + cos 42.4 j )
r r
= 2(4.08 rad s )(477 mm s )(− sin 42.4°i + cos 42.4 j )
( ) r
= 3890 mm s 2 (− sin 42.4°i + cos 42.4 j )
r

r
• The relative acceleration aP s must be parallel to
the slot.

• Equating components of the acceleration terms


perpendicular to the slot,
37.1α S + 3890 − 5000 cos17.7° = 0
α S = −233 rad s
r r
α S = (− 233 rad s )k

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 54


Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Motion About a Fixed Point
• The most general displacement of a rigid body with a
fixed point O is equivalent to a rotation of the body
about an axis through O.
• With the instantaneous axis of rotation and angular
r
velocity ω , the velocity of a particle P of the body is
r
r dr r r
v= =ω ×r
dt
and the acceleration of the particle P is
r
r r r r r r r dω
a = α × r + ω × (ω × r ) α= .
dt
r
• The angularr acceleration α represents the velocity of
the tip of ω .
r
• As the vector ω moves within the body and in space,
it generates a body cone and space cone which are
tangent along the instantaneous axis of rotation.
• Angular velocities have magnitude and direction and
obey parallelogram law of addition. They are vectors.
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 55
Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
General Motion
• For particles A and B of a rigid body,
r r r
vB = v A + vB A

• Particle A is fixed within the body and motion of


the body relative to AX’Y’Z’ is the motion of a
body with a fixed point
r r r r
v B = v A + ω × rB A

• Similarly, the acceleration of the particle P is


r r r
aB = a A + aB A
r r r
(
r r r
= a A + α × rB A + ω × ω × rB A )
• Most general motion of a rigid body is equivalent to:
- a translation in which all particles have the same
velocity and acceleration of a reference particle A, and
- of a motion in which particle A is assumed fixed.

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 56


Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.11
SOLUTION:
r r r r
With ω1 = 0.30 j ω 2 = 0.50k
r r r
r = 12 cos 30°i + sin 30° j )
(
r r
= 10.39i + 6 j

• Angular velocity of the boom,


r r r
The crane rotates with a constant ω = ω1 + ω 2
angular velocity ω1 = 0.30 rad/s and the
boom is being raised with a constant • Angular acceleration of the boom,
r r& r& r& r& r r
angular velocity ω2 = 0.50 rad/s. The α = ω1 + ω 2 = ω 2 = (ω 2 )Oxyz + Ω × ω 2
length of the boom is l = 12 m. r r
= ω1 × ω 2
Determine:
• angular velocity of the boom, • Velocity of boom tip,
r r r
• angular acceleration of the boom, v =ω ×r
• velocity of the boom tip, and • Acceleration of boom tip,
• acceleration of the boom tip. r r r r r r r r r r
a = α × r + ω × (ω × r ) = α × r + ω × v
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 57
Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.11
SOLUTION:
• Angular velocity of the boom,
r r r
ω = ω1 + ω 2 r r
r
ω = (0.30 rad s ) j + (0.50 rad s )k
• Angular acceleration of the boom,
r r& r& r& r& r r
α = ω1 + ω 2 = ω 2 = (ω 2 )Oxyz + Ω × ω 2
r r r r
= ω1 × ω 2 = (0.30 rad s ) j × (0.50 rad s )k
r
( 2 r
α = 0.15 rad s i )
• Velocity of boom tip,
r r r
i j k
r r r
v =ω ×r = 0 0.3 0.5
10.39 6 0
r r r r r
r r r
ω1 = 0.30 j ω 2 = 0.50k v = −(3.54 m s )i + (5.20 m s ) j − (3.12 m s )k
r r r
r = 10.39i + 6 j

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 58


Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.11
• Acceleration of boom tip,
r r r r r r r r r r
a = α × r + ω × (ω × r ) = α × r + ω × v
r r r r r r
i j k i j k
r
a = 0.15 0 0+ 0 0.30 0.50
10.39 6 0 −3 5.20 − 3.12
r r r r r
= 0.90k − 0.94i − 2.60i − 1.50 j + 0.90k

r
( ) (
2 r
) (
2 r 2
a = − 3.54 m s i − 1.50 m s j + 1.80 m s k
r
)

r r r r
ω1 = 0.30 j ω 2 = 0.50k
r r r
r = 10.39i + 6 j

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 59


Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Three-Dimensional Motion. Coriolis Acceleration
• With respect to the fixed frame OXYZ and rotating
frame Oxyz,
()
r&
Q = Q
OXYZ
r&
() r r
+ Ω×Q
Oxyz

