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DOCUMENT RESUME

ED 260 960 SO 016 719


TITLE Curriculum Development in Population Education.
Abstract-Bibliography, Series S.
INSTITUTION United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for
Education in Asia and the Pacific.
REPORT NO BKP/85/OPE/229-1000
PUB DATE 85
NOTE 112p.; Published under UNFPA Project RAS/74/P02. For
related documents, see ED 199 057, ED 213 617, ED 238
802, and ED 258 852.
AVAILABLE FROM UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia and the
Pacific, P.O. Box 1425, General Post Office, Bangkok,
Thailand 10500.
PUB TYPE Reference Materials Bibliographies (131)
EDRS PRICE MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS.
DESCRIPTORS Adult Education; Agriculture; Biology; *Comparative
Education; *Curriculum Development; Curriculum
Evaluation; Developing Nations; Educational
Objectives; *Educational Practices; Educational
Research; Educational Strategies; Elementary
Secondary Education; Environmental Education; Foreign
Countries; Geography Instruction; Higher Education;
Home Economics Education; Interdisciplinary Approach;
Nonformal Education; Nontraditional Education;
Physicians; Physiology; *Population Education;
Science Instruction; Social Studies; Teacher
Education
IDENTIFIERS Asia; Bangladesh; India; Korea; Malaysia; Nepal;
Pacific Islands; Pakistan; Philippines; Thailand
ABSTRACT
Part of a series of annotated bibliographies dealing
with issues and problems raised by educators involved with population
education programs, this publication addresses curriculum development
in population education. Curriculum development is the most important
component of a population education program, for it is through
curriculum materials that learners receive population education
messages. Entries are organized into six major parts: (1) Strategies
for Curriculum Development in Population Education in the Formal
Education System; (2) Strategies for Curriculum Development in
Population Education in the Non-Formal Education System; (3)
Development of Curriculum Materials in Specific Subject Areas; (4)
State-of-the-Art on Curriculum Development in Asia and the Pacific;
(5) National Experiences in Curriculum Development in Population
Education; and (6) Evaluation and Research in Curriculum Development
in Population Education. Countries dealt with in the entries include
Asia, Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Nepal, the Pacific Islands,
Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand.
Subject and geographic indexes are provided. (RM)
Curriculum Development
o in Population Education
LLJ
Abstract-Bibliography
Series 6
U.S DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
"PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THIS
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION MATERIAL IN MICROFICHE ONLY
EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION HAS BEEN GRANTED BY
CENTER (ERIC)
This document has been reproduced as
received from the person or organtzaton
Ott 0.1.AC
0130111.11119 it

U Minor changes have been made to improve


reproducton quality
TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES
Points of vitW or OpoluOni stated to Bus docu INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)."
ment do not necessanly represent °floral NIE
posrbon of oolov.

us cOrslE

,m,

Curriculum Development in Curriculum Development in Cutriculuin Development in


Population Education in the Population Education in the Specific Subject Areas
Formal Education System Non-Formal Education System

State -the-An on Orrriculum National Experiences nit Research and Evaluation in


Devel meat in Population Cloriodum Development Clinical= Development
Edacition

Population Education Programme Service


UNESCO REGIONAL OFFICE FOR EDUCATION IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC
Bangkok, 1985
Unesco. Regional Office for Education in Asia
and the Pacific, Bangkok.
Curriculum development in population education.
Bangkok, 1985.
112p. (Population Education Programme Service.
Abstract- bibliography, series 6)
1. POPULATION EDUCATION-BIBLIOGRAPHY.
2. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT-BIBLIOGRAPHY.
3. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT-ABSTRACTS.
4. CURRICULUM EVALUATION-BIBLIOGRAPHY.
5. CURRICULUM EVALUATION-ABSTRACTS.
6. ASIA. 7. PACIFIC ISLANDS
I. Title. II. Series.

P016

3
0 Unesco 1985

Published by
Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific
P.O. Box 1425, General Post Office
Bangkok 10500, Thailand
under
UNFPA Project RAS/74/P02

Printed in Thailand

Opinions expressed in this publication do not necessarily coincide


with official views of Unesco. No expression of opinion is intended herein
concerning the legal status or the delimitations of the frontiers of any
country or territory.
The material printed herein may be reproduced in small part only by
sending three voucher copies of the reproduction to the Population Edu-
cation Clearing Rouse, Unesco, Bangkok, at the address above. If it is
desired to reprint an entire book, either in English or in translation,
permission must be obtained from the Director of Unesco, Bangkok.

8 KP/85/OP E/299.2000
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction i

Part One : Strategies for Curriculum Development in Population


Education in the Formal Education System 1

A Literature Review . 3
01 School level at which population education should
be introduced 5
02 Emphasis on learning process . 6
03 Theoretical basis of population education 7
04 Population education contributes to educational
innovation 8
05 Formulating a dynamic structure for population
education 9
06 Approaches in introducing population education .. . 11
07 How to incorporate population education into school
programmes . . 11
08 Procedures for developing population education
curriculum 13
09 Curriculum development strategies . . ... . ... . 13
10 Integrating approach for population education
programmes 14
11 Interlocking steps in curriculum development 16
12 Types of integration strategies 16
13 Steps for renovating the curriculum through popula-
tion education 17
14 Processes in curriculum development . 18
15 Problems in introducing population education into
the school curriculum 20
16 Difficulties in integrating population education into
the school system . . 21

Part Two : Strategies for Curriculum Development in Population


Education in the Non-Formal Education System 23
A Literature Review 25
17 Curriculum development for nonschool population
focuses on audiences specificity and participa-
tion 28
18 Guidelines for curriculum developers . . . 29
19 Problem-centred and people-centred curriculum
development 30

5
TABLE OF CONTENTS :.-..ont'd)

20 Acquiring skills in integrating population education


in the development programmes 31
21 Ten steps for materials development 33
22 Practical examples of strategies of integrating popula-
tion education in development programmes 34
23 Differentiating between population education and
family planning education 35

Part Three : Development of Curriculum Materials in Specific Subject


Areas . . 37

A Literature Review 39
24 Integrating population education into science
education 41
25 Impact of population factors on the agricultural and
rural development process 42
26 Co-operative trainers to teach population education
to farmers 42
27 Relationship between population variables and
production and distribution in farming 43
28 Doctors as influential teachers of population
education 44
29 Population education components in home econo-
mics curriculum 45
30 Population education into biology 47
31 Population education into envir Jnmental studies .. 47
32 Population education into general science 48
33 Population education into geography 49
34 Population education into home economics 50
35 Population education into hygiene and physiology 50
36 Population education into social studies 51
37 Population education into teacher education 51
38 Experiences in integrating population education in
selected school subjects 52
39 Why population education should be taught at the
secondary level 53

Part Four : State-of-the-Art on Curriculum Development in Asia and


the Pacific 55

A Literature Review 57
40 Case studies on educational innovations brought
about by population education 60

6
TABLE OF CONTENTS (coned)
41 Improving the quality of curriculur i materials 61
42 How Asian countries integrate population education
into the school system 62
43 Training population education workers in the
Pacific 63
44 Experiences of eight Asian countries in population
education development 64
45 Trends in integrating population education into the
school system 65
46 Innovative approaches `4.o imp rove curriculum
development 67
47 Minimum learning experiences in population
education 68

Part Five : National Experiences in Curriculum Development in


Population Education 71

A Literative Review 73
48 Tasks and challenges in curriculum development 75
49 Integrated and separate subject approaches for
introducing population education 76
50 Goals of population education curriculum develop
ment in Bangladesh . , 77
51 Developing the conceptual structure of population
education 78
52 Goals and content of Nepal's population education
curriculum 79
53 Multi-disciplinary approach to poroltion educa-
dor) 80
54 Curriculum development on population education
characterized as interactive 81
55 Processes for curriculum development trial tested ... 82
56 Curriculum development efforts of six institutions
on population education 83
57 Approach to curriculum development in population
education 85
58 Why it is difficult to introduce sex education in the
schools 86

Part Six : Evaluation and Research in Curriculum Development in


Population Education 89
A Literature Review . 91

7
TABLE OF CONTENTS (coned)

59 Analysis of textbooks for population related


contents 94
60 Pilot testing of population educat;on in the
elementary and secondary schools 94
61 Study to select and organize educational topics on
population education 96
62 Experiment to integrate population education into
social studies 97
63 Validating the effectiveness and relevancy of popula-
tion education curriculum materials 98
64 Selecting and organizing curriculum content for
out-of-school population education 99
65 Determining the extent of incorporation of popula-
tion education into the school curricula 101
66 Identifying the role of home economics for
promoting population education W2
67 Determining what proportion of current textbooks
have been devoted to population education 104
68 Descriptive analysis used for evaluating population
education sub-units 104
69 Ascertaining the Duality of population education
contents in the textbooks 107
70 Determining the appropriateness of population educa-
tion unit for classroom implementation 108

Subject Index 111

Geographic Index 112

8
INTRODUCTION

This issue is the sixth in a series of abstract-bibliographies dealing with


issues and problems raised by population education workers who are undertaking
population education programmes. This sixth volume is addressed to the issue of
curriculum development in in-school and out-of-school population education
programmes.

Curriculum development is the most important component of a population


education programme. It is through the curriculum materials that learners receive
population education messages. It is a potent tool for realizing the goal of popula-
tion education that is to effect the development of attitudes and behaviour that
will make learners want to adopt fertility patterns in consonance with their own
moral values and social responsibilities on their own accord and decision, when they
become parents. On a general level, it is through the curriculum that education
seeks to achieve the ultimate goal which is to help pupils develop self-direction and
learn to contribute their share to national development.

Most countries with national population education programmes in the region


consider population education as part of a total curriculum reform movement
rather than a separate isolated curriculum activity. In the formal sector, countries
have generally followed a more or less basic set of procedures for developing their
curriculum materials. These procedures ir volve an identification of objectives of
population education, developing a conceptual structure or body of knowledge of
population concepts necessary to realize the goals and objectives set up; identifying
entry or plug-in points in appropriate subjects by grade levels, developing a scope
and sequence of population education contents, development of curricular materials,
institutionalizing population education in the educational system and finally
evaluating the curriculum materials. In the non-formal programmes, curriculum
development places much more emphasis on the study of the profile, needs and
problems of the learners or target users. For example, under this activity, three
procedures are being followed: first, the profile, background problems and needs of
the target audiences are identified; second, a job analysis is undertaken to find out
the type of skills required by the learners to best perform some specific jobs; and
last, a topical study is undertaken to determine what they still need to know. Once
these baseline studies are conducted, the rest of the procedures more or less follow
those of the curriculum being developed in the formal sector.

Despite these cturiculum development efforts by the countries, institu-


tionalizing population education into the systems has been a difficult task. Many
reasons account for this. First, this is a subject through which not only some know-
ledge is to be imparted, but also new attitudes and values are to be inculcated. Most
of these values are deemed controversial in nature. Second, the existing curricula at
all school levels are already so overcrowded that it becomes very difficult to integrate
population education content. A review of the population education curricula in
Curriculum development in population education

the region shows that they have been developed in great detail and often presented
in an elaborate format. Nonetheless, it is a somewhat common experience that a
detailed or elaborate, and often very ambitious, curriculum is not found easily
acceptable to the persons or agencies looking after the total curricula at a given
stage of schooling or education. The main reason is that the existing curriculum is
already overcrowded. Consequently, the scrutiny of the educational materials,
particularly the textbooks and the like, reveals that a population education curri-
culum is hardly reflected in them; and it often gets too thin to register any impact
on the students. In the out-of-school sector population education messages tend to
get lost or diluted in the transfer process because non-form-t1 education, being part
of the development process, places more emphasis on certain content areas.

This series addresses itself tc this problem. It abstracts znd review 70


publications which present the definition, nature and scope of curriculum develop-
ment in population education, the guiding principles and procedural steps to be
followed in curriculum development both in the formal and non-formal sectors;
and the national experiences as well as the state-of-the-art on curriculum develop-
ment programmes in Asia and the Pacific. These publications document how
countries have instituted population education into their school curriculum, the
problems encountered and the solutions formulated to resolve these problems.
Most importantly, this volume attempts to show the changing direction and trends
being followed by the countries from developing curriculum materials in either
a very saturated or elaborate form or diluted and spread out too thinly to focusing
on just a set of adequate minimum learning requirements designed to attain desired
cognitive and behavioural outcomes at each grade level. The time span of publica-
tions is from 1969 to 1984. The publications which have been selected here are not
curriculum materials but they describe the processes and experiences; and the
theoretical as well as practical discussions of curriculum development. Some of
these publications include lessons and actual curriculum materials to illustrate the
discussions. These publications have been grouped into six parts:

Part One : Strategies for Curriculum Development In Population Educa-


tion in the Formal Education System

Part Two : Strategics for Curriculum Development In Population Educa-


tion in the Non-Formal Education System

Part Three : Development of Curriculum Materials in Specific Subject


Areas

Part Four : State-of-the-Art on Curriculum Development In Population


Education in Asia and the Pacific

Part Five : National Experiences on Curriculum Development in Popula-


tion Education

Part Six : Research and Evaluation In Curriculum Development in


Population Education
Introduction
The classifications are not mutually exclusive. While Part One for example
presents a general discussion on the theoretical considerations regarding curriculum
development, some publications include some 1').ort descriptions of national
experiences as illustrations. On the other hand, whIle Parts Four and Five highlight
the efforts of specific countries in the region in developing their population educa-
tion curriculum materials, some publications also carry some short general discus-
sion on the theory and process of curriculum development. For each part, a review
and synthesis of the literature is provided to enable the reader to get an overall
view of that particular topic quickly, critically and authoritatively.
Under each classification, the entries or selections are arranged alphabetically
by author, institution or other main entries within each clas:::fication. The general
format includes a list of descriptors which are derived from the Unesco IBE and the
Carolina Population Centre Thesauri and the addresses of the sources of these
materials. The abstracts arc lengthy enough to give the redder not only the main
issues but also major ideas and conclusions arrived at. The majority of the publica-
tions are reports of meetings and workshops, research studies, monographs and
articles.

iii

11
PART ONE : STRATEGIES FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN
POPULATION EDUCATION IN THE
FORMAL EDUCATION SYSTEM

12
Strategies for curriculum development in the formal education system

Part One: Strategies for Curriculum Development In Population Education in the


Formal Education System: A Literature Review
This basically a general discussion of the various considerations and
is
strategies to look into before developing and introducing a population education
curriculum into the school system. Consisting of 16 selections, the majority present
a comprehensive treatment of the subject matter, starting with the rationale for
developing a curriculum on population education in the school, proceeding to
factors to consider in developing such a curriculum and finally enumerating the
strategies or sequential steps for the actual development of such curriculum
materials. However, a few selections have been written to zero in on one aspect of
the whole range of considerations given for curriculum development. For example,
one selection focuses only on approaches for introducing population education into
the school curriculum, namely, separate course approach or infusion approach where
population education concepts permeate the existing subjects, along with a discus-
sion of the pros and cons of each. Another selection highlights the issue of the
school level at which population education should be introduced primary or
secondary level? Two selections approach the subject matter by raising problema-
tic issues encountered in developing curriculum materials in population education.
Another two document, raise possible content areas that could consist a population
education curriculum.

Generally, the documents start the discussion of the topic by first estab-
lishing the need and rationale for introducing population education into the school
system. All the documents agree that the many problems brought about by rapid
population growth are recognized by educators. Although these documents
enumerate various measures to arrest fertility and reduce birth rate, they eventually
focus on education as one of the most important tools. The school curriculum can
effect the development of attitudes and ideals in school children. Education systems
can make the kind of educational contribution that will prepare young people for
future family roles. Once this need is established, the documents proceed to discuss
various considerations to take into account when embarking on a population educa-
tion curriculum programme. These include the following: (a) population policies
and characteristics of the country's educational system; (b) definition of population
education; (c) educational objectives; (d) educational experiences or contents to
attain these set objectives; (e) approaches for integrating population education
content into the school system; (f) strategy for implementation; (g) nature of
the learner or age level at which different topics can be introduced; (h) school level
at which population education can be introduced; and (i) preparedness of the
instructional staff.

To demonstrate more concretely the process of curriculum development


in population education, the documents present various sets of sequential steps
or procedures. While many steps are common to them, some go more in-depth into
the actual process of curriculum preparation while others chose to include adminis-
3

13
Curriculum development in population education

trative and institutional strategies to promote the integration of population


education into the school curriculum. For example, one document describes only
the three main processes of materials development, i.e., (a) identifying major
concepts; (b) breaking down these major concepts into subconcepts; and (c) identi-
fying behavioural, cognitive and affective objectives. The document prepared by
the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific recommends the
following steps: (a) formulating a set of objectives; (b) development of a conceptual
structure and the organization of a body of knowledge or population concepts
necessary to realize the goals and objectives of population education; (c) identifying
plug-in points in appropriate subjects by grade levels; (d) sequencing of identified
population education concepts by grade and subject (scope and sequence); (e)
development of curricular materials for teachers and students; (f) institutionalizing
population education into the general educational system; and (g) evaluation. Other
documents include strategies beyond actual curriculum preparation such as estab-
lishing linkages between population education and current curricular revisions,
training of teachers, mobilizing for curriculum change, studying not only the needs
of the school children but also the problems and needs of society. The documents
highlight the broad content areas that should comprise a population education
curriculum. The documents enumerate various types of integration; namely,
infusion of population education concepts into the content of an existing course;
introducing it as a mini-lesson or teaching unit in textbooks; as a separate, unified
course; and the integration of population education into the school curriculum
through a massive curriculum reform.
The content areas included: (a) population or demographic data; (b) human
reproduction; (c) population and family planning policies and programmes; (d)
family size and quality of life; and (e) population growth and its effects on urbaniza-
tion, environment, social and economic development. There has been much debate
and discussion with regard to the school level at which population education should
be introduced. Those who argue for introducing it into the primary level give the
following reasons: (a) there is a high dropout rate after grade V or VI; (b) the
biggest enrolment is at this level; (c) children develop attitudes early and are already
inquisitive and exposed to matters of sex at an early age; (d) pupils from low-
income groups, where the tendency is towards big families, make up the bulk of
the elementary schools pupils; (e) many are eligible for marriage before they leave
elementary school; and (f) there are more teachers at the elementary level who can
be tapped to teach population education. Those who argue for introducing popula-
tion education at secondary level say: (a) the complexity and controversial
character of materials for population education requires a certain level of ini,turity
to understand them; (b) it is the high school graduates who will dominate society's
future leaders; (c) the dropouts can be taken care of by out-of-school youth
educators; and (d) students at the secondary level are closer to the age of marriage.

4 14
Strategies for curriculum development in the formal education system

SCHOOL LEVEL AT WHICH from outside a given socio-cultural system;


POPULATION EDUCATION theories of social change as being inherent
SHOULD BE INTRODUCED within the system; second are the change
agents from outside the system who are
01
the original innovators, or the introducers
Chau ls, Donald. "Population education (externalistic), of the new ideas and
should be introduced first at the primary behaviours to a small portion of the village;
rather than the secondary school level and third are .he marginal elite who will
a sociological approach", The Journal serve as the early adopters of the new ideas
of Family Welfare 19(2): 29-35, Decem- and behaviours, altering them to fit into
ber 1972. he culture of the village and then
spreading them throughout the village.
Those who advocate that population
education be introduced first at the School population education pro-
primary level are, in effect, assuming that grammes can aim either at the original
primary school students (who will not innovators or at the early adopters. The
continue their education) are more likely level (as well as content) of the two pro-
to remain in the local community and grammes would differ considerably. Speci-
being graduates of the highest level of fically: (a) a school population education
education which their village has to offer programme at the secondary school level
are likely to be its future leaders. On the is a means to reach the original innovators
other hand, those who advocate an initial of new population ideas and behaviour; its
emphasis on secondary level population content would be oriented towards pro-
education are assuming that secondary viding a broad view of the population
students of village origin, although they are situation plus a recognition of the students'
likely to move to urban areas, will never- potential leadership role in producing
theless continue to influence village population change; (b) a school population
attitudes and behaviour with respect to education programme at the village primary
population. These people, in effect, view school level and especially in the higher
the process of social change as occurring grades of primary school is a means to
on an urban-to-rural, better-to-less reach the early adopters of new population
educated continuum, and feel that it is ideas and behaviour; its content would be
presently necessary to concentrate on the family- and community-oriented.
urban, better-educated end of the con-
tinuum. Which of these arguments is It would be preferable to develop a
morely likely to be correct? Can studies of population education programme at both
the processes of social change shed light on the primary and secondary school levels.
this problem in order to assist educational However, where faced with funding and
decision-makers? personnel limitations, it is argued that
greater emphasis should be placed on the
The paper presents three theories of introduction of population education at
social change which will help illuminate the upper levels of primary school. The
these discussions. First are the externalistic major reason for this conclusion is the over-
theories of social change which view riding importance of reaching the village's
change as being introduced, of necessity, early adopters.
5
t

15
Curriculum development in population education

Descriptors: Social Factors; Educational learners from the knowledge that there is
Levels a problem of population/resource im-
balance to a resolve that they can and
Source: Family Planning Association should do something about the problem.
of India Problem-solving and discovery learning are
Bajaj Bhavan necessary in population education if the
Nariman Point, Bombay objective is to lift the enterprise above
400021 the mere transmission of facts. The article
India then presents four steps in structuring
curriculum materials.

EMPHASIS ON LEARNING If population curricula arc developed


PROCESS
so that the learner perceives that there is
a problem, is provided with means for
attempting solutions and has acquired a
02
sense of efficacy that he can effect solu-
Davis, Russel G. "Curriculum development tions, then the final goal seems to be
in population education: a note on developing a sense that the learner should
missing components", in: Kline, David apply the solutions to his own life and
and David Harman. ed. Issues in popula- conduct. This brings the curriculum
tion education. Lexington, Mass., designer to the problem of handling ethical
Lexington Books, 1976, p. 149-185. values or moral considerations; and this is
The aim of this article is to improve one of the features that should distinguish
curriculum materials in population educa- population education from other seemingly
tion by placing a major emphasis on
related subjects in the curriculum, such as
structuring demographic and economic "objective" treatment of reproductive
content so as to attain transfer of learning biology or a "factual" presentation of
economic or demographic facts. One
through problem-solving and discovery
learning. In the conceptualization and model which can be used for injecting
implementation of a population education moral education into population education
curriculum, success is dependent on how is the Kohlber model where moral educa-
information transmission and transfer of tion consists of helping the child, youth
learning; discovery learning and problem- and adult move through stages toward
solving; moral learning; and activity and successively higher-order moral reasoning.
experimental reinforcement are inter Finally, in the last stage, the learning
woven to form a creative unity.
gained by the students should be applied
in actual life.
Population education syllabuses, text-
books and instructional materials seem to Application can be undertaken in
stop at the level of information transmis- many ways. Students can also be more
sion and make scant mention of the need directly involved in their communities by
to teach for transfer. The curriculum helping to reduce the effects on families
designer must structure information so that of excessive fertility and scant resources.
transfer is accomplished and this means There are many opportunities for pro-
that generalizations are transmitted along jects, based in the school or out in the
the pre-designed links or stages toward community that deal with population-
application. This structuring should take related activities. They can be involved
6

16
Strategies for curriculum development in the formal education system
directly in problems through field trips school curricula are currently organized.
and project preparation in ecological Furthermore, the knowledge base for the
and social development. The student cognitive aspect of the curriculum devel-
may also, very early on, be directly opment process normally available for
involved in the problem as an individual, established areas has not been systemati-
as he faces the effects of early marriage cally developed for this field. This book
and high fertility on career planning and is designed to provide the curriculum
educational and vocational opportunity. developers and the teacher with a single
In summary the four stages can be seen as systematic formulation of the knowledge
a unified activity following a pattern: base for the population education pro-
(a) establishing that there is a problem of gramme. It has been written primarily
population/resource balance (information); for teachers of science and social studies
(b) establishing that something can be done at the middle and junior high school
about the problem (transfer); (c) estab- levels and the suggestions for classroom
lishing that the individual learner himself iztivities are in general geared for students
can do something about it (transfer); (d) and teachers at these levels. The know-
establishing that the individual should do ledge base presented in this book has been
something about it (moral learning); and drawn from mathematics, philosophy, the
(e) hopefully this sequence ends in action humanities and many of the natural and
in which the individual does something social sciences.
about the problem and this in turn rein-
forces his disposition to act in subsequent Chapter One presents the relationship
situations (reinforcement). between population and education, defini-
tions, goals and assumptions of population
Descriptors: Information Transfer; Prob- education and the different steps for
lem Solving; Discovery undertaking inquiry approach in teaching
Learning; Moral Education or learning population education. Chapter
Two focuses on the demographic con-
Source: Lexington Books cepts: population size, births and death
D.C. Heath and Company rates, migration, population growth rate,
125 Spring Street projections and predictions, age structure
Lexington, Mass 02173 of populations, world population growth,
U.S.A. population distribution, how population
grows and human population growth
pattern. Chapter Three defines what
THEORETICAL BASIS OF population regulation means in terms of
POPULATION EDUCATION the physical, biological and social systems.
Then it focuses on population regulation
03 in animal and human populations. Chapter
Jacobson, Willard J. Population education: Four discusses the issue of family and
a knowledge base. New York, Teachers population. Under this chapter, the
College, Columbia University, 1979. following topics are discussed: the family,
267p. human reproduction, birth control and
contraceptive methods, social factors that
Population issues, like most areas of influence family size, young people and
public concern, do not fall neatly into one their futures and family planning and the
of the instructional areas around which different kinds of public population
7

