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Henley Passport Index

and Global Mobility Report

“More than ever before, migration touches all states and
people in an era of deepening globalization.”

United Nations
World Migration Report 2018

Introduction: Global mobility today 7


Wealth migration 10
Talent migration 11
Forced migration 12
Climate migration 13


The Caribbean 16
Asia Pacific 17
Sub-Saharan Africa 18
The Middle East and North Africa 19
Europe 21
Russia and the CIS 22
The Americas 23


Insights from the Henley Passport Index 26
The 2019 Henley Passport Index 28
The effect of travel freedom on economic growth and democracy 30


Digital identity for refugees and global citizens 34


Founder and Managing Partner of FutureMap, Expert in investor immigration and
a data- and scenario-based strategic advisory citizenship-by-investment and Group
firm headquartered in Singapore Chairman of Henley & Partners


Professor of Economics at Université Clermont Head of Philanthropy and CSR at Henley &
Auvergne (CERDI) and a Research Fellow at the Partners and Executive Director at the Andan
Institute of Labor Economics Foundation


Professor of Climate and Environmental Senior Lecturer in the Department of
Law at the University of Sydney and Director Government at the University of the West
of the Australian Centre for Climate and Indies in Jamaica
Environmental Law


Associate at the Gulf Labour Markets, Migration, Independent consultant to international news
and Population (GLMM) program and a Fellow outlets, publications, and think-tanks and a
at Centre International de Formation des Director at Signal Risk
Copyright © 2019 by Henley & Partners.
Autorités et Leaders (CIFAL)

This report and the individual contributions contained in it LORRAINE CHARLES PROF. FLORIAN TRAUNER
are protected under copyright. No part of this report may Research Associate at the Centre for Business Jean Monnet Chair at the Institute for
be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form or by any Research at the University of Cambridge European Studies and a Visiting Professor at
means without prior written permission. the College of Europe

The H&P monogram and Henley & Partners are among the
registered and unregistered trademarks of Henley & Partners DR . M ARINA SOROKA DR. DIEGO ACOSTA
Holdings Ltd. All rights reserved. Independent scholar and published author Leading expert on global and comparative
whose field of expertise is the history of migration law and Associate Professor in
This report is provided for general information purposes only European international relations Migration Law at the University of Bristol
and can in no way substitute legal or other professional advice.
While the publisher and authors have undertaken great care
in preparing this report, they cannot guarantee its correctness
Managing Partner, a Member of the Researcher in political science at Syracuse
and completeness and make no representation or warranties
Management Board, and Head of Southeast University
with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents
Asia at Henley & Partners
of this report.

Any comments and suggestions, praise and criticism will be ÖMER ZARPLI MONIQUE JEANNE MORROW
gratefully received. If you feel that a particular topic should be Researcher in political science at the President and Co-Founder of The Humanized
added to this report, please let us know via the contact page University of Pittsburgh Internet
on henleyglobal.com

For general information on our other publications and

services, please visit henleyglobal.com


Dr. Parag Khanna is Founder and Managing Partner of FutureMap, a data- and
scenario-based strategic advisory firm headquartered in Singapore.

Migration has become an ever more central issue in world affairs,

both a cause and a consequence of other major themes on the
global agenda, such as economic growth, political instability, and
climate change. We live in a world where all major issues, including
migration, have become by definition cross-border.
Fiscal crises and high unemployment have depend. Indeed, America’s and Britain’s loss is
pushed southern Europeans to northern Europe, proving to be Canada’s and Australia’s gain, as they
the Gulf cities, and the Far East, while state and others maintain openness through transparent The world has had to
failure in the Arab world and Africa has drawn migration programs. proactively develop
political and economic migrants to Europe in coordinated and
droves. The more intense these challenges have Furthermore, major regions such as Asia are pragmatic migration
become over the past year, the more the world becoming ever more pragmatic in their migration policies, and the
has had to proactively develop coordinated and policies. The aging societies of Northeast Asia same will be true in
pragmatic migration policies, and the same will — Japan, China, and South Korea — are all the years ahead.
be true in the years ahead. importing more laborers and talented migrants
than ever before, both from one another and
European politics continued to be dominated from the younger societies of Southeast Asia.
by migration-related rhetoric in 2018, with China’s Thousand Talents scheme, Thailand’s
Brexit moving forward despite mounting entrepreneur visa, and similar initiatives from
evidence that the UK’s National Health Service Qatar to Singapore show Asian states sustaining
and other public institutions are suffering a high comfort level with mutually beneficial
manpower shortages. In Germany, the Christian economic migration. The long-term demographic
Democratic Union suffered badly in multiple realities that make migration
crucial for developed Western
provincial elections at the hands of the anti- Migration, then, is an exemplar of a broader societies:
immigration Alternative für Deutschland (AfD), ideological divergence that contrasts the approaches
even though net new refugee inflows have of engagement and isolation. Consider how with
been drastically reduced. Sweden and Italy respect to Iran, Russia, and North Korea, the US
also experienced populist political turns, while has sought sanctions as the primary instrument of
2019 will witness elections for the European Aging populations
leverage, while Asian and most European nations
Parliament that are already being billed as a prefer engagement.
referendum on European migration policy.
But these geopolitical tensions will not be
In America, the Trump administration’s continued resolved by competing approaches working Increasingly diverse industries
reduction of the inflows of both skilled migrants at cross-purposes. In matters of diplomatic
(through the H-1B program) and refugees tension, climate change, counter-terrorism, and
and asylum seekers remains a core part of the organized crime — and most certainly migration
president’s political agenda. — pragmatic coordination is the lesson to be
learned from the preceding year and, hopefully,
But the situation in Europe and America should to be applied in the year ahead. Shrinking tax bases
not cloud our vision of the long-term demographic
realities that all but necessitate that Western
societies absorb more migrants, on whom their
aging populations, diverse industries, and tax bases

Part 1




Dr. Christian H. Kälin is an expert in investor immigration and citizenship-by- Prof. Simone Bertoli is Professor of Economics at Université Clermont Auvergne (CERDI)
investment and Group Chairman of Henley & Partners. in France and a Research Fellow at the Institute of Labor Economics in Germany.

