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Methods Doing Social Research 4th Edition

by Winston Jackson -Test Bank


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Methods Doing Social Research 4th Edition by Winston Jackson -Test Bank

Chapter 6. Qualitative Research Methods

MC 6-1

Qualitative researchers emphasize:

1. the positivist approach


2. the objective indicators of human experience
3. the interpretive approach
4. the critical approach

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate
Page: 146

MC 6-2

Qualitative research is:

1. empirical
2. deterministic
3. general
4. holistic

Answer: D

Difficulty:

Page: 146

MC 6-3

One distinction between qualitative and quantitative approaches is:

1. qualitative is usually better


2. qualitative research process is more cyclical while quantitative more linear
3. quantitative is usually better
4. triangulation requires both
Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 149-50

MC 6-4

Bracketing refers to:

1. placing respondents in fixed categories


2. elaborating on the intersubjective
3. interviewing a subset of respondents
4. a cognitive process to set aside one’s biases

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 150

MC 6-5

People who take part in a qualitative study are called:


1. informants
2. subjects
3. respondents
4. participants

Answer: A

Difficulty:

Page: 150

MC 6-6

A sampling technique used by qualitative researchers would be:

1. random
2. clustered
3. purposive
4. systematic

Answer: C

Difficulty:

Page: 151
MC 6-7

Saturation occurs when:

1. respondents’ descriptions become repetitive


2. there is oversampling of one group
3. an interview contains too many questions
4. a focus group sample contains too many similar people

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 153

MC 6-8

Ethnography involves:

1. learning from people rather than studying people.


2. testing partial theory.
3. discerning causal relationships among variables.
4. statistical analysis using tests of significance.
Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 154

MC 6-9

The ethnographic perspective attempts to:

1. understand human behavior in its cultural context


2. uncover and convey the true meaning of lived experiences
3. identify phenomenon that apply cross-culturally
4. discover the dominant processes in the social scene investigated

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 154

MC 6-10

Ethnography requires that a researcher set aside his/her

1. conscious ignorance
2. naïve realism
3. participatory intent
4. subjectivity

Answer: B

Difficulty:

Page: 154

MC 6-11

The study by David Counts and Dorothy Ayer Counts on senior citizens who travel
extensively in recreational vehicles is an example of a(n):

1. phenomenological study
2. feminist study
3. grounded theory study
4. ethnography

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 155-56

MC 6-12
Grounded theory attempts to:

1. establish and test causal models


2. uncover and convey the true meaning of lived experiences
3. identify phenomenon that apply cross-culturally
4. discover the dominant processes in the social scene investigated

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 157

MC 6-13

Grounded theory is most identified with:

1. the positivist approach.


2. the critical approach.
3. Symbolic Interactionism.
4.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy
Page: 157

MC 6-14

According to Corbin and Strauss, grounded theories derive from:

1. actual incidents observed in the field


2. conceptualizations of behaviour
3. the theoretical preferences of the researcher
4. statistical analyses

Answer: A

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 157

MC 6-15

The phenomenologist’s concern is to:

1. establish and test causal models


2. uncover and convey the true meaning of lived experiences
3. identify phenomenon that apply cross-culturally
4. identify factors that provide for system balance

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 161

MC 6-16

“What is the meaning of one’s lived experience?” is a question posed by:

1. the grounded theory approach


2. the ethnographic approach
3. the positivist approach
4. the phenomenological approach

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 161

MC 6-17
Husserl, the father of phenomenology, introduced two central ideas. These are:

1. subjectivity and objectivity


2. lived experience and hermeneutics
3. lifeworld and intersubjectivity
4. potentiality and groundedness

Answer: C

Difficulty:

Page: 161

MC 6-18

Anthropologists, when working in the field, typically undertake:

1. survey research
2. quasi-experimental research
3. participant observation
4. all of the above

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 164
MC 6-19

Conclusions drawn from participant observational study:

1. should be grounded in appropriate theory


2. should be grounded in the data collected
3. should mirror those expected by the researcher at the beginning of the study
4. should run counter to popular theory

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 164-69

MC 6-20

Goffman’s studies of a mental institution, entitled Asylums, is characteristic of:

1. survey research
2. participant observation
3. statistical analysis
4. none of the above
Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 165

MC 6-21

Participant observation studies are advantageous for the examination of social phenomena
because:

1. they are modeled after the physical sciences


2. they encapsulate the subjective elements of social life
3. they are pre-interpretive and pre-selective in character
4. they rely on advanced statistical techniques

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 165

MC 6-22
Gaining entry to the study group one wishes to observe involves:

1. getting the appropriate permission


2. a reciprocal process between the researcher and the study group
3. establishing an informal contact
4. all of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 166-67

MC 6-23

One challenge of participant observation is:

1. developing and maintaining good rapport


2. taking field notes
3. gaining entry
4. all of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty:

Page 166-167
MC 6-24

A master field file is made up of:

1. a complete journal of field notes


2. archival sources (i.e. government documents)
3. the study population list
4. the analyzed results of the field research

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 169

MC 6-25

Analytic files, those derived from the master field file, constitute:

1. relationships explored in the study


2. the quantified data of the field observations
3. the researcher’s original notes rewritten in more detail
4. key information concerning the individuals studied
Answer: A

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 169

MC 6-26

A background/history file contains:

1. the information compiled by the researcher on the study group prior to entering the field
2. the biographic information of the informal contact
3. information drawn from the master file and other sources
4. information concerning similar research already conducted

Answer: C

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 169

MC 6-27

Participant observation was initially developed by:

1. classical anthropologists
2. psychologists
3. sociologists
4. natural scientists

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 170

MC 6-28

Probing refers to:

1. pressuring respondents
2. structured questioning
3. in-depth questioning
4. covert observation

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 170
MC 6-29

Two types of analysis used by ethnographers include:

1. theme analysis and subject analysis


2. scene analysis and taxonomic analysis
3. componential analysis and categorical analysis
4. theme analysis and domain analysis

Answer: D

Difficulty:

Page 172-174

MC 6-30

In-depth interviews make use of:

1. standardized questions
2. structured questions
3. close-ended questions
4. open-ended questions

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 174-175
MC 6-31

According to grounded theory, in deciding which incidents or individuals to be observed,


researchers should:

1. locate informal contacts


2. sample according to concepts
3. locate specific individuals of note
4. employ random observation techniques

Answer: B

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 175-77

MC 6-32

In comparison to the quantitative approaches, qualitative approaches emphasize:


1. validity, objectivity, reliability, and generalizability
2. intersubjectivity, reflexivity, punctuality, and optimism
3. credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability
4. authenticity, rigor, patience, systematic samples

Answer: C

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 179-80

MC 6-33

Transferability refers to:

1. the fittingness of a study’s findings to apply to other settings, contexts


2. empathizing with a study participant
3. X=Y or Y=X
4. the adequacy of the operationalization of a concept

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 180
MC 6-34

In-depth interviews, and qualitative studies in general, have an advantage over quantitative
designs in that:

1. they are less likely to be rejected


2. they can access the “truth” of matters
3. they are less expensive
4. they take less time to complete

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 182

MC 6-35

A major strength of qualitative research is its ability to:

1. test formal hypotheses


2. make extrapolations to the general population
3. exclude competing alternative explanations
4. study behavior in natural settings

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy
Page: 182

MC 6-36

Qualitative and quantitative methods should be seen as:

1. complementary
2. diametrically opposed
3. poor alternatives to positivist approaches
4. inconsistent with the feminist critique of society

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 182

MC 6-37

A major limitation of qualitative research is its inability to:

1. deal with natural settings


2. understand individual cases
3. deal with a participant’s perceptions
4. be objective

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 182

MC 6-38

The general flaw with participant observation and other field studies is their:

1. cost
2. inability to manipulate conditions
3. inability to generalize
4. lengthy time frame for completion

Answer: C

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 182

MC 6-39

The general advantage to participant observation and other field studies is their:
1. cost
2. increased validity of measures
3. interesting results
4. applicability to quantitative analysis

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 182

ES 6-1

Briefly define or describe what is meant by each of the following:

1. bracketing
2. constant comparative method
3. domain analysis
4. grounded theory
5. lived experience
6. purposive sampling
7. saturation
8. trustworthiness
9. theoretical memo
10. symbolic interactionism

Answer: SHORT ANSWER


ES 6-2

What does it mean to say that qualitative research follows a nonlinear path? In what ways is a
nonlinear path valuable to qualitative researchers?

Answer: ESSAY

ES 6-3

Compare and contrast the research process associated with the quantitative and qualitative
traditions.

Answer: ESSAY

ES 6-4

Outline and illustrate the traditional standards of quality developed by Lincoln and Guba for
assessing truth in qualitative, and note their contemporary perspective on the issue of assessing
qualitative research.

Answer: ESSAY

ES 6-5
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of survey research versus qualitative research
strategies. What types of information would you gain using each of these approaches?

Answer: ESSAY

ES 6-6

Identify some activity in your home community that you would like to investigate using
participant observation techniques. Develop a proposal indicating what group or activity you
wish to observe, what kinds of questions you think it might be interesting to pursue, and how you
would propose to record the information gathered.

Answer: ESSAY

Chapter 7. Critical Approaches to Research: Action and Feminist Research

MC 7-1

“Research from the margins” means that:

1. critical research is focused on empowering marginalized citizens.


2. there is an increased number of female researchers over male researchers.
3. research participants are respected as “equally knowing subjects”.
4. participant observation and/or ethnographic research has been implemented.
Answer: C

Difficulty:

Page: 187

MC 7-2

Which method is considered the best by critical researchers?