17
Curriculum development in population education

policies. Chapter Five focuses on the Descriptors: Resource Materials; Second-


issue of population and space to live ary Grades, Science Edu-
highlighting the following topics: crowding, cation; Social Science
population density versus population size, Education
population density and social stress, the
Source: Teachers College Press
concept of "open space" and how people
1234 Amsterdam Avenue
want to live. Chapter Six discusses the New York, N.Y. 10027
inter-relationships between population and
U.S.A.
their environments by presenting discus-
sion on the natural ecosystem, modem
farming systems, cities and industrialized
urban systems, the global systems, impact POPULATION EDUCATION
of population growth and the optimum CONTRIBUTES TO
levels of population. Chapter Seven shows EDUCATIONAL INNOVATION
the relationship between population and
resources. The following are the resources 04
taken up in this chapter which affect and
Jayasuriya, J.E. Curriculum innovation
are affected by population increase: food,
through population education. Colombo,
materials and life styles, energy and
Associated Educational Publishers, 1978.
stan -lards of living, and the application of
Chapter Eight 119 p.
universal laws. Finally,
shows how values affect the study of The purpose of the book is to provide
population and education. It presents some insights into the introduction of
definitions of various terms and discusses population education an area of study
the various approaches to evaluation. As where content and methodologies have
a practical exercise, for the use of values undoubted educational and social relevance
clarification, this chapter takes up the into the curriculum.
following issues for discussion: Should
population control be imposed? Should Chapter One traces the origins and
young people be taught birth control? development of population education
Survival: a question of responsibility and starting from 1941 when Alva Myrdal in
the "right" to self-location: this volume her book "Nation and Family" emphasized
not only provides a source book for back- the essential role of education in the
ground information on problems asso- development of a new population policy
ciated with population but also gives and in 1943, an article in Social Education
practical suggestions for teaching. Among set out the case for inclusion of population
these practical suggestions are analogues issues in the social studies curriculum of
designed to help relate abstract ideas to the secondary schools. In 1962, popula-
more concrete familiar situations and the tion education was reborn with the publica-
"role imaginings" that permit considera- tion of Warren Thompson and Philip
tion of controversial issues in the way that Hauser's articles that called for schools to
others may view them. Throughout, incorporate population content. After
these practical suggestions are indicated by these milestones, the United Nations
distinctive type. Declaration of Population issued by the

8.
18
Strategies for curriculum development in the formal education system
Secretary General of the United Nations curriculum. It serves as a catalyst for the
on Human Rights Day and the Unesco promotion of inter-disciplinarity ; it em-
mandate on population education finally phasizes problem analysis and explores
developed a fully fledged population more than any other curricula the inter-
education programme for the world. relationships among social phenomena.
Chapter Two presents a view of education It develops the realization of the inter-
as a backdrop against which the goals and dependence of human beings and the
nature of the proposed field of study may inter-relationships between man and his
be examined; a concise account of the environment; and lastly it encourages the
more significant attempts to state a case for development of three types of skills among
population education; and what might the students, namely, clarifying values,
hopefully be a comprehensive and a new planning and decision-making and problem-
perspective. Chapter Three presents the solving. Chapter Seven discusses why the
scope and content of population educa- field of research is very weak in population
tion. It first differentiates population education and identifies areas requiring
education with family life education, more research. The meagre output of
sex education and environmental educa- research in the Asian region is explained
tion. Then it provides a content outline by stating that the programme's efforts
of a course in population education. were largely concentrated on curriculum
Finally, on the basis of this outline, it development and teacher training; both
stresses that every population education of which were quite stupendous tasks in
programme should develop a conceptual themselves. Finally Chapter Eight calls
structure. Chapter Four analyses the for a halt to the ever-increasing fragmenta-
many problems and issues that arise with tion of education and to subsume at least
the introduction of a new subject such as a fair number of the many different kinds
population education. These problems of education under a single heading such as
deal with issues in programme development "Current problems".
such as creating a climate of acceptance for
population education and establishing good Descriptors: General Discussion; i'alues
controls and programme management. Clarification; Teaching Meth-
They also concern problems that have to ods; Course Contents
do with pedagogical issues such as what
stage to introduce population education, Source: Associated Educational Pub-
which strategy or mode of integration is lishers
the most appropriate: the separate unit, P.O. Box 603
or the infusion approach. Chapter Five Colombo, Sri Lanka
discusses the various teaching methodolo-
gies that can be used to effectively teach
population education. This chapter
however, focuses more on presenting the FORMULATING A DYNAMIC
various steps in undertaking the values STRUCTURE FOR
clarification and problem-solving approach POPULATION EDUCATION
and discourages the readers from using
the discovery-oriented approaches. Chap- 05
ter Six identifies the various innovative Lane, Mary Turner and Ralph E. Wileman.
contributions that population education A structure for population education:
has introduced into the general education goals, generalizations, and behavioral
9

19
Curriculum development in population education

objectives. Revised edition. Chapel population and economy?To illustrate this,


Hill, North Carolina, Carolina Popula- the book presents several generalizations
tion Center, 1978. 119 p. under each of the stated goals. In addition
to the generalizations, it is also important
This book has been written to assist to observe whether the learner has arrived
anyone who wants to learn about, teach, or at the generalizations that the learner has
plan curricula for population education. developed some cognitive gains and attitu-
It identifies a structure that educators can dinal changes. There is therefore a need to
use for first graders or for high school state the behavioural objectives to describe
students. The structure has been developed observable cognitive learning. Each
on the following definition of population behavioural objective in this structure has
education: population education is not just two characteristics: (a) behaviour; and (b)
demography or sex education or popula- criterion measures. Behaviour tells what
tion statistics or family life education. It the learner does to demonstrate his
incorporates all of these three areas in a learning. Criterion measures tell teachers
more dynamic structure. It is the study of and learners about quantity, quality and
human population and how it affects and is time considerations related to evaluating
affected by several aspects of life: physical, the products of behaviour. They generally
social, cultural, political, economic and tell educators how much time or how little,
ecological. how well and how fast the learner is
expected to respond. Some behavioural
Chapter One identifies briefly the objectives included in this structure also
population phenomenon and the need to include a third characteristic - - conditions.
study it. Chapter Two gives the elements Conditions are the givens, such as a map, a
of the structure: goals, generalizations guide, a table or a set of instruments that
and behavioural objectives. The goals of a learner has when he is asked to perform
population education are to develop a task. To illustrate this, the book presents
understandings and attitudes about the a list of behavioural objectives. For each
following: (a) basic population and demo- generalization, there could be almost an
graphic terms; (b) human reproduction and infinite number of objectives that would
family planning; (c) family size and stan- provide evidence of learner mastery of the
dards of living; (d) population and the generalizations. Chapter Three suggests
environment; population and the
(e) ways teachers can use this structure in
economy; (f) population policies and pro- planning courses they are already teaching
grammes in other countries; and (g) the or in new courses. This chapter is not on
growing personal and collective effect of how to teach about population because
the population phenomenon. To achieve there are already many excellent methods
these goals, there must be a clear statement books that deal with effective teaching and
of the main ideas or generalizations that learning. This structure helps the teacher
contribute to meeting the goals. For exam- bridge the gap between information about
ple, if one goal is t o develop understandings population and teaching about population
and attitudes about the effects of popula- by focusing on goals, significant ideas and
tion and the economy, what major genera- objectives for the learner. The appendices
lizations are needed for this study? What of this book are such an integral part of
essential understandings or generalizations concern for population education that in
should direct the teacher's planning and the some ways they should probably be identi-
student's learning in the exploration of fied as Chapter Four. The appendices are
10

20
Strategies for curriculum development in the formal education system
organized to provide annotated and and sequential syllabus; avoid unnecessary
reviewed materials for the teacher and for overlapping and repetition; allows one
the learner, a bibliography of significant teacher to take the responsibility to plan
readings on population and descriptions the course. The disadvantages of this
of population agencies and population approach are that the curriculum is already
education centres, and an annotated overcrowded and there are few teachers
listing of additional instructional materials. available who could, with confidence,
Descriptors: Structure of Knowledge;
deal with the variety of knowledge which
this kind of course demands.
Educational Goals; Educa-
tional Objectives The infusion with existing subjects of
Source:
population education concepts means that
Carolina Population Center
no major curriculum reorganization is
University of North Carolina
necessary; existing subjects are used and
at Chapel Hill
the time-table need not be disturbed and
University Square 300-A
existing teachers can be used with little
Chapel Hill, N.C. 27514
re-training. Disadvantages include the
U.S.A.
danger of fragmentation of the programme
and the consequent failure of the pupils to
APPROACHES IN INTRODUCING attain the kind of understanding that the
POPULATION EDUCATION programme requires and it is much easier
06 to see "integration" on paper than it is to
achieve it in the reality of the school
Lawton, Dennis. "Population education situation.
and curriculum planning," in: Lawton,
Dennis, ed. Population education and Which of the two approaches to adopt
the younger generation. London, depends on the kinds of teachers available,
International Planned Parenthood facilities which exist for re-training teachers
Federation, 1971, p. 8-12. and the cost of adapting existing teaching
materials.
There is general agreement that
schools ought to encourage greater aware- Descriptors: Integration Approach
ness of personal, national and international
problems connected with population and Source: IPPF
reproduction. There are two approaches 18-20 Lower Regent Street
by which schools can introduce population London SIV1Y 4PW
education into the curriculum. The first England
approach sees population and family
planning education as part of a new subject
for which room should be made on the HOW TO INCORPORATE
time-table of human ecology. The second POPULATION EDUCATION INTO
approach is to ensure that the required SCHOOL PROGRAMMES
teaching is done by means of subjects
already included in the curriculum such 07
as science, geography and history.
Metha, T.S. "Curriculum development for
The single unified subject enables one population education," in: India. Na-
to plan a carefully constructed, coherent tional Council of Educational Research
11

2j
Curriculum development in population education

and Training. Population Education step which covers the selection of suitable
Cell. Population education: selected educational experiences that are likely to
readings. New Delhi, 1972, p. Mi- attain the objectives set forth entails
1 12. identification of concepts, information
and facts relevant to population problems,
Increased population growth is respon- population dynamics and its effects on the
sible for retarding economic progress of life of the people. Because of the very
India and is adversely affecting the health nature of objectives laid down for popula-
and well-being of the younger generation. tion education, it must draw for its content
In order to effect any change in the growth upon the various diseipline,s. Although
rate of the population, the future parents selection of contents should be unique to a
from this most important segment of country, the article presents the major
society must be involved. Their changed content areas that the following countries
attitude towards family size is vital. have set up for their population education
Population education through the school programmes: India, Malaysia, Korea,
system could be a potent instrument for Thailand, To sum up by and large the
developing these attitudes and competen- accepted major elements of population
cies to take rational decisions. In devel- education are: (a) determinants of popula-
oping curriculum materials for population tion growth; (b) demography; (c) conse-
education, the following basic questions quences of population growth; (d) human
should be asked: (a) what educational reproduction; (e) family planning policies
purposes should the school seek to attain and programmes. An issue that has caused
through the introduction of population a lot of discussion in some of the countries
education as an integral part of the school of the Asian region is whether sex educa-
programme?; (b) what educational experi- tion forms or does not form a part of
ences can be provided that are likely to population education. The next sequential
attain these objectives?; (c) how can these step in the process of curriculum develop-
experiences be effectively organised?; (d) ment would be the preparation of instruc-
what should be the strategy of implementa- tional materials for the use of teachers and
tion of this change? students. These may come in the forms
There are two important steps in- of textbooks, handbooks, teaching guides,
supplementary materials and audio-visual
volved in the formulation of goals for
population education. The first is a critical aids. The question on how to incorporate
study of the existing curricula in the
population education in the school pro-
The second step would be the gramme is still an open one though several
school.
clarification of the concept of population national and international seminars have
education and to develop a point of view favoured the fusion of population educa-
suited to the needs of the country and in tion concept through the entire school
programme, wherever they are educa-
tune with the prevailing school programme.
The article then proceeds to describe the tionally relevant and appropriate.
various definitions of population educa-
tion as formulated by countries like India, Descriptors: General Discussion; Integra-
Malaysia, Korea, Thailand and a Unesco- tion Approach; Educational
sponsored seminar in Bangkok. The next Objectives; Course Contents
Strategies for curriculum development in the formal education system

Source: Population Education Unit the existing syllabi in social studies, geo-
National Council of Educa- graphy, economics, health education and
tional Research and general science; (b) clarification of the
Training concept of population education and
Sri Aurobindo Marg developing a point of view with regard to
New Delhi 110016 socio-economic needs and the direction
India the country is taking for its planned growth
in order to identify some major social
PROCEDURES FOR DEVELOPING values that may have relevance for the
POPULATION EDUCATION introduction of population education in
CURRICULUM the school curriculum; (c) the selection of
content which means identifying some
08
major understandings, concepts and
Mehta, T.S. "Developing population information and facts relevant to popula-
education curriculum", in: India. tion education; (d) preparation of instruc-
National Council of Educational Re- tional materials in the form of textbooks,
search and Training. Readings in popu- handbooks, supplementary reading
lation education. New Delhi, 1969, materials, audio-visual aids, etc.; (e) the
p. 57-61. materials should be systematically field-
The article describes the problems tested before the final shape is given to
them; (f) teacher preparation it is the
brought about by rapid population in-
crease and how educational institutions teacher who has to use these materials,
create learning situations in the classroom
can help in solving them. It is through the
curriculum that education seeks to achieve
for his pupils and help them to learn;
the ultimate goal which is to help the (g) developing a strategy of implementa-
pupils develop self-direction and learn to tion by the adoption or adaption of the
material by the States and incorporating
contribute their share in national develop-
it into the various appropriate school
ment. Unfortunately, curriculum material
subjects; and (h) curriculum revision.
in population education is scant. In
developing curriculum materials for popula- Descriptors: General Discussion; Educa-
tion education, the following questions tional Objectives; Content
should be answered: (a) what educational Areas; Curriculum Develop-
objectives should the school seek to attain; ment Strategies
(b) what educational experiences can be Source: Population Education Unit
provided that are likely to attain these National Council of Educa-
purposes; (c) how can these educational tional Research and Training
experiences be effectively organized; (d) Sri Aurobindo Marg
how can we determine whether these New Delhi 110016
purposes are being attained? After these India
questions are answered, the following
procedures can be undertaken to develop CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
the curriculum materials: (a) conducting STRATEGIES
a status study to determine what is being
taught with regard to population problem, 09
health and family education under various Paik, Hyun Ki. "Curriculum develop-
school subjects. This will mean analysing ment in population education", in:
13

23
Curriculum development in population education

Pakistan. National Institute of Educa- lation of goals and objectives of population


tion. Population education. Islamabad, education. The first is a critical study of
1974, p. 11-14. the curricula which are existing in the
country. This means an analysis of draft
The promotion of population educa- curriculum syllabi or textbooks used in
tion at all levels of educational institutions various subject areas. The second step
is one tool for tackling the problem of would be the clarification of the concept
rapid population growth. Education of population education in relation to
being a formal agency for transmitting new population issues and the development of
ideas to the young generation, becomes a point of view suited to the needs of the
imperative to create an awareness and country and in tune with the prevailing
understanding in the children and youth school programme.
about the population situation and its
consequences through organized educa- Examination of the draft curricula of
tion. There is no simple universal defini- social studies, mathematics, science, health
tion of population education except in education and home economics reveals that
the general sense that it is the curriculum all of these subject fields involve popula-
dealing with population studies. Curricu- tionstudies to greater or lesser extent.
lum development is a complex task in Based on the extent of its content treat-
which several processess are involved. ment, it is necessary to make decisions as
The following basic questions have to be to the approaches for incorporating popula-
answered first when developing a curri- tion education into its various subject
culum: (a) what knowledge base for fields. The next sequential step in the pro-
curriculum development has to be built cess of curriculum development would be
up that is likely to provide the baseline the preparation of instructional materials
data from which content of population for the use of teachers and students. These
education can be drawn ?; (b) what are may take the forms of curricula, syllabuses,
the objectives of population education textbooks, teachers' guides, student's work-
in the schools and colleges ?; (c) what books and supplementary reading materials.
content can be selected from know-
ledge base to attain these objectives ?; (d) Descriptors: General Discussion; Curricu-
what would be the modes of inclusion of lum Development Strategies
population education content into the
school curricula ?; (e) what should be the Source: National Institute of Educa-
strategy involved in instructional materials tion
development and programme implementa- Ministry of Education
tion? Because population education is a Islamabad, Pakistan
new field, a systematic body of knowledge
in population education is not readily
to curriculum writers. One INTEGRATION APPROACH FOR
available
approach to meet this problem is to as- POPULATION EDUCATION
PROGRAMMES
semble and organize the concepts and
data which are available through the
10
co-operative efforts of various scholars
in different disciplines. Explicit goals Rao, D. Gopal. "Developing curriculum
are necessary to guide leaming. There are for population education," in: Rao,
two important steps involved in the formu- D. Gopal. Population education: a

1,t 4
Strategies for curriculum development in the formal education system
guide to curriculum and teacher educa- and interests of children, and of the family,
tion. New Delhi, Sterling Publishers, community and nation.
1974, p. 48-76.
Because India is faced with problems The causes of population growth, and
arising from an enormous increase its consequences; as well as the need for
in
population, the task of education is to help population contol, are three key concepts
the growing children to meet the challenges
which form the basis for organizing the
and demands which arise from this; there- elements of the curriculum. Each of these
concepts are substantiated by further
fore population education should be
introduced as an integral part of education.
analysis of the major concepts into sub-
concepts. They provide a basis for the
Population education is not a study of
selection of desired behavioural objectives.
demography only nor is it contraceptive The goals of population education are
education or a propaganda medium for the
stated in terms of three domains: cogni-
family planning programme. It is rather
tive, affective and behaviour. The cognitive
primarily concerned with the well-being of
the individuals and society. Whether to
domain includes those objectives which
deal with recall or recognition of know-
introduce population education in the
ledge and the development of intellectual
school curricula as a separate subject or
abilities and skills. The affective domain
part of some other related subject matter
includes those objectives which describe
is one of the dilemmas in the approach of
changes in interests, attitudes, values and
integration. This problem can be explained the development of appreciations and
by the fact that the existing curriculum is adequate adjustments.
already overcrowded and that the subject The behaviour
domain includes that population behaviour
matter of population education cuts across
several disciplines. The best way is to
in which the individual applies his know-
identify the concepts that should be
ledge and expresses his attitudes towards
a problem or situation pertaining to popu-
introduced in population education and to lation.
examine each concept carefully with a view
to determining the curricular areas through
The article discusses at more length
which they can be integrated. Modem the different approaches for integrating
research in the field of curriculum has
population education into the school cur-
indicated that concepts can be the basis riculum. At the elementary stage, the
for developing curricula and conceptualiza-
tion facilitates learning. In population
integrated approach seems to be more
meaningful and comparatively easy because
education, a conceptual model has been the same teacher teaches different subjects
developed with the following criteria: (a)
to the same grade. At the secondary level,
the curriculum should be flexible and
this approach becomes more complicated.
adaptable to meet varied and changing
The article describes two effective methods
situations; (b) the approach to curriculum of teaching population education: through
development should be conceptual so that
the problem-solving approach and through
the component parts would not be subject "learning by doing."
to frequent revisions; (c) each of the funda-
mental concepts included in the model
should be suitable for instruction at any Descriptors: General Discussion; Integra-
grade level; and (d) the curriculum should tion Approach; Educational
take into account factors such as the needs Objectives
15

25
Curriculum development in population education

Source: Sterling Publishers PVT Ltd. culum planning; (d) curriculum planning
Jullundur 3 must be based on knowledge of how
New Delhi 110016 children grow and learn, the awareness of
India their basic needs, concerns, characteris-
tics, motivation and ambitions and also on
the conditions required for the learning
INTERLOCKING STEPS IN to be effective; (e) objectives should be
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT formulated; (f) the subject matter and
activities must relate to the age and growth
11 level of the child, his inter and needs
and his home environment; (g) in planning
Rao, D. Gopal. "Development of curricu- the courses, the teaching units must be
lum on population education: a few a
arranged in logical sequence and in
considerations," in: Kuppuswamy, B. psychological sequence, bearing upon the
and others, ed. Population education: maturation level of children; (h) the most
a panel discussion. Bangalore, Institute effective means of launching a new pro-
for Social and Psychological Research, gramme is by its integration in the in-
1971, p. 117-123. service training of teachers and supervisors
This article raises several considera- who are already trained. Auxialiary
tions in developing a population educa- measures might include: (i) publicising the
tion curriculum. In recent definitions of new programme in the press; (ii) mobilizing
curriculum, the emphasis has changed from community organizations such as PTAs and
what is taught to the child in the classrocm (iii) encouraging parents and others to visit
to the total environment in which educa- the classes and to judge for themselves the
tion takes place. It is not so much the impact of the programme.
mastery of the subject matter which is
Descriptors: General Discussion; Curricu-
regarded as determining the growth, as the
lum Development Strategies;
active reaction of the individual to his Objectives;
Educational
environment.
Course Content; Evaluation
Curriculum development, to be effec-
Source: Institute for Social anti Psy-
tive,involves a number of interlocking chological Research
steps: (a) educational leaders feel that Bangalore, Karnataka
their work would be more effective if the
India
move to change the curricula came from
parents, business and professional people
and the general public. This principle
TYPES OF INTEGRATION
especially applies to curricular changes
STRATEGIES
that deal with population education;
(b) curriculum change requires the co-
12
, eration of a large number of people if
it is to be successful and effective; (c) a Soriano, Liceria Brillantes. "The integra-
study of social problems that con
the tion of 1. _.t, ula don education in the
front the people in their everyday living, school curriculum", in: Elevazo, A.O.,
such as, the role of mechanization in eco and others. Population education: a
nomic life, or conflicts and stresses in matter of urgency. Quezon City [1971],
family, forms a legitimate base to curri- p. 26-S1.
16

26
Strategies for curriculum development in the formal education system
The paper enumerates various measures Curriculum in Population Education
in order to arrest fertility and reduce the in Nepal, May 1981. Bangkok, 1981.
birth rate. It focuses on education as one 17 p.
of the most important tools in effecting
the development of attitudes and ideals This article focuses on how popula-
that will guide the school children, when tion education can contribute to the
they reach parenthood, to adopt a fertility renovation of a country's school curri-
pattern in consonance with their own culum. The extent of curricular renova-
moral values and social responsibilities. tion possible through population education
depends on what is perceived as the nature,
The writer suggests four methods for goal and role of population education
introducing population education into the vis-a-visthe philosophical, sociological,
curriculum. It can take the form of speci- psychological and pedagogical bases of the
fic teaching units used on a daily or weekly total school curriculum. It then discusses
basis; it may be infused into existing the different procedural steps for reno-
courses; it could be introduced through vating the curriculum through population
massive curriculum reform, but because of education.
the constraints of a lack of specialists and
experts this would be impractical; or it can The first step involves defining the
be integrated into disciplines such as goals of population education. There are
history, anthropology, sociology, eco- certain criteria that ought to be considered
nomics and psychology. in formulating a set of objectives. The
objectives should be stated in terms of
Descriptors: Integration Approach; Con- outcomes rather than activities; be explicit
tent Analysis; Curriculum and precise and describe the results which
Development Strategies would constitute the achievement of the
objectives in terms which are verifiable;
Source: Population Education Pro-
include cognitive and affective learning
gramme
and be mutually consistent. Then the
Ministry of Education, Cul-
ture and Sports
paper presents an example of a set of
objectives in population education which
Palacio del Governador on
meet these criteria. These sample objec-
Aduana Street
tives take into consideration both the
Intramuros, Manila
learner's cognitive and affective domains.
Philippines
The second step entails the development of
a conceptual structure of the organization
of a body of knowledge or population
STEPS FOR RENOVATING THE concepts necessary to realize the goals and
CURRICULUM THROUGH objectives of population education. This
POPULATION EDUCATION is not a simple case of enumerating demo-
graphic and population concepts but more
13 important is the organization of such
Unesco. Regional Office for Education content in a logical scheme. For example,
in Asia and the Pacific. Curricular under the objective: "to develop an under-
renovation through population educa- standing of basic demographic concepts
tion. A paper prepared for a Seminar- and measurements", the following topics
Workshop on the Development of can be taken up: census, population
17

27
Curriculum development in population education

survey, population at micro- and macro- it is also important to formulate the


levels, fertility, rate, natural
growth learning experiences, teaching strategies,
increase, demographic transition and zero teaching aids and/or instructional materials
population growth. In addition to a set of that should be used. Step 6 aims for insti-
population education concepts, generaliza- tutionalizing population education into
tions of varying complexity need to be the general educational system, whereby
formulated for each population concept at some future time, population education
and sub-concept. The paper includes an would no longer be needed as a separate
example on this. These sub-concepts and activity as it would eventually become
sub-generalizations will acquire added genuinely integrated into the total educa-
meaning if the specific objectives and tional effort of the country. One way of
population concepts by grade-level are achieving this is for the curricular materials
also identified. This is also called scope in population education to be wholly
and sequence where the concepts are integrated in the total school curriculum,
given first, followed by sub-concepts, the prescribed textbooks and in the other
objectives and placement in the grade learning materials used in the educational
levels. system. Finally, Step 7 involves the
evaluation of the curricular materials in
The third step involves identifying population whereby one measures the
plug-in points in appropriate subjects by impact of the curricular materials on the
grade level. To ensure logical integration learner's knowledge, attitudes and behav-
requires two prerequisites, namely; (i) iour.
full grasp of the different population con-
cepts to be integrated; and (ii) a thorough Descriptors: General Discussion; Curricu-
knowledge of the content coverage or lar Renovation; Course Con-
scope and sequence of the discipline to tent; Scope and Sequence
be enriched. As this has been done in
Source: Popuiation Education Clear-
Step 2, Step 3 is devoted to examining the
ing House
content of existing school subjects to
Unesco Regional Office for
determine which would lend itself to Education in Asia and the
enrichment through the addition of
Pacific
relevant population concepts. There are P.O. Box 1425, General Post
three main approaches for introducing Office
population education, namely, infusion, Bangkok 10500, Thailand
integration and as a separate subject. Step
4 sequences the identified population
education concepts by grade and subject.
An example is given to illustrate how a PROCESSES IN CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
scope and sequence is developed. The
scope and sequence is called spiral cur-
riculum because the learner returns to 14
familiar ideas and concepts, but presented Unesco. Regional Office for Education
through alternative examples and at a in Asia and the Pacific. Curriculum
higher level. Step 5 involves the develop- development for population education,
ment of curricular materials for teachers by T.S. Mehta. Bangkok, 1974. 10 p.
and students. In elaborating the concep- (Population education documents. Re-
tual i ework in population education, print series no. D.6).
18