Wealth and talent will go where they are wanted and stay where they Uncertainty was a key factor for highly educated and highly skilled migrants
are well treated. Today that adage — attributed to legendary banker in 2018, and it will remain so in 2019. A major destination country, the
Walter Wriston — is truer than ever. Some 95,000 high-net-worth UK, is still involved in negotiations regarding its status after 29 March
individuals migrated in 2017 (the latest year for which data is available), 2019 — the date that will (or ought to) mark its exit from the EU.
up from 82,000 in 2016 and 64,000 the year before — ample evidence
The future status of EU nationals in the UK is still In other cases, however, mobility opportunities
that the migration of wealth around the globe continues to accelerate. unclear, and the attractiveness of this destination for are actually being reduced. The US Citizens
talented individuals could substantially deteriorate; and Immigration Services decided in 2018 to While highly
There are an estimated 18.2 million high-net- Flows go both ways, however, and there has been
indeed, net migration flows from the EU to the UK limit the availability of premium (that is, fast- educated and
worth individuals on the planet (defined as a noticeable and significant increase in appetite
Wealthy individuals have plummeted over the past two years. track) petitions-processing for H-1B visas, highly skilled
those with assets of at least USD 1 million), among wealthy individuals in both Europe and
tend to have the which (in exchange for an additional fee) allows individuals may
and their collective wealth has now surpassed the US for access to residence- and citizenship-
skills, knowledge, British academic institutions fear a decline in their applications to be dealt with within two weeks. feel pushed out of
the USD 70 trillion mark. That number also by-investment programs in other nations — a
capacity — and ability to recruit scholars, given the loss of access This change will make life harder for H-1B visa traditional migration
continues to grow and is projected to exceed trend that is set to increase. More broadly, overall
capital — that to EU sources of funding — such as European holders seeking to accept job offers from alternate destinations, they
USD 100 trillion by 2025. The migration of demand for a second passport continued to grow
can increase an Research Council (ERC) grants — that have employers, as it leaves them unsure about whether are receiving a very
these individuals is particularly beneficial for in 2018: more than a third of global ultra-high-
economy’s overall traditionally represented a lifeline for them in a their new position will allow them to maintain warm welcome in
the nations they move to. Nearly half of the net-worth individuals (those with a net worth
wealth and standard context of declining funding from national sources. their visa status. other parts of world.
17 countries that saw the biggest percentage exceeding USD 30 million) already hold one, and
of living. (Scholars based in the UK obtained almost 20% of
increases in wealth from 2016 to 2017 were another 29% are planning to obtain one.
all the 4,202 ERC grants allocated between 2007 As with the UK, uncertainty will in this case act
assisted by inflows of wealthy people.
95,000 and 2018.) Similarly, London’s finance sector as a brake on mobility. Because the new policy
In addition to the larger economies taking in 82,000
64,000 could lose a substantial part of its appeal, and other ties talented foreign workers more closely to
China, India, Turkey, and the UK saw the biggest wealthy individuals, several smaller nations —
European countries (notably, France, Germany, and their initial employer, it could indirectly reduce
outflows of such individuals in 2017. Safety, Cyprus, Malta, Mauritius, Monaco, and Portugal 2015 2016 2017
Ireland) could decide to strengthen policy measures the attractiveness of the US labor market for
financial stability, high taxes, and religious or among them — also saw significant wealth inflows Number of HNWIs migrating
per year to attract financial sector workers. these individuals.
political tensions are a few of the factors driving in 2017. Several of these nations are benefiting
these wealthy citizens abroad. According to the from residence- and citizenship-by-investment
A substantial part of the prevailing uncertainty The increasingly lengthy and uncertain Intense competition to attract
2017 Knight Frank Wealth Report, demand for programs. Malta, for example, saw a 12% increase
relates to whether other countries will decide to processing time for H-1B visa petitions in the the best and the brightest will
new nationalities is highest from China, Russia, in its ultra-wealthy population in 2016, primarily be a likely outcome of Brexit
engage in a competition to grab the ‘low-hanging US stands in contrast to the measures that
and the Middle East, with around four-fifths of due to its citizenship-by-investment program.
fruit’ represented by those talented migrants who China, for example, is currently trying to
visas under the US EB-5 residence-by-investment
are reconsidering their decision to move to (or to implement. The country’s newly introduced
program going to Chinese nationals. Such programs account for about one in five
remain in) the UK, either through fiscal incentives China Talent (R) Visa program is characterized Sources:
wealthy individual migrations, though this Anderson, Stuart. 2018. ‘Who
The percentage of UHNWIs or by increasing their ability to recruit scholars by the complete absence of application fees and
Millionaires looking for residence or citizenship number excludes individuals who gain citizenship who hold a second passport or
Will Be Hurt by the Latest
plan to obtain one
beyond the standard national procedures. is expected to allow applications submitted by USCIS Decision on H-1B Visas?’
in alternative jurisdictions are seeking better in a second country but do not take residence, as Forbes. 5 September 2018.
talented foreign workers to be processed within
schools, lower crime rates, and more abundant well as those who move globally among several ‘EU Financial Centres Vie to
The lack of coordination of immigration policies a few working days. Poach Tens of Thousands of
business opportunities. They are finding these residences. Including such individuals would Sources:
City Jobs’. 2017. The Guardian.
Capgemini. 2018. World Wealth among EU member states — as well as the limited
conditions in nations such as Australia, the US, show an even larger impact on global wealth 3 April 2017.
Report 2018. nature of outreach efforts to attract skilled In short, while highly educated and highly skilled
and Canada, which topped the list of wealthy trends from the investment migration industry. ‘Figures on the EU Blue
Karlgaard, Rich. 2009.
immigrants, such as the so-called EU Blue Card, individuals may feel pushed out of traditional Card’. 2016. Federal Office
individual inflows in 2017. In the case of Britain, ‘Wriston’s Law Still Holds’. for Migration and Refugees
Forbes. 6 August 2009. which closely resembles a German-only policy migration destinations, they are receiving a very (Germany). 30 November 2016.
Brexit and the concerns associated with it have Wealth is clearly on the move globally, now more
Knight Frank Research. 2018. instrument — suggests that intense competition warm welcome in other parts of world, where ‘Immigration Worries Drove
slightly reversed the flow of wealthy individuals in than ever. Wealthy individuals tend to have the The Wealth Report: The Global the Brexit Vote. Then Attitudes
Perspective on Prime Property to attract the best and the brightest will be a likely economic and career opportunities might one day
recent years, although the UK Tier 1 Investor Visa skills, knowledge, capacity — and capital — that and Investment. 12th Edition.
Changed’. 2018. The Washington
outcome of Brexit. Such an outcome could improve even eclipse those offered by countries such as the Post. 16 November 2018.
Program remained popular until its temporary can increase an economy’s overall wealth and New World Wealth. 2018.
Global Wealth Migration Review.
mobility opportunities for highly educated and UK and US. Junlu, Jiang and Liu Chang
suspension in December 2018. standard of living. Attracting and keeping them King. 2018. ‘New Rules on the
Wealth-X. 2018. The World highly talented individuals. R Visa’. China Law Insight. 16
are critical to nations seeking those outcomes.
Ultra Wealth Report 2018. January 2018.

10 11


Paola De Leo is Head of Philanthropy and CSR at Henley & Partners and Executive Prof. Rosemary Lyster is Professor of Climate and Environmental Law at the University
Director at the Andan Foundation. of Sydney and Director of the Australian Centre for Climate and Environmental Law.

