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2017 IEEE Conference on Open Systems (ICOS), November 13-14, 2017, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia

Environment Control for Smart

Mushroom House
Ibrahim Mat, Mohamed Rawidean Mohd Kassim, Ahmad Nizar Harun, Ismail Mat Yusoff
MIMOS, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation,
Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA
{ibm, dean, nizar.harun, ismail}@mimos.my

Abstract- Mushroom cultivation is important due to Australia have invested more than Australian
its nutritional value, medicinal value, income Dollar 1.4 million specifically in research and
generation and employment creation. Currently the development to increase income of mushroom
mushroom cultivation are just being done in a very farmers [4]. Malaysian government has
primitive way. Due to all these circumstances, it is
announced that mushrooms are the important
crucial to upgrade the facilities to increase yield
through optimum resources. Smart Mushroom commodities. This is stated in Malaysia's National
House (SMH) for mushroom cultivation is a project Agro-Food Policy (2011-2020). This includes the
to address the automation in the production of agriculture transformation program to concentrate
expensive mushroom such as Shiitake. The system in increasing the yields research and development
developed is a smart system for shiitake mushroom [1]. Mushrooms which growth largely in Malaysia
cultivation. The system utilizes sensor technology now are grey oyster mushroom, black jelly,
with feedback system to optimize climate condition ganoderma, and shitake. The agro-climatic
for optimum growth. conditions in Malaysia is suitable for cultivation
of mushrooms throughout the year. Thus,
Keywords – Mushroom cultivation, sensors Malaysia has chance to increase the export of
technology, climate control, shitake mushrooms to the world market. Nevertheless,
mushroom and greenhouse.
there are many issues and challenges faced by this
industry [5]. Challenges for Malaysian
I. INTRODUCTION mushrooms growers are low quality seeds and
high production cost [6]. This paper highlights the
solutions to increase the yields of mushrooms
Mushroom industry in Malaysia is growing cultivation. The famous mushrooms in market are
with market value increase from RM 25 million in Oyster and Shiitake mushrooms [7]. The most
2004 to RM120 million in 2007. In 2009, crucial parameters for mushrooms cultivation
mushroom is categorized as high value agriculture environment are Carbon Dioxide (CO2),
products that contributed about 1% to GDP humidity, temperature and light [8].
(RM12.5 billion) [1]. In 10th Malaysia Plan, the
contribution to GDP increases to 2% by 2015 by Currently the mushroom cultivation are just
incorporation of the innovation based growth and being done in a very primitive way. Due to all
production process that utilize modern farm these circumstances, it is crucial to upgrade the
technology. The project will improve the quality facilities to increase yield through optimum
and productivity of the mushroom industry with resources. Smart Mushroom cultivation
smart system for cultivation. greenhouse is a project to address the automation
in the production of expensive mushroom such as
World demand for mushroom is predicted to be Shiitake. Utilizing sensor technology with
more than USD 50 billion in the future seven feedback system to optimize climate condition for
years. This happened due to the growing of optimum growth. The project is also to implement
mushroom usage lately [2]. The importance of the suitable technology for the Smart Mushroom
mushroom cultivation is due to its nutritional House System to cultivate Shiitake mushroom.
value, medicinal value, income generation and Smart Mushroom House will have incubation
employment creation. However, there are room and grow room. Incubation room is critical
challenges in mushroom cultivation such as lack for the first 4 months of the cultivation process.
of skills on mushroom cultivation and less quality Incubation room is a cool room which can control
of mushroom production [3]. the temperature and humidity more precisely.

978-1-5386-0731-2/17/$31.00 ©2017 IEEE 38

2017 IEEE Conference on Open Systems (ICOS), November 13-14, 2017, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia

In Second Section, the introduction of Wireless Figure 2 shows the architecture of Wireless
Sensor Network (WSN) especially for Smart Sensor Network (WSN) used in Smart Mushroom
Mushroom House will be given. In third Section, House for Shiitake mushroom cultivation. It
the overall architecture of the system and the consists of multiple sensors from temperature,
design of it will be described. Fourth and fifth humidity and Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The
Section will cover the result and analysis. Final numbering in Figure 2 shows the flow of data in
Section will give the conclusions. this overall system of Smart Mushroom House.
Started from sensors in wireless sensor node, the
II. WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK parameters such as temperature, humidity and
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) are read. Number 1 shows
There are multiple sensor nodes in a wireless that the data from sensor nodes are sent to a
sensor network (WSN). Sensor node is to detect gateway. Number 2 shows data captured by
physical phenomena such as temperature, gateway collector are passed to the gateway WIFI
humidity and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) [9]. Figure 1 module. Data from gateway WIFI module is sent
illustrate the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to the internet and to database server as noted by
common architecture and the components.WSN number 3 and 4. PC users and mobile phone users
common architecture components are controller will acquire data from server noted as number 5
or the processor, module for communication, and 6.
module for power source and the module sensing
function. Sensing module function is to capture III. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
sensor parameters. Most important sensors for this
project are temperature sensor, humidity sensor The Smart Mushroom House consist of the
and CO2 sensor. most important component that is the controller to
handle monitoring and control of the overall
system functions. Figure 3 illustrate two
mushroom houses and the linkage between the
controlling devices that will be actuated based on
the sensing parameters levels. Smart Mushroom
House system monitor parameters and control the
devices in order to utilise resources as optimum as
possible. The sensing parameters are Carbon
Dioxide (CO2), humidity and temperature. The
parameters read by the sensors will be sent
wirelessly using XBEE technology to control
panel and gateway. Control devices shown in
Fig.1 WSN Node Architecture [6] Figure 3 are the control devices such as
humidifier, exhaust fan and circulation fan.
Humidifier function is to increase the humidity.
In this project XBEE technology has been Exhaust fan is to remove exceed CO2.
chosen as an option for WSN. XBEE is produced
by Digi International. XBEE has been launch in Circulation fan will move the air inside the
2005 [10]. The standard of 802.15.4-2003 has Smart Mushroom House to create an even flow of
been followed by XBEE technology [11]. air. Circulation fan avoid the air to become
stratified and consequently the air becomes
stagnant. The fan circulates air in the house.
Circulation fan may contribute in controlling the
temperature of the air inside Smart Mushroom
House. The movement of the air inside the Smart
Mushroom House with the water mist from
humidifier may change the ambient temperature.
Mobilising the air inside the Smart Mushroom
House is also refreshing the air and helping to
homogenous the air.

Sensors used in the Smart Mushroom House

are temperature sensor, humidity sensor and CO2
Fig.2 WSN Interconnection in Smart Mushroom House sensor. Data collected from sensors sent to a

2017 IEEE Conference on Open Systems (ICOS), November 13-14, 2017, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia

remote server for monitoring and analysis. When to the Gateway [11]. Collector in the gateway
the threshold value of the humidity data is reached receives data from sensor node. Data will be
85%, humidifier will be stopped. Whenever received by collector in gateway module. Data
humidity data is below 75%, humidifier will be received will be processed by Microcontroller
activated automatically. When the threshold value Unit (MCU) in Gateway. The linkage between
for CO2 data is reached to 600ppm, exhaust fan collector and MCU is through serial interface.
will be activated automatically. Whenever CO2 Gateway board also consists of GPS module and
data less than 400ppm, exhaust fan will be GSM module as well as control circuit [12].
stopped. Gateway forward the data to the internet and
server through WIFI network.
Several sensors are located in each Mushroom
House. All sensors are equipped with XBEE Figure 4 shows the link between XBEE
technology communication module. The sensor receiver and a connection between gateway Bee
nodes will measure the ambient condition inside connector to WIFI module ESP8266. XBEE
Smart Mushroom House. The sensors measure module is plugged into Bee connector to receive
humidity, temperature and CO2. Humidity signal from all wireless moisture sensor nodes. At
condition is measured as to detect the air wetness the same board there is a WIFI module ESP8266
inside the Smart Mushroom House. One humidity that is connected from XBEE connector. XBEE
sensor node, one temperature sensor node and one module will receive data from several wireless
CO2 sensor node are placed at each area of nodes. XBEE module will pass received data to
shiitake mushroom. Data captured from each WIFI module. WIFI module will connect itself to
sensor is transmitted to the central data collector the WIFI network. After connected, WIFI module
or called gateway. Gateway transmit data to will send data to main database server through
internet. Data from internet could be accessed by WIFI network.
end users through applications inside normal
computer or application in mobile phone.