2d
Strategies for curriculum development in the formal education sytem

Population education is one potent to population education would form an


instrument for reaching the younger outline of the course content to be incor-
generation who will become the future porated in the total school programme.
parents of tomorrow. Population educa- For incorporation, it would be necessary
tion will develop the youth attitudes and that the course be properly articulated and
competencies to make rational decisions. graded according to the suitability of
The school population education pro- concepts and information for different
gramme should be a part of a comprehen- levels of school education. An issue that
sive approach and not remain in isolation; has caused much discussion in some coun-
it should cover the total stage and not a tries is whether sex education forms or
part of it only. The curriculum of popula- does not form a part of population educa-
tion education may differ from place to tion.
place, and from culture to culture. It
needs to be in tune with the overall The next step is the preparation of
national goals of education in order to instructional materials for the use of
become an integral part of the total school teachers and students. This may take the
programme. form of textbooks, handbooks for teachers,
In developing the curriculum, four supplementary reading materials or audio-
steps can be followed. The first is to visual aids such as charts and films. In the
formulate the objectives. To do this, a production of these materials, it will be
critical study of the present curricula advisable to involve different types of
should be undertaken first. This will experts ranging from subject specialists,
methods specialists, writers, artists and
provide the background and the inherent
audio-visual experts. The fourth step is
objectives of the school programmes and
also some ideas as to what could be done to incorporate population education into
within the existing framework of the the school curriculum. This can be done
school curricula. The second step is to by infusing population education concepts
make a clarification of the concept of into various appropriate subjects offering a
separate special course on population
population education and the development
of a point of view suited to the needs of education. Arguments given in favour of
the country and in tune with the prevailing infusion are that the curriculum is already
school programme. The second step is overcrowded and children will learn better
to select the content that will bring about if they are confronted with relevant
these objectives. This means the identifica- population materials throughout their
tion of concepts, information and facts entire period of schooling. With regard to
relevant to population problems, popula- the second approach, it is claimed that the
tion dynamics and their effects on the life imparting of population education is so
of the people, the nation and the world. crucial to the welfare of humanity that it
Because of the nature of the objectives of should be given the status of a "compul-
sory subject".
population education, it must draw for its
content upon the relevant concepts from
academic disciplines such as demography, Descriptors: General Discussion; Curricu-
economics, civics, sociology, health educa- lum Development Strategies;
tion, and biology. Core concepts relevant Integration Approach

19

I
29
Curriculum development in population education

Source: Population Education Clear- population planning. The objective of a


ing House course is to give the learner an insight into
Unesco Regional Office for the totality of issues connected with
Education in Asia and the population, ranging from nature, measure-
Pacific ment, causes, determinants and conse-
P.O. Box 1425, General Post quences of population growth as well as of
Office urbanization both at the micro level and
Bangkok 10500, Thailand macro level and the possibilities of planning
family size and population growth. Hope-
fully, the acquisition of this insight will
PROBLEMS IN INTRODUCING provide the learner with a sound cognitive
POPULATION EDUCATION INTO and attitudinal basis for sound decision-
THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM making with regard to his future population-
related behaviour.
15 There are a number of problems con-
Unesco. Regional Office for Education in nected with the introduction of population
Asia and the Pacific. Population educa- education in schools. Population educa-
tion and the school curriculum, by J.E. tion contains many controversial topics
Jayasuriya. Bangkok, 1972. 11 p. such as sex education which would not
(Population education document. Re- be readily accepted by many parents and
production series no. D.1). for which the students may not be ready.
Any attempt to force certain topics on
From whatever angle one looks at it, which parents have reservations would
rapid population growth presents an issue endanger the entire programme.
of momentous significance and no educa-
tional programme can ignore it. For some The preparation of teachers should be
time past, a few educators have been comprehensive, and it should -include all
forcefully arguing the case for the inclusion elements of population education, to
of population studies in the curriculum enable teachers to handle population
and in 1970, a number of countries in Asia education materials with accuracy and
established population education pro- confidence. The advantage of introducing
grammes in the schools. population education at the primary level
is that more pupils can be reached at the
Population education has been defined primary level because many drop out of
differently by various authorities in the school before they reach the secondary
field. These terminologies include sex
level. Furthermore, the primary school
education, family life education, popula- curriculum provides a great deal of flexibi-
tion education, population awareness and lity for the introduction of new material.
population and family life education. With
On the other hand, curricular materials are
regard to content, the author identifies easier to prepare for the secondary level
five broad areas under which population and is much more meaningful because the
education content may fall. These include
students are just a few years away from
the collection and analysis of population decision-making with regard to marriage
data, population growth and human and reproduction.
development, the problems of urbaniza-
tion, psycho-social aspects of human The best method is to introduce
sexuality or the reproductive process and population-related materials through
20

30
Strategies for curriculum development in the formal education system

various subject areas, both at the primary education of the people, problems of
and secondary levels, but with more sub- communication, social and religious pre-
jects in the secondary level. In the last year ferences, low economic status and lack of
of the secondary school, a single unified any social security system. A combination
course of short duration may be given with of various methods of population control
the end in view of synthesizing all the are needed to solve the problem and among
learning acquired the previous years. them education of the future parents and
Research done so far to unravel this moti- adults is the most potent one. A number
vational basis is quite inadequate and a of countries have introduced population
great deal of further work is needed. Since education into their school curriculum.
there is a shortage of personnel to under- Two trends had been the inter-disciplinary
take such studies, teachers can also handle and social-issues oriented integration. In
data gathering given suitable training. almost all the developing countries in the
Asian region, curriculum is organized
Descriptor: General Discussion; Integra- around generally accepted disciplines such
tion Approach as biology, physics, chemistry, geography,
Source: Population Education Clear- civics and mathematics. In developed
ing House countries, the curriculum is organized
Unesco Regional Office for around social issues. The paper then pre-
Education in Asia and the sents eight problematic areas which need
Pacific to be considered while framing the curri-
P.O. Box 1425, General Post culum in population education. These
Office include the nature of the learner, nature of
Bangkok 10500, Thailand population education, inclusion of popula-
tion education in the school curriculum,
stage at which population education should
be introduced, development of instruc-
DIFFICULTIES IN INTEGRATING
POPULATION EDUCATION INTO tional and learning materials, evaluation,
THE SCHOOL SYSTEM
system of education and instructional
staff.
16 Even if there are many conflicting
Unesco. Regional Office for Education in theories about how children learn, or what
Asia and the Pacific. Problems and they are able to learn at different maturity
strategies for curriculum development levels, a theoretical framework is needed to
in population education. A paper define which characteristics of teachers,
presented to the Group Training Course students, instructional materials or institu-
in Population Education, Bangkok, 14 tions, make for differences in student
July to 15 August 1975. 12 p. (Popula- learning. Population education being a
tion education documents. Reprint new area and controversial has no
series no. III, D. 12). commonly agreed upon definition and
goals. There are also differences in the con-
Family planning programmes have tent and methodology of teaching. Popula-
been started in most countries in Asia and tion education has been misunderstood for
the Pacific but they have not shown sex education or family planning, which it
equally good results in all the countries is not. However, both might be included in
because of factors including the lack of the content of the programme. Population
21

31
Curriculum development in population education

education is a process by which the introducing population education at dif-


students investigate and explore the in- ferent levels are further discussed in the
teractions between population and their paper. Instructional materials should be
environment, population characteristics, developed according to the existing pattern
the nature and meaning of the process, and of the curriculum so that there is no prob-
the consequences of population growth on lem of immediate infusion. Packages of
the quality of life. instructional materials, textbooks, teachers'
guides, of student manuals should be
Being a new field, there are many developed involving the teachers inten-
points about which scholars disagree, one sively. Population education by nature is
of which refers to whether to include sex difficult to evaluate. Population education
education or small family norms in the cur- deals more with the affective than the
riculum. The basic content, concepts and cognitive domain. Because of lack of
the modes of treatment of content in a theoretical framework, population educa-
population education are unique to each tion is difficult to evaluate. The system of
country because of the differences in education determines to a great extent the
culture, values, knowledge base and atti- degree to which any innovation can be
tudes. Therefore, the curriculum in absorbed. In countries where school
population education should be developed education is centralized and rigid, the
keeping in mind the national and cultural problems of curriculum innovation are
needs of each country. The inclusion of real.
population education in the school curri-
culum can be done either through infusion Descriptors: General Discussion; Curricu-
into the existing curricula or as a separate lum Development Strategies
subject. The paper presents the pros and
cons of each approach. Source: Population Education Clear-
ing House
There is also no agreement on the Unesco Regional Office for
stage at which population education should Education in Asia and the
be introduced. Some argue that it should Pacific
be introduced at the elementary or primary P.O. Box 1425, General Post
stage, others that it should be introduced at Office
the secondary level. The pros and cons for Bangkok 10500, Thailand

22
32
PART TWO: STRATEGIES FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
IN POPULATION EDUCATION IN THE NON-FORMAL
EDUCATION SYSTEM

33
Strategies for curriculum development in the non-formal education system

Part Two: Strategies for Curriculum Development In Population Education in the


Non-Formal Education System: A Literature Review
Seven selections are abstracted in this section. Five of the seven documents
present both the guiding theoretical principles and procedural steps for developing
curriculum materials on population education in the out-of-school sector while the
other two documents considered only the guiding principles. Two of these selections
differentiate between procedures for developing curriculum materials and instruc-
tional/motivational materials on population education.
While most of the documents include a rationalization of the inclusion of
population education concepts in out-of-school programmes, one also presents a
strong attempt to convince family planning workers that even though the ultimate
responsibility for school curricula is in the hands of the professional educators,
family planning specialists should also give attention to the school curricula in their
activities. The paper identified training, motivation, information-giving and adult
education as activities in family planning into which population education can be
appropriately integrated.
Because population education t.nd curriculum development have generally
been identified with in-school activities, one document differentiates between curri-
culum development on population education in the in-school and out-of-school
sectors by describing the nature and scope of out-of-school population education.
Practitioners in the field feel that the term 'curriculum' is more suited to the formal
education institutions and thus they prefer to use the term 'programme', partly
because it provides more variables in practice than does the curriculum. It also has
other distinctive features which differentiate it from the in-school sector. First, it is
problem-centred and people-centred. It is based on the needs and interests of the
people it serves. Secondly, it is considered both as a dynamic and continuous
process. It is flexible enough to accommodate new facts and new ideas relevant to
the situations to provide for lifelong learning. Lastly, it is a participatory process.
It calls for joint action by an interdisciplinary group such as programme personnel
and staff of other government, semi-government and voluntary organizations having
development programmes
The four documents which enumerated the procedural steps in developing
an out-of-school population education curriculum showed some varying degree of
sophistication from the simplest to the most complete sets of procedural steps.
For example, one document enumerates six steps directly relevant only to the
preparation of the curriculum. These include the following: (a) situation analysis
and problem identification; (b) defining educational objectives; (c) elaborating
content areas; (d) identification of teaching methods and learning experiences; (e)
sequencing learning units and developing prototype curricular materials for trial;
and (f) evaluating trial results and reconsideration of curriculum for adoption.
Another document presents more elaboration of some of the steps. For
example, under the previously mentioned situation analysis, two substeps are
25

34
Curriculum development in population education

further given such as analysis of the situation and interpretation of the data. Under
the step "elaborating content areas", this particular document included more
detailed steps such as identifying the content areas of the discipline where popula-
tion education concepts can be integrated; identifying the population education
concepts that could be integrated in the non-formal education programmes; identi-
fying natural entry points for introducing population education concepts and
drafting the integrated curriculum contents.
A more broad-based strategy for curriculum development is given by another
document that includes institutional linkages and administrative approaches. These
include the following: (a) identifying the various institutions engaged in out-
of-school population education for sources of information; (b) identifying the
profile, background and needs of the target audiences; (c) undertaking a job analysis
to find out the type of skills required by the trainees to best perform some specific
jobs; (d) undertaking a topic study to determine what the audience already know,
think and believe about the topic and what do they still need to know; (e) preparing
the curriculum materials; (f) pre-testing the curriculum materials; (g) disseminating
the materials to the target users; (h) undertaking another evaluation or post-test of
the materials; and (i) developing action research or feedback mechanism to ensure
continuity of feedback and revisions. While the first two sets of procedural steps
are content oriented, the last set is more user-oriented. It calls for a more in-depth
analysis of the users and their needs to serve as a benchmark for curriculum devel-
opment.
In addition to these procedural steps, three documents enumerate three
different sets of theoretical and guiding principles that should be taken into ac-
count when developing a curriculum for out-of-school population education.
Among these three sets of guiding principles, the following commonalities emerged:
(a) emphasis on the needs, problems and characteristics of the target users; (b)
emphasis on the immediate relevance to the felt needs of the participants; and (c)
relevance to national development goals and local conditions. The rest which stand
out as unique on their own include the following: (a) The curriculum should he
flexible; (b) it should make use of available local resources; and (c) its development
should be a continuous process, interdisciplinary and participatory. The third set
of guiding principles is distinctly different in the sense that it calls for more radical
and long-range changes. It requires that the substance and method used must be
viewed in attitudinal terms; the content must be able to institute social changes and
must help to generate a new sense of social values. Furthermore, the methodologies
must be conducive to any teaching/leaming situation and the content must answer
the educational concerns of adult life.
The last issue tackled in two selections are the approaches for integrating
population education into development programmes. Three approaches are men-
tioned, namely the separate unit approach, infusion approach, and core learning
kit approach. In the first approach, a separate unit course on population education
is developed and made an integral part of the curriculum of an ongoing development
programme. When using the infusion approach the practitioner identifies relevant
population education concepts and the plug-in points in various development pro-
26

35
Strategies for curriculum development in the non-formal education system

grammes where these concepts can be meaningfully integrated; selects and sequences
appropriate learning units; and prepares detailed textual and audio-visual materials.
The core-learning kit approach differs from the separate unit course and infusion
strategies in the sense that it neither advocates the infusion of population education
concepts into other disciplines nor does it form a unit within any other discipline.
Instead, the documents claim that the advocates of this approach identify common
areas of relevant population education concepts, translate them into a series of
learning activities and prepare appropriate teaching-learning materials.

27

3,3
Curriculum development in population education

CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT FOR planned for each and every separate target
NONSCHOOL POPULATION FOCUSES group of illiterate adults. This requires the
ON AUDIENCE SPECIFICITY development of ways and means of
AND PARTICIPATION gathering the desired information regarding
target groups. Curricula should also be
17 planned to be of functional use and imme-
Harman, David. "Curriculum development diate relevance to the participants.
for nonschool population," in: Kline,
Participation in adult learning is
David and David Hannan, ed. Issues in
usually voluntary. Such attendance
population education. Lexington, Mass.,
requires of the participant a difficult com-
Lexington Books, 1976, p. 173-185.
mitment as programmes are conducted as
The development of curricula for additions to, rather than in lieu of regular
out-of-school adult education programmes daily activities. Participation can be main-
has generally proceeded along traditional tained only while participants see that the
lines of selection of material, sequencing content and approaches have relevance
of the chosen material, production and to their felt needs. The basic difference
finally evaluation. The potential for between this and many other programmes
success of such undertaking depends to a is that here the functional content is
large extent on the way in which the derived from the participants rather than
materials are selected and presented to from preconceived notions of programme
learners. initiators as to what should be functional.
This article raises some principles The third principle discussed in this
which are relevant to the success of curricu- paper relates to the relative significance of
lum development in out-of-school popula- instructional methodology as opposed to
tion education. One of the major fallacies content in the curriculum development
in developing a curriculum for illiterate process. Formalized frontal teaching
adults is a lack of consideration for their techniques based on teacher dissertation
particular situation. Two typical ap- and student passivity which are typical of
proaches are those anchored in the much of instruction in schools in devel-
systematic instruction of the letters of the oping countries conflict severely with the
alphabet together with their associated more relaxes non-formal nature of extant
sounds, and those based upon analysis of and known patterns of learning. Lecturing
words or phrases and the learning of their is a poor substitute for informal discussion
various components. However, neither of in areas in which long association of mem-
these methods of instructions takes bers of peer groups make peer group
cognizance of differences between popula- discussion the accepted mode of learning.
tions. Progressive education recognizes The author suggests the following steps or
that the individual differences of children processes for curriculum development: (a)
dictate a need for differentiated education; survey the prospective target groups; (b)
an education that stems from an awareness determine programme content on the
of such differences and is programmed basis of the survey; (c) choose instructional
accordingly.In the same way specific methodology, based on the survey; (d)
programmes need to be developed and design the organizational and administra-
28

37
Strategies for curriculum development in the non formal education system
tive aspect of a programme; (e) identify must bear in mind the following: curri-
and select teachers who, themselves, then culum for whom and curriculum for
constitute a target population; and (f) what?
design and produce materials for both
participants and teachers. Presented here are some guidelines for
curriculum developers in population educa-
Descriptors: Adult Education; General tion. These include the following: (a)
Discussion; Teaching Meth- the substance and method must be viewed
ods; Curriculum Development in attitudinal terms because more than the
Strategies; Conceptual Frame- cognitive approach, the use of attitudinal
work approach serves as a mobilizer/motivator,
Source:
organizer and trainer; (b) the substcnce or
Lexington Books
D.C. Heath and Company
content must be able to institute social
changes and this can be achieved by aware-
125 Spring Street
ness of the felt needs of the people, simpli-
Lexington, Mass. 02173
fying the complexity of the change being
U.S.A.
introduced by basing the curriculum on the
existing behaviour of the people and their
educational level and understanding of the
GUIDELINES FOR CURRICULUM local environmental conditions; (c) the
DEVELOPERS
substance or content must help generate
new sense of social values; (d) the contents
18
and methodology to be used must be con-
Santiago, Antonio P. Curriculum planning ducive to any teaching-learning situation
for population education. [Nueva Ecija] , because population education is a sensitive
Philippine Rural Reconstruction Move- and controversial topic and fundamental
ment, 1973. 13 p. human value are dealt with here, the
teaching approach should not be one-sided
In curriculum development for popula- but should provide a pedagogically sound
tion education, the following questions
education presenting the pros and cons of
should be answered: What content should relevant issues; (e) the content must answer
the curriculum offer? How should the
the educational concerns of adult life
content be integrated into the total way of
which are classified as materialistic (refers
life of the participants and at what levels?
to producing goals associated with agricul-
What is the soundest and most economical
tural and industrial enterprises or making a
method of handling the content? What is living) and non-materialistic (promotes
the best way to involve the local people?
personal creativity, group productivity and
What are the keys to creating content that other human pursuits); (f) the content
will be self-generating, so that education of population education can only be
goes on whether school keeps going or not?
developed by education specialist within
How long should direct agency involvement each country.
continue before the process of phasing out
begins? And finally, what and how much The tendency of some education
content on population education is specialists to rely heavily on the educa-
necessary/acceptable to the community in tional models and patterns of economically
order to promote positive attitude towards advanced countries may lead to the neglect
family planning? Curriculum developers of some basic and serious problems of
29

38
Curriculum development in population education

developing countries though the review of Sub-Regional Group Training Course in


educational models and textbooks of other Population Education, Bangkok, 1980.
countries must not be discouraged. There 15 p.
are many factors that must be considered The terms curriculum and programme
in the development of original materials. have been used interchangeably in the
First of all, in the integration of population out-of-school sector. Practitioners in the
education content into the existing struc- field feel that the term curriculum is more
ture of the curriculum of the education suited to the formal education institutions
system of a country, careful attention and and thus they prefer to use the term
study must be given to its existing syllabuses `programme' partly because it contains
and instructional materials. Another more variables in practice than does 'curri-
consideration is the total appreciation and culum'. Curriculum development for
understanding of the social and educational out-of-school educational programmes has
context wherein population education many characteristics. First, it is problem-
content is to be introduced. Another centred and people-centred. It is based on
factor that must be considered is the basic the needs and interests of the people it
curriculum pattern and organizational serves. Secondly, it is considered both a
structure of the education system of each dynamic and continuous process. It is
country. Also, cultural values of a particu- flexible enough to accommodate new facts
lar society must be taken into considera- and new ideas relevant to the situations to
tion on the choice of content to be provide for lifelong learning. Third, it is
included in any instructional programme. a participatory process. It calls for a joint
Finally, careful selection of subjects and action of an interdisciplinary group such as
terms must be taken into consideration. programme personnel, staff of other
For example, while human sexuality is a government, semi-government and volun-
basic area for education, in some countries tary organizations having development
it is not acceptable. programmes.
Descriptors: General Discussion; Curricu- The following steps are followed in
lum Planning; Social Values; the curriculum development process: (1)
Teaching Methods situation analysis and problems identifica-
tion; (2) defining educational objectives;
Source: Philippine Rural Reconstruc- (3) elaborating content areas; (4) identifi-
tion Movement cation of teaching methods and learning
Nueva Ecija, Philippines experiences; (5) sequencing learning units
and developing prototype curricular
materials for trial; and (6) evaluating trial
PROBLEM-CENTRED AND PEOPLE- results and reconsideration of curriculum
CENTRED CURRICULUM for adoption.
DEVELOPMENT Since out-of-school population educa-
tion programmes have heterogeneous
19 audiences such as farmers, housewives,
Unesco. Regional Office for Education in out-of-school youth, industrial labourers,
Asia and the Pacific. Curriculum develo- literacy teachers, social welfare workers,
ment for out-of-school population home economics extension workers or
education. A paper prepared for the family planning workers, and their interests
30

39
Strategies for curriculum development in the non-formal education system

and problems vary greatly, it is necessary tion education concepts into other dis-
to conduct a scientific survey of their ciplines nor does it form a unit within any
demographic profile, interests and needs other discipline. Instead, the advocates of
and socio-cultural conditions. However, this approach identify common areas of
these varied audiences can be grouped interests and needs of various categories of
broadly into two categories, namely, target audiences, predetermine sets of
professional workers and the general relevant population education concepts,
public. The curricular requirements for translate them into a series of learning
each of the two categories differ slightly. activities and prepare appropriate teaching-
The types of training to be given to the learning materials. All of these materials
professional workers include pre-service, are then compiled in the form of modules
induction and in-service which follow or guides referred to as "core learning
more or less the in-school development kits". To illustrate these integration
approaches, namely subject and infusion approaches, the article presents a few
approaches. For the general public, the examples illustrating the integration of
separate subject approach and the infusion family planning/population education in
approach may be applied interchangeably development programmes svch as agricul-
depending upon the nature of the training ture, home economics and functional
c ourse/programmes. literacy.
There are various curricular approaches Descriptors: Ceneval Discussion; In tegra-
for integrating population education in
tion Approach; Curriculum
development programmes. These include
Development Strategies
the following: (a) separate unit approach;
(b) infusion approach; (c) core learning kit Source: Population Education Clear-
approach. Programme organizers following ing House
the separate unit approach generally Unesco Regional Office for
developed a separate unit course on popula- Education in Asia and the
tion education and made such unit an inte- Pacific
gral part of the curriculum of ongoing P.O. Box 1425, General Post
development programmes. This approach Office
is mostly found in the training curriculum Bangkok 10500, Thailand
for field functionaries and in some cases,
the teaching of out-of-school youth and
adults. The infusion approach calls for ACQUIRING SKILLS IN INTEGRATING
three stages. Firstly, identification of POPULATION EDUCATION IN THE
relevant population education concepts and DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES
the plug-in points in various development
programmes where these concepts can be 20
meaningfully integrated. Secondly, the Unesco. Regional Office for Education in
selection and sequence of appropriate Asia and the Pacific. Development of
learning units; and finally, the preparation curricular materials integrating popula-
of detailed textual and/or audio-visual tion education in non-formal education
materials. The core-learning kit approach programmes. Report of a Regional Work-
differs from the separate unit course and shop, Los Barios, Philippines, 3-21
infusion strategies in the sense that it November 1980. Bangkok, 1980. 1
neither advocates the infusion of popula- vol. (various pagings).
31

4
Curriculum development in population education

Participants at the Regional Workshop, nication strategies/teaching methods and


organized by the Uncsco Regional Office learning experiences; (i) identify evalua-
for Education in Asia and the Pacific tion/monitoring strategies and approaches;
exchanged experiences with regard to the (j) draft the sample teaching-learning
development of curricular materials materials; (k) try out drafted sample teach-
integrating population education in non- ing materials; (1) finalize the draft curricu-
formal education programmes; acquired lum in the light of feedback.
skills in the processes and methodologies
of integrating population education in the The guiding principles for the develop-
various development programmes; and ment of an integrated curriculum were that
developed prototype curriculum and an integrated curriculum should be (a)
instructional materials for use in non- based on the needs/problems of the target
formal education programmes. audience; (b) suited to local conditions;
(c) flexible enough to accommodate new
The first working session of the developments and changes in situation; (d)
Regional Workshop was focused on the relevant to the aspirations of the target
presentation of the country experiences on audience; (e) a continuous process; (f)
the planning and implementation of non- relevant to education objectives and
formal education programmes highlighting national development goals; (g) interdis-
the development of curricular materials ciplinary.
integrating population education. After
sharing experiences, the participants formu- Guidelines to the development of
lated guidelines for the development of materials included the need to: (a) identify
curricular materials. Before they did this, profile and needs and interests of target
however, they attempted to provide com- group; (b) identify specific type and format
mon definitions to some crucial terms basic of materials to be developed; (c) formulate
to curriculum development. These the objectives; (d) determine the curricu-
included: integrated curriculum, motiva- lum contents prepare basic course
tional materials, instructional materials and outline; (e) write the first draft; (f) review
follow-up materials. the draft by a panel of experts; (g) revise
the material in the light of the recommen-
Two types of guidelines for the dations of the panel of experts; (h) trans-
development of an integrated curriculum, late the materials in the language of the
one, procedural and the other operational target audience; (i) pre-test or try out the
were formulated by the participants. The materials; (j) analyse and interpret th,:
procedural guidelines include the following: try-out materials; (k) revise in the light of
(a) analyse the situation; (b) analyse and results, if any; and (1) produce and distri-
interpret data; (c) formulate the curriculum bute the materials. The reports of the
objectives; (d) identify the content area of participants with regard to materials
the discipline where population education development and samples of prototype
could be integrated; (e) identify the curricula and sample instructional mate-
population education concepts that could rials are included in the report.
be integrated in the non-formal education
programmes; (f) identify natural entry
points for introducing population educa- Descriptors: General Discussion; Materials
tion concepts; (g) draft the integrated Preparation; Instructional
curriculum contents; (h) identify commu- Materials
32