In attempting to communicate the scale and severity of the global forced The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Global Warming
displacement crisis, numbers and statistics are the most obvious place of 1.5°C report estimates that global temperatures are 1.0°C above
to begin. We know that, worldwide, there are currently more than 68.5 pre-industrial levels, while warming is likely to reach 1.5°C between
million people who have been forcibly displaced by war and internal 2030 and 2052.
conflict — slightly more than the population of the UK, and slightly less
Meanwhile, the World Economic Forum’s that countries adopt the following measures:
than the population of Thailand. Global Risks Report 2018 identifies the following implement legislation, policies, and strategies
top nine global risks, in descending order: to avert, minimize, and address displacement, Estimates about
According to a report released by the UN Refugee to spend your entire adult life in a camp and to see the scale of climate
weapons of mass destruction; extreme weather taking human rights into consideration; map,
Agency (UNHCR), 40 million of those people your imaginative horizons diminishing. They give displacement vary
Because of conflict, events; natural disasters; failure of climate understand, and manage human mobility;
are internally displaced, while 28.5 million of us no real understanding of what it feels like to leave from 25 million
persecution, or change mitigation and adaptation; water crises; strengthen preparedness, including early
them have fled their countries. Half of those a country of first asylum, where merely surviving people at the
generalized violence, cyber-attacks; food crises; biodiversity loss and warning systems, contingency planning,
28.5 million people are children. Excluding those is difficult, and embark on a second migration, a conservative end,
31 people are forced ecosystem collapse; and large-scale involuntary evacuation planning, and resilience building;
defined as long-term Palestinian refugees, over journey that will leave home even further behind. to 1 billion in the
to leave their homes migration. Seven are likely to be influenced by integrate human mobility into national planning
two-thirds come from five countries in the world: middle, to 2 billion
every single minute climate change, which, combined with other processes; protect internally displaced persons;
Somalia, Myanmar, South Sudan, Afghanistan, Finally, and perhaps most importantly, they tell at the high end.
of every single day. drivers, already results in climate migration. and facilitate the orderly, safe, and responsible
and Syria. 85% of all forcibly displaced people are us nothing about hope. Not the illusory hope
migration and mobility of people, by enhancing
being hosted in developing countries such as Iran, offered by empty bromides about the resilience
25.4 million 3.1 million However, climate change is also causing forcible opportunities for regular migration pathways.
Lebanon, Pakistan, Uganda, and Turkey. of the human spirit, but the real hope created by refugees asylum seekers
displacement following extreme weather events
meaningful international partnerships, innovation,
(such as cyclones) or slow-onset events (such as Meanwhile, the UN Global Compact for
This last statistic is perhaps especially noteworthy, and constant adaptation. Since 2016, the UN has
drought or sea-level rise). Climate migration or Migration, including climate-induced migration,
given the occasionally disproportionate attention been appealing to governments, the private sector, 68.5 displacement may be temporary or permanent, aims to mitigate the factors that hinder people
Extreme weather events (such as
cyclones) and slow-onset events
paid to developed countries’ response to the and civil society to join hands in a global effort million*
and internal or across borders. The 2016 Global from building and maintaining sustainable (such as rising sea levels) are
forced displacement crisis. Every one of the to develop a coordinated approach to migration. causing forced displacement
Report on Internal Displacement found that, livelihoods in their countries of origin; reduce
figures surrounding this crisis has the capacity to On 10 December 2018, the Global Compact for
worldwide, there are twice as many people the risks that migrants face, by protecting their
stop us in our tracks, however: 727,000 Rohingya
refugees driven from Myanmar into Bangladesh
Migration — the first international agreement on
the movement of people — was finally signed by
40 million
internally displaced displaced internally as across borders. human rights; and create conditions that enable
migrants to enrich society through their human,
*Total number of forcibly
in 100 days; 2.8 million children displaced within 164 nations. displaced people worldwide
The percentage of
But are people who cross borders ‘climate economic, and social capacities.
Syria. Among other things, these figures show people displaced
refugees’? A refugee is defined under the 1951
that we are living through a displacement crisis The private sector plays an increasingly prominent internally compared
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 2018 was an important year in terms of
for which there is no precedent. role in offering creative solutions to the refugee to across borders
50% as a person who has a well-founded fear of international recognition for the plight of CDPs.
crisis. In 2015, for instance, entrepreneur Hamdi
being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, The recommendations of both the Task Force Sources:
Because of conflict, persecution, or generalized Ulukaya spearheaded a collaboration among 100 The percentage of the global
refugee and asylum seeker nationality, membership in a particular social on Displacement and the UN Global Compact Bodansky, Daniel, Jutta
violence, 31 people are forced to leave their homes international brands in offering employment to population comprised by Brunnee, and Lavanya
group, or political opinion. Consequently, the should result in far better protections for them Rajamani. 2017. International
every minute of every day. It is critical to take note over 200,000 refugees. Technology, too, is playing children
Climate Change Law. Oxford:
International Organization for Migration’s in the future.
of these sobering figures, but it is equally critical to an instrumental role. From the employment of Oxford University Press.
term ‘climate-displaced persons’ (CDPs) is Intergovernmental Panel on
bear in mind that numbers and statistics can only refugees within the digital industry, to training Climate Change. 2018. Global
UNHCR. 2016. ‘Global Trends: now preferred. Warming of 1.5°C.
ever provide a partial insight into what forcibly programs in coding schools, to the stunning Forced Displacement in 2015’.
World Economic Forum. 2018.
displaced people face, and into what they overcome. efforts to digitize personal documentation through 20 June 2016. Global Risks Report 2018:
UNHCR. 2016. ‘Internally
Estimates about the scale of climate displacement 13th Edition.
blockchain applications, we are witnessing
Displaced People’. 7 July 2016. vary from “25 million at the conservative Internal Displacement
For instance, none of these figures tell us what it is remarkable examples of how humanitarian efforts UNHCR. 2017. ‘100 Days of Monitoring Centre. 2016.
end, to 1 billion in the middle, and 2 billion Global Report on Internal
like to come to the painful conclusion that you have are changing to meet the complex demands of Horror and Hope: A Timeline
of the Rohingya Crisis’. 5 at the high end”. To better protect CDPs,
run out of options, and that there is nothing left to the 21st century. As long as we are willing to do December 2017. International Organization
the Task Force on Displacement, mandated for Migration. 2008. ‘Climate
do but leave your home, your town, or even your what we can to expand our understanding, there UNHCR. 2018. ‘Global Trends: Change and Migration:
Forced Displacement in 2017’. under the Paris Agreement, has recommended Improving Methodologies to
country. They tell us nothing about what it is like is always hope.
25 June 2018. Estimate Flows’.

12 13
Part 2


Froilan Malit is an Associate at the Gulf Labour Markets, Migration, and
Dr. Suzette Haughton is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Government at the
Population (GLMM) program and a Fellow at Centre International de Formation
University of the West Indies in Jamaica.
des Autorités et Leaders (CIFAL) Philippines.

For both economic and personal reasons, migration is an appealing In Asia Pacific, international migration and mobility have become
prospect for some Caribbean citizens. Intra-Caribbean and international increasingly more complex, dynamic, and diverse, shaping the
migration remain pronounced features of Caribbean migration patterns. overall social, economic, and demographic conditions in the region.
Intra-Caribbean migrants are those nationals who travel from their The UN estimated in 2017 that there were 80 million international
countries to others within the Caribbean region for employment purposes. migrants in the countries and areas comprising Asia Pacific.
An important example of this form of the US and Canada on these countries’ guest International migration has strengthened labor These irregular migration flows are characterized
migration involves the movement of Cuban worker schemes. These migrants obtain seasonal market mobility, remittances, and trade across by mixed legal migration issues (visa overstays,
doctors and nurses to Anglophone Caribbean employment in the US and Canada as hotel Intra-Caribbean and Asia Pacific. For example, the Philippines has cross-border movement) and they are also, to a
states, where they work in hospitals in these and agricultural workers. Similarly, university international short- obtained USD 33 billion in remittances from certain extent, facilitated by global smugglers.
migration has not
countries. Cuba–Caribbean health agreements students from Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, stay migration will migrants, while other countries in the region Irregular migration flows in Asia Pacific have
only helped stabilize
support intra-Caribbean labor force migration and Barbados have also obtained summer probably remain — including China (USD 64 billion), Pakistan contributed to the rising number of migrants
economic growth in
by minimizing the shortage of health care employment in the US through work and study stable in 2019, but (USD 20 billion), and India (USD 69 billion) in detention and deportation centers across
Asia Pacific but also
professionals in the region. programs, where their services are utilized in the return migration — have likewise received remittances that have the region and pose bilateral and multilateral
enabled many labor-
food industry. may be hampered by been vital to their economies. challenges for governments seeking more effective
sending countries
International migration has negatively impacted economic and safety and humane migration-governance responses.
to sustain strong
the pool of doctors and nurses in the Caribbean The UK and the US have also provided concerns in the Due to the economic contribution of migration
economic growth,
region. Some doctors and nurses from Jamaica, scholarship opportunities to students from the region. to development, countries such as Pakistan, Refugees and displaced citizens also play an
even in times of
Barbados, and Trinidad and Tobago have opted English-speaking Caribbean through the UK India, and Sri Lanka have strategically invested important role in Asia Pacific migration —
to exploit opportunities in developed countries Commonwealth, Chevening, and Fulbright in skills training and qualification programs Pakistan and the Islamic Republic of Iran alone 20
— namely, the US, the UK, and Canada — scholarship programs. These annual scholarship for workers seeking employment elsewhere host 2.7 million Afghan refugees — but many Pakistan

because health care facilities in these countries opportunities are popular avenues through which in Asia Pacific or the Gulf, in a bid to enhance countries in Asia Pacific have still not ratified 33
are equipped with modernized technologies, and people from the Caribbean enter those countries these workers’ productivity and wages. Overall, the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of The Philippines