• Consider motion of particle P relative to a rotating


frame Oxyz or F for short. The absolute velocity can
be expressed as
r r r r
v P = Ω × r + (r& )Oxyz
r r
= v P′ + v P F
• The absolute acceleration can be expressed as
r& r r r r r r
a P = Ω × r + Ω × (Ω × r ) + 2Ω × (r& )Oxyz + (&r&)Oxyz
r r
r r r
= a p′ + a P F + ac
r r r r r
ac = 2Ω × (r )Oxyz = 2Ω × v P F = Coriolis acceleration
&

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 60


Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Frame of Reference in General Motion
• With respect to OXYZ and AX’Y’Z’,
r r r
rP = rA + rP A
r r r
vP = v A + vP A
r r r
aP = a A + aP A

• The velocity and acceleration of P relative to


AX’Y’Z’ can be found in terms of the velocity
and acceleration of P relative to Axyz.
r r
r r r
(
v P = v A + Ω × rP A + r&P A )
Axyz
r r
= v P′ + v P F
r& r r r r
a P = a A + Ω × rP A + Ω × (Ω × rP A )
Consider: r r
- fixed frame OXYZ, r r
+ 2Ω × (r&P A ) + (&r&P A )
r
- translating frame AX’Y’Z’, and
Axyz Axyz
- translating and rotating frame Axyz r r r
or F. = a P′ + a P F + ac

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 61


Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.15
SOLUTION:
• Define a fixed reference frame OXYZ at O
and a moving reference frame Axyz or F
attached to the arm at A.
• With P’ of the moving reference frame
coinciding with P, the velocity of the point
P is found from
r r r
For the disk mounted on the arm, the v P = v P′ + v P F
indicated angular rotation rates are
• The acceleration of P is found from
constant. r r r r
a P = a P′ + a P F + a c
Determine:
• the velocity of the point P, • The angular velocity and angular
• the acceleration of P, and acceleration of the disk are
r r r
• angular velocity and angular ω = Ω +ωD F
acceleration of the disk. r r& r r
α = (ω )F + Ω × ω
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 62
Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.15
SOLUTION:
• Define a fixed reference frame OXYZ at O and a
moving reference frame Axyz or F attached to the
arm at A.
r r r r r
r = L i + Rj rP A = Rj
r r r r
Ω = ω1 j ω D F = ω2k

• With P’ of the moving reference frame coinciding


with P, the velocity of the point P is found from
r r r
v P = v P′ + v P F
r r r r r r r
v P′ = Ω × r = ω1 j × (Li + Rj ) = −ω1L k
r r r r r r
v P F = ω D F × rP A = ω 2 k × Rj = −ω 2 R i
r r r
v P = −ω 2 R i − ω1L k

© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 63


Edition
Eighth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics
Sample Problem 15.15
• The acceleration of P is found from
r r r r
a P = a P′ + a P F + a c
r r r r r 2 r
a P′ = Ω × (Ω × r ) = ω1 j × (− ω1Lk ) = −ω1 Li
r
r r
( r
a P F = ω D F × ω D F × rP A )
r
r r 2 r
= ω 2 k × (− ω 2 R i ) = −ω 2 R j
r r r
a c = 2Ω × v P F
r r r
= 2ω1 j × (− ω 2 R i ) = 2ω1ω 2 Rk
r 2 r 2 r r
a P = −ω1 L i − ω 2 Rj + 2ω1ω 2 Rk
• Angular velocity and acceleration of the disk,
r r r r r r
ω = Ω +ωD F ω = ω1 j + ω 2 k
r r& r r
α = (ω )F + Ω × ω
r r r r
= ω1 j × (ω1 j + ω 2 k )
r
α = ω1ω 2 i
© 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 - 64