41
Strategies for curriculum development in the non formal education system

Source: Population Education Clear- necessary to perform the job with full
ing House efficiency. This becomes a component
Unesco Regional Office for around which the materials could be pro-
Education in Asia and the duced. Step 4: The diversity of audience
Pacific and the disciplines demands a thorough
P.O. Box 1425, General Post study of each topic on which the material
Office will have to be developed in order to
Bangkok 10500, Thailand ensure the validity and reliability of the
message. A topic study can be undertaken
through interviews, discussion with subject
specialists, study of the documents, field
TEN STEPS FOR MATERIALS study or opinion study. The main purpose
DEVELOPMENT is to determine what the target audience
already knows, thinks and believes about
21 the topic and what they still need. Step 5:
Unest..o. Regional Office for Education Produce prototype written and illustrated
in Asia and the Pacific. "Material pro- material. Step 6: Pretest this prototype
duction for out of-school population material with a representative sample
education," in: Population education: audience on the following aspects before it
a source book on content and meth- is produced for general use: readability
odology. Bangkok, 1980, p. 127-134. and understandability, accuracy and vali-
(Population Education Programme dity of subject matter, acceptance of
Service). visuals and physical layout. After pre-
testing, revise the material, produce in local
This article discusses a model which languages on a large scale and distribute to
recommends a series of steps for developing the intended audiences. Step 8: Undertake
materials for the out-of-school sector in another evaluation of the finished product
population education. called 'post test'.
Step 1: Identify the various sources, Build in an action research component
policies and information for out-of-school which will help to develop a feedback
population education. These include mechanism and thus establish a two-way
national planning bodies, Government communication system between script
technical ministries, research institutions, writers and the intended audience. Mate-
interi:ational organizations or voluntary rial production cannot be undertaken by a
organizations. Step 2: Identify the profile single expert. The material production
and background of the audience. Survey team should consists of editor, general
the different target audience groups, their educationist who may be a social psychol-
demographic profile, interests and their ogist, linguist, subject specialist, artists,
surroundings. This will enable the curri- photographer and research person. The
culum developers to produce materials that paper finally recommends that provision
respond to the learners' needs Step 3: for funds and ?ersonnel should be made ,for
Undertake a job analysis to find out the organizing a material production team in all
types of skills required to best perform out-ofschool population education pro-
specific jobs. This determines the skills and grammes.
abilities possessed by the workers at a
specific point in time and the skills Descriptors: Materials Preparation;
33
4
4 (-)
Curriculum development in population education

Source: Population Education Clear- oping prototype curricular materials; and


ing House (f) interpreting try-out results and revising
Unesco Regional Office for the curriculum materials. The experiences
Education in Asia and the of some countries have shown that popula-
Pacific tion education for the out-of-school
P.O. Box 1425, General Post becomes more meaningful and effective
Office when integrated in on-going non-formal
Bangkok 10500, Thailand and development programmes. There are
three types of approaches for integrating
population education concepts into these
PRACTICAL EXAMPLES OF
programmes. One is the separate unit
STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATING
approach which calls for the development
POPULATION EDUCATION IN
of a separate unit in population education
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES
and making this unit an integral part of the
22 curriculum of an on-going development or
Regional Office for Education in non-formal education programme. The
Unesco.
Asia and the Pacific. r opulation educa- other is the infusion approach, wherein
tion in non-formal education and devel- separate population education topics or
opment programmes; a manual for concepts are infused in the related specific
field-workers. Bangkok, 1981. 260 p. topics in the contents of the development
(Population Education Programme programme. The third approach, the core
Service). learning kit approach, identifies common
areas of interests and needs of various
This manual provides practical exam- groups of target audiences, determines
ples of strategies, approaches and materials sets of relevant population education
for integrating population education into concepts and develops them into a series of
various development programmes. It deals learning activities and materials.
with curriculum development in out-
of-school population education; the nature An integrated curriculum is defined
and scope of out-of-school population as consisting of more than one discipline/
education; programme development for area such as functional literacy, integrated
out-of-school population education; the rural development or integrated human
development of integrated learning mate- resource development. The principles
rials; and programme evaluation. Only the include the following: (a) an integrated
chapter dealing with curriculum develop- curriculum should be based on the needs/
ment and the development of integrated problems and characteristics of the target
learning materials are abstracted here. audience; (b) it should be relevant to
national development goals; (c) it should be
Curriculum development for out- suited to local conditions; (d) it should be
of-school population education is a con- flexible; (e) it should make use of available
tinuous, dynamic and participatory process local resources; (f) its development should
following a general sequence of: (a) situa- be a continuous process; (g) its develop-
tional analysis and problem identification; ment should be interdisciplinary and
(b) defining educational objectives; (c) participatory.
elaborating content areas; (d) identifying
teaching methods and learning experiences; The procedural guidelines in the
(e) sequencing learning units and devel- development of integrated curriculum
34

43
Strategies for curriculum development in the non formal education system
include the following: (a) analysing the DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN
situation; (b) analysing and interpreting POPULATION EDUCATION AND
data; (c) formulating curriculum objectives; FAMILY PLANNING EDUCATION
(d) determining the content of the non-
formal programme where population 23
education is to be integrated; (e) deter- Wayland, Sloan R. Integration of popula-
mining the population education content tion and family planning education
that could be integrated into the non- into curricula of grade schools, second-
formal education programme; (f) identi- ary schools, medical schools and univer-
fying the entry plug-in points in the sities. Prepared for presentation at
non-formal programme content for IPPF-SEAO Regional Conference,
integrating population education content; Baguio City, Philippines, 21-27 March
(g) listing down the specific population 1971. 18 p.
education contents opposite or below the Even though the ultimate responsibi-
related programme contents; (h) identi- lity for school curricula is in the hands
fying the teaching methods or learning of the professional educators, family
activities that will ':hieve the objectives; planning specialists should also give atten-
(i) determining specific curriculum mate- tion to the school curricula in their own
rials to be developed for selected contents activities. There are several reasons for
and learning activities; (j) identifying this. First, major target audiences for
evaluation means and developing instru- family planning are the very large number
ments to determine the extent of achieve- of young people annually reaching marri-
ment of the objectives; and (k) developing ageable age and becoming able to con-
the selected curricular materials. To ceive. Secondly, communication with
illustrate all of these guidelines, the manual young adults by family planning workers
includes a number of sample curriculum should be easier and more effective if these
syllabuses, courses, motivational and young adults have had an orientation while
instructional materials showing how they were students. Thirdly, family
population education concepts are planning leaders have frequently been the
integrated into the various development ones who have stimulated an interest in
programmes such as nutrition, agriculture population and family planning education
and health. among educators.
The paper identifies training, motiva-
Descriptors: General In-
Discussion; tion, information-giving and adult educa-
tegrated Rural Development; tion, as activities in family planning into
Literacy Education; Instruc- which population education can be appro-
tional Materials priately integrated. This choice to use
training, motivation and information-giving
Source: Population Education Clear- rather than education as terms of reference
ing House is designed to emphasize the difference
Unesco Regional Office for between the family planning worker and
Education in Asia and the the school educator in their goals and
Pacific methods. The education component of
P.O. Box 1425, General Post family planning is a reflection of the
Office clinical approach that characterizes the
Bangkok 10500, Thailand family planning programmes.
35
44
Curriculum development in population education

Nine guidelines are then presented for related education and action programmes
family planning programmes to consider in addressed to adults so that the educators
undertaking a population education pro- can plan an educationally sound counter-
gramme in their activities. To start with, part to public actions.
the content and instructional methods
Realistic goals for population educa-
should be pedagogically sound. Family
planning workers tend to present only one tion should be formulated in view of the
view about the desired actions with regard
fact that while the educational system is
introducing new values and attitudes, other
to fertility behaviour. Population educa-
tion recognizes that human values are
social institutions may be deliberately or
subject to different interpretations and
implicitly emphasizing traditional values.
therefore, it prefers to present the pros and A long-range strategy for introducing
population education should be formulated
cons of different population issues to
enable the clients to make reasoned judge-
and ultimately introduced into the general
framework of the curriculum system of
ments about their own reproductive
The responsibility for the the Ministry of Education.
behaviour.
introduction of population education into Family planning leaders have impor-
the formal educational system rests with tant functions to play as stimulators,
the educators and it should be integrated resource personnel, critics and supporters
into the curriculum rather than added as a as they have a body of knowledge and
new subject. resource materials with which educators
The content of population education ought to be acquainted. Finally, high
must be worked out in detail by education
priority should be given to universities
and professional schools as centres for the
specialists in each country. Original
curriculum materials should be developed general education of leaders, the prepara-
instead of relying heavily on models and tion of professional personnel, and the
development of basic knowledge on which
textbooks from other countries. The
policies and programmes may be built.
formulation of content depends largely
on the cultural value characteristic of a Descriptors: Family Planning Education;
particular society. While topics such as General Discussion; Teaching
population dynamics and quality of life Methods; Integration Ap-
issues are easily acceptable to many coun- proach
tries, the topics of human reproduction
and sex education are often taboo. Source: Population Education Clear-
Whether specific and detailed information ing House
should be given concerning means for Unesco Regional Office for
contraception in a population education Education in Asia and the
programme is clearly a question which the Pacific
educators of each country must decide. P.O. Box 1425, General Post
The population education content should Office
be developed with full appreciation of Bangkok 10500, Thailand

36

45
Development of curriculum materials in specific subject areas

Part Three: Development of Curriculum Materials in Specific Subject Areas: A


Literature Review

While Parts One and Two deal with the general processes of developing
population education curriculum materials in the in-school and out-of-school sectors
respectively, this Part details the procedures for integrating population education
concepts into more specific subject areas, both in-school and out-of-school. There
are 16 selections abstracted in this section, three of which focus on out-of-school
development programmes.

For the in-school sector, the 13 selections describe how population educa-
tion concepts can be integrated into the following subject areas: social studies, home
economics, health education, environmental education, science, medical education,
hygiene and physiology, biology, teacher education, and geography. For the out-of-
school sector, the three abstracts present strategies for integrating population educa-
tion concepts into various aspects of farm management and agricultural training
courses. This Part does not intend to provide actual curriculum materials and sam-
ple lessons on the various subject areas as they are infused with population educa-
tion concepts but is rather meant to give the approaches and experiences undertaken
in the integration of population education concepts into thr 3e subject areas. The 13
selections dealing with the in school subject areas treat th ; exposition in the same
manner. An analysis of the documents abstracted here sho vs that they adopt similar
procedures of first identifying which population-related concepts should be inte-
grated into the concerned specific subject areas and into what areas of the subject
matter they should be integrated. Nine selections go beyond this by further dis-
cussing how and when they should be taught. While all of the selections identify
either the entry points in the school subjects or the population education concepts
to be integrated into these school subjects, a few go further by providing sample
lessons to illustrate how the concepts can be taken up in some subject areas,
especially social studies, home economics, health education, science and environ-
mental education.

Eight selections are the result of a National Workshop on Population Educa-


tion undertaken by the Federal Ministry of Education, Curriculum Wing and the
Population Welfare Division of Pakistan. This Workshop aimed at integrating popu-
lation education concepts into hygiene and physiology, home economics, general
science, biology, teacher education, social studies, environmental studies and geo-
graphy. The procedures followed in integrating population education concepts into
these various subject areas included: (a) analysis of the existing curricula and text-
books of the selected subjects in order to identify the population education con-
cepts already included; (b) assessment of whether the exposition and detailing of
population education concepts is effective in terms of demands of a particular dis-
cipline and the level of education for which it has been included; (c) determining
whether the linkage at the academic, cognitive and affective levels between the
population education and the concerned discipline has been clearly spelt out; (d)
39

46
Curriculum development in population education

identifying those population education concepts which are relevant to the demands
of a particular discipline but have not been included in the curricula and textbooks;
(e) detailing the new concepts so identified for inclusion in the existing curricula and
textbooks; (f) developing textbooks and curricula outlines for the new population
education concepts that have been identified.
For the out-of-school sector, the three selections start their expositions by
first stating why population education should be integrated into farm management
courses, agriculture co-operative training courses and agricultural training curricula.
They also enumerate the various entry points appropriately used to integrate
population education concepts into the agricultural courses. In addition, the docu-
ments also develop the population content for the specific subject matter and indi-
cate the appropriate teaching-learning methodologies. One selection highlights the
goals and scope of population education, some criteria for and methods of integrat-
ing population education content in the courses offered by agricultural colleges and
universities and other considerations in planning the integration. These documents
not only discuss the various teaching methodologies 4. approaches that can be used,
but also append sample course outlines and teaching units as illustrations.

40 4y
Development of curriculum mate.lels in specific subject areas

INTEGRATING POPULATION EDUCA- study organisms and how they multiply,


TION INTO SCIENCE EDUCATION life cycles, population density or reproduc-
tion. These are all good entry points for
24 population concepts. Mathematics can also
Basnayake, V. Population and family be used for teaching population data using
education in school curricula in the addition, substraction, multiplication,
Asian region: natural sciences. A work- division and fractions. In the lower sec-
ing paper prepared for the Regional ondary level, general science includes com-
Workshop on Population and Family ponents of biology, chemistry and physics
Education, Bangkok, 7 September 7 which can be used for introducing popula-
October 1970. 14 p. (ED/CONF.61/3) tion education concepts. As in the
elementary level, the particular content
Population education can be inte- most suitable for population education is
grated into a number of science education life science or biology. For the upper
subjects in a step-by-step process. The aim secondary level, the ecology section of
is to: (a) know that a small family achieves, biology is the most appropriate subject to
on the average, a higher degree of family introduce population education. Ecology
welfare than a large family; (b) know that deals with the concept of interrelationships
family size can be controlled; and (c) value between organisms and this includes the
the above items of knowledge so that the study of population, community, succes-
learners may guide their subsequent beha- sion, habitat and cycles of nature. Another
viour. There are several approaches to appropriate place is reproduction, nutrition
making a curriculum unit on population and growth and development. Points of
education. These are through family life,
contact between physics and population
population pressure, sexuality and ecology. education are probably those on power
In constructing a whole unit in population resources, heat, solar energy and atom
education, the sequence may be based on energy. For chemistry, the points of con-
any one of the four approaches. The paper tact include the conservation of natural
appends two examples of a sequence of resources, pollution, hormones and their
ideas based on the family welfare approach. use in fertility control, energy, food re-
The process of sequencing the content in- sources and mineral resources.
cludes identifying the leading concepts, with
each leading concept being divided into a Descriptors: Science Education; Primary
set of main ideas. Each main idea is further Grades; Secondary Grades;
sub-divided into sub-ideas. The amount of Course Contents; Integration
sub-division that can be carried out is prac- Approach
tically endless. If one sets out to teach a
very fine degree of sub-division, one will Source: Population Education Clear-
probably end up by writing the draft of a ing House
textbook. Unesco Regional Office for
Education in Asia and the
In the first level of education, popula- Pacific
tion education concepts can be introduced P.O. Box 1425, General Post
into elementary science specifically in the Office
life science part of the subject where pupils Bangkok 10500, Thailand
41

48
Curriculum development in population education

IMPACT OF POPULATION FACTORS When population education is inte-


ON THE AGRICULTURAL AND grated into the curriculum, it should cause
RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESS a minimum dislocation in the curriculum,
employ an inter-disciplinary approach and
25 be relevant to the needs of the sttidents.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the The three strategies used in introducing
United Nations. Population concepts in population content to the existing curricu-
agricultural training curricula. Rome, lum are the institution of a separate popu-
1978. 16 p. lation course, the addition of a population
unit in the course of study and the infusion
Agricultural and training institutions of a population clement in the subjects
are the source of manpower for rural offered. The advantages and disadvantages
development. It is necessary that the train- of each are enumerated in the booklet.
ing courses offered by these institutions
include the causes and consequences of In choosing which of the three
population because of the impact of methods to adopt, one should pay atten-
population factors on agricultural and rural tion to the resources available especially
development processes. This will prepare those affecting manpower needs and train-
their graduates and the future development ing requirements and methods of evalua-
workers to take cognizance of the popula- tion.
tiondevelopment relationship in the course Descriptors: Non-formal Education; Inte-
of their work. grated Rural Development;
This booklet a part of the FAO series Agricultural Education; Cur-
of monographs on the integration of popu- riculum Outline; Training;
lation education concepts with selected Integration Approach
courses offered by agricultural colleges and Food and Agriculture Orga-
Source:
universities, aims to acquaint administra- nization of the United
tors and curriculum designers with the Nations
subject matter. It describes the goals and Via delle Terme di Caracalla
scope of population education, some criteria
00100 Rome, Italy
for and methods of integrating population
content in the curriculum and other con-
siderations in planning the integration. The CO-OPERATIVE TRAINERS TO
appendices provide examples of some TEACH POPULATION
source outlines on population. EDUCATION TO FARMERS
Population education is defined as
"an educational process which helps people 26
understand the implications of population Food and Agriculture Organization of the
factors for the well-being of the individual, United Nations. Population concepts
the family and society". It underscores the in agriculture co-operative training
relationship between demographic factors courses; draft. Rome, 1980. 49 p.
and the socioeconomic processes. Its
primary goal is to improve the decision- Since population factors affect the co-
making skills of an individual on popula- operative's objective of improving the lives
tionrelated issues that have a bearing on of the rural people, population education
living conditions. has been integrated with the training pro-
42
49
Development of curriculum materials in specific subject areas
grammes of agricultural co-operatives. The management process; (e) relation of family
size of the population determines the size to income and savings, with allocation
allocation of land, food and other necessi- of capital resources to financial manage-
ties to individuals and families. It is ment; (f) population characteristics of co-
necessary that the farmers understand this operative leaders, with personnel policies
connection so that they may decide wisely and practices; (g) family site and composi-
on these issues. The co-operative trainers tion, with farm management ;(h) population
concerned with teaching the farmers how size and its effect on production and con-
to increase food production and to balance sumption patterns, with marketing; and (i)
resources with needs are in a better posi- effects of family size on capacity to earn,
tion to point out this relationship. This with the use and repayment of credit.
integrated teaching approach means grad- The booklet also discusses some
ually and regularly presenting population communication approaches and methods
concepts to the farmers whenever they that can be used. The suggested approaches
relate with the regular subjects taught. include communicating the concepts in
terms relevant to the farmers' needs,
This guide in draft form one of a problems and benefits; presenting both
series of educational materials integrating
sides of an idea; using channels of com-
population issues with agricultural and co- munication available to the illiterates;
operative courses that the Food and Agri-
presenting the conclusion clearly; and seek-
cultural Organization (FAO) has produced
ing the co-operation of the target audience's
shows how co-operative and population
reference group. Lecture/discussion, case
concepts can be mixed. The purpose is to method, role playing and field visits are the
broaden the scope of training activities for
methods that can be used effectively.
agricultural co-operatives and to indicate to
trainers some areas of discussion that will Descriptors: Non-formal Education; Co-
help rural people understand the impact of operative Education; Teach-
population factors on family and commu- ing Guide; Agricultural
nity living. Education; Communication
Approach; Course Contents
It contains a list and a description of
agricultural co-operative subjects and the Source: Food and Agriculture Orga-
nization of the United
population concepts that can be used in
Nations
each. The recommended population con-
Via delle Terme di Caracalla
cepts that may be introduced in relation to
00100 Rome, Italy
specific co-operative subjects are: (a) the
characteristics and distribution of the
population (specifically rural), with the RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POPULA-
organization of agricultural co-operatives; TION VARIABLES AND PRODUC-
(b) population growth and migration TION AND DISTRIBUTION
their impact on land and food resources, IN FARMING
employment and social services, with the
social and economic characteristics of co- 27
operatives; (c) the factors that affect the Food and Agriculture Organization of the
employment of women, with the co- United Nations. Population concepts
operative laws and by-laws; (d) decision- in farm management courses. Rome,
making related to family size, with 1977. 27 p.
43
Curriculum development in population education

Farm management deals with the additional emphasis should be given to


organization, operation and management of projects supervision. Those intending to
a piece of land. It provides a good context become teachers and researchers have to be
for explaining on an individual level the provided with experiences such as case
relationship between resources, production studies, that will develop their analytical
and distribution in farming, on the one ability.
hand, and population variables on the other.
To infuse population concepts into the A proposed farm management sylla-
subject matter under discussion in this
bus is included in the booklet. It gives the
course is, therefore, a sound idea. This course outline and the population education
booklet _presents a syllabus in farm manage- components. The latter is sub - divided into
ment enriched with population ideas. It related population, human factor con-
identifies the relevant topics for the intro- sideration, pertinent data and sources and
duction of population concepts, develops special learning activities and experiences.
the population content for the specific Descriptors: Non formal Education; Farm
subject matter, and indicates the appropriate Management Courses; Curri-
teaching-learning methodologies to use to culum Outline; Integration
put the ideas across. Approach; Teaching Methods
The subjects covered in farm manage- Source: Food and Agriculture Organi-
ment that lend themselves to population zation of the United
issues are the management and decision- Nations
making process, farm planning and budget- Via dale Terme di Caracalla
ing, farm business analysis, acquisition and 00100 Rome, Italy
management of capital resources, manage-
ment of farm labour and farm work, mar-
keting practices and problems, public DOCTORS AS INFLUENTIAL
policy and the legal environment, econo- TEACHERS OF POPULATION
mies of farm management, farm records EDUCATION
and accounting and farm layout. The
interplay of the relevant population con- 28
cepts and the topics just mentioned are Jayasuriya, J .E. The inclusion ofpopulation
discussed in greater detail in the booklet. education in the curriculum of medical
In general, the focus is on the impact of education. Bangkok, Unesco Regional
family size and characteristics on decisions Office for Education in Asia, 1972. 7 p.
related to the various subject matter.
Among the various categories of per-
The most commonly used teaching sonnel engaged in professions involving
method is the lecture discussion type to- inter-persona/ contact and relationships
gether with laboratory exercises. Seminars, among human beings on an extensive scale,
symposia, case study, preparation and two professions stand out pre-eminently,
analysis of a project and field trip or educa- namely, the teaching profession and the
tional tours are also recommended with medical profession. The leadership role of
details on how to use them. Teaching the physician is manifested in the face-to-
methodologies may differ depending on the face physician-patient situation but apart
type of work envisioned for the graduates. from such person t o person contacts,
If they are to become extension workers, leadership can be exercised in issues of
44

51
Development of curriculum materials in specific subject areas
public policy by clear and unambiguous national population policies; and (h) family
statements on the part of the medical men living.
of the insights that medical science gives.
In addition to the importance of medical One question that remains is the
personnel in the field of population, the extent to which family planning education
enormity of the threat posed by large should be provided for, within the curri
families and rapid population growth also culum of medical education, as a basically
affect the promotion of positive health medical activity distinct from population
especially in the context of the less devel- educatior.
oped countries. These are manifested in
the inadequacy of existing health services; Descriptors: Medical Education; Course
nutritionally inadequate diets in childhood Contents; Family Planning;
years; increasing urbanization, compound- Contraceptive Methods
ing the problem of environmental sanita-
tion; failure to obtain employment and the Source: Population Education Clear-
tensions of an over-crowded urban life en- ing House
dangering mental health; growing health Unesco Regional Office for
hazards from the pollution of air and Education in Asia and the
water. At the micro level or at the level of Pacific
the family, the consequences of population P.O. Box 1425, General Post
growth are also discussed. Office
Bangkok 10500, Thailand
These consequences demand that
population education be included in the
medical curriculum. Population education
basically draws its content from demo- POPULATION EDUCATION COM-
graphy, economics, sociology, anthropolo- PONENTS IN HOME ECONOMICS
gy, sciences and medical science and is CURRICULUM
designed to give learners an insight into the
totality of issues connected with popula- 29
tion, ranging from the nature, measurement,
Manee Kuanpoonpol. Home economics
causes, determinants and consequences of with population education: family-
population growth as well as of urbaniza-
centred, work-oriented and problem-
tion both at the macro and micro levels.
solving approaches. Bangkok, Unesco
The population content that will have to be
Regional Office for Education in Asia,
considered for inclusion into the medical 1974. 10 p.
curriculum will include the following: (a)
population indices and trends; (b) the This article answers four questions.
relationship between population growth What population-related concepts should
and natural resources; (c) the relationship be integrated into home economics? In
between food, nutrition, health and popu- what areas of home economics should
lation growth; (d) the relationship between population education components be inte-
population growth, economic development grated? How should they be taught? When
and employment; (e) the relationship should they be taught?
between population growth and social
development; (f) the relationship between The aspects of home economics which
population and international relations; (g) may be directly or indirectly concerned
45

52
Curriculum development in population education

with population issues have been called by P.O. Box 1425, General Post
different names including, home manage- Office
ment, the family, marriage, marriage and Bangkok 10500, Thailand
family, family development, family life
education, mother and child care, problems The Ministry of Education (Curricu-
of living and family living. Each of these lum Wing), Population Education Cell,
subjects is concerned with stages in the Pakistan, in collaboration with the Popula-
family life cycle. Viewed from this per- tion Welfare Division, Islamabad, held a
spective, the population education com- National Workshop on Population Educa-
ponent of home economics curricula could tion in Islamabad from 19 to 24 December
appear in each of the following units: food, 1983.
clothing, home and family management,
family life education, and child care and The workshop was held to find ways
guidance. to integrate population education concepts
into the secondary school curriculum. The
Population education can be inte- participants analysed the existing curricula
grated into almoit every unit of teaching if and textbooks of the selected subjects for
proper approaches are employed. One of classes VI to X in order to identify the
the best ways to integrate population population education concepts already
education concepts through the family- included; assessed whether the exposition
centred, work-oriented and problem- and detailing of population education
solving approach. This approach teaches concepts is effective in terms of demands
knowledge and skills in an integrated man- of a particular discipline and the level of
ner, where the teacher talks and lectures education for which it has been included;
less, but guides the students to do the and determined whether the linkage at the
work, shifting the responsibility of work to academic, cognitive, and affective levels
the students. The aim is to instil responsi- between the population education and the
ble attitude formation. To illustrate some concerned discipline has been clearly spelt
of the concepts discussed, a unit on food out. They also identified those population
preparation is examined in detail. The unit education concepts which are relevant to
presents the family setting where good the demands of a particular discipl;de but
working habits and experience in assuming have not been included in the curricula and
responsibility are shown. The unit teaches textbooks; detailed the new concepts so
the process of menu preparation and the identified for inclusion in the existing
criteria for planning a nutritious menu. curricula and textbooks; and developed
Beside this there are practical exercises of textbook and curricula outlines for the new
work and responsibilities. population education concepts that were
identified. The following subjects were
Descriptors: Home Economics Education; selected for integration: Urdu, Sindhi, Eng-
Course Contents; Integration lish, social studied, home economics, geo-
Approach graphy, environm..:ntal studies, biology,
hygiene and physiology, general science
Source: Population Education Clear- and teacher education.
ing House
Unesco Regional Office for The eight abstracts that follow all
EducatiP:-. in Asia and the relate to this workshop and had the same
Pao fic aims and objectives.
46
Development of curriculum materials in specific subject areas