compensation packages are better. as short-stay migrants for academic purposes. international migration has not only helped Refugees. Existing resettlement programs in 64
The number of
stabilize economic growth in Asia Pacific but also the US, Australia, and European countries have China
Jamaicans who have 69
Further, demographic factors and developed Another trend in the region is that of return enabled many labor-sending South and Southeast proved extremely limited. Moreover, more and
obtained Canadian India
countries’ policies have facilitated the migration migration. Short-stay migrants normally return to Asian countries to sustain strong economic more second-generation migrants find themselves
residence through Total remittances received
of citizens from the Caribbean region. For their countries once their seasonal employment growth, even in times of crisis. with an irregular status (having no national
the Express Entry from migrants working abroad
example, Canada’s aging population and the or scholarships end. Additionally, some identity or international travel documents), which (in USD billion)
increased demand for state spending on senior- Caribbean migrants who have been naturalized Low-skilled temporary migration has become poses the risk of their potential statelessness.
related programs, coupled with reduced tax as citizens in developed countries have returned an essential feature of the Asia Pacific region. ASEAN Secretariat. 2016.
revenues, have factored into the government’s to their countries of birth to retire. In Jamaica, In fact, international migratory paths to Brunei While international migration in Asia Pacific ‘ASEAN Consensus on the
Protection and Promotion of the
decision to extend Canada’s immigration through a special program has been established to assist Darussalam, Malaysia, the Republic of Korea, has produced ongoing policy challenges, it Rights of Migrant Workers’.
the Express Entry program. Immigration, returning residents with their resettlement. Singapore, and Thailand mainly involve low- has also generated multiple opportunities for Colombo Process. 2018.
Latin American and Caribbean ‘The Pilot Project on Skill
Refugees, and Citizenship Canada — the Regional Preparatory Meeting skilled, single migrants working predominantly governments to deepen diplomatic relations and Development, Certification,
immigration department of the Government of The 2019 outlook for the Caribbean region of International Migration in highly segmented low-skill or low-status address migration issues. The current ASEAN Upgrading, and Recognition’.
Experts on the Global
Canada — has reported that, between January is that migration in all its forms is likely to Compact for Safe, Orderly, jobs that are often masculinized (for example, Consensus on the Protection and Promotion of International Organization for
and Regular Migration. 2017. Migration. 2017. ‘Asia and the
2015 and May 2018, 1,470 Jamaicans obtained continue. Intra-Caribbean and international Santiago de Chile. 30–31
construction) and feminized (for example, Migrant Workers was signed in 2017 to deal with Pacific’.
Canadian permanent residence by applying to short-stay migration will probably remain stable, August 2017. domestic work and nursing). migration governance and protection issues. The Refugee Council. 2018. ‘Refugee
Protection in the Asia-Pacific’.
this program. but the resettlement of retirees through return Thompson, Kimon. 2018. ongoing Colombo Process pilot initiatives in skills
‘Jamaicans Flocking to UN DESA. 2017. International
migration may be hampered by economic and Canada’. The Jamaica Irregular migration remains a major dimension recognition and certification, recruitment, and Migration Report.
Short-stay international migration continues to safety concerns in the region. Observer. 10 September 2018. of migration in Asia Pacific, which hosts the migration technology have guided governments in World Bank. 2018. ‘Migration
‘35 Trained Cuban Doctors and Remittances: Recent
be a major trend among residents of Caribbean Assigned to SERHA’. 2013.
world’s largest flow of undocumented migrants, addressing labor violations in origin, transit, and Developments and Outlook’.
countries. Some Jamaicans have travelled to The Jamaica Observer. 12 who mostly originate from neighboring countries. destination countries within the region. Migration and Development
September 2013. Brief 29.

16 17


Ryan Cummings is an independent consultant to international news outlets, Lorraine Charles is a Research Associate at the Centre for Business Research at the
publications, and think-tanks and a Director at Signal Risk. University of Cambridge.

Conflict-induced forced migration has long defined population Migration in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has
movement in Sub-Saharan Africa, and this remained the case in long been dominated by regional conflicts and their attendant refugee
2018. Ongoing intra-state conflict in Cameroon, the Central African crises — a trend that prevailed in 2018 and is set to continue into 2019.
Republic (CAR), the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Mali, The large numbers of refugees coming from Syria, Palestine, and other
and South Sudan — and associated socio-economic ills such as countries in the region have placed economic strain on host communities
famine — largely accounts for the estimated 6.3 million refugees — particularly because the MENA countries where the majority of
currently living in Sub-Saharan Africa. refugees are hosted tend to be middle- or low-income economies.
Looking ahead to 2019, elections in the DRC the creation of the World Trade Organization. Since the international funding that provides international financial assistance, via multilateral
and the spread of extremist violence from Known as the African Continental Free Trade assistance for refugees continually falls short of organizations and INGOs, is needed to support
northern Mali to the country’s more populated Area (ACFTA), the initiative authorizes signatory
The development requirements, host countries, forced to use their refugee-hosting economies and, thereby, improve
The global private
south and central zones could lead to further states to remove tariffs from 90% of goods,
of key economic national budgets, are struggling to meet even the the lives of both refugee and host populations.
sector has the
forced migration from these two states. allowing free access to commodities, goods, and
sectors across the basic needs of the growing numbers of refugees
potential to provide
services across the continent.
continent is creating within their borders. The global private sector can play a key role in
A number of positive developments that took
opportunities to supporting refugees, both by mobilizing financial
remotely to hundreds
shape in 2018 have the potential to change Concomitant with this agreement, which is set
absorb the plentiful The economic challenges arising from this resources quickly and by providing a level of
of thousands of
some of these long-standing patterns, however. to increase intra-African trade by 52% by 2022,
labor resources that situation include rising public debt, decreasing expertise and innovation that generally cannot
Notably, warring parties in South Sudan reached has been a commitment by member states to lift
Sub-Saharan Africa GDP, high unemployment rates, declining job be matched by humanitarian actors. The global
a negotiated settlement in September 2018, entry requirements for fellow Africans, in order
has to offer. opportunities, and increasing levels of poverty private sector is also an important source of
formally ending the country’s five-year-long civil to maximize the economic dividends accrued in developing refugee-hosting countries. On the employment. Through its channeling of foreign
war. In addition, stabilizing political conditions
could see the return of displaced populations
from the ACFTA and other associated pan-
African trade deals. 52%
other hand, the Turkish economy has generally
been boosted by the influx of new businesses
direct investment to refugee-hosting countries,
for example, jobs can be created locally for both
from countries such as Uganda and Sudan and an from Syria: 7,000 companies have been founded refugee and host communities.
The number of
The increase in Turkish companies
overall reversal in the region’s migration trends. Economic benefits remain a significant driver intra-African trade or co-founded by Syrians in Turkey since 2011,
of migration in Africa. The initiation or though this economic growth slowed in 2018. In addition, by employing responsible business founded or co-
predicted to occur founded by Syrians
This would build upon an emerging trend in East development of key economic sectors across the by 2022 as a result practices — such as mandating that a particular
Africa, linked to the stabilization of Somalia and continent, and indeed outside of it, is creating Refugee-hosting countries generally enforce proportion of jobs be allocated to refugees or since 2011
of the African
the return of displaced communities residing in opportunities to absorb the plentiful labor Continental Free protectionist labor laws that restrict refugees that employment adhere strictly to local labor
the country’s neighboring states. Also within resources that Sub-Saharan Africa has to offer. Trade Area from fully accessing the domestic labor market. laws — the private sector could provide dignified
the Horn of Africa, the unprecedented decision This is particularly the case in the hydrocarbon In Lebanon and Jordan, Syrian refugees only livelihoods to refugees, as well as to members of
Building Markets. 2018.
by Ethiopia and Eritrea to end an almost two- sector, where an increased demand for oil is have the right to work and acquire work permits host communities. ‘Turkish–Syrian Business
Sources: Partnerships: A Nascent
decade-long political impasse has resulted in increasing production of the commodity and in limited sectors (agriculture and construction). Opportunity’. June 2018.
‘IOM Trends Analysis: Most
a marked increase in bilateral migration across creating employment opportunities. Horn of Africa Migrants Move Palestinian refugees also have restricted access Because local MENA economies cannot absorb Charles, Lorraine. 2017. ‘How
the countries’ erstwhile disputed borders. These within Region’. 2018. Relief to the labor market in Lebanon. In Turkey, the full number of refugees who need jobs, there Remote Work Could Help
Web. 9 November 2018. Refugees’. World Economic
movements are expected to only continue in Similarly, the development of nascent industries Kuti, Dela. 2018. ‘Africa Could
while Syrian refugees are allowed to work in is an urgent need for a scalable, sustainable, and Forum. 22 November 2017.
2019, as East African states strengthen the social, in countries such as Kenya, Mozambique, and Be the World’s Next Big Oil any sector, employment is restricted by a quota replicable model for job creation. The global Crisis Group. 2018. ‘Turkey’s
and Gas Energy Play’. How Syrian Refugees: Defusing
political, and economic ties between them. even Zimbabwe could go a long way in not We Made It in Africa. 10 May set by the government (namely, one Syrian for private sector has the potential to provide Metropolitan Tensions’.
only addressing unemployment within these 2018. every ten Turkish employees). This has meant employment remotely, via technology and the Ghazal, Mohammad. 2018.
The easing of restrictions between Ethiopia and jurisdictions, but also attracting unskilled and Runde, Daniel. 2018. ‘What that many refugees are under-employed or work internet, and can potentially provide jobs to ‘Syrian Refugee Population
Peace in Eritrea Means for Increases Slightly Last Year’.
Eritrea can be seen as a microcosm of a wider semi-skilled workers from beyond their borders. Forced Migration’. Centre for informally, often earning less than the minimum hundreds of thousands of MENA-based refugees. The Jordan Times. 19 February
Strategic and International 2018.
trend toward greater economic inclusion in Sub- wage in sub-standard working conditions.
Studies. 12 July 2018. UNHCR. 2018. ‘Funding
Saharan Africa. In March 2018, for instance, Signe, Landry. 2018. ‘Why With the appropriate level of political will, the Shortfall Risks Critical
African states promulgated the world’s largest Africa’s Free Trade Area The plight of refugees in the MENA region will impact that the private sector could have on the Humanitarian Response for
Offers So Much Promise’. The Syrian Refugees, Internally
and most profitable free-trade agreement since Conversation. 26 March 2018. continue to be a challenge in 2019. Greater refugee crises in the MENA region is significant. Displaced’.