Fig. 4 Gateway and WIFI module through Bee connector

Figure 5 shows the internet Graphical User

Interface. This GUI shows received data. The data
could be accessed through internet and display
remotely at PC and also at mobile phone with
Android application.
Fig. 3 Control Layout in Smart Mushroom House

Smart Mushroom House system consists of

sensor units, gateway, actuators and control
devices to become a WSN platform. Sensor unit
is attached to sensor node. Sensor unit will read
the sensing parameters and produce raw analog
data. Raw analog sensing data are digitized by
sensor node. At the same time sensor node will Fig. 5 Internet Graphical User Interface
packed the digital sensing parameter in to a data
stream. The data stream will then be transmitted
to the gateway using XBEE technology. Sensor V. TEST AND RESULTS
node sends temperature, humidity and Carbon
Dioxide (CO2) data in every 2 minutes. Router This section is to describe the control of
may be used for sensor node to send sensor data humidity and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in the Smart
Mushroom House area. Factors of growth are

2017 IEEE Conference on Open Systems (ICOS), November 13-14, 2017, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia

controlled automatically based on data from is activated. Point 1 and point 2 are purposely
sensors to follow an optimal growth climate for created to test the efficiency of an exhaust fan.
the mushrooms at their different stages of CO2 at 1000pm is a good condition for shiitake
development. Humidity, temperature and CO2 is mushroom. Figure 8 shows three days stable
tracked in real time via sensors placed into the reading for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in the Smart
mushroom growing system at key intervals. Mushroom House. Figure 9 shows mushroom
racks in the Smart Mushroom House.
Smart Mushroom House grow their
mushrooms indoors. As such, humidity,
temperature and CO2 in all areas of the farm must
be precisely controlled to produce optimal
growth. Humidity control done by continuously
monitoring the level of water in the air. Automatic
control maintains the humidity condition of the air
in the Smart Mushroom House to be between the
required levels. Mushroom experts suggest that
the humidity need to be within 70% to 90%.
Optimal growth curve for the humidity and CO2
control system is set up and integrated using the
actuators. Humidifier will be activated to increase
the humidity level when it goes below 70%.
Humidifier will be stopped when humidity level Fig. 7 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) respond to exhaust fan
reached 90%.

Figure 6 shows three days data for temperature

and humidity levels in Smart Mushroom House
data. Data is captured in 3 minutes interval.
Humidity and temperature levels shown in Figure
6 are within the required climate.

Fig. 8 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) in three days

Fig. 6 Temperature and Humidity in Smart Mushroom House

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is another important

parameter to be controlled. CO2 level has been
controlled not to go beyond 1000ppm. Figure 7
shows the CO2 reading during the testing period
of exhaust fan efficiency. Point 1 in Figure 7
shows that the CO2 level increase drastically
when exhaust fan is closed. Level of drastic
changes will depend on amount of mushroom in Fig. 9 Mushroom racks in Smart Mushroom House
the room. Point 1 shows that the CO2 level
decrease to a stable level 500pm when exhaust fan

2017 IEEE Conference on Open Systems (ICOS), November 13-14, 2017, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia

[5] Barney, D. L, (n.d.). Growing mushrooms
In a Smart Mushroom House environment using commercially: Risks and opportunities. [Online]
Available: http://www.cals.uidaho.edu (May 15, 2015).
WSN and control technology, our test shows
clearly that a system is efficient to maintain the [6] Mohd Tarmizi Haimid, Hairazi Rahim, & Rozhan Abu
suitable condition for mushroom cultivation. In Dardak. (2013). Understanding the mushroom industry
general Smart Mushroom House system and its marketing strategies for fresh produce in
Malaysia. Economic and Technology Management
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ambient status, calculate and analyse and finally
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Mushroom House to modify the climate Cultivation and Marketing", NCAT Program
Specialists, July 2004.
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level. Based on this project experiment, Smart [8] Rosmiza MZ, Davies WP, Rosniza Aznie CR, Jabil MJ
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of the air, the level of CO2 inside the cultivation Mushroom Production in Malaysia: Challenges and
Opportunities”, Mediterranean Journal of Social
area to be within an agronomist advised range. Science, Vol7 No1, January 2016.

[9] C. Alippi, R. Camplani, C. Galperti and M. Roveri, "A

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