1. in-depth interviews
2. participant observation
3. qualitative methods
4. multi-method approach

Answer: D

Difficulty:

Page: 187-188

MC 7-3

Institutional ethnography is an approach used when the research goal is to:

1. study the social structure of powerful organizations


2. study social reality as it is constructed in the minds of those who experience it.
3. read texts for their organizational structure
4. study, in detail, the experiences of institutionalized persons

Answer: B

Difficulty:

Page: 189

MC 7-4

Texts, according to Dorothy Smith:

1. are organizational features of institutions


2. can reveal the institutional practices that organize people’s experiences
3. mediate people’s experiences and interactions
4. all of the above

Answer: D

Difficulty:

Page: 189

MC 7-5
The aim of all action research is:

1. to produce practical knowledge that has the potential to improve a specific social condition
2. to generalize solutions to problems that apply across a range of settings
3. to massage data so that particular outcomes are achieved
4. to be active in the field so that the knowledge gained is more specific

Answer: A

Difficulty:

Page: 190

MC 7-6

Participatory action research includes:

1. defined goals, liberation, and group consensus


2. group consensus, change, and the ethics of liberation
3. research, adult education, and socio-political action
4. participation, reactive, and group consensus

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 190
MC 7-7

Among the challenges in action research is:

1. protecting the interests of the larger society


2. negotiating a reasonable compromise between competing interest groups
3. minimizing power imbalances among participants
4. that everything happens so fast

Answer: C

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 192-193

MC 7-8

The goal of feminist research is best defined by:

1. seeing of phenomena from the perspective of women


2. recognizing the existence of conditions that oppress women
3. the desire to change conditions through research leading to political action
4. all of the above
Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 196

MC 7-9

Feminist researchers claim that an understanding of human societies is impossible without the
recognition of:

1. matriarchy
2. patriarchy
3. the means of production
4. inadvertent reinforcement

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 197-198

MC 7-10
The feminist research perspective attempts to:

1. replace patriarchy with matriarchy


2. reject the fundamentals of the critical approach
3. validate women’s experiences and perceptions
4. reject the reflexivity of male research

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page:

MC 7-11

Which is not a quality of feminist perspectives:

1. a recognition of the existence of conditions which oppress women


2. a desire for a matriarchal society
3. a valuing of women and their experiences, ideas, and needs
4. a desire to change conditions through criticisms and political action

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page:
MC 7-12

A feminist researcher, in particular, is expected to be:

1. professional
2. interactive
3. reflexive
4. a woman

Answer: C

Difficulty:

Page: 199

MC 7-13

An oral history interview is:

1. when the researcher shares transcripts with the participants and invites them to contribute to
the analysis and interpretation
2. when the participants tell stories about themselves and the researcher later analyzes them for
their meaning
3. an investigation of participants’ life histories that is guided to attain specific knowledge for the
researcher
4. a participant-guided investigation of a lived-experience in which few prepared questions are
asked.

Answer: D

Difficulty:

Page: 201

MC 7-14

Feminist research has advantages in all areas except:

1. generalizability
2. probing
3. causal inference
4. validity

Answer: C

Difficulty:

Page: 208

MC 7-15
The strength of critical research lies in the area of:

1. generalizability
2. validity
3. bringing about social change and empowering marginalized people
4. unambiguous causal inference

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 207

ES 7-1

Briefly define or describe what is meant by each of the following:

1. critical research
2. oral history interviewing
3. methodological triangulation
4. feminism
5. patriarchy
6. reflexivity
7. participatory action research

Answer: SHORT ANSWER


ES 7-2

Identify and explain the five “methodologic themes” identified by Berman, Ford-Gilboe and
Campbell as common to all critical approaches to research?

Answer: SHORT ANSWER

ES 7-3

Which “methods” or “research designs” are used by critical researchers to collect and analyze
data?

Answer: SHORT ANSWER

ES 7-4

According to Berman and her colleagues, many critical researchers advocate using
methodological triangulation to achieve their research objectives. Define this term and explain
and illustrate their position.

Answer: SHORT ANSWER


ES 7-5

Critical researchers advocated doing research “by, for and with participants”. Please explain their
reasoning and provide an example to illustrate exercising this principle.

ES 7-6

Select a study you believe would be suitable for action research, and write a research plan
showing how you would set up the study. Provide information on what steps you might take
from the beginning to the end of the study, who would be involved, and what you hope the
outcomes of the research to be.

Answer: ESSAY

ES 7-7

Outline the characteristics and steps taken in action research, using Kim Travers’ action research
study to illustrate the approach.

Answer: ESSAY

ES 7-8
Select a topic you believe would be suitable for feminist research to study, then write a research
plan showing how you would set up the study. Provide information on what steps you might take
from the beginning to the end of the study, what assumptions you have going into the project,
who you expect to involve in the research, and what you hope the outcomes of the research to be.

Answer: ESSAY

ESSAY 7-9

Critically discuss Linda Christiansen-Ruffman’s study, to illuminate your understanding of the


way feminist researchers approach research. For instance, in what way does her research report
reflect feminist assumptions, research goals, research practices, and methods.

Answer: ESSAY