18 19


Prof. Florian Trauner is Jean Monnet Chair at the Institute for European Studies at
the Free University of Brussels. He is also a Visiting Professor at the College of Europe.

In 2018, migration continued to be a polarizing and salient issue in

Europe. The EU persisted in negotiating the reform of its migration
and asylum policies, initiated in the wake of the refugee crisis that
started in 2015. The strengthening of Frontex, the EU’s Border and
Coast Guard Agency, was a key element of the EU’s move to curb
unwanted migration. The EU intends to increase the agency’s staff
count from 1,500 in 2018 to 10,000 border guards by 2020.
Reinforced EU border controls, in addition to on a number of controversial policies, including
intensified cooperation with transit countries the denial of docking rights to vessels carrying
such as Turkey and Libya, have made it more rescued migrants. The conditions in Greece, with
The prospect of
difficult for undocumented migrants to arrive seriously overcrowded refugee camps on some
European Parliament
on European soil. With about 40,000 to 50,000 Greek islands, also caused public concern.
elections in May
asylum applications being submitted per month,
2019 will make the
the EU has reached numbers comparable to the Throughout 2018, the EU’s emphasis was
reform of EU asylum
years prior to the refugee crisis. more on controlling irregular migration than
and migration
on developing pathways for legal migration.
policies even more
Irrespective of the decreasing numbers of Supported by the Commission, some member
difficult to achieve.
applications, the question of how to distribute states developed legal migration pilot projects
asylum seekers within the EU has regularly caused with selected African countries, albeit on a modest
controversy. According to Eurostat data for the scale. Other efforts by the Commission to enhance 167,190
first six months of 2018, three out of four asylum legal pathways into the EU — for instance, by October 2015

applications in the EU-28 were made in only reforming the EU’s Blue Card Directive — were 6,400
five countries (Greece, Italy, Spain, France, and not supported by member states. The political August 2018
Germany). The European Commission sought climate for developing a proactive EU migration Number of asylum applications
to tackle this imbalance by adding a mandatory policy was, overall, unfavorable. received per month in the EU

relocation quota for asylum seekers to the EU’s

Dublin system. However, this proposal was met The trends observed in 2018 are likely to
with fierce political opposition, in particular in continue in 2019. The next elections to the Sources:
Eastern Europe. European Parliament will take place in May Eurostat. 2018. ‘Asylum and
First-Time Asylum Applicants
2019. The prospect of an election will make the by Citizenship, Age, and Sex:
The reform of the Dublin system proved reform of EU asylum and migration policies even Monthly Data (Rounded)’.
difficult to achieve in 2018, even if the issue more difficult to achieve. As a matter of fact, the
European Commission.
of European burden-sharing continued to be EU will most likely focus on stopping irregular 2018. Progress Report on
the Implementation of
relevant in national elections. Populist and migration, in order to prevent migration from the European Agenda on
anti-migration parties gained electoral support becoming the overbearing issue of the campaign. Migration. COM(2018), 301.
in the Italian general and German regional
Niemann, Arne and Natascha
elections, contributing to German Chancellor Zaun. 2018. ‘Special Issue: EU
Angela Merkel stepping down as party leader of Refugee Policies and Politics
in Times of Crisis’. Journal of
the Christian Democratic Union in December. Common Market Studies 56,
no. 1 (2018): 1–205.
In Italy, the anti-migrant party known as ‘the
Ripoll Servent, Ariadna and
League’ formed a coalition government with Florian Trauner (eds.). 2018.
the anti-establishment Five Star Movement. The Routledge Handbook
of Justice and Home Affairs
The League’s leader, Matteo Salvini, embarked Research. London: Routledge.



Dr. Marina Soroka is an independent scholar and published author whose field of Dr. Diego Acosta is a leading international expert on global and comparative migration
expertise is the history of European international relations. law and is Associate Professor in Migration Law at the University of Bristol.

Russia’s economy, although not fully recovered since 2014, continues Migration and mobility in Latin America in 2018 were almost
to outperform the stagnant regions from which a largely under- exclusively dominated by the emigration of thousands of Venezuelans
qualified young male workforce pours in. This influx of foreign to other countries in the region, with the addition of around 50,000
workers, in turn, has proved critical to maintaining economic Nicaraguans applying for asylum in Costa Rica. According to
productivity in the face of high emigrant outflows. estimates offered by the International Organization for Migration
in November 2018, the number of refugees and migrants from
Russia’s pivotal position in Central Eurasia, Russian media agencies regularly publish
its comparatively lenient migration laws, and, encouraging stories about Russian migrants
Venezuela worldwide has already reached three million people.
frequently, the absence of a language barrier worldwide. According to Russian statistics, about
With Russia’s labor
market poised to 80% of this number are now residing in Latin end of October that the country will not continue
virtually guarantee that Russia will remain 60,000 Russians emigrate annually, but the data
shrink even further America and the Caribbean, with Colombia to offer residence permits. Since migration flows
the largest migrant recipient in 2019 for the is unverifiable because Russians are not required
in 2019, the need (around one million), Peru (approximately half will continue, this move might lead to numerous
Domestic courts will
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) to declare that they have emigrated. Besides, the for migrant workers emerge as important
a million), Ecuador (around 220,000), and individuals ending up with undocumented status,
and Ukraine, as well as a popular destination for issue is politically sensitive, as it is in Ukraine, remains critical. actors in the attempt
Argentina and Chile (over 100,000) having increasing the risk of situations of exploitation.
Vietnamese, Chinese, Indian, North Korean, and where over one million people left the country to maintain some
received the largest number of Venezuelans. of the advances
Turkish workers. each year between 2014 and 2017.
Second, the region will see the emergence of in migration
Kyrgyz 250,000 The legal responses of Latin American and domestic courts as important actors in the liberalization that
Despite a downward trend in migrant inflows, With Russia’s labor market poised to shrink even
Caribbean countries to the arrival of Venezuelans attempt to maintain some of the advances in have been made
between January and September 2018 Russia further in 2019, the need for migrant workers
Ukrainians 347,000 can generally be characterized as open, although migration liberalization — notably regarding the since the turn of the
received over 3.4 million Uzbeks, 1.7 million remains critical. The further aging of the
with some caveats. While most countries in the free movement of regional migrants — that have century.
Tajiks, 347,000 Ukrainians, and almost 250,000 Russian population without an ongoing influx of
region (with exceptions such as Trinidad and been made since the turn of the century. Courts
Kyrgyz, with migrants from other regions falling migrants may leave entire peripheral regions of Tajiks 1,700,000
Tobago) are trying to offer residence permits have already played important roles in 2018 in
far behind these numbers. the country depopulated. Migrants tend to flow
to Moscow, St. Petersburg, and other large cities. Uzbeks 3,400,000
— so as to avoid situations of undocumented
residence, which could lead to possible
places like Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Argentina,
and Chile.
Nearly half of Russia’s estimated 10–12 million According to the migration policy guidelines Migrant inflows to Russia,
exploitation — typically such permits are only The number of
January–September 2018
migrants are illegal. Registration procedures for for 2019–2025, migrants will soon be directed
applicable to certain categories of Venezuelans Third, the arrival of Jair Bolsonaro to the Venezuelans who
foreigners were tightened as of 31 December to under-populated Siberian and Far Eastern
(for example, those arriving after a certain Presidency of Brazil in early 2019 might produce have emigrated as a
2017, with the federal authorities intensifying regions, and governmental recruiting agencies
5,000,000 date); are adopted by executive decrees, with changes in the migration policy of Latin America’s result of the ongoing
the punishment for employing illegals. To allay in Central Asian states will have the mandate
little intervention by parliaments; and merely most populous country. While the number crisis in their country
widespread fears about migrants’ monopolizing to prevent human rights abuses and tax fraud. The number of
Ukrainians who grant temporary residence, thus generating legal of foreigners residing in Brazil is very low
and criminalizing of certain industries, regions Similarly, a socio-cultural assimilation program
left their country uncertainty for the future. (constituting less than 1% of the total population),
were allowed to set their own quotas for will facilitate foreign nationals’ integration into Sources:
between 2014 any restrictive signal by such a country is likely to
employing migrants in certain industries (public Russian society. Acosta, Diego. 2016. ‘Free
and 2017 The prospects for 2019 point in the direction of have negative consequences for debates in other Movement in South America:
transport, security, pharmaceutical, and food). A The Emergence of an Alternative
the ongoing emigration of Venezuelans, as well as neighboring states.
CIS migration law that is currently in the works To encourage the inflow of qualified Model?’ Migration Information
Nicaraguans, to countries in the region — in the Source. Migration Policy
aims to regulate all aspects of migration. professionals, the process of obtaining Russian Institute. 23 August 2016.
Klimkin, Pavel. 2018. ‘Kiyev case of Nicaraguans, almost exclusively to Costa Finally, Latin American’s second most populous
citizenship and work licenses is being eased. So Priznal Migratsiyu Ukraintsev Acosta, Diego. 2018. The
Rica, due to the latter’s proximity and stability country, Mexico, will also see the arrival of a National versus the Foreigner
The number of migrants pushed into Russia far, this policy is working: although in 2018 Katastroficheskoy’. Lenta. 4
September 2018. and the historical and migration links between new president, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, in South America: 200 Years
from Georgia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, fewer work permits were issued, the percentage Scherbakova, Ekaterina. 2018.
of Migration and Citizenship
both countries. This opens up several scenarios, who holds a completely different political Law. Cambridge: Cambridge
Afghanistan, Ukraine, and Syria by political of professionals among legal migrants increased. ‘Migratsiya v Rossii: Itogi
University Press.
Pervogo Polugodiya 2018 for which we can anticipate a range of possible ideology from that of Bolsonaro. Mexico will face
distress or pro-native citizenship and language Goda’. Demoscope Weekly. Freier, Luisa Feline and
September/October 2018. trends. First, while many Venezuelans have numerous challenges that will affect its already Nicolas Parent. 2018. ‘A
laws dropped to 13,200 in 2018. Since 2014,
‘Ukaz O Kontseptsii obtained residence permits in countries across the poor track record when it comes to the protection South American Migration
Russian professionals have been fleeing political Gosudarstvennoy Crisis: Venezuelan Outflows
Migratsionnoy Politiki
region, we can already see some countries closing of the rights of migrants in its territory, including Test Neighbors’ Hospitality’.
and social stagnation in the wake of Putin’s
Rossiyskoy Federatsii na their doors. This is most obvious in the case of those fleeing violence in El Salvador, Honduras, Migration Information Source.
three re-elections. 2019–2025 Gody’. 2018. Migration Policy Institute.
Kremlin. 31 October 2018. Peru, where President Vizcarra announced at the and Guatemala. 18 July 2018.