POPULATION EDUCATION Source: Population Education Cell


INTO BIOLOGY Ministry of Education (Curri-
30 culum Wing)
Islamabad, Pakistan
Pakistan. Ministry of Education :.Cur-;-
culum Wing). Population Educarion
Cell. Report of the National Workshop POPULATION EDUCATION INTO
on Population Education (Biology for ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
classes IX-X), Islamabad, 19-24 net,-,m-
bcr 1983. Organized in collaboration
with the Population Welfare Division, Pakistan. Ministry of Education (Curri-
Islamabad. [Islamabad, 19831. 58, culum Wing). Population Education
xxii p. al. Report of the National Workshop
Based on the study made of existing on Populaison Education (Environmen-
biology curricula and textbooks, the fol- tal studies for classes IX-X), Islamabad,
lowing recommendations were made: (a) 19-24 December 1983. Organized in
a new biology curriculum and textbook collaboration with the Population Wel-
based on population education component fare Division, Islamabad. [Islamabad,
should be developed for the secondary 19831. 17, xxii p.
level; (b) instructional units for the new
developed textbook should be developed This report recommends that (a) the
on the style of the instructional unit curriculum be revised by a competent
included in the Workshop report; .(c) Curriculum Development Committee using
the following topics by chapter in the order
biology texts should be developed which
particularly ,.ssess students knowledge of given: (i) Environment and biosphere, (ii)
the pcpuhbob education concepts; (d) Closed systems and natural cycles, (iii)
all the developed materials should form a Environmental ethics, (iv) Adaptations, (v)
part of the B. Ed. curriculum and in-service Factors constituting the environment, (vi)
training; (e) in order Ro teach the popula- Factors affecting the environment, (vii)
Harmful effects of pollution, (viii) Popula-
tion education-oriented biology effectively,
each school zhculd be provided v:e.h the tion growth and the environment; (b)
Urdu transIrtiln a textbook should be introduced in this
atext on vpula-
tion and its integration in biology in dif- subject which should discuss the overall
concepts of environmental education objec-
ferent developing countries of the world;
tively defining the effects of pollution and
(f) each school should ensure that biology
teachers are trained in teaching population preservation of the environment in a broad
education-oriented biology and provide the
sense. The textbook, which should total
necessary facilities; (g) an in-service teacher
from 200 to 250 pages, should also in-
training programme shouli be started in corporate the practical aspects of cleanli-
each provinces as o s as t :e proposed in- ness and public health and economic
structional materials tare developed.
growth in relation to environmental plan-
ning; (c) an activity-based approach to
Descriptors: Science Eaucttion; Biology; environment studies is recommended; (d)
Secondary Grades; Content generous use of audio-visual aids should be
Analysis; Course Con- promoted; (e) in the scheme of studies of
tents; Integration Approach; secondary school examination, 100 marks
Pakistan should be allocated for this subject; (f) one
47

54
Curriculum development in population education

teacher for each school offering environ- which enrichment material has been out-
mental studies and population education lined for 6 concepts. Since a full 24-page
should receive training. The master trainers chapter exists in CRC class IXX general
programme should also be organized in science textbook which deals with popula-
Education Extension Centres before the tion-related concepts, only one additional
teachers's training programme; (g) teachers' concept is suggested for inclusion.
guides should be developed in collaboration
A number of recommendations were
with other concerned agencies.
made. Since the committee members who
Descriptors: Environmental Education; ms :'e these recommendation were mostly
Secondary Grades; Content science education experts, the work should
A naly sis ; Course Con- be reviewed further by population experts
tents; Integration Approach; before finalization. There is a danger that
Pakistan the inclusion of the recommended addi-
Source: Population Education Cell tional population concepts in the curri
Ministry of Education (Curri- culum may further overload the already
culum Wing) overloaded content. It is recommended
Islamabad, Pakistan that the curriculum review panels may take
note of this fact and delete some of the
redundant material to make room for the
POPULATION EDUCATION INTO relevant population content. Further,
GENERAL SCIENCE there may be a large amount of overlap of
population topics in d ifferent subjects
which should also be removed. An inten-
32
sive training course in population education
Pakistan. Ministry of Education (Curri- should be held for textbook writers before
culum Wing). Population Education entrusting them with the task of developing
Cell. Report of the National Workshop textbook material related to population
on Population Education (General science A comprehensive source book
concepts.
for classes Islamabad, 19-24
VI-X),
on population should be developed for
December 1983. Organized in collabor- curriculum planners, textbook writers and
tion with the Population Welfare Divi teachers. The book should be used as a
sion, Islamabad. [Islamabad, 1983] .
prescribed text at all in-service training
21, xxii p.
courses on population. Great care needs to
This report identifies already existing be exercised by authors in writing popula-
population-related concepts and content tion units so as to avoid provoking ortho-
areas wherein further population concepts dox react'. ii end conveying incorrect
could be infused. It was found that in the impressions u the purposes of population
class VIVIII curriculum there were 35 education. Specific population-related
existing concepts related to population charts and pictures may be developed to
education. Of these, enrichment material illustrate population concepts and be pro-
has been suggested for 20 concepts. A vided to schools. Population education may
further 18 population related concepts be made a compulsory component of all
have been suggested for infusion at proper teacher training courses at PTC, CT, B. Ed.
plug-in points in the curriculum. In the and M. Ed. levels so that fresh teachers
class IX-X curriculum a total of 17 popula- pouring into the system come already well-
tion-related concepts were identified out of oriented in the discipline and lastly, popu-
48
bo
Development of curriculum materials in specific subject areas
lotion may also be made a compulsory teachers. The latest available population
component of all in-service training courses figures were provided so that the textbook
for teachers and teacher trainers. writer may incorporate them in the text-
Descriptors: Science Education; Seconda- book. Based on these findings, the recom-
ry Grades; Content Analysis; mendations were: First, graphics on
Course Contents; Integration population information designed for
Approach; Pakistan adolescent school-going groups should be
prepared and published under the auspices
Source: Population Education Cell of the Ministry of Education in collabora-
Ministry of Education (Curri- tion with Population Division. The Minis-
culum Wing) try of Education should make sure that
Islamabad, Pakistan these graphics reach every secondary school
of Pakistan. They should be despatched
POPULATION EDUCATION directly to the schools and it should be a
INTO GEOGRAPHY continuous process. Second, a project on
the preparation and compilation of appro-
33 priate materials on population education
Pakistan. Ministry of Education (Curri- including bibliography, a book of readings
culum Wing). Population Education and instructional and teaching aids should
Cell. Report of the National Workshop be undertaken. This project should provide
on Population Education ' vraphy for material for students, teachers and others
classes IX-X), Islamabad, 19-24 Decem- interested in population education pro-
ber 1983. Organized in collaboration gramme. Lastly, education extension
with the Population Welfare Division, centres and curriculum centres should
Islamabad. [Islamabad, 1983] . 14, organize the following programmes: (a)
xxii p. orientation courses, as currently being
organized, should be further strengthened;
This report looks into how population
(b) population education should form a
education concepts can be integrated into
part of every in-service course for geo-
geography. An analysis of the existing graphy and social studies teachers; (c) a
textbook and curriculum materials on
project should be taken up to evaluate the
geography showed that the curriculum work done so far and suggest measures to
covered most of the concepts needed for make this programme more successful; (d)
population education appropriate at this a micro-testing programme should be
level. However, some more concepts have undertaken to ascertain the practicability
been identified for inclusion including over- and reliability of these suggestions before
population, distribution of population, they are implemented.
migrilion, manpower and limitations of
land and essential services for urban Descriptors: Social Science Education;
growth. It was observed that the concepts Geography; Secondary
included in the curriculum were not pro- Grades; Content Analysis;
perly dealt with in the textbook. To Course Contents; Integration
achieve the desired effect, explanatory Approach; Pakistan
statements have been made regarding Source: Population Education Cell
modifications in the textbook at relevant Ministry of Education (Curri-
places. Audio-visual aids have been speci- culum Wing)
fied and guidelines provided for the Islamabad, Pakistan
49

56
Curriculum development in population education

POPULATION EDUCATION INTO province in the shape of gra?hs, posters,


HOME ECONOMI CS models and flip charts etc.; and (i) it is
necessary to compute the costs of raising
34 one child in the province, coming from a
Pakistan. Ministry of Education (Curri- middle class and the lower income group,
culum Wing). Population Education so as to reinforce the concept of family size
Cell. Report of the National Work- and quality of life.
shop on Population Education (Home Descriptors: Home Economics Educatien;
economics for classes VI-X), Islamabad,
Secondary Grades; Content
19-24 December 1983. Organized in Analysis; Course Contents;
collaboration with the Population Integration Approach; Paki-
Welfare Division, Islamabad. [Islamabad, stan
1983). 20, xxii p.
Source: Population Education Cell
The existing home economics curri- Ministry of Education (Curri-
culum and textbooks were reviewed to culum Wing)
identify already existing population-related Islamabad, Pakistan
concepts and also to identify content areas
wherein further population concepts could
be infused. The report recommends that:
(a) the work carried out by different com- POPULATION EDUCATION INTO
mittees for the same subject may be HYGIENE AND PHYSIOLOGY
reviewed by a National Committee to
ensure a uniform sequential approach for 35
the additions suggested for Classes VI-XVI; Pakistan. Ministry of Education (Curri-
(b) short orientation courses should be culum Wing). Population Education
arranged for textbook writers; (c) orienta- Cell. Report of the National Workshop
tion courses should be organized at all the on Population Education (Hygiene and
existing home economics colleges of physiology for classes VI-X), Islamabad,
Pakistan, to acquaint the faculty and the 19-24 December 1983. Organized in
students with concepts of population collaboration with the Population Wel-
education and its relationship with the fare Division, Islamabad. [Islamabad,
subject; (d) population education should be 1983] . 9, xxii p.
included in all the Teacher Training School
and College Curricula; (e) in-service teacher Based on the results of the content
orientation programmes should be organized analysis of existing hygiene and physiology
for the concerned teachers to enhance the curricula, the participants recommended a
teaching/learning process; (f) textbooks of division of the course content into three
the Punjab Board should be adapted to sections: the human body and its environ-
incorporate the concepts of population ment, physiology and hygiene; rearrange-
,ducation; (g) the examination papers must ment of existing topics and addition of
have at least one question, preferably a introductory chapters at the beginning of
compulsory question, on the quality of life each section in order to facilitate integra-
and family size, the progressive develop- tion and perspective for insertions of
ment of the nation in relation to popula- population education topics. The textbook
tion etc.; (h) workshops are necessary to was found so highly technical and full of
develop suitable audio-visual aids for the unnecessary terminology that it was not
50
sr
Development of curriculum materials in specific subject areas
considered suitable. A drastic reduction of areas where required concepts can be added
details and terminology should be carried with modification. The group also pre-
out to cut down the present material to a pared materials for inclusion in the text-
maximum of two-thirds or even one-half of books and prepared guidelines for authors
its present size. The integration of popula- of textbooks. They recommended that (a)
tion educatioi concepts should then be the existing curricula requires revision in
accommodated with ease. However in- order to integrate the concepts of popula-
directly population education is imparted, tion education; (b) the members of the
its success will deper d on the co-operation group be associated while revising and re-
of important influencing agents and leaders writing the curricula; (c) when the curricula
in the community. There is a need to are revised the textbooks should be rewrit-
educate and convince not only teachers of ten with a better integration of the con-
the various curricula, but also Union Coun- cepts of population education so that the
cil members, Imams, X.hateebs and Islami- students get a feel of this area of know-
yat teachers. Intensive teacher training ledge; (d) relevant demographic details
should be undertaken to develop their should be added in the form of charts,
competencies in teaching this particular maps, graphs, at the end of each textbook,
subject. because they are normally not easily avail-
Descriptors: llea:th Education; Science able; (e) social studies/Pakistan studies
Education; Secondary Grades; teachers in particular, require orientation
Content Analysis; Course courses in the concepts of population
Contents; Integration Ap- education and the methodology of teaching
proach; Pakistan it; (f) pre-service courses for teachers
should be, reviewed to accommodate the
Source: Population Education Cell concepts of population education; (g)
Ministry of Educatior (Curri- teachers guides are necessary; audio-visual
culum Wing) ai.is like charts, maps and graphs, giving
Islamabad, Pakistan demographic representations, are necessary.
Descriptors: Social Education;
Science
POPULATION EDUCATION INTO Secondary Grades; Content
SOCIAL STUDIES Analysis; Course Contents;
36 Integration Approach;
Pakistan
Pakistan. Ministry of Education (Curri-
culum Wing). Population Education Source: Population Education Cell
Cell. Report of the National Work- Ministry of Education (Curri-
shop on Population Education (Social culum Wing)
studies/Pakistan studies for class VI-X), Islamabad, Pakistan
Islamabad, 19-24 December 1983.
Organized in collaboration with the
Population Welfare Division, Islamabad. POPULATION EDUCATION INTO
[Islamabad, 1983] . 26, xxii p. TEACHER EDUCATION

This report studies the existing curri- 37


cula of social studies with a view to seeing Pakistan.,Ministry of Education (Curri-
how population education concepts have culum Wing). Population Education
already been accommodated and in pinpoint Cell. Report of the National Workshop
51

58
Curriculum development in population education

on Population Education (Teacher EXPERIENCES IN INTEGRATING


education), Islamabad, 19-24 December POPULATION EDUCATION IN
1983. Organized in collaboration with SELECTED SCHOOL SUBJECTS
the Population Welfare Division, Islama-
bad. [Islamabad, 1983] . 65, xxii p. 38
The group looking into the integration Unesco. Regional Office for Education in
of population education into the teacher Asia and the Pacific. "Population educa
training programmes recommended that: tion in selected school subjects," in:
(a) the content or the subject of population Population education a source book on
education should be infused in the curri- content and methodology. Bangkok,
culum and also reflected in the textbooks 1980, p. 44-57. (Population Education
for the elementary teacher training pro- Programme Service).
gramme; (b) components of population In most countries where population
education should be added to Pakistan education has been introduced for the first
studies and science in the relevant portions time into the school curriculum, popula-
in B. Ed. curriculum. This can be done by tion education is not offered as a separate
adding two or three chapters; (c) a package discipline because in most cases, the curri
of resource material should be prepared at cula are already overcrowded. Thus, con-
national level and a set provided to each tents drawn from demography, population
training centre in the provinces; (d) a set of studies and other population-related sub
teacher's guides be distributed among the jects are used in enriching existing school
trainers free of cost; (e) resource centres be disciplines such as health education, home
established at district headquarters at economics, the natural sciences and social
elementary teacher training institution studies. Logical integration and enrich-
centres linked with the Tehsil training ment require two prerequisites, namely a
centres; (f) a documentary film, showing full grasp of the different population con-
and comparing changes in population be cepts to be integrated, and a thorough
given to resource centres which are already knowledge of the content coverage or
equipped with a film projector; (g) lec- scope and sequence of the discipline to be
turers/subject specialists who are required enriched. There are three main approaches
to teach population education be given adopted for introducing population educa-
proper orientation of the subject at provin- tion in the region, namely, infusion, inte-
cial training centres. Six days training pro- gration and as a separate subject.
grammes is considered to be sufficient.
Statistically oriented resource material and To illustrate these points, this article
introduction to the use of learning package gives several examples in integrating popu-
should be a requirement; (h) the above lation education in selected school subjects.
mentioned teams of key personnel be given In home economics, for example, there are
sufficient training in the production and five basic conceptual themes which have
use of AV aids for the subject. great potential .for enrichment of popula-
tion education concepts. These are food
Descriptors: Teacher Education; Pakistan and nutrition, housing and home manage.
Source: Population Education Cell ment, family life education, child care and
Ministry of Education (Curri- development, and clothing and textiles.
culum Wing) Food and nutrition could easily include
Islamabad, Pakistan such topics as family meals, food budgets,
52

59
Development of curriculum materials in specific subject areas

nutrition and health vis-a-vis family size Descriptors: Home Economics Education;
which are population education concepts. Health Education; Environ-
Likewise, child care and development mental Education; Social
include content such as the developmental Science Education; Science
stages of life from conception to baby Education
hood, as well as pre-and post-natal care of
both the mother and the child. Source: Population Education Clear-
ing House
In the area of health education, the Unesco Regional Office for
educational message of most lessons in Education in Asia and the
population education and in health educa- Pacific
tion is not to control population growth P.O. Box 1425, General Post
per se, rather that people should be healthy Office
to contribute maximally to national devel- Bangkok 10500, Thailand
opment rather than become a population
who are liabilities to a nation.
WHY POPULATION EDUCATION
Environmental education helps the SHOULD BE TAUGHT AT
pupils develop an understanding of the THE SECONDARY LEVEL
finite nature of the vital natural resources
of the planet and that with increased 39
population, improvement in the standard
of living and advancement of technology, Wayland, Sloan R. Population study in the
the use of natural resources is increasing secondary school curriculum. Paper
rapidly. This has in turn caused a deter- presented at the National Council of
ioration of the environment and to cause Studies Meeting, November 1965. 8 p.
negative effects on human as well as other This article first presents the reasons
forms of life. why population should form part of the
Social studies deals with people, and secondary school curriculum. Then it
their cultural values, lending itself easily to proceeds to discuss several aspects of curri-
integration of population education con- culum development. The first aspect deals
cepts. For example one predominant with the scope of population study. Al-
values in the region is the preference for a though the article does not provide clear
son. In many countries, the social value, boundary lines, it states that population
son preference, is regarded as one of the refers to the discipline in which the num-
socio-economic factors affecting population bers of human beings are considered in
change. A lesson is given to illustrate how relation to vital processes births and
family size is affected by the value of son deaths and to a set of structural variables
preference. some of which are biological, such as age
and sex and marital status. The second
In science education, the article aspect has to do with three population
presents a lesson on the "Effects of over- goals: (a) development of an understanding
crowding on individual needs" to illustrate of the significance of population charac-
how population education contents can be teristics as a basic factor in a number of
incorporated into science. social problems, both domestic and foreign;

53

. 60
Curriculum development in population education

(b) preparation for decisions as to size of teachers so that the new field of study
family to be made by students when they collies in at many places, or permeates the
establish their own families; and (c) pre- existing units without serious modification
paration for consideration of an action of the curriculum; and (c) restructure the
toward public policy issues directly related social studies curriculum so that a new field
to population concerns. The third aspect of study finds its place in a new pattern.
deals with the significance of population The article then enumerates some entry
characteristics. There are a number of points in the field of social studies for
characteristics of the population which population concepts to come in.
may help to explain certain types of social
phenomena which on the surface do not In the development of a programme
seem to be related directly to such factors to teach population into the social studies
such as the increase in crime rate, general curriculum, the classic problems of well-
age structure, urban problems and orderly conceived teaching units, teachers prepared
and careful development of community to teach such units, teachers interested in
facilities. These characteristics include rate teaching such units, adequate resource
of growth of population, age structure, sex materials for students and teachers and a
ratio, the dependency rate, level of infant curriculum framework within which to fit
mortality, the rates of migration, age at such a unit have to be considered.
marriage, age specific birth rates and the
size of families. Descriptors: Social Science Education;
Economics; History; Geo-
The paper goes on to discuss the graphy; Secondary Grades;
relationship of instruction in population to Educational Levels
other aspects of the curriculum in social
studies and in other areas of instruction. Source: Population Education Clear-
Four genera strategies for curriculum ing House
innovation have been identified as a basis Unesco Regional Office for
for the consideration of increased attention Education in Asia and the
to population problems. These include: (a) Pacific
establish a new course; (b) avoid a special P.O. Box 1425, General Pcst
course but seek to gain a level of under- Office
standing and commitment on the part of Bangkok 10500, Thailand

54

61
State-of-the-art on curriculum development in Asia and the Pacific

Part Four: State-of-the-Art on Curriculum Development in Population Education in


Asia and the Pacific: A Literature Review

This Part abstracts eight documents. Six are reports of regional meetings and
workshops held on various aspects of population education and two are case studies
of selected national population education programmes.
The six reports of various meetings and workshops carry a comparative
review of efforts undertaken by countries in Asia and the Pacific in the field of
curriculum development in population education, specifically identifying commonal-
ities, differences, problems encountered and solutions formulated to answer these
problems. These various programmes on curriculum development have been
analysed by the documents using the following variables: (a) strategy for curriculum
planning and institutionalization; (b) approach of integrating population education
into the school and out-of-school system; (c) grade levels into which population
education concepts are being introduced; (d) subjects/disciplines into which popula-
tion education concepts are being introduced; (e) procedural steps being followed in
developing the curriculum; and (f) contribution of population education to cur-
riculum renovation.
With regard to curriculum planning, different modalities are being used by
different Member States for instituting population education in their educational
systems. One type is the establishment of a curriculum section within a population
education centre manned by population experts, subject specialists, curriculum
planners and administrators. This modality is found in Bangladesh, Philippines, and
Indonesia. In some countries like Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal and Thailand
population education programmes have been established as part of the Curriculum
Development Centre. Another approach convenes staff members from many dif-
ferent sectors in a workshop to develop the curriculum materials on an ad-hoc basis,
e.g. Maldives, Viet Nam. The third type is through the establishment of a central
committee on a temporary basis constituted by the Ministry of Education composed
of population education experts and teachers from inside and outside of the Min-
istry e.g. Indonesia. In some countries, a curriculum board of subject specialists
is organized to work out the curriculum.
With regard to the modality for integrating population education concepts into
the school system, there are basically two approaches, namely, the integrated and
separate subject approaches. The integrated approach takes the following forms:
(a) sub -unit; (b) infusion; (c) permeation. The separate subject approach has also
the following forms: (a) elective subject; (b) mini-course; and (c) required subject.
The most popular mode of introduction in the region is the integration of popula-
tion content with several areas. Also, majority of the countries have included pop-
ulation education at the secondary level with the exception of four countries which
have introduced it at the primary level and a small number at the tertiary level. In
terms of content areas, although the overall goals of population education at the
school level are more or less the same, there are differences in the immediate objec-
57

62
Curriculum development in population education

tives, content areas, subjects of integration as well as approaches for curriculum


development. For example, the curricula in population education of Republic of
Korea and the Philippines include content relating to sexuality and family planning
whereas other countries have avoided to include them because of socio-cultural
factors.
Almost all countries have followed more or less similar design for developing
their curriculum in population education. Countries usually begin the process by
making a survey of the population-related content already existing in syllabuses or
textbooks. The results are used as a basis for preparing the goals of population
education, for defining the conceptual framework and identifying population
education-related subjects for each grade in the form of scope and sequence.
This is followed by the actual preparation of the curriculum materials such
as teacher's and students' materials. The final two steps carried out by the countries
are to ensure the integration or institutionalization of population education into the
existing educational systems and once this is achieved, to undertake a continuous
evaluation of its usefulness.

With regard to problematic areas being encountered by countries in cur-


riculum development activities, the documents abstracted here claim that the
most serious is the fact that most countries come up with very elaborate, detailed,
and often very ambitious curricula, often found unacceptable to the people looking
after the total curriculum system. Consequently, population education contents are
hardly reflected in the textbooks or are often too thin to register any impact on the
students. To solve this problem, two documents arising from two workshops came
up with the following recommendations: (1) offering learners adequate opport-
unities to take immediate or intermediate action (what a young learner can do to
improve the quality of life for oneself and others) and (2) development of adequate
learning experiences or a core that can be broadly recommended at various stages of
schooling. A reconceptualization of population education will ensure manageable
and relevant content at different levels; employ participatory methods, enable lear-
ners to relate through their immediate environment and concerns and offer adequate
opportunities to take immediate or intermediate action which is socially desirable
and individually meaningful.
One selection showed that in response to the recommendation to develop
adequate learning experiences in population education, a workshop was held and
generated guidelines for determining these adequate learning requirements and
guidelines for the development and use of tch packages.
In the out-of-school sector, one document, synthesizing the experiences of
eight countries in the region claims that curriculum development in out-of-school
population education is mainly characterized by the diversity of its target groups.
Their ages, marital status, education and socio-economic profiles vary to a wide
degree. The diversity of the target groups is further compounded by two important
features: (a) they may be captive or volunteer audience; (b) they may be available
for varying periods of time for population education. Faced with this set of diver-
58

63
State-of-the-art on curriculum development in Asia and the Pacific

sities, it is clear that no uniform curriculum context can be planned to take them
into account. There are - number of procedures being followed in curriculum and
instructional materials development. These include the following: (a) survey of the
target group; (b) identification of focal points for the curriculum; (c) selection of
content: (d) selection of learning experiences and (e) preparation and pretesting of
instructional materials. The synthesis also identified some innovative features in
the curriculum development projects being undertaken by the eight countries
studied here.
The synthesis then goes into .he various types of materials already produced
and being produced for out -of- school population education programmes. These
materials can be divided into two broad categories namely, (a) materials to promote
awareness; and (b) instructional materials. The basic differences between the two
kinds of materials lie in the objectives underlying their preparation, the nature of
the content and the impact it has on those who are exposed to them.
Several countries have made attempts to integrate population education
content into development programmes with varying degrees of success. The case
studies showed that none of them is quite satisfied with what has been achieved so
far, and that if population education programmes in the out-of-school sectors are
to be launched on an extensive scale, a priority area that needs attention is the
development of skills for preparing integrated curricula and materials. Workshops
for developing skills in the development of curriculum and instructional materials
had been undertaken by these countries. Generally, the instructional materials
were prepared presenting the content in an integrated manner. The integration of
population education into the educational content of other development pro-
grammes has the advantages of focusing attention on the relevance of the population
factor in the development process. Because of its controversiality, population
education cannot be easily integrated in the content of certain programmes. A
possible solution would be to regard the integrated population education content
as providing a natural and relevant starting point to open up population issues and
then to use it as a springboard for drawing attention to important facets of repro-
ductive behaviour.

