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As sanitary engineering students, we have seen a lot of environmental

problems and we are aware that it will clearly affect the future generation of

the Philippines. Currently, cataclysm, widespread flooding, lack of potable

drinking water and water supply, potential water crisis and unorganized

segregation of waste are the most striking challenges that our country is

facing, and it grasps our ability to deem solutions and answers for the

prevention and management of these environmental problems. To address

the environmental situation, we have prepared different specific solutions

focused on a certain problem.


We know that we have implementing rules and regulations, such as PD 856

that should be followed. However, due to the lack of government resources

to properly investigate and process establishments, the tendency is that

people do not update their sanitary permits and many of them do not

segregate their wastes and even throw their untreated solid waste from the

sink directly to the rivers which may potentially clog the drainage systems

and storm water, and eventually flooding. Another reason why they’re doing

this is, a fine of only 1000 pesos will be issued by the person who violated
and neglected to comply the standards, rules and regulations. Undoubtedly,

even a worker with a minimum salary can pay that and it seems it’s only a

centavo for the companies. Our solution here is to update our Sanitation

code of the Philippines and to upgrade the poor enforcement and weak



“CRAB MENTALITY” source: medium.com

The most affecting cause that we need to

emphasize is the Filipino culture. We tend to be have this trait as

“makasarili” . we confidently throw our garbage everywhere, we lack

discipline on segregating our wastes, and we don’t even respect the

cleanliness of an area. We do this because we are assured that someone will

clean that garbage anyway, and we are certain that it won’t affect ourselves


It just seems that the crab mentality trait of

the Filipinos has been hereditarily passed to the next and next generations,

and that’s what it keeps us as a third world country. On the other hand, this

might be the most difficult problem because it is hard to come up with a

solution. I guess, the first step is to admit the we have this trait and simply

adjust to be more cheerful and supportive on others on their great



Currently, we want to deal with the lack of water supply on Metro manila.

According to ABS-CBN news (august 13,2018), it was reported that the

Maynila water Services Inc. said that it reduced water supply in some areas

in Metro Manila due to an increase in sediment content in raw water coming

from the Ipo Dam in Bulacan. Maynilad said reducing production would

enable it to remove increased sediments from the raw water during

treatment before release of potable water to the distribution system. As

stated above, there had been an increase in turbidity of the water. We have

researched that the cause of this high turbidity was that the surface runoff
water had not been filtered from the mountainside. Thus, the nearby

mountains could be deforested and consequentially, it could not help on

filtering the water. As a solution, obviously we can plant more trees and

plants that can help filter the runoff. But that could just be a fleeting

solution. It’s ironic that Philippines couldn’t even have a great water supply

but it is rich and surrounded by many bodies of water. Technically, we need

to invest on new water resources around our area, and do not depend only

on few existing waters works systems. There are a lot of potential water

resources to be built as multipurpose dams for agriculture, water supply and

as a hydroelectric power plant in the Philippines, we just have to work with

bigger companies such as JICA to develop our water works systems.


It is the natural place for a river to dissipate its energy. An area of land

adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel

to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding

during periods of high discharge. Meanders form over the floodplain to slow

down the flow of water and when the channel is at capacity the water spills

over the floodplain where it is temporarily stored. In terms of flood

management, the upper part of the floodplain is crucial as this is where the

flood water control starts.


PVC device that uses the pressure of oncoming water to stabilize itself.

While more expensive than sandbags, it has been proven to be a highly

effective means of containing flood damage. A single person can deploy the

product in a few hours to protect a home, or larger devices can be

purchased to protect entire areas and unrolled trucks.

The product is lighter than sandbags, reusable and doesn’t require filler

material that will be contaminated after use.


Flat sacks contain super absorbent polymer powder that swells on contact with

water to form a solid, heavy barrier.

Dry, inactivated product is lightweight, compact and easy to handle; place in

flood-prone areas when you know water is coming.


FloodBlock is another Lego-like invention that can be interlocked, stacked

and positioned to protect homes and commercial spaces from flooding. The

device is a self-filling crate with foam padding on the bottom creating a seal

which prevents water seeping from underneath. The stacking feature

ensures a minimal footprint when stored away.


In the early seventies, the Philippine government had already started to

evaluate flood mitigation and disaster risk measures after Central Luzon was

struck by severe flooding in 1972 brought by the southwest monsoon. The

result was the Manggahan Floodway-Paranaque Spillway Complex proposal,

studied and conducted by the PPDO, Metro-Manila Ring Development

Project Office, and DPWTC-UPIP-UNDP.

In this plan, the Laguna Lake will act as the initial floodwater container and

the Manila Bay a secondary container. When the Pasig and Marikina rivers

reach critical levels, its excess water is diverted to Laguna Lake through the

Manggahan floodway while the Parañaque spillway will flush out excess

water from Laguna Lake toward Manila Bay to protect the 29 Laguna

lakeshore towns. The two most important elements in this plan are: (1) The

Manggahan floodway and (2) The Parañaque Spillway to be simultaneously

constructed, but only the Floodway was built. The Spillway project would

have cost the government P18 billion (roughly $1 billion). Every time flood

waters are diverted into the Laguna Lake via the Manggahan floodway,

Laguna Lake becomes a toilet without a flush, which was what exactly

happened during the onslaught of typhoon Ondoy, where 4,600 cubic

meters per second of flood waters came down from the mountains and

flooded more than 80,000 hectares of low-lying urban land in Metro Manila

and around Laguna Lake. Singapore, in comparison, has only 71,000 hectares

of land.

1. Building the Spillway from Laguna Lake to Manila Bay.

2. Establish 100-year flood lines and rising water levels, then build higher
than them

3. Control development in areas liable to flooding

4. Encourage new developments and retrofit elevated walkways, sky bridges

that connect buildings above flood waters

5. Focus on solid waste management

6. Reforestation of the catch basins

7. Update Daniel Burnham’s 1905 Plan, 1976-77 MMETROPLAN, and the

2003 Manila Megalopolis Concept Plan 2020

8. Establish an Urban Metropolitan Management Review (too many

overlapping functions among local, metropolitan, regional and national

9. Construct road dikes around Laguna Lake and relocate settlers to higher

10. Make hazard mapping (for earthquakes, floods, fire, and other hazards) a

11. Enforce 10-20 meter easements along rivers and lakes, and 3.5 meter
easements along creeks and esteros.

To prevent flooding due to clogged drainage system, we can use a net for

drainage that can capture gross pollutants and handle powerful stormwater

runoff. A reusable net that can provide a full capture of gross pollutants as

small as 5mm, including organic materials (such as leaves), will be helpful to

prevent clogging of drainages. This kind of economical solution for litter and

debris in stormwater runoff will be highly effective for first flush. The wastes

trapped form the net should be remove after a heavy rain and be

maintained every week or month. To make this “net” more effective we

should have larger drainage system that can support large amount of

stormwater runoff.