22 23
Part 3


INSIGHTS FROM THE HENLEY PASSPORT INDEX the top spot in the Middle East region for the Methodology
first time in the index’s history, after signing
an unprecedented visa-waiver with Russia. The The Henley Passport Index and its contents are
The rise of Asian
UAE has made a stunning ascent since the index’s based on data provided by the International Air
nations on the
Dominic Volek is a Managing Partner, a Member of the Management Board, and Head of Southeast Asia at Henley Passport
inception, from 62nd place in 2006 to 21st place Transport Authority (IATA) and supplemented,
Henley & Partners. Index is long
worldwide at the end of 2018. enhanced, and updated using extensive in-
house research.
overdue, with Japan
Despite a year in which the world has witnessed an upsurge in populist and nationalist Generally, movements on the Henley Passport
and Singapore
blazing the trail
movements, the story told by the Henley Passport Index is one that speaks overwhelmingly Index in 2018 point to a strong desire on the On a fixed date each year, Henley & Partners
for other peaceful
part of countries in the Middle East to reduce receives exclusive data from IATA, which
of increased visa liberalization and travel freedom for the world as a whole. The growth commercial powers
their dependency on the hydrocarbon sector — forms the basis of the Henley Passport Index.
in global travel freedom has been far from equally distributed, however. and a corresponding willingness among other In order to maintain the accuracy of the data
in the region.
nations to attract Middle Eastern investment provided by IATA in the face of constant
Originally invented in 2004 by Dr. Christian Kälin, who inbound tourism, the government also liberalized visa access to
and solidify bilateral trade and tourism. updates to visa policy, and in order to create
designed the first ranking of all the world’s countries according its Hainan province for passport holders from 59 countries — an
detailed visa lists for all 199 passports in our
to how many destinations their citizens can travel to visa-free, unprecedented move for this historically closed-off nation.
As we push into 2019, the trends from 2018 look database, the Henley & Partners research team
the Henley Passport Index is the original, authoritative, and The last time either
set to continue. In the Q1 2019 ranking, Japan uses publicly available and reliable online
most widely used index of its kind. In the third quarter, EU nations became conspicuous by their the US or the UK
sits in 1st place, while Singapore and South Korea sources to cross-check each passport against all
lack of activity in the visa-waiver sphere. According to scholars held the top spot on
share 2nd place. South Korea holds this position 227 possible travel destinations. This research
In the first quarter of 2018, Germany lost the top spot on the who commented on this trend, the stasis of EU nations on the Henley Passport
for the first time, overtaking both France and process is ongoing throughout the year. It is
index for the first time in six years, as Japan and Singapore the Henley Passport Index in 2018 can be attributed to the Index
Germany. Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar coupled with a rigorous monitoring system
took over in joint 1st place. Significantly, this was not just current political climate in the region, with a growing anti-
have each moved four places up the ranking to pick up relevant visa-policy shifts and to
a breakthrough for Japan and Singapore, but also highly immigration sentiment peppering the debates taking place in
compared to the beginning of 2018, in another ensure that the index remains ‘live’.
emblematic of the increasing passport power of the Asian
continent as a whole. As a number of commentators have
many EU member states.
demonstration of Asian passport power. Iraq and
Afghanistan continue to hold the bottom spot on
For each travel destination, if no visa is required The Q1 2019
pointed out, the rise of Asian nations on the Henley Passport Elsewhere, the US remained the regional leader in terms of
the index, each offering their citizens visa-free for passport holders from a country or territory, position jointly held
Index is long overdue, with Japan and Singapore blazing passport power but failed to make any gains compared to
access to only 30 destinations worldwide. then a score with value = 1 is created for that by the US and UK
the trail for other peaceful commercial powers in the region 2017. It seems increasingly unlikely that either the US or the
passport. A score with value = 1 is also applied
(such as South Korea). UK will regain the number 1 spot they jointly held in 2015.
Neither the US nor EU member states are if passport holders can obtain a visa on arrival, a

forecast to revise their current closed-door visitor’s permit, or an electronic travel authority
policy, while countries in other parts of Europe (ETA) when entering the destination. These visa
(such as citizenship-by-investment newcomers types require no pre-departure government The number of
Moldova and Montenegro) as well as those approval, because of the specific visa-waiver countries and
21 st
in Asia and the Middle East will most likely programs in place. territories accessible
9 continue seeking visa-waiver agreements with to citizens of Japan,
strategic diplomatic allies, in line with their Where a visa is required, or where a passport who hold the
more proactive foreign affairs approach. The holder has to obtain a government-approved strongest passport in
US and the UK have slid down the ranking from electronic visa (e-visa) before departure, a the world
5th to 6th place this year. score with value = 0 is assigned. A score with
value = 0 is also assigned if passport holders
1 62 nd
A final word ought to be added concerning need pre-departure government approval for a
the great unknown that is Brexit. Until a final visa on arrival — a scenario that we do not
2006 2010 2014 Q4 2018 2006 2010 2014 Q4 2018 deal is hammered out, it is difficult to know consider ‘visa-free’.
what exactly the ramifications will be for EU–
Europe Asia UAE UK travel, although, as it stands, it seems that The total score for each passport is equal to
visa-free arrangements will remain in place. International Air
the number of destinations for which no visa
Transport Association
Figure 1: The number of European versus Asian countries in the top 3 of Figure 2: The ranking of the Emirati passport on the Henley Passport Index And with Kosovo waiting in the wings for visa is required (value = 1), under the conditions
the Henley Passport Index over time liberalization with the EU, the year ahead is defined above.
bound to contain its fair share of surprises in
China performed well in the second quarter, gaining access to By the fourth quarter, Japan had overtaken Singapore to Sources:
the travel freedom space.
Kälin, Christian H. and
the UAE, Oman, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, which boosted its become the most powerful passport in the world, boasting visa- Henley & Partners. Henley
overall position on the ranking. As part of China’s effort to boost free access to a record-high 190 countries. The UAE claimed Passport Index. 2006–present.