59

64
Curriculum development in population education

CASE STUDIES ON EDUCATIONAL structural changes in the Ministry and in


INNOVATIONS BROUGHT ABOUT the existing institutions. The next question
BY POPULATION EDUCATION was how to bring about this integration, by
40 what means and according to which
Unesco. Population Education Section. methods. Two solutions were proposed.
Study of the contribution of population The first solution consisted in introducing
education to educational renewal and into the course syllabus of a given subject,
innovation in El Salvador, the Republic sequences and study units related to pop-
of Korea, Philippines and Tunisia. Paris, ulation phenomena and linked to the sub-
1980. 206 p. (Co-ordinated Action ject concerned. An effort was made to
reduce the risk of dispersion by en-
Programme for the Advancement of
deavouring to integrate the concepts and
Population Education).
by introducing a system of verification and
This study was conducted to show correlation. This approach resulted in the
how population education has contributed preparation of training modules. The
to educational innovation and renewal in El second solution consisted in providing
Salvador, the Republic of Korea, Philip- population education in the ordinary classes
pines and Tunisia. The case studies in a maximum possible number of subjects.
examined the contribution of population This method was not well adapted for
education to the improvements of various treating the subject with either continuity
parts of the educational process: content, or coherence. An attempt was made to
curricula, methods and personnel training. overcome this deficiency by developing
This abstract-bibliography focuses its dis- objective based curricula and model lessons
cussion on the effects of population based on the objective centred teaching.
education on curriculum and materials
development. The innovative effects of this approach
developed a great interest among the
Should population education con- teachers for social affairs and a strong sense
stitute a new discipline, thereby neces- of responsibility in regard to national
sitating the preparation of an entirely development. It also led them to attempt
new and separate curriculum? All countries "team teaching" and to think of other
decided that population education should forms of connected teaching. On the part
be integrated into the subjects already of the students, while creating in them the
being taught, either in the context of motivation for learning, these responses
curriculum revision undertaken in the frame also helped them to be better prepared for
of an overall reform of the educational making choices with regard to their sub-
system or by suitably adapting and sequent studies and above and beyond it,
amplifying existing curricula. The common in their lives. It has also resulted in a more
choice was in harmony with the phi- easy-going and simple relationship between
losophical goals and general objectives of boys and girls.
population education as being multi- and
inter-disciplinary. It was also in harmony Descriptors: Educational Innovations;
with a strategy of innovation which was Philippines; Korea, Republic
aimed at limiting to the minimum, the of; Tunisia; El Salvador;
creation of institutions or bringing about Integration Approach
60

65
State-of-the-art on curriculum development in Asia and the Pacific

Source: Population Education Clearing or textbooks. After this, many countries


House come up with a very elaborate and detailed,
Unesco Regional Office for and often very ambitious curriculum, not
Education in Asia and the often found acceptable to the people
Pacific looking after the total curriculum system.
P.O. Box 1425, General Post Consequently, population education
Office contents are hardly reflected in the text-
Bangkok 10500, Thailand books.

To solve this problem, the participants


IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF
CURRICULUM MATERIALS
recommended a reconceptualization of
population education to bring it into
41 sharper focus. This entails (a) offering
Unesco. Regional Office for Education in learners adequate opportunities to take
Asia and the Pacific. Action programmes immediate or intermediate action (what
for the qualitative improvements of a young learner can do to improve the
population education. Report of a quality of life for oneself and others).
Regional Consultative Seminar, Bangkok, It is assumed that this action will yield
Thailand, 11-18 October 1982. Bangkok, distinct benefits and also lay a firm founda-
1983. 106 p. (Population Education tion for fertility-related behaviour when
Programme Service.) the time is ripe for such action; (b) devel-
opment of minimum and adequate learning
One of the big areas discussed for requirements, or a core that can be broadly
renovation during this seminar was on
recommended at various stages of schooling.
curriculum development. Although most
Population education will ensure man-
countries have included population educa- ageable and relevant content at different
tion at the secondary level, four have
levels, employ participatory methods,
introduced it starting grade I and a smaller enable learners to relate through their im-
number at the tertiary level. The most mediate environment and concerns and
popular mode of introduction is the offer adequate opportunities to take
integration of population content with immediate or intermediate action which
several areas. It is only China and Thailand is socially desirable and individually
which introduce population education into meaningful.
a single subject. One great advantage of
introducing population education into a In the non-formal sector, the following
single subject is in the coherence and issues were raised: (a) how to convince
visibility that the content may have, population educators to integrate their
whereas integration with a number of sub- programmes with non-formal education
jects may result in dilution of messages. At and development programmes; (b) how
the tertiary level, integration with a num- does one implement such integration; (c)
ber of subject areas and the provision of if population education is integrated, there
separate courses appear to be used in is the issue of a probable dilution of the
several countries. The preparation of message as well as the assessment of its
curriculum and instructional materials has impact; (d) since the majority of its
been undertaken by most countries by first audience is illiterate, educators must
undertaking a survey of the population- develop the kind of materials that will
related content already existing in syllabuses ensure communication of value-laden pop-
61

66
Curriculum development in population education

ulation education concepts at the grass- education in Asia and Oceania," in:
roots level; (e) a core of minimum and Population education: a source book on
adequate learning packages for different content and methodology. Bangkok,
non-formal education and development 1980, p.33-43. (Population Education
programmes needs to be determined; and Programme Service).
(f) there is a distinction between out-
Different approaches for developing
of-school population education and curriculum in population education have
information, education communication been used by different countries in Asia.
(IEC), as out-of-school population educa-
Being of recent origin, population educa-
tion goes beyond IEC, which is the educa-
tional component of family planning. tion has no clearly marked content
boundaries. It is interdisciplinary in nature
The meeting came out with the and related to carious subjects. The prob-
following two recommendations with re- lem of overcrowded curricula makes it
gard to curriculum development: (a) the difficult to establish population educatinn
conceptualization of population education as an independent subject in schools. Most
for the last ten years was focused on a countries have therefore used an integra-
small size family norm, on demographic tion approach to include population educa-
content, on population and development tion concepts in different subject areas. To
and family planning; and (b) there is a need present an overview of how countries have
to develop a minimum learning require- undertaken this, the article presents a table
ment to each subject area, grade level and of countries in Asia which are imple-
target group. menting population education programmes,
showing the grade levels and the subjects
Descriptors: Comparative Analysis; Cur- into which each country is integrating
riculum Planning; .Regional population education concepts.
Co-operatico; School Sys-
tems; Non formal Education; The table shows that almost all
Integration Approach; Asia countries have used an integration ap-
proach and have followed a more or less
Source: Population Education Clearing similar design for developing their cur-
House riculum in population education. These
Unesco Regional Office for include the following steps: (a) defining
Education in Asia and the the goals of population education; (b)
Pacific defining a conceptual framework; (c)
P.O. Box 1425, General Post identifying population education-related
Off ice subjects for each grade; (d) developing
Bangkok 10500, Thailand scope and sequence in population educa-
tion concepts; (c) developing instructional
materials; (f) integration of population
HOW ASIAN COUNTRIES INTEGRATE education in the existing curricula and
POPULATION EDUCATION INTO textbooks or revised curricula and text-
THE SCHOOL SYSTEM books; (g) evaluation of curriculum and
42 materials.
Unesco. Regional Office or Education Although the overall goals of popula-
in Asia anal the Pacific. "Approaches to tion education at the school level are
curriculum development in population more or less the same, there are differences
62

67
State-of-the-art on curriculum development in Asia and the Pacific
in the immediate objectives, content areas, The Regional Training Workshop on
subjects of integration as well as modalities the Development of Instructional Materials
and approaches for curriculum develop- in Population Education was held to pro-
ment. For example, the curricula in vide opportunities to share country ex-
population education of Republic of Korea periences in the development of in-school
and the Philippines include content relating and out-of-school instructional materials
to sexuality and family planning, whereas in population education in the Pacific;
other countries have avoided including prepare guidelines for the development
them because of socio-cultural factors. To of in-school and out-of-school prototype
illustrate this comparison, the article pre- curricula and sample instructional materials
sents a table showing the major content and to develop the materials themselves.
areas each country uses to integrate popu- The first chapter was devoted to the
lation education concepts into. It also results of experiences of the countries in
appends a sample scope and sequence of the development of materials. Since some
population education concepts as in- of the countries had very little population
tegrated into various Korean subjects and education at the present mime, there was
grade levels. not much to describe in relation to devel-
Descriptors: Comparative Analysis.; School opment of instructional materials in pop-
Systems; Educational Objec- ulation education for these countries. The
tive; Course Contents, Scope major criterion the participants agreed on
for the development of instructional
and Sequence; Integration
materials was the usefulness for the Pacific
Approach; Evaluation; Asia;
Pacific Islands
region of any materials developed in the
workshop. With regard to this, the partic-
Source: Population Education Clearing ipants enumerated several practical guide-
House lines for developing instructional materials
Unesco Regional Office for in the Pacific. These were to; keep the
Education in Asia and the target audience in mind; use local teaching
Pacific resources and materials; suggest practical
P.O. Box 1425, General Post Pacific examples and suggest alternatives
Office for other Pacific countries; suggest
Bangkok 10500, Thailand interesting and relevant materials and
methods, especially to involve students;
and stress the limited resources and cul-
TRAINING POPULATION EDUCATION tures of Pacific people in relation to
WORKERS IN THE PACIFIC population issues.
After deciding on the guidelines the
43
paiticipants divided themselves into two
Unesco. Regional Office for Education in groups. The in-school group developed
Asia and the Pacific. Development of sample units rather than unconnected
instructional materials in population sample lessons which could be integrated
education in the Pacific. Report of a into existing subjects. This was prompted
Regional Training Workshop, Suva, by the potential immediate usefulness of
Fiji, 8-21 September 1983. Bangkok, units, which might be integrated into the
1984. 358 p. (Population Education existing subject areas more or less in toto.
Programme Service). The sample units included the following
63

63
Curriculum development in population education

topics: (a) Unit 1 Basic handbook on grammes: a synthesis. Bangkok, 1980.


demography; (b) Unit 2 Human growth 55 p. (Population Education Programme
and development; (c) Unit 3 Migration Service).
and urbanization; (d) Unit 4 Social and
cultural values/land tenure; (e) Unit 5 This document is a synthesis of the
experiences of eight countries in developing
Population and environment; (f). Unit 6
Population and national development; (g) and implementing their out-of-school popu-
lation education programmes. They are
Unit 7 Health and nutrition; (h) Unit
Quality of life. For the out-of-school Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan,
8
Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka
group, three sub-groups were further
formed, each developing materials for and Thailand. The synthesis focuses on a
the following themes; (a) population and rationale for out-of-school population
education programmes; the evolution of
resources and their impact on family wel-
fare; (b) populatior and employment/ out-of-school population education pro-
income and (c) population, health and grammes; curriculum and instructional
materials development; personnel training
family welfare. For theme 1, a leaflet was
developed. For theme 2, posters and for out-of-school population education
programmes; research and evaluation; and
leaflets were prepared and for theme 3,
a three-fold leaflet was developed and the the co-ordination of out-of-school popula-
out-of-school group prepared a question- tion education programmes.
naire to survey the community, conducted Curriculum development in the
the survey, analysed the results and drafted out-of-school population education is
and discussed the report. mainly characterized by the diversity of its
Descriptors: Comparative Analysis; Materi- target groups. Their ages, marital status,
als Preparation; Instructional education and socio-economic profiles vary
Materials; Non formal Educa- in wide degrees. The diversity is further
tion; School Systems; Course compounded as they may be a captive or
Content; Pacific Islands volunteer audience; and they may be
available for varying periods of time for
Source: Population Education Clearing
population education. Faced with this
House set of diversities, it is clear that no uniform
Unesco Regional Office for curriculum content can be planned to take
Education in Asia and the everything into account. There are a num-
Pacific
ber of procedures being followed in
P.O. Box 1425, General Post curriculum and instructional materials
Office development. These include a survey of
Bangkok 10500, Thailand the target group; identification of focal
points for the curriculum; selection of
content and learning experiences; and
EXPERIENCES OF EIGHT ASIAN preparation and pretesting of instructional
COUNTRIES IN POPULATION materials.
EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT
Some innovative projects included the
44 family life education and functional
Unesco. Regional Office for Education in literacy project of Thailand; a project
Asia and the Pacific. Development of being undertaken by Indonesia which
out-of-school population education pro- incorporates population education in the
64

69
State-of-the-art on curriculum development in Asia and the Pacific
learning packages for non-formi:I educa- so that the integration of population educa-
tion; and a project being undertaken by the tion into the educational content of other
Republic of Korea which uses diverse development programmes had the ad-
media to present the same population vantages of focusing attention on the
education con tent. relevance of the population factor in the
development process. Because of its
The various types of materials already controversiality, population education can-
produced and being produced for out- not be easily integrated in the content of
of-school population education pro- certain programmes. A possible solution
grammes can be divided into two broad would be to regard the integrated popula-
categories, namely: materials to promote tion education content as providing a
awareness; and instructional materials. The natural and relevant starting point to open
basic differences between the two kinds of up population issues, and then to use it as
materials lie in the objectives underlying a springboard for drawing attention to
their preparation, the nature of the content important facets of reproductive behaviour.
and the impact it has on those who are
exposed to them. The instructional Descriptors: Comparative Analysis; Pro-
methods used in the programmes generally gramme Descriptions; Educa-
emphasize the participation of target tional Innovations; Non-
audiences in the learning process by re- formal Education; Mcterials
quiring them to react to lecture presenta- Preparation; Asia
tions, to engage in large or small group
Source: Population Education Gearing
discussions and rep. t the substance of the
discussions, and to practice problem House
analysis and decision-making procedures. Unesco Regional Office for
The importance of examining traditional Education in Asia and the
values in a group setting with reference to Pacific
their relevance in the conditions of present P.O. Box 1425, General Post
day life is recognized. Office
Bangkok 10500, Thailand
Several countries have made attempts
to integrate population education content
into development programmes with varying TRENDS IN INTEGRATING
degrees of success. The case studies POPULATION EDUCATION INTO
showed that none of them is quite satisfied THE SCHOOL SYSTEM
with what has been achieved so far, and
that if population education programmes in 45
the out-of-school secturs are to be launched
Unesco. Regional Office for Education in
on an extensive scale, a priority area that
needs attention is the development of Asia and the Pacific. Future directions
of population education. Report of a
skills for preparing integrated curricula and
materials. Workshops for developing skills Regional Consultative Seminar, Manila,
in the development of curriculum and
14-21 August 1978. Bangkok, 1918.
1976 p. (Population Education Pro-
instructional materials have been under-
gramme Service).
taken by these countries. Generally, the
instructional materials were prepared pre- This seminar provided the opportu-
senting the content in an integrated manner nity for the participants to co-operatively
65

70
Curriculum development in population education

develop new directions for qualitative agreement as to the broader definition of


improvements of existing programmes of population education, there are differences
population education and to suggest new among the Member States as to the content
innovative programmes for national and of population educative at the school level.
regional programmes. Secondly, curriculum and materials
developed using conceptual and sequential
Among the areas of needs that approaches to curriculum development lose
emerged in the discussion were: (a) aware-
their identity and focus when integrated in
ness and orientation of personnel on the
the subject disciplines. Third, there is lack
existence of the population problem and of
of evaluation and research as to what con-
the potential of population education as a tent and methodology of teaching are most
means for coping with such problem; (b)
appropriate to change values and attitudes
curriculum and materials development;
of children. Fourth, there is still resistance
(c) training of personnel; (d) planning and
from some religious groups in some coun-
co-ordination coherence of in-school and
tries to the teaching of population educa-
out-of-school population education pro-
tion in schools; especially in the private
grammes; (e) research and evaluation; and
religious institutions. In the non-formal
(f)a population education information sector, the concepts of population educa-
network. This abstract focuses only on
tion, sex education and family planning
the area of curriculum and materials need to be clarified in order to develop
development.
understandable content and relevant
Member States with national popula- instructional materials. There was also
tion education programmes consider lack of knowledge and skills to develop and
population education as part and parcel of produce appropriate teaching materials to
the total curriculum reform movement meet the learning needs of a heterogeneous
rather than treating it as a separate and audience in the out-of-school sector.
isolated curriculum improvement activity.
To solve these problems, the partici-
In some countries like Malaysia, Sri Lanka
pants recommended the following: (a)
and the Philippines, population education
audio-visual materials should be developed
programmes have been established as part
along with a handbook for the develop-
of the Curriculum Development Centre.
went of audio-visual materials; (b) more
In case of Bangladesh, Indonesia,
the
Member States should develop their
Republic of Korea and the Philippines, national source books on population educa-
there is a separate unit for it, but they tion; (c) more prototype curricula should
work side by side with tne other curricu- be developed and integrated in different
lum groups nevertheles. Countries have programmes in the out-of-school sector; (d)
invariably used the integrated approach, training packages should be developed; and
although some have introduced population (e) a handbook on materials, methods and
education as a separate subject at the techniques of teaching population educa-
secondary .evel. There is also variation tion should be developed. In terms of who
among the countries as to the grade, should be responsible for implementing
content and subject disciplines for intro- these recommendations, it was recom-
ducing population education. mended that the Unesco Regional Office
The participants also discussed some should conduct seminars/workshops to de-
problematic issues with regard to the pro- velop prototype curricula for the out-
gramme. First, although there is common of-school sector, exemplar multi-media
66

71
State-of-the-art on curriculum development in Asia and the Pacific
packages on teaching/learning materials and The workshop discussed in depth,
exemplar resource materials such as hand- programme development and implementa-
books, training manuals, guides and modules. tion, including research and evaluation;
On the other hand, the Member States awareness and orientation of key persons
should be able to adapt these prototype and training of teachers and other person-
materials produced at the regional level; nel; curriculum and materials development
undertake periodic reviews of population and co-ordination with different agencies
education curriculum and materials for and administrative organizations. This
updating and improvement, develop popu- abstract focuses on curriculum and *mate-
lation education courses at the tertiary rials development.
level and national source books.
The curriculum and materials in
Descriptors: Comparative Analysis; School population education should be mainly
Systems; Non formal Educa- directed to value reorientation the
tion; Integrated Approach; modification of values that are obstacles to
Asia development efforts. Some countries have
established a curriculum section within a
Source: Population Education Clear- population education centre which is
ing House
managed by population experts, subject
Unesco Regional Office for specialists, curriculum planners and
Education in Asia and the administrators which enables them to
Pacific
follow all phases of curriculum develop-
P.O. Box 1425, General Post ment. A second approach convenes many
Office
staff members from different sectors in a
Bangkok 10500, Thailand
workshop to develop the curriculum mate-
rials on an ad-hoc basis. A third establishes
a central committee on a temporary basis
INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO constituted by the Ministry of Education
IMPROVE CURRICULUM composed of population education experts
DEVELOPMENT and teachers from inside and outside of the
Ministry. In some countries, a curriculum
46 board is organized consisting of subject
Unesco. Regional Office for Education specialists to work out the curriculum. The
in Asia and the Pacific. Population introduction of population education into
education: innovative structures and the school programme, b '-ally involves
approaches. Report of a Regional integrated and separate subjt approaches.
Workshop, New Delhi, 23-29 October The integrated approach takes the fol-
1979. Bangkok, Unesco, 1980. 111 p. lowing forms: (a) sub-unit; (b) infusion;
(Population Education Programme (c) permeation. The separate subject
Service). approach has the following forms: (a) elec-
tive subject; (b) mini-course and (c)
This Workshop enabled the coun- required subject.
tries with emerging population education
to formulate alternative and innovative In the out-of-school sector, cur-
structures and approaches for more effec- riculum and materials development is
tive implementation of various aspects of undertaken through: (a) the centralized
their programmes. curriculum unit in the Population Educa-
67

72
Curriculum development in population education

tion Programme Centres; (b) an office for MINIMUM LEARNING EXPERIENCES


non-formal education existing under the IN POPULATION EDUCATION
Ministry of Education; (c) separate
agencies; (d) workshops to prepare popula- 47
tion education curriculum for integration Unesco. Regional Office for Education in
in their programmes. Asia and the Pacific. Regional Work-
The workshop also concluded that shop for the Development of Pacatages
instructional materials should be con- of Adequate Learning Requirements in
Population Education, Chiangmai,
structed in line with the aims of existing
curricula and the objectives of the popula- Thailand, 17-30 July 1984; draft report.
Bangkok, 1984. 1 vol. (various pagings).
tion education curriculum; in cases where
population education concepts are inte- Population contents integrated in
grated into an existing subject, the design school subjects and non-formal education
and format should be consistent with that programmes have been inadequate in
of the mother subject; and she application bringing about the desired attitude changes
of the instructional technioues and the regarding population issues and problems.
essence of the instructional materials must Population concepts tend to be spread too
be well-linked. Some principles and thinly in too many school subjects in both
strategies that can be employed ;n the pro- the formal and non-formal sectors, so the
duction of instructional materials are (a) messzge is diluted and rendered less effec-
the content of population education should tive. This workshop undertook to develop
be information, conceptual, issue-oriented prototype packages of adequate le: ruing
and inquiry-based; and (b) in order to requirements for adoption or adaptation
obtain a wider spectrum of instructional in the Member States and to develop guide-
materials, production of materials should lines for determining adequate learning
be commission to experts. Writers or requirement in population education.
publishers should be invited to participate The following were identified as core
in the preparation of instructional mate- messages to be used as the content of
rials in an open competition and encourage packages of adequate learning require-
individual writers, publishers and materials ments: (a) family size and family welfare;
producers to submit their work which can (b) delayed marriage; (c) responsible
bz made available for sale in the market. parenthood; (d) population change and
Deivriptors: Educational Innovations; resource development; and (e) population-
Curriculum Planning; Com- related beliefs and values.
parative Analysis; School For both formal :ind non-formal
Systems; Non formal Educa- population education, the following com-
tion; Asia mon guidelines were developed: (a) A
Source: Population Education Clear- good package should help realize the coun-
ing House try's population policy and goals within the
Unesco Regional Office for broader framework of socio-economic
Education in Asia and the development; (b) It should be relevant to
Pacific the needs and aspirations of the specific
P.O. Box 1425, General Post target audience as these relate to popula-
Office tion issues and the improvement of the
Bangkok 10500, Thailand living standards of the people; (c) The
68

'73
State-of-the-art on curriculum development in Asia and the Pacific

package should equip individuals to help tion Programme Unit of each country
make rational decisions to cope with should take appropriate action to get the
population-related issues and problems; core messages and materials integrated into
(d) The content of the package should the curriculum and textbooks.
comprehensively cover the core messages
of the country's population information, For the non-formal sector it was
education and communication programme; recommended that: (a) the packages of
(e) The population knowledge base of the learning materials developed in the Work-
package should be accurate, up-to-date and shop should be brought to the attention
convincingly presented so as to generate of the concerned population education
desirable attitudes and values regarding units in the respective countries for
problems and issues; (f) The package possible adaptation; (b) the office in-
should provide graphic and visual presenta- charge of non-formal population education
tion; and (g) It should provide for assess- in each Member State should take the
ment of effects on the target groups. initiative in developing adequate learning
requirements in population education in
After formulating the guidelines, tex- collaboration with other concerned and
tual materials were developed on the relevant agencies; (b) the use of learning
following population concepts for the materials from learning packages on
formal education sectors: (a) population population education for the non-formal
change, food and nutrition; (b) marriage; sector should be part of the national
(c) impact of population growth on information, education and communication
environmental pollution; (d) world popula- programme; (d) existing networks for
tion growth; (e) population change and distribution of population education mate-
socio-economic development; (f).demogra- rials should be strengthened to ensure that
phic and socio-economic indicators of such materials reach the ultimate target
development; and (g) socio-cultural values groups; (e) to simplify the teaching/
and family size. The non-formal group on learning process, priority should be given
the other hand developed samples of to the development of materials based on
learning materials in the forms of posters, self-learning techniques; (f) as the develop-
booklets, quizzes, charts, stories, flip books ment of adequate learning materials in
and booklets on the various aspects of the population education requires specialized
core messages. expertise, Unesco should provide con-
tinuous technical backstopping in this
It was recommended that in the regard.
formal sector: (a) participants to the
Workshop should make an official report Descriptors: School Systems; Non formal
to the Head of their own ministries/ Education; Materials Prepara-
agencies upon their return to their respec- tion; Asia
tive countries regarding the new ideas Source: Population Education Clear-
generated during the Workshop; (b) the ing House
Population Education Programme Unit of Unesco Regional Office for
each country should initiate an adaptation Education in Asia and the
and/or development of packages of Pacific
adequate learning requirements in popula- P.O. Box 1425, General Post
tion education based en local needs and Office
conditions; and (c) the Population Educa- Bangkok 10500, Thailand
69

'74
National experiences in curriculum development

Part Five: National Experiences on Curriculum Development in Population Educa-


tion: A Literature Review
This Part includes 11 selections documenting the individual experiences of
India, Nepal, Philippines, Bangladesh and the Republic of Korea in developing their
curriculum on population education. Most documents describe the sequential proce-
dures that the countries underwent to prepare their population education curricu-
lum materials and the efforts taken to integrate them into the educational system.
Developing the curriculum materials through a workshop has been the main moda-
lity used by almost all of the countries in the region. A few countries like the
Republic of Korea and in some instances, the Philippines, India and Pakistan, have
variously used the following approaches: experimental approach, committee
approach or a combination of these approaches.
In the workshop approach, participants from various agencies engaged in
population education activities are invited to first examine the existing textbooks
and syllabuses to determine population education content already existing in these
materials. This enables the participants to determine how much more is needed to
enrich these textbooks and identify entry points for integrating population educa-
tion concepts into appropriate subjects. Finally, while some countries stop at pre-
paring a scope and sequence for population education contents and a conceptual
framework and goals for the population education curriculum programme, other
workshops develop actual sample lessons or curriculum materials like guides and
manuals.
In the experimental approach, which is the main modality used by the
Republic of Korea, curriculum development is undertaken on a very scientific
basis. After a thorough study of the profile and needs of the target users and a
content analysis of existing textbooks and materials, curriculum materials in the
forms of lessons are prepared by an inter-disciplinary committee consisting of
subject specialist coming from various disciplines. These materials are written and
first validated by the subject specialists. Then they undergo pre-testing after which
they are trial tested in the classroom. They are again subjected to repeated evalua-
tion until they finally arrive in their final revised and acceptable form. The
Philippines and a State in India on the other hand mobilize the involvement of
experts and subject specialists by convening them into a committee to work on the
curriculum materials. While some of the curriculum development activities under-
taken by this committee go further into pre-testing of the materials on actual users,
some recommend the materials for ready use in the classroom.
Because introducing population education into the educational system is a
radical undertaking, India chose some modalities that took into consideration the
fact that the secondary curriculum is already overcrowded and therefore this new
curriculum area should take the minimum amount of classroom instruction time.
In one document, the following recommendations were given from a workshop held
in India for the personnel engaged in population education programmes: (a) formu-
73
Curriculum development in population education

late national minimum requirements in population education; (b) identify how best
population education can be integrated into the existing school curricula without
losing its identity; (c) incorporate only in a couple of subjects; (d) undertake a
thorough content analysis of textbooks and curricula to precisely determine appro-
priate entry points for population education concepts; and (e) curriculum develop-
ment should be undertaken in an inter-disciplinary manner calling for the
involvement of teachers and experts from a wide range of disciplines to ensure
proper blending of ideas into a meaningful whole.
The Philippine experience as documented in one selection provides a good
review of the strategies used in curriculum develolament showing the decision points
made by policy-makers in selecting from among a set of alternative strategies, why
such decisions were made, the results of these decisions, problems encountered and
what solutions were undertaken to solve these problems. The document has used a
case study approach thus presenting a wealth of lessons learned.
Documentation of experiences of curriculum development of the countries
included in this section usually highlight the following aspects: conceptual frame-
work and structure of population education, goals and objectives, population
education content used in enriching selected subjects in specific grade levels (which
comes in the form of a scope and sequence); types of curriculum materials
developed, teaching methodologies used; evaluation tools used for determining
effectiveness of the curriculum materials and teacher training. While some docu-
ments make a complete and comprehensive description of all these components of
curriculum development, a few focus only on some of these components.

