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# AE4003 – Sample of Descriptive Questions

## (A) Signal & Systems

A.1 Random signals are non-deterministic. How do you characterize and analyse a non-
deterministic random signal and system?

A.2 What is the mean square value of a random signal E[X2(t)] in terms of its
autocorrelation function RX(τ) and power spectral density function SX(f)?

A.3 How do you characterize the response of a linear system, whose transfer function is
given by T(f), to an input random signal X(t) with the autocorrelation function RX(τ)?

## (B) Basic Ranging Concept

B.1 In 3D ranging, there are three unknowns in the user position coordinates u(xu, yu, zu).
Why do you need at least four signal emitters to resolve u uniquely, even if we assume
that there is no clock bias error for the user measurement equipment?

B.2 In 2D ranging in the horizontal plane, what is the minimum number of signal emitters
to resolve the user location uniquely to a single point, assuming that there are not
measurement errors? If there are errors in the ranging measurements, ranging circles from
each emitter become concentric circles. Where is the expected true location of the user?

B.3 What is the difference between one-way and two-way ranging? What are their

C.1 As a one-way ranging system, how is the sending time of the GPS ranging signal
provided by the signal emitter (GPS satellite) and determined in the GPS receiver?

C.2 If the C/A code is used for the pseudorange measurement, explain why the value
represents the fractional milli-second equivalent of the partial pseudorange distance
between the satellite and the user.

C.3 For pseudorange determination using the PRN code, what is the required property of
the PRN sequence and why is it important for pseudorange determination?

C.4 In principle, the same PRN code with the desired autocorrelation property can be
used for pseudorange measurements from all the GPS satellites. Why is it necessary to
use unique and different PRN code for each satellite in the GPS? What property of the
PRN codes is required besides the autocorrelation property?

C.5 What indication does the GDOP value provide to the users in GPS? Describe the
possible satellite configurations that generally give rise to good and poor GDOP?
C.6 The ECEF coordinate system is chosen for the specification of satellite and user
positions in the GPS. What is the principal difference between the ECEF and the ECF
coordinate systems and why is the ECEF system preferred in the GPS?

C.7 What are the main features of the World Geodetic System WGS-84? Why is it
relevant and useful as a coordinate system in the GPS applications?