26 27
International Air Transport Association

Rank Passport Score

1 Japan 190 13 Liechtenstein 178 34 Panama 141 58 Guyana 88 77 Ghana 63 89 Angola 49

2 Singapore 189 14 Chile 175 35 Venezuela 138 59 Maldives 86 78 Sierra Leone 62 Central African Republic

South Korea 15 Monaco 174 36 Dominica 137 Nauru 79 Armenia 61 Egypt

3 France 188 Poland El Salvador 60 Qatar 85 Benin 90 Cameroon 48

Germany 16 Cyprus 173 Honduras 61 Jamaica 83 India Myanmar

4 Denmark 187 17 Brazil 171 37 Guatemala 136 Papua New Guinea Mongolia 91 Congo (Rep.) 47

Finland 18 Argentina 170 38 Peru 134 62 Botswana 82 Morocco Liberia

Italy 19 Bulgaria 169 39 Solomon Islands 130 63 Bahrain 81 80 Mauritania 58 Nigeria

Sweden Hong Kong (SAR China) 40 Serbia 129 64 Suriname 80 Mozambique 92 Burundi 46

5 Luxembourg 186 Romania Vanuatu 65 Bolivia 79 Sao Tome and Principe 93 Djibouti 45

Spain 20 Andorra 168 41 Nicaragua 128 66 Belarus 77 Tajikistan 94 Kosovo 44

6 Austria 185 Croatia Samoa 67 Kazakhstan 76 Uzbekistan 95 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 43

Netherlands San Marino Ukraine Oman 81 Burkina Faso 57 Sri Lanka

Norway 21 Brunei 165 42 Colombia 127 68 Namibia 75 82 Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) 56 96 Ethiopia 42

Portugal 22 United Arab Emirates 164 Tuvalu Thailand Guinea Iran

Switzerland 23 Israel 161 43 Macedonia (FYROM) 125 69 China 74 Senegal North Korea

United Kingdom 24 Barbados 159 44 Marshall Islands 124 Lesotho 83 Bhutan 55 97 Bangladesh 41

United States 25 Mexico 158 Tonga 70 Saudi Arabia 73 Gabon Lebanon

7 Belgium 184 26 Bahamas 154 45 Kiribati 123 71 Eswatini 72 Mali Libya

Canada Uruguay Montenegro 72 Indonesia 71 Togo South Sudan

Greece 27 Seychelles 151 46 Moldova 122 Kenya 84 Cambodia 54 98 Nepal 40

Ireland St. Kitts and Nevis 47 Micronesia 121 Malawi Niger 99 Palestinian Territory 39

8 Czech Republic 183 28 Antigua and Barbuda 150 48 Russian Federation 119 73 Gambia 68 Rwanda Sudan

9 Malta 182 29 Costa Rica 149 49 Bosnia and Herzegovina 118 Tanzania 85 Chad 53 100 Eritrea 38

10 Australia 181 Taiwan Palau Islands Zambia Guinea-Bissau 101 Yemen 37

Iceland 30 Trinidad and Tobago 148 50 Albania 115 74 Azerbaijan 66 Madagascar 102 Pakistan 33

New Zealand Vatican City 51 Georgia 114 Philippines Turkmenistan 103 Somalia 32

11 Hungary 180 31 Mauritius 145 52 Turkey 111 Tunisia 86 Comores Islands 52 Syria

Latvia St. Lucia 53 Belize 101 75 Cape Verde Islands 65 Laos 104 Afghanistan 30

Lithuania 32 Macao (SAR China) 144 South Africa Cuba 87 Equatorial Guinea 51 Iraq

Slovakia St. Vincent and the 54 Timor-Leste 97 Dominican Republic Haiti

Slovenia 55 Ecuador 93 76 Kyrgyzstan 64 Vietnam
33 Grenada 143
12 Estonia 179 56 Kuwait 91 Uganda 88 Algeria 50
Malaysia 57 Fiji 89 Zimbabwe Jordan

This graph shows the full Global Ranking of the 2019 Henley Passport Index. In certain cases, a rank is shared The Henley Passport Index is a live ranking. The information provided here reflects
by multiple countries because these countries all have the same level of visa-free or visa-on-arrival access. the ranking on 8 January 2019. For the latest ranking, visit henleypassportindex.com
THE EFFECT OF TRAVEL FREEDOM ON Yet most existing empirical studies on the effect There are several possible explanations for
of visa liberalization are based on the analysis of the somewhat surprising findings outlined
one or two cases. There is little cross-national above. For one, democracy is generally thought
evidence on how the rising number of visa-free to be ‘contagious’. It has been argued that free destinations held
destinations has affected countries’ economies democratization is rarely a purely domestic by a sender country
Uğur Altundal is a researcher in political science at Syracuse University.
and, to date, no empirical study that addresses phenomenon, and that cross-border diffusion has a positive
the question of its effect on democracy. plays a very important role in its development. and statistically
Ömer Zarpli is a researcher in political science at the University of Pittsburgh.
One of the pathways through which diffusion significant effect
Our research used regression analysis to measure occurs is ‘learning’ from other cases through on that country’s
Over the past decade, travel freedom has expanded precipitously thanks to the rising number democracy score.
the effect of a country’s number of visa-free communication and informational networks.
of bilateral visa-waiver agreements and unilateral decisions implemented by governments. destinations on its democracy score and GDP It is possible that increased cross-border
In 2006, a citizen, on average, could travel to 58 destinations without needing a visa from per capita, within a global sample. interactions thanks to visa-free travel can
the host nation; by 2018, this number had nearly doubled to 107.
We drew the data on visa-waivers from the
contribute to this learning process.
> 70%
The percentage
Yet despite the important progress made in overall global Research has shown that visa-free access increases the number Henley Passport Index, which compiles the Furthermore, individuals who are exposed to
reduction in
mobility, there remains a significant ‘global mobility divide’, of travelers to the visa-free destination country. In contrast, number of visa-free destinations for each different cultures may be more tolerant at home.
inbound travel that
with some passports much more powerful than others. For visa requirements have a negative effect on the number of country and territory, with data going back to There is a long line of research on the prejudice-
results from one
instance, in 2018, the average European could travel to about inbound travelers. Scholars have pointed out that, “[a]t the 2006. For the economic variables, we relied on reducing effect of inter-group contact. It has
country placing
163 destinations without a visa, while the average individual bilateral level, having a travel visa requirement on a particular the World Bank, and for the data on democracy, been generally found that contact with ‘out-
visa restrictions on
from Africa could travel to only about 61 destinations. country is associated with a 70% reduction in inbound travel we relied on the Polity data series, which records groups’ fosters empathy and reduces bias under
from that country”. each country’s democracy score on a scale from certain conditions.
Notwithstanding this apparent gap, many developing nations –10 (autocracy) to +10 (democracy).
— with the notable exception of some Sub-Saharan countries Beyond tourism, countries such as Japan and Taiwan have Visa-waivers can also facilitate cooperation
— have significantly increased their visa-free access over time. recently relaxed travel and residence requirements in the Based on our preliminary analysis, we found between civil society groups and NGOs,
A few countries in particular stand out: Albania has increased hope of attracting a skilled workforce. A number of European that the number of visa-free destinations held by including those that specialize in democracy
its total number of visa-free destinations more than six-fold nations, among them Portugal and Greece, have set up ‘golden a sender country has a positive and statistically promotion. Finally, visa liberalization can
(from 17 in 2006 to 114 in 2018), while countries such as visa’ programs as a way to revitalize their economies through significant, albeit non-linear, effect on that facilitate scientific and academic exchanges.
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, China, and Colombia have foreign investment and capital inflow. country’s democracy score (see Figure 4). It has been found that foreign-educated Continued visa liberalization
more than quadrupled their visa-free access over time. individuals have a positive impact on a country’s could inject USD 206 billion
into the global economy and
By minimizing the risk of reverse causality, we democracy, especially when they study in create 5.1 million jobs
were able to rule out the possibility that higher democratic countries.
levels of democracy are the cause of high levels
of travel freedom, as might generally be assumed. One important avenue for further research is the
Henley Passport Index score

disaggregation of visa-free destinations. After
Predicted democracy score

Bangwayo-Skeete, Prosper and

(global average)