74

76
National experiences in curriculum development

TASKS AND CHALLENGES IN inquiry should be whether the content in


CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT its present form is adequate and has a sharp
48 enough focus to convey the messages. It
should also be able to identify suitable
India. National Council of Educational topics in the syllabus that can accommo-
Research and Training. Population date, in a natural way, concepts of popula-
Education Unit. Population education tion education. The fact that population
tasks and challenges. Recommenda- education is an interdisciplinary subject
tions of the Twin National Workshops calls for two actions: (a) involvement of
cum Training Programmes held at teachers and experts from a wide range of
Srinagar and Pune, 7-14 July and 16-23 disciplines; and (b) ensuring proper
July 1980. New Delhi, 1980. 46 p., blending of ideas into a meaningful whole.
appendix.
The introduction of population educa-
Participants of the two workshops tion in the school curricula automatically
discussed: curriculum development; prepa- implies that population education should
ration of instructional materials; orienta- also find its place in the pre-service teacher
tion and in-service training; and evaluation training programmes of elementary and
and monitoring. This abstract deals only secondary teacher training institutes. In
with the theme on curriculum development. teacher education curriculum, the scope of
population education may be slightly
Indian states are at liberty to develop expanded to cover a bare minimum per-
their own curricula and instructional taining to sex education. At the elemen-
materials, keeping in mind their own tary teacher training level, emphasis should
needs and requirements. The participants be laid on creating awareness of the
strongly feel that every State should try population problem and its repercussions
to ensure that it adopts or adapts the on the everyday life of the individual,
"national minimum" and suitably incor- family and society. Similarly, efforts
porates the same in its existing school cur- should be made to develop needed skills in
ricula. The participants also looked into the student teacher to integrate population
how best population education can be education ideas in different school subjects
integrated into the existing school curri- and to be able to convey the population
cula without losing its identity or spreading education message to the students in a
it too thinly. They preferred to incor- language they can understand at a given
porate population education content and level. At the secondary level, population
concepts in only a couple or subjects in education can occur in current problems
each stage. However reinforcement of of education, in educational planning and
population education ideas through various administration, in school health and
subjects has also its merits. Subjects like administration or in methods of teaching
languages and mathematics can be utilized different subjects. Development of cur-
for this purpose. States should undertake riculuni, as a rule, is an on-going process. It
the content analysis of their existing school calls for a review and refinement in the
curricula as well as textbooks to find out light of evaluation and feedback. The
the actual quantum and quality of popula- States should always scrutinize the sound-
tion education content. The point of ness and effectiveness of procedures and
75

77
Curriculum development in population education

strategies adopted in curriculum develop- Training, Madras, believes that population


ment and its evaluation from time to time. education should become part and parcel
of the total curriculum movement rather
Descriptors: General Discussion; Integra- than treating it as a separate and isolated
tion Approach; Teacher important activity. For this purpose, the
Training; Content Analysis; Cell organized a workshop on curriculum
India development where participants scanned
the contents of the existing textbooks pub-
Source: Population Education Unit lished by the Tamilnadu Textbook Society
National Council of Educa- at all levels. They studied the various units
tional Research and of the syllabus on the various subjects and
Training identified the plug points for the selected
Sri Aurobindo Marg population education concepts at three
New Delhi 110016, India levels. They also evolved a format for the
easy comprehension of the curriculum,
stated the concept of population educa-
tion, specified the plug-point in the existing
INTEGRATED AND SEPARATE
subjects and the unit, and suggested guide-
SUBJECT APPROACHES FOR
lines for textbook writers in the form of
INTRODUCING POPULATION
"content". The curriculum on population
EDUCATION
education was prepared separately for
primary, middle and secondary level.
49
India. State Council of Educational Plug in points for population educa-
Research and Training. Population tion are identified for Tamil, science,
Education Cell. Population education mathematics and geography at the primary
curriculum for schools. [Madras, 1983. level; geography, chemistry, language and
39 p.] biology at the middle level; while at the
secondary level, a separate subject (popula-
Population education may be intro- tion dynamics) is offered.
duced into the school programme through
integrated or separate subject approaches.
In the first approach, population educa- Descriptors: Integration Approach; Pri-
tion is integrated in various subject areas mary School Curriculum;
such as history, geography, science, mathe- Secondary School Curricu-
matics and languages. The integration lum; India.
approach involves the preparation of
teaching units to be added to existing Source: Director
units in the course syllabus of the subject Population Education Cell
area; the enrichment and expansion of State Council of Educational
existing units in the syllabuses of the Research and Training
accommodating subject areas to include D.P.I. Compound
population-related ideas; or overhauls College Road, Nungambak-
selected subjects of the curriculum to allow kam
for the permeation of relevant ideas. The Madras 600 006, Tamil
Population Education Cell of the State Nadu
Council of Educational Research and India
76

7d
National experiences in curriculum development

GOALS OF POPULATION EDUCATION certain guiding principles, namely; (a) to


CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT select materials in consistent with social
IN BANGLADESH and religious values; (b) to integrate
50 materials with contents of existing subjects;
(c) to choose population issues and prob-
Kabir, Md. Shamsul. "Population educa- lems from real life situation; (d) to serve
tion curriculum", in: Bangladesh. the specific purpose of inspiring the learner
Ministry of Education. Population with inquisitiveness and provoke him with
Education Programme. The national new thoughts and considerations; and (e)
source book on population education. to enrich population education curriculum
Dhaka, 1983, p. 89-96. through research and investigation.
The main consideration behind the
In order to achieve the objectives, the
inclusion of population education in the
content areas should include: (a) historical
new curriculum in Bangladesh is that
facts about population, the manner of
increasing population is the most signifi-
population change and future trends of
cant of all the problems that plague the
population; (b) national and international
nation. It is, therefore, necessary that
population statistics and related facts,
today's learner is made aware of the social
such as population figures of developing
and economic consequences of population
and developed nations; (c) geometric
increase. Population education has many
facts including birth and death rates,
goals including: (a) awareness of the causes
migration and immigration, dependency
of population increase and its effects upon
ratio, and life expectancy; (d) socio-
the individual, the society and nation;
economic problems arising from popula-
(b) acquisition of competencies for scienti-
tion increase; (e) comparative statistics and
fic explanation and analysis of population
explanation and analysis of the population
problems; and (c) motivation f taking
situation in national and international
bold and rational decisions with regard to
perspectives; population education is offi-
population problems. The significance cially recommended for inclusion in
of the objectives and the scope for their
Bengali, mathematics, environment studies,
application should be borne in mind in
general science, social science, work-
preparing the curriculum and in adopting
oriented education, civics, economics,
methods for actual classroom teaching.
geography and home economics. Teachers
As a result of these goals, the outcomes of
are free to choose the teaching methods
change in behaviour that are expected to
most appropriate, using carefully selected
take place in the learner, must be specific.
teaching aids related with the objectives
The learner, for example, should be able
and materials of a given lesson. These
to form an idea about the past, present, should help to increase the learner's know-
and future trends of population situation;
describe the causes of population increase;
ledge and skills; be appropriate for the
learner's age and level of mental develop-
explain the adverse effects of population ment; be easily available and convenient;
increase upon the family, society and and be prepared by the teacher as well as
nation and collect and analyse compara- the pupils from inexpensive local materials.
tive population statistics of different coun- Finally, the chapter also briefly discusses
tries.
the importance of research and evaluation
Learning materials for population and teacher training for curriculum
education should be selected according to development.
77

79
Curriculum development in population education

Descriptors: General Discussion; Educa- The conceptual structure of population


tional Goals; Materials Prepa- education is a body of knowledge and
ration; Course Contents; concepts of population goals, composed of
Integration Approach; Teach- six content areas human reproduction
ing Methods; Bangladesh and family planning, family sizes and
standards of living, population and the
Source: Executive Director environment, population and the economy,
Population Education Pro- the effects of population phenomenon on
gramme
human life, and population policy and
Ministry of Education programme. These areas are represented by
House No. 62, Road No. 7/A 31 generalizations, each incorporating a
(New)
number of sub-contents. An extensive
Dhanmondi R.A. analysis of the existing curriculum was
Dhaka-9, Bangladesh
conducted to determine whether the
population content is comprehensively
DEVELOPING THE CONCEPTUAL covered and whether it is systematically
STRUCTURE OF POPULATION organized. The 31 generalizations in the
EDUCATION conceptual structure served as the criteria
for the analysis. To illustrate specifically,
51 the population elements comprising the
Korean Educational Development Institute. generalizations were identified in terms of
Approaches to curriculum organization their distribution and coverage scope in
for population education. Seoul, 1975. the existing subjects or topics.
73 p. (KEDI research report no. 19) All in all, the study found that the
This study is intended to identify the existing curricula leave ample room for the
specific methods of organizing the popula- reinforcement of population content, based
tion curriculum which would help the on the conceptual structure of population
schools primary, middle and high education. There are also possibilities
promote population education in a more of producing latent effects through using
effective way. The specific objectives population data or materials for teaching
are to: (a) develop the conceptual structure
those subjects or topics, which are not
of population education; (b) analyse the related to population. The document
presents a time-table which indicate time
population contents within the existing
allocation for the various subjects and
curricula in light of the conceptual struc-
ture and to identify the problems asso- grade level and presents a table showing
the type of course preferred for each sub-
ciated with the curriculum organization;
(c) present the criteria for organizing the ject and grade level. It is also suggested
that, besides textbooks, a variety of instruc-
population education; and (d) to present
the table of sequented contents for popula-
tional/learning materials be prepared and
tion education.
diffused to the teachers, which demands
that the training of teachers precede any
Within the context of these objectives, other tasks in the population education
this study was conducted largely through programmes. Curriculum organization
an extensive analysis of literature and a and material development must be under-
series of consultations with the specialists taken by the teachers who have already
representing a wide range of disciplines. been trained in population education.
78

8u)
National experiences in curricu!um development
The promotion of population educa- tion at school level in Nepal; a set of
tion within formal education systems population contents to be used in enriching
requires institutional arrangements and the curriculum at different school levels;
support which would advance a systematic and the scope and sequence on population
addition of new population elements to education and to analyse the contents
the existing curricula. Studies must be con- of relevant textbooks of different subjects
ducted to provide information and data at different grade levels.
useful in developing curriculum for the
collegiates and adults. A study must be The workshop participants reviewed
conducted on the organization of latent the scope and sequence in population
curriculum for population education and education for the primary level, lower
the results of the study validated through secondary level, and upper secondary level.
a series of field-trials. The identified primary level objectives
were to (a) provide knowledge of simple
demographic concepts; (b) help recognize
Descriptors: Curriculum Evaluation; Cur- the relationship between family and com-
riculum Planning; Primary munity sizes; (c) enable the child to under-
School Curriculum; Second- stand his environment in relation to his
ary School Curriculum; Con- basic needs such as food, health, clothing,
tent Analysis; Republic of housing and education; (d) develop an
Korea understanding of the evil effects of over
population on the environment (specially
Source: Population Education Project in the context of family and community);
Korean Educational Develop- (e) develop an understanding of rapid
ment Institute growth of population and its causes; the
20-1 Umyeon-Dong influence of population growth on the
Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135.00 various aspects of human life, and some
Republic of Korea demographic concepts like in-migration and
out-migration; (f) develop an attitude of
responsibility and co-operation in respect
GOALS AND CONTENT OF NEPAL'S to personal hygiene and family living; and
POPULATION EDUCATION (g) develop, an appreciation of the relation
CURRICULUM between population size and quality of
life.
52
At lower secondary level, the objec-
Nepal. Curriculum, Textbook and Super- tives were to: (a) acquire knowledge of
vision Development Centre. Popula- basic demographic concept and process;
tion Education Unit. Population (b) develop understanding of population
education curriculum: school level size and composition; (c) realize that
(scope and sequence). Report of the population size and rapid population
Workshop to Review Draft Curriculum growth affect food and nutrition, health,
on Population Education, 29 April 6 educational and employment facilities;
May 1984. Kathmandu, 1984. [22 p.] (d) develop understanding of how over-
population affects environmental sanita-
The workshop enabled participants to tion; (e) recognize the interrelationship of
review a et of goals for population educa- population change and economic and social
79

81
Curriculum development in population education

development; and (f) create awareness MULTI-DISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO


about the population situation in Nepal. POPULATION EDUCATION

The objectives formulated for the 53


secondary level were to: (a) develop an Pathfinder Fund. Curriculum in popula-
understanding of biological factors and the tion education for secondary school
phenomenon of human reproduction and stage. New Delhi, 1972. 32 p.
parental care which are responsible for
the continuation of the species; (b) be Population education is of recent
familiar with a basic demographic voca- origin. It has emerged as a new curriculum
bulary so as to be able to read and interpret area at the school stage as a result of
demographic material with some under- socio-economic needs. The curriculum
standing; (c) understand some demographic content of population education is to be
concepts: fertility, mortality, migration drawn from disciplines like economics,
and growth rate; (d) understand the deter- geography, biology and demography. The
minants of fertility and mortality in nature of population education is multi-
Nepal; (e) recognize that rapid population disciplinary and its curriculum can be inter-
growth affects aspects of quality of life woven into a variety of subjects. While
such as food and nutrition, housing and d.veloping the curriculum for population
other social services; (f) understand the education, two important factors arc to be
impact of increase in population on natural kept in view. This is a subject through
resources and the need for conservation; which not only knowledge, but also new
(g) develop favourable attitudes to popula- attitudes and values, are to be inculcated.
tion issues and problems in relation to The secondary curriculum is already over-
religious beliefs, practices and socio- crowded and therefore this new curriculum
cultural values; (h) develop an appreciation area should take minimum amount as
of the small family norms as proper and possible of classroom instruction time.
desirable and the relationship between
population size and quality of life; and The phenomenon of population ex-
(i) develop an awareness of population
plosion has a variety of implications
policies and programmes of the country regarding the quality of life in the family,
and other countries. in the nation and in the world. Measures
for controlling population are necessary for
Descriptors: Curriculum Outline; Second-
personal and community welfare. In order
ary School Curriculum; to achieve these personal and social goals,
Scope and Sequence; Educa- the overall curricular objective of school
tional Goals; Nepal education, especially that of secondary
education is to create an awareness of
Stnia.c: The Chief these problems among school children
Curriculum, Textbook and and develop in them appropriate attitudes
Supervision Development and values. The overall goals of population
Centre education are to: (a) develop under-
Ministry of Education and standing about the dynamic character of
Culture population; (b) acquire knowledge of
Harihar Bhawan, Pulchowk, essential terms and concepts related to
Lalitpur population study, such as birth rates, death
Kathmandu, Nepal rate, migration and growth rate; and (c)
80
National experiences in curriculum development

develop insight into the relationship CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT ON


between implications of population growth POPULATION EDUCATION
and the quality of life in the family and the CHARACTERIZED AS
nation. INTERACTIVE
The content outline for population 54
education includes: elements of demo-
graphy and population dynamics; popula- Philippines. Ministry of Education and
tion trends in the world; population Culture. Population Education Pro-
trends in India; implications of population gramme. Curricular materials in popula-
trends in India; and population equi- tion education developed in the
librium. the time required for teaching Philippines. Manila, 1982. 22 p.
these content or units may vary from Innovations in the school programme
class to class. The major content area such as the introduction of population
or units are further elaborated upon education create a corresponding need for
with sub-units. The total curriculum in new curriculum materials for both teachers
population education consists of classroom and pupils. In response to this need, the
instruction and co-curricular or additional curriculum and materials development at
activities. The classroom instruction the Population Education Program is an
initiates the study of population trends and interactive process among the multi-
their implications. However, the develop- disciplinary and multi-ethnic members of
ment of values and attitudes cannot be the curriculum, training and research com-
accomplished by a brief course inside the ponents. It is interactive in the sense that
classroom. Activities such as the following the curriculum staff prepares the materials;
should become an integral part of the total the training staff trains the teachers to
curriculum and carefully utilized: (a) utilize the materials; and the research staff
bulletin boards; (b) lectures, debates and takes care of the research studies to gather
essay competitions; (c) dramatics; (d) baseline data for the preparation stage and
exhibitions; (e) film shows; (f) library; the gathering of feedback for the improve-
(g) special projects; and (h) population ment of the curriculum materials. The
study clubs. Evaluation of pupil achieve- Population Education Program staff had
ment in the area of population education the novel task of arriving at a definition of
should also be treated as an integral part population education which served as the
of the curriculum. framework for identifying the main ideas
and the facts from the content of popula-
Descriptors: General Discussion; Second- tion education.
ary School Curriculum;
Social Values; Educational Five major areas of content for
Goals; Course Contents; Cur- population education were selected after
riculum Evaluation; India considering the nature of population
education, the needs of society and the
Source: The Pathfinder Fund sociocultural orientation of the target
C-24, Green Park Extension clientele. A scope and sequcnce organized
New Delhi 16, India around these major areas, i.... demography,

81

83
Curriculum development in population education

determinants of population growth, conse- prepared. Its preparation comprised:


quences of population growth, human (a) gathering baseline data through KAP
sexuality and reproduction and planning survey of third and fourth year college
for the future, was developed from which students in selected teacher training institu-
was drawn the specific contents that could tions; (b) development of content areas;
be integrated in social studies, health, (c) critique by instructors who attended
science, home economics and mathematics the training programme in population
at the elementary and secondary levels. education; (d) revision of content areas in
This scope and sequence served as the terms of emphasis as suggested by the
source of content for the development of instructors; (e) development of the three-
different curriculum materials in popula- unit course; and (f) development of the
tion education. Resource Book. Curriculum materials
development is always undertaken through
Teachers' guides, course syllabuses, a workshop at which teachers and curri-
student references and other materials for culum developers participate. Evaluation
general use have been developed as a result always forms part of the total process.
of this curriculum 0.,:velopment pro-
gramme. In the development of the Descriptors: General Discussion; Materials
teachers' guides, the following steps were Preparation; Scope and
followed: (a) in-depth training in popula- Sequ ence; Philippines
tion education of staff and curriculum
writers; (b) analysis and study of local and Source: Population Education Pro-
foreign materials on population education; gram
(c) formulating a definition of population Ministry of Education Cul-
education; (d) deciding methods of integra- ture and Sports
tion in the formal school curricula and Palacio del Governador on
levels of implementation; (e) setting up the Aduana St.
four main educational goals of the Popula- Intramuros, Manila
tion Education Program; (f) selection of Philippines
content in terms of the objectives of
population education and the needs of PROCESSES FOR CURRICULUM
Philippine society; (g) determination of DEVELOPMENT TRIAL
scope and sequence of population educa- TESTED
tion; (h) getting reactions from students
on tentative scope and sequence; (i) pre- 55
paration of the sub-units; (j) evaluation of Rao, K. Seshagiri. Development of curri-
sub-units by content specialists and ctr- culum on population education for
riculum experts; (k) getting community school children. New Delhi, The Path-
reactions on controversial topics of sub- finder Fund, 1969. 1 vol.
units; (1) refinement of the sub-units;
(m) field-testing of sub-units; and (n) In early 1968, the need for curriculum
continuous revision based on feedback development in population education was
from teachers. At the tertiary level, first felt by Dr. Etton Kessel of the Path-
materials are divided into those for teacher finder Fund. This need materialized in
training and those for arts and sciences. a project to develop curriculum and
A Population education course syllabus instructional materials on population; test
for a 3-unit course in teacher education was the curriculum in the school situation,
82

84
National experiences in curriculum development
and evaluate the curriculum in order to The collected material will be used for
determine its effects on the students, the purpose of providing the content of
teachers and parents. Curriculum devel- the envisaged six lessons in each 'area'
opment being a complex task and a and also for the following purposes: (a)
multi-dimensional process, the overall development of curriculum for students
development of the curriculum was at different class levels; (b) development
entrusted to one educationalist and a team of the source materials for teachers; (c)
of social scientists. To make curriculum development of learning aids for
more meaningful, an inter-disciplinary students; (d) bibliography on these areas;
approach was introduced. The process was and (e) teaching aids for non-student
conducted by first studying the literaturc youth. As it is intended to develop
on curriculum development. After gaining curriculum at various dos levels, there
some knowledge on curriculum prepara- were two altematives open, either to
tion, the processes involved were further start rk.,.n the nursery and develop the
discussed with the experts in the field of con*, .ts up to the higher secondary, or
curriculum as well as with some teacher to start from the higher secondary and
educators. Also, in order to have some dilute the information gradually through
idea of the magnitude of the information the nursery level. It was decided to start
needed by the students, discussions were the lesson plans at the higher secondary
held with the education officers, princi- level. It was not possible at the outset to
pals and teachers. Based on these, the determine the exact minimal information
general concepts, goals and sub-concepts to be given at the nursery level as it would
were revised. Considering the multi- be the starting point and would not help
faceted approach to population education to decide the magnitude of information to
and the complex human learning situations be collected ultimately. Students at, the
involved therein, an attempt was made higher secondary level will be leaving
to exploit fully the experiences of the school sooner and the delay in developing
social scientists. The draft outlines on a lesson plans to this group would not
particular area prepared by a social scientist reach students who would possibly soon be
was looked into by other social scientists, getting married.
individually and by the educational con-
sultant. Descriptors: General Discussion, Educa-
tional Levels; Course Con-
Each one of these 'areas' was provided tents; Educational Goals;
with a general concept followed by 'goals', India
which were further divided into specific
`concepts', on the basis of which 'units' Source: The Pathfinder Fund
were developed in order to prepare the C-24, Green Park Ex tension
lesson plans. It was decided to prepare 30 New Delhi 16, India
lessons, i.e. six lessons from each area.
These lessons were to be prepared by the CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
educationalist and one of the social
EFFORTS OF SIX INSTITUTIONS
scientists working exclusively on the 'area'.
ON POPULATION EDUCATION
The study of the existing syllabuses and
the theoretic'al developments in the field 56
of curriculum provided much needed Reyes, Felicitas A. The Philippine experi-
experience. ence in curriculum development fur
83

85
Curriculum development in population education

population education: the state of the and (d) self-learning activity packages.
art. Manila, Population Center Founda- The Population Education Programme
tion, 1976. 83 p. (Population Educa- (PEP) e.!cided to introduce the course at
tion Research Utilization monograph the elementary, secondary and normal
series 1; part 1). school levels in all public, private and
vocational schools, starting from grade I,
This monograph describes the curricu- because (a) there is a high dropout rate
lum development efforts of six institutions after grades V or VI; (b) the biggest enrol-
in the Philippines engaged in population ment is at this level; (c) children develop
education activities. The large part of the attitudes early and are already very inquisi-
paper, however, reviews the efforts of the tive and exposed to matters of sex at an
Population Education Programme of the early age; (d) pupils from low-income
Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports groups, where the tendency is towards big
which is in charge of the national popula- families, make up the bulk of the elemen-
tion education programme in the country. tary school pupils; (e) those eligible for
The monograph contributes to the cur- marriage are reached before they leave
riculum reform movement in population elementary schools; (f) there are more
education; the recording and analysis of the teachers in the elementary level who can
processes and problems ;evolved; the be tapped to teach population education.
alternative strategies considered; and the However, there were also those who
decision points arrived at by specific argued fcr introducing population educa-
agencies and sub-systems in the educational tion at the secondary level for the following
system. reasons: (a) the complex and controversial
character of materials for population
Population education is integrated as education and the level of maturity
sub-units into social studies, health, science required to understand them; (b) it is the
and home economics in the elementary and high school graduates who will dominate
secondary levels. Only in teacher training society's future leaders and the dropouts
colleges is it introduced as a single elective can be taken care of by out-of-school
course. For the elementary level, the youth educators; (c) students are closer to
Population Education Programme followed the age of marriage.
essentially the approach of infusion or
integration. The arguments for the integra- The philosopi adopted by PEP
tion or infusion approach were: (a) the revolves around the concept of quality of
already overcrowded curriculum made new, life. The goal is to make the young realize
discrete, self-contained single courses im- that socio-economic development balanced
practicable; (b) the feasibility of using by a moderate growth rate can facilitate
the same teachers instead of hiring addi- the development of a higher quality of life
tional ones; (c) content spread throughout for the nation and that a small family size
the entire period of schooling would create can contribute to the quality of living.
more impact than a single one-shot course. Towards this end, the PEP aims to affect
Although the infusion approach is the most knowledge, attitudes and skills regarding
accepted and pref.Irred by the majority of five major topics: demography, deter-
the teachers, other alternative approaches minants of population growth, conse-
were also recommended. These include: quences of population growth, human
(a) separate course; (b) unit study or mini- sexuality and reproduction and planning
course; (c) "teacher-dependent" course; for the future.
84