Ryan W. Skeete. 2017. ‘Who

Indeed, when we tested whether countries’ all, not all destinations are equal. For instance,
Travels Visa-Free? Insights into
visa-free scores were affected by changes in destinations that are more liberal and democratic Tourist Hassle-Free Travel’.
Journal of Travel Research 56,
their democracy scores, we found no significant may have a larger impact on the sender’s political no. 3 (2017): 407–418.
relationship, which suggested that the causal system than non-democracies do. Elkink, Johan A. 2011. ‘The
arrow points from visa-free travel to democracy, International Diffusion of
Democracy’. Comparative
rather than the other way around. Notwithstanding these issues, this study Political Studies 44, no. 12
constitutes an important first step and will, (2011): 1651–1674.
Year Lawson, Robert and Saurav
When we increased the number of visa-free we hope, precipitate a timely debate about the Roychoudhury. 2016. ‘Do
95% Confidence interval Fitted values Number of visa-free destinations
destinations from 0 to 150, a country’s predicted political effects of various visa policies. Travel Visa Requirements
Impede Tourist Travel?’
democracy score increased from approximately Journal of Economics and
Figure 3: The expansion of global travel freedom on the Henley Passport Figure 4: The effect of travel freedom on sender countries’ democracy levels
3.0 to 5.0, with other variables held constant. Finance 40, no. 4 (2016): 817.
Index from 2006 to 2018
Mau, Steffen et al. 2015. ‘The
However, any further increase did not seem to Global Mobility Divide: How
Visa-waivers ease restrictions on international travel by What is the effect of visa liberalization on economy and have a positive effect on democracy. Increases Visa Policies Have Evolved
over Time’. Journal of Ethnic
granting citizens of certain countries and territories the right politics? It is estimated that the spread of ‘open door’ policies in visa-free score also did not have a significant and Migration Studies 41, no.
to travel without prior permission by the host. While some of could potentially contribute to the global economy by effect on a country’s economic indicators, such 8 (2015): 1192–1213.
as GDP per capita. Neumayer, Eric. 2010. ‘Visa
these waivers are one-sided (that is, one country opening up generating USD 206 billion in additional tourism revenue and Restrictions and Bilateral
its borders), others are reciprocal. creating as many as 5.1 million jobs. Travel’. The Professional
Geographer 62, no. 2 (2010):

30 31
Part 4


DIGITAL IDENTITY FOR REFUGEES AND GLOBAL CITIZENS In our current reality, citizenship is an accident Instead, these initiatives are additional and
of birth, defined by borders that were drawn complementary to national citizenship and
years ago by people who in most cases knew the state — though the alternative system As a concept, digital
by MONIQUE JEANNE MORROW identity has the
very little (geographically and culturally) they represent may offer the establishment of
Monique Jeanne Morrow is President and Co-Founder of The Humanized Internet, an organization that uses potential to become
about the regions they were splicing into self- digital identity, registration, and the operation
new technologies to defend the rights of vulnerable people. a new basis for
contained nation-states. of global citizenship independently of a
particular nation-state. Precisely such a system conferring the status
What is identity? You might think at first of the document that holds your name and date The passport that you hold can be a shield is the basis for conceptualizing democratically of global citizenship
onto the individual.
of birth. Perhaps it is a driver’s license, or the ID card that was issued to you when you and a privilege if it belongs to a wealthy legitimized regulation, as is needed to meet
democracy, and it can be a distress and a global challenges effectively.
turned 16. It could be the passport that you need to remember before catching a flight.
burden if it belongs to a poor or politically
Alternatively, you might think that your identity is based on your interests, skills, gender, conflicted country. Global constitutionalism built upon these
or ethnicity. You might think of it as being rather fixed and stable and, therefore, you might insights could become a realistic utopia, if it 1,000,000,000
take it for granted. The world is changing faster than ever, and it is coupled with the new opportunities offered The number of
seems clear that identity, citizenship, and the by the internet. The task now is to explore people who do not
But have you ever lost your ID or had your passport stolen or redrawn, resulting in millions of refugees, ex-prisoners, and nature of our passports should evolve along how technologies can democratize processes have an official
while traveling abroad? Suddenly, it becomes impossible to do stateless people. In response, the first refugee travel document, with it. effectively at the global level. identity
even the simplest things, such as booking a hotel room, renting also known as the ‘Nansen passport’, was issued by the League
a car, or even buying a mobile SIM card to contact your family. of Nations in 1922 (see Figure 5). As a concept, digital identity can extend far Digital identity is foundational to other
beyond the limits imposed by a passport. It services. Using the principle of selective
Losing a passport does not necessarily make you question The early versions of these passports were signed and included has the potential to become a new basis for disclosure, the individual is able to pair
who you are, but it certainly deprives you of the possibility of a photograph, as well as identifying physical details. Some conferring the status of global citizenship onto whatever record they have of themselves with
proving it. This is the everyday reality of over 1 billion people critics found this dehumanizing. the individual, independent of their nationality. whatever organization they desire. The given
globally who do not have any official identity. organization does not need to know whether
It seemed that people struggled with the implicit labeling or A digital identity could allow for participation someone is a ‘refugee’ or not — the individual
What gives a piece of paper such power over our lives? How did packaging associated with the passport concept, with some in global processes of democratic discourse is in control of who they are.
we arrive at a political and social situation where our worth is countries wanting to dispose of it altogether. and will-formation, which are needed for the Digital self-sovereignty allows
individuals to determine what
determined not by who we are but by the type of paper we hold? regulation of global challenges. Digital self-sovereignty allows the individual to they want to share about
become ‘the center of the universe’, so to speak, themselves and via what method
A normative framework for the operation of in terms of determining what they want to share
a globally free internet and communication about themselves, and via what method.
system is only one of these challenges. Others
are climate change, frameworks for sustainable Could the individual enabled with technology
international trade, global financial markets, and have digital safe boxes for their documentation,
the fight against terrorism and organized crime. which could be digitally notarized in near-real
time? Rather than the ‘centralization of data’,
Our present democratic systems at the national which is often vulnerable to hacking and/or
Technology-enabled individuals
and supra-national level are unable to meet these abuse, should we not be thinking about hybrid could one day have digital safe
challenges. Even international cooperation fails models, where the ownership of information is boxes for their documentation,
with digital notarization
to produce the necessary effective regulation. more dispersed? occurring in real time

As Jürgen Habermas explains, the establishment Imagine a world in which everyone is in control
of regulatory power beyond the state is not so of their digital identity and, thus, of their future.
Figure 5: An early Nansen passport, issued by the League of Nations in the Figure 6: A 1944 passport belonging to a UN official, closely resembling
much a challenge to democracy but rather, in Is there a better way? Sources:
aftermath of World War One modern-day passports
and of itself, a requirement of it. Government of Canada. 2014.
‘History of Passports’.
The idea of a worldwide passport as we understand it today The passport seemed on one level to be a step towards Salter, Mark B. 2016. ‘Rights
emerged in the aftermath of World War One, particularly after maintaining peace, protecting freedom, and helping refugees, Digital identity and global citizenship — as of Passage: The Passport
in International Relations’.
the Paris Peace Conference, and as a step taken by the League but there was also the potential for it to be seized as a doors to participation in democratic decision- Business Insider. 10 October

of Nations towards maintaining peace. political opportunity to control movement and immigration. making processes at the global level — do not 2016.

substitute the citizenship of a state, and nor does World Bank. 2018. ‘ID4D
And yet, of course, no one could reverse the idea once it had Data: Global Identification
At the end of the war, the world was in disarray: many been introduced. an institutional setting for global regulation Challenge by the Numbers’.
Identification for Development
governments were toppled or fell, and borders were changed substitute the state.

34 35
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