86
National experiences in curriculum development
Generally, the teachers are satisfied in teacher education; workshop report.
with the PEP curriculum guides, which [Bhaktapur (Nepal), 1981]. 22 p.
they say have a good mix of macro-level
(demography and population change) and This workshop was aimed at devel-
micro-level (personal aspects such as family oping a population education curriculum in
size). The topics most favoured among teacher education. Specifically, it also
teachers is human sexuality. The teachers enabled participants to develop overall
reported encountering difficulties in objectives of pot lation education in
integrating population education into the teacher education; prepare a set of popula-
subjects for the following reasons: (a) tion education content to be used in
teacher overload; (b) dearth of materials; enriching the social studies courses at
(c) lack of time within the existing curricu- certificate and diploma levels; and analyse
lum; (d) incompetence and negative atti- the existing courses of geography, econ-
tude; (e) lack of knowledge of strategies in omics, history, political science and social
teaching sub-units; (f) lack of administra- studies.
tive support; and (g) parents' conservation. The participants of this workshop
To solve these problems, the teachers discussed at length the proper approach to
recommended the following: (a) localize be adopted in the process of curriculum
the curriculum guides; (b) translate the development on population education for
guides into dialects; (c) train teachers more teacher education. The discussion cen-
on the discovery approach and values clari- tered around the question of whether
fication strategies; (d) conduct on-going separate courses on population education
evaluation; (e) train teachers. are to be developed or the fundamental
Descriptors: General Discussion; Primary concepts of population education inte-
School Curriculum; Second- grated into social studies and social science
ary School Curriculum, courses. The workshop participants
Integration Approach; Edu- reviewed all the available courses in social
cational Goals; Course Con- studies and social science courses to fmd
tents; Philippines out the plug-in points to integrate popula-
tion education concepts meaningfully. The
Source: Population Information Divi- appropriate learning units were identified.
sion The participants unanimously decided to
Population Center Founda- integrate the I. ,pulation education con-
tion cepts into social studies, history, geography
P.O. Box 2065 and economics.
Makati Commercial Center
Makati Rizal, Metro Manila The following recommendations were
Philippines formulated after the deliberations: (a)
there is a need for short term training for
the teachers in social studies and social
APPROACH TO CURRICULUM sciences who are teaching in different
DEVELOPMENT IN POPULATION campuses of the Institute of Education,
EDUCATION to enable them to teach integrated courses;
(b) there is a need for the development of
57
textual and audio-visual materials to enrich
Tribhuvan University. Institute of Educa- teaching in this new field; (c) higher level
tion. Population education curriculum training for the campus teacher should be
85

87
Curriculum development in population education

provided to facilitate rapid development of research results and their classroom and
the training programme at the campus level field experiences. Sex education is a highly
for quality teaching on population educa- controversial issue. As such, it is widely
tion; (d) empirical research studies should felt that integrating human sexuality into
be conducted so as tc., build up the founda- the population education curriculum will
tion of population education related to the only jeopardize the acceptance of the total
Nepalese context; (e) the workshop recom- population programme. But based on
mended getting the revised courses on research conducted in the Philippines and
social studies, history, geography and elsewhere among parents, teachers and
economics approved from the faculty students, there is an apparent need for sex
board for implementation; (f) population education in school and at home However,
education concepts should be integrated debate still rages on the wisdom of inte-
into social studies and social sciences such grating sex education in the population
as, history, geography and economics. education programme.
Other subject areas such as, mathematics, The first issue dealt with is when to
science, health, home - science should also introduce sex education. A content
be explored for integration with population analysis of existing curricula on human
education concepts in relevant unit. sexuality reveals that there is no agreement
Descriptors: General Discussion; Teacher as to when sex education should start.
Education; Educational Ob- Wesleyan College, for instance, starts off
jectives; Course Contents; its programme with grade IV students,
Integration Approach Nepal and the Philippine Women's University
and the Science Education Center in high
Source: Institute of Education school. However, the Department of
Tribhuvan University Education and Culture sees the need to
Sanothimi, Bhaktapur introduce sex education as early as grade I.
Nepal At Wesleya,-. College the topic of contra-
ceptive methods is considered appropriate
for elementary pupils; other schools prefer
WHY IT IS DIFFICULT TO
INTRODUCE SEX EDUCATION to defer it until high school. Local KAP
studies show that students, parents and
IN THE SCHOOLS
teachers seem to agree that the elementary
58 level is the most appropriate time to
initiate sex education. But there are
Villanueva, Carmelita L. Introducing
significant differences of opinion on
human sexuality into the population exactly when to do so in grade I or in
education curriculum. Manila, Popula-
68 p. the upper elementary level. Most of the
tion Center Foundation, 1976. opposition comes from parents who feel
(Population Education Research Utiliza-
their children "are still too young to see,
tion monograph seric 1, part 3). know and mention the sex organs and
This paper focuses attention some the reproductive process". Teachers and
problem areas that hamper the introduc- supervisors, 'However, agreed that the topic
tion and acceptance of sex education in of genitalia is appropriate for grade I and
schools. Hopefully, this would help that contraceptive methods should be
teachers, administrators and researchers taught to students in the upper elementary
explore and examine existirg models, levels. Policy planners and researchers felt

86
National experiences in curriculum development

the elementary years may not be the ideal Sex education authorities pinpoint
time to introduce detailed knowledge of several possible teaching approaches. First,
contraceptives, but since most school purely factual and scientific. Second,
children in the rural areas drop out before the strong moral approach. Third, teaching
finishing grade VI, there seems to be little all the facts and attitudes and leaving
choice other than to inteoduce the sub- conclusions to the student. Fourth, giving
ject, with appropriate trea :ment at each all the facts and attitudes but making a
grade level. They recommended that cur- stand and making recommendations. Some
riculum writers and teachers must ensure teachers and supervisors believed students
proper treatment of the topic and that a should be given all the facts about attitudes
detailed discussion of contraceptive on, and the moral implications of, human
methods at this stage is inappropriate as sexuality and to be told which to follow.
it is not immediately relevant and the On the other hand, a purely ethical
pupils may quickly forget it. approach would leave little of the decision-
making to the students. This will serve to
As in Western countries, where sex thwart the basic goal of population educa-
education starts in grade I, the PEP covers tion which is to inculcate in these students
the following topics in the primary grades: the ability to make responsible decisions.
family relationship differences between The supervisors said this approach would
boys and girls, and now babies are born. be appropriate because of the fast changing
At the upper elementary level or the inter- moral code of today's youth but that it
mediate grades, the following are developed would have difficulty reaching students
to help prepare students for adolescence: who are bolder and more _philosophical in
changes in boys and girls in puberty, their outlook. However, other teachers
human anatomy and reproduction. At the and supervisors proposed that topics
high school level, more emphasis is placed which lend themselves to factual treatment
on boy-girl relationships and healthy sexual should be treated on a strictly informa-
attitudes, pregnancy, contraception and tional level; those that require ethnical
responsible parenthood. Parents, teachers treatment should he taught on a moral
and students who were respondents in the level.
KAP studies on sex education also
generally concurred that the topics for the The other two issues deal with termi-
elementary level are suitable for their nology and teacher competence. The
children. They also looked favourably on dilemma that has long faced teachers and
the aspects of sex topics which are being family planning communicators is: should
t ght to high school students with the they use scientific terms at the risk of not
exception of teaching scientific terms for being understood, or should they use the
the genital organs to grade I pupils and of popular terms and be accused of vulgarity?
contraceptive methods in grade IV as Or should they resort to euphemism which
prescribed in the Wesleyan College popula- will likely result in the miseducation of the
tion education curriculum. The studies students? Perhaps the more crucial ques-
also revealed that such topics as menstrua- tions however are: should there be a
tion, human reproduction, contraception standard set of terms based on one of the
and masturbation are difficult either to three categories already mentioned? Which
teach or to understand. As a result, these set of terms would be most applicable,
topics are least-liked by the class or em- most widely understood, and most accep-
barrassing for the teacher to discuss. table in those parts of the country where it
87

89
Curriculum development in population education

will be introduced? With regard to teacher upright family life; respect and reverence
competence, a major problem both here for sex and institution of marriage; can
and abroad is the lack of confidence among communicate sincerely and honestly and
authorities, parents, students and the TriLa: have affection for children; (b) they
teachers themselves in the teacher's com- must be trained teachers; and (c) parents
petence and readiness to teach human must be involved.
sexuality. They are frankly apprehensive
about allowing the teacher to play a major Descriptors: Integration Approach; Sex
role in the sex education on the youth. Education; Course Contents;
The problem can be resolved through the Teaching Methods; Termi-
following recommendations: (a) teachers nology; Philippines
of human sexuality should have the
following qualifications: open-mindedness; Source: Population Information Divi-
emotional maturity; good moral character; s ion
knowledgeability in content and method- Population Center Founda-
ology; acceptance of the Population tion
Education Programme's objectives; inten- P.O. Box 2065
sive training in population education; be Makati Commercial Center
happily married. If single, he or she Makati Rizal, Metro Manila
must have had a pleasant and morally Philippines

88
iU
Evaluation and research in curriculum development

Part Six: Research and Evaluation in Curriculum Development in Population


Education: A Literature Review

nut of the 13 studies, eight deal with development of prototype teaching


units and their evaluation; three with content analysis of textbooks and curriculum
materials, one is a survey to examine how population education can be integrated
into home economics and one is a consultant's evaluation of population education
sub-units. These studies were undertaken by the Republic of Korea, Thailand,
Philippines and Malaysia.

Majority of the studies evaluate the effectiveness, acceptability and feasibili-


ty of the implementation of the curriculum or teaching units in subject areas where
population education has been integrated. To do this curriculum developers usually
convened a meeting to design and develop draft curriculum materials on population
education. These draft materials were pretested on a small sample of users. Once
they were revised, they were tried out in an actual classroom situation. The effec-
tiveness of the population education curriculum units was determined by measuring
changes in the knowledge and attitude of students. The effectiveness of the mater-
ials, especially factors contributing to th,. teachability, was also determined through
a survey of teachers' reactions and comments, using questionaires and interviews.
This section also includes t'.ree studies which analysed the content of text-
books in order to identify topics related to population matters which can be used as
plug-in points for population topics. The following questions are usually asked: to
what extent are population topics included in the current textbooks? To what
extent are the topics and sub-topics covered in each subject areas? How are the
population topics treated in each book systematic, semi-systematic, casual or
non-syntematic? How is the presentation of the population topics classified pro-
natal, anti-natal or neutral?
One study was undertaken by Unesco using nine countries from Asia as
respondents to determine the feasibility of integrating population, education con-
tents with a curriculum area, i.e., home economics. The study surveyed the possible
entry points in home economics Nith which population education contents can be
integrated.
This section deals with two types of samples the textbooks and teaching
units used for content analysis and the various personnel who were asked to react
and comment on the different curriculum materials. The majority of the content
analysis studies used most, if not all, of the textbooks used in both elementary and
secondary schools across all the subject areas. A few focused only on textbooks
used in certain grade levels. As for the sample respondents who reacted to the
effectiveness and acceptability of the curriculum materials and teaching packages,
certain sample groups were located in one specific school and classes where the
teaching packages were tried out while some were selected from several schools in
one province or one region. One was a nationwide sample of teachers selected
91

91
Curriculum development in population education

through simple random procedures while the international study selected various
types of personnel engaged in home economics from nine countries in Asia.

Based on an analysis of the studies, the following generalizations can be


made:
1. Topics concerning population issues occupied a relatively small portion of
the existing textbooks in the schools. However, it should be noted that this finding
is based on five surveys which were undertaken before or during the first stage of
population education programmes when countries were just starting to undertake
curriculum development programmes. The proportion of population education
topics ranged from 0.37 per cent to as much as one-third of the entire subjects
studied.
2. Most often, these topics were treated in a simple and casual manner,
meaning that there was no careful and well thought-out plan undertaken to systema-
tically interrelate population content with the subject area content.
3. Social studies was the most frequently mentioned subject area which
took up population content more extensively than the others.
4. The population topics which were most frequently taken up or treated
more comprehensively than the others include the following: (a) population growth
and natural resources; (b) demographic factors and data; (c) determinants of popula-
tion growth; (d) man and the environment; and (e) facts of population phenomenon.
On the other hand, the population topics which had been least dealt with consist of
the following: (a) fertility; (b) sexuality; (c) study and understanding of population
situations and problem and ways of solving these problems. However; an analysis
of the population content in each subject area in the Philippines showed that fertili-
ty was mentioned in all the five subject areas which integrated population education;
sexuality and reproduction were taken up in health and science; population concepts
and demography were taken up in the five subjects while migration was taken up
only in social studies.
5. While three studies showed that the population content was not appro-
priate to the objectives and the subject areas with which it was integrated, one study
revealed that the content was very appropriate to classroom teaching. Two studies
from the Philippines and Korea even identified topics which were not relevant or
which should be revised. However, there was a clear indication for a need to 1.pdate
data regularly and treat some topics more comprehensively.
6. There was a general consensus found in the studies that the time allotted
to the implementation of the curriculum unit was too short and needed to be
lengthened.
7. It was also found in almost all of the studies that the terminologies and
language used were difficult to understand. Simplification was suggested.
8. There was a consensus about the inadequacy of exercises and activities in
the classroom situation. Comments ranged from "there should be more detailed
92

92
Evaluation and research in curriculum development
explanation to the teachers on how to carry out some activities"; to if one activity
is too difficult to do, alternative activities should be given"
9. The inadequacy Gf reference and teaching materials for the use of the
pupils and the teachers was another common finding. If not all of the materials can
be given, it was suggested that a comprehensive list of materials and suppliers should
be given to the teachers.

10. Many curriculum materials lacked inquiry and discovery-oriented ap-


proaches. It was suggested that a summary of the various teaching methods should
be given including an explanation of how each works.
11. One regional survey was undertaken of India, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia,
the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand, to deter-
mine the feasibility of introducing population education into home economics. The
findings showed that: (a) home economics is rich with topics that can serve as entry
points for population education; (b) there were two models of home economics
one involved housework, cookery and needlework for girls, while the other, for boys
and girls, involved skills such as decision-making, problem-solving, managerial skills
and the sharing of responsibilities among the members of the family this latter
model can be used for integrating population education; (c) the following home
economics topics were found to be good entry points: food and nutrition, clothing,
home management, housing and family and child development; (d) the most fre-
quently used methods were lecture and individual project more problem-solving,
discovery-oriented methods should be used; (e) teaching materials in home econo-
mics were scarce more should be produced; and (f) more than half of the teachers
of home economics were insufficiently trained pre-service and in-service training
should place more emphasis on methodology.

93

93
Curriculum development in population education

ANALYSIS OF TEXTBOOKS FOR joint work of the research team and the
POPULATION RELATED textbook compilers and authors;
CONTENTS (b) The content of population
59 education. The content of population
Central Education Research Institute. Cur- education to be integrated in social studies
through grades I to III were classified into
riculum development for population
education in social studies through two parts: the directly related content for
grades 1.1!!. Seoul, 1972. 113 p. (CERI the trial textbooks and the indirectly
research edition no. 63) related content;
This study was conducted to analyse (c) The teachers' guide of popula-
trial textbooks and related textbook tion education. The teachers' guide for
materials in social studies through grades I grades I to III was developed with the co-
to III as a basis for the development of operation of the textbooks compilers and
textbooks and teachers' guides and to pre- authors. The material contained instruc-
the teachers' guide developed in a tional directions and effective teaching-
test
workshop. The materials studied were trial learning materials and strategies.
textbooks of social studies and related Descriptors: Textbook Analysis: Content
textbook materials for grade one to three Analysis: Social Studies;
in elementary school. The study also tried Primary Grades; Field Tests;
out the teachers' guides which had been Republic of Korea
developed in one of the designated Ex- Source: Population Education Project
perimental Schools on two grade III classes. Korean Educational Develop-
The textbooks on social studies were con- ment Institute
tent analysed to suggest suitable contents 20-1 Umyeon-Dong
for the revised textbooks and teachers' Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-00
guide for population education. Then a Republic of Korea
meeting was held with textbook compilers
and authors assigned to revise the text-
books and to provide them with guidelines PILOT TESTING OF POPULATION
for revision. Then, in order to examine EDUCATION IN THE ELEMENTARY
whether the teachers' guide developed was AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS
adoptable in schools, a field test was con-
ducted in two grade III classes. The whole 60
study included an analysis of the textbooks Central Education Research Institute. Cur-
and revised curriculum, a workshop to riculum improvements for population
develop the revised materials and trial of education in the elementary and second-
these developed materials. The findings ary schools of the Republic of Korea
show the following: the second stage final report. Seoul,
1972. 238 p.
(a) Objective of population educa-
tion. As a result of the study, a set of This is the second stage of a series of
instructional population education objec- projects being undertaken to introduce
tives for elementary schools in general and population problems into school education.
for grades I to III were set up through the The objectives were to: a) establish a firm
94
94
Evaluation and research in curriculum development
foundation of population education with by emphasizing the fact that the expansion
a relative rationale; b) establish educational of population as compared with the land
objectives of population education for one and its natural resources is a very great
subject area of one grade at each school factor impeding national economic devel-
level; c) establish content outline according opment. On the other hand, it should be
to the specified educational objectives; d) noted that the objectives of each unit are
develop prototype units based on the to stimulate a rational way of thinking
established content outline; and e) provide about family size and further to change
detailed instructional materials on popula- values away from conventional individual
tion education to curriculum and textbook views of children, rather than to advocate
coordinators and textbook authors, and the practice of family planning.
further to chow a direction for population
2. The contents of each unit should
education to those who will be practically
be taught in relation to those of current
engaged in this critical education in the
social studies textbooks and curriculum
formal school system.
by grade and school level and also on the
The study was carried out in five basis of the Rationale for Population
stages. The first stage entail,' the prepara- Education. Because the rationale shows
tion of the rationale for and prototype the direction and scope of overall popula-
units of population education to be in- tion education in the Republic of Korea,
cluded in the social studies textbooks for the instructional contents of each unit were
grade V, grade IX civics and general social based on it and organized in relation to the
studies for grade X. The second stage draft of the new revised curriculum in case
implemented a three month field test of of primary school and to current middle
these prototype units in selected schools and high school curricula in case of second-
and gathered feedback, Then there was a ary schools.
second field test of the revised prototype 3. From the viewpoint of the import-
units. The fourth stage covered the pre-
ance of population education, the class
paration of the final drafts of the rationale hours allotted to each unit are appropriate.
and prototype units and the last stage was Each unit is assigned a larger block of time
the report-preparation. A Rationale for than any other field included in social
Population Education and three prototype studies and is regarded as a model of the
units based on the rationale for one subject important instructional contents to be
matter of one grade in the elementary, drlt with.
middle and high schools were prepared.
4. As population education is still in
Based on the findings, the following the trial stage, with no generalization of the
recommendations were proposed: concept of the terms in use, especially of
1. their subconcepts, there should be a serious
Emphasis should be placed on the
importance of the problems caused by over discussion about key vocabulary terms in
order to help the formation of the concepts
population. Today these problems not
only lie to considerable degree at the and understandings amongst teacher.
bottom of social problems in the Republic Descriptors: Instructional Materials Eva-
of Korea, but also constitute a factor creat- luation; Field Tests; Social
ing continued rapid population growth. Science Educatian;Secondary
The essential point should be to diffuse School Curriculum; Republic
population awareness among the students of Korea
95
Curriculum development in population education

Source: Population Education Project programmes as "the most reasonable


Korean Educational Develop- method of population control" and popula-
ment Institute tion education as the next most reasonable
20-1 Umyeon-Dong method of population control; (b) believed
Gangnam-Cu, Seoul 135-00 that the family planning should be treated
Republic of Korea primarily in middle and high schools; (c)
believed that the facts of population
phenomena should be treated extensively
STUDY TO SELECT AND ORGANIZE in primary and middle schools; and (d)
EDUCATIONAL TOPICS ON expressed the opinion that family planning
POPULATION EDUCATION methods should be treated in high and
middle schools, and higher educational
61 level. The majority of the teachers also
believed that students are not as familiar
Central Education Research Institute. Pro- with population problems as they should
ject in curriculum improvements for Finally, they stated that the most
be.
population education in the elementary serious problem confronting them in teach-
and secondary schools of the Republic
ing population problems is the lack of
of Korea the first stage final report. instrw-tional materials.
Seoul, 1971. 119 p.
The research has been aimed at select- 2. The students, on the average, like
ing and organizing educational topics con- having three to four brothers and sisters,
cerning population problems that could be and want to have about three children in
included in school education. In order to the future. Like the teachers, the students
obtain the necessary basic data, a survey want to have a nuclear family consisting of
has been conducted among teachers and three children born at three-year intervals.
students on the extent of their knowledge The extent of knowledge about population
and their attitudes toward population problems on the part of both teachers and
problems. Topics related to population students was not as satisfactory as ex-
problems contained in the existing school pected. It seems that their understanding
textbooks were also analysed. Some of the of population problems is not based on
results of this survey and analysis follow: good factual knowledge o f population
problems. Students in upper grades gave
1. While most teachers and students more accurate replies to questions concern-
are aware of the seriousness of populatiun ing population problems than those in
problems, there are still a large number lower grades.
who do not consider population problems
as "serious" or else maintain an indifferent 3. An analysis of the existing text-
attitude toward population problems. books shows that topics concerning popula-
Teachers wishing to have more children tion problems occupy a relatively small
ha\ e a small number of children or none at portion (0.35 per cent) of all subject mat-
all at present and they point out that there ter in school textbooks. More topics con-
is no guarantee that thcir present children cerning population problems are included
will survive. They seem to hold the tradi- in textbooks for higher grades, and social
tional ways of thinking as revealed by their studies textbooks contain the largest
preference for sons. The teacher respon- percentage of topics concerning population
dents also: (a) considered family planning problems. The most popular topics are in
96

J6
1

Evaluation and research in curriculum development


the category of "the facts of population education: social studies in elementary
phenomena." Concern for the quality of and middle schools. Seoul, 1974. 139p.
treatment of many population problems in (KEDI research report no. 10)
textbooks is rather casual. Such casualness
is greater in textbooks for lower grades, This study was undertaken to inte-
while topics on population problems are grate population education concepts into
treated more systematically in textbooks the social studies curriculum of elementary
for higher grades. and middle schools. To undertake this,
KEDI first formulated the objectives for
Based on these findings, the following population education in elementary aid
four recommendations have been put for- middle school social studies i-nd deter-
ward (a) In order to allow for systematic mined the scope and sequence. Based on
treatment of population matters in school this, materials were developed for grades
education, effective measures should be IV to VI social studies in elementary school
sought to include topics given in this report and grade V, III social studies in the middle
in school curricula and textbooks; (b) school. The materials were trial tested in
Attention to population problems should selected schools and evaluated for their
be expanded and strengthened in the effectiveness. The following recommenda-
course of pre-and in-service teacher train- tions were generated from the study:
ing; (c) In order to ensure the effective
implementation of education about popula- Population education content must be
tion, supplementary instructional materials systematically introduced into the social
should be developed and supplied to studies curriculum in the elementary and
teachers and students; and (d) Research middle schools. Population is seen on
should continue to be conducted in order movable axes perpendicular to each other.
that educational activities on population On the vertical axis, there is a time con-
problems may be effectively carried out in tinuum of population facts from the past
the schools. to the present and expectations for the
future. Horizontally, population's relation-
Descriptors: Primary School Curriculum;
ship to economics, society, health, envi-
Secondary School Cu rri-
ronment and education are represented at
culu m; Content Analysis;
different points along the axis. Hence, the
Republic of Korea
point where the axes cross would indicate
Source: Population Education Project the core population education content to
Korean-Educational Develop- be included in the social studies curri-
ment Institute culum.
20-1 Umyeon-Dong
Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-00 Teacher-training is urgently needed
Republic of Korea for the successful teaching-leaming of
Population Education in the school situa-
tion. To reach the ultimate goals of popu-
EXPERIMENT TO INTEGRATE lation education, school teachers, as
POPULATION EDUCATION pioneers in the local communities, have the
INTO SOCIAL STUDIES responsibility of building a bridge between
parents and students. To be taught in
62
Population Education are population facts
Korean Educational Development Institute. and problems created outside the students'
Curriculum development for population homes. Also, ways for the students to
97

97
Curriculum development in population education

solve problems themselves at home must be elementary and middle schools are necessa-
taught. Therefore, only through effectively ry. Population education content needs to
run teacher-training programmes can be integrated, particularly at the same
teachers come to grasp population know- grade level as in social studies the content is
ledge wholly and feel confident in passing related to other subjects. For example,
this on to their students. population migration treated in grade IV
finds the related subject of ecological push-
To develop an independent Popula-
tion Education course, there is an urgent pull factors taught in science, and the
formulas for determining such rates such as
need for pre-service teacher training. It is
the population increase rate could be
recommended that the students in the
handled in arithmetic.
colleges of education and the liberal arts
departments in universities shouli be able Descriptors: Social Science Education;
to take an independent course on popula- Primary School Curriculum;
tion education. Junior and senior students Secondary School Cur-
in teacher's colleges and general college riculum; Republic of Korea
students who intend to go into the teaching
profession at some time should be able to Source: Population Education Project
study systematically related contents of Korean Educational Develop-
population since they will need to grasp ment Institute
these contents at each level of school, and 20-1 Umyeon-Dong
in each grade and subject. Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-00
Republic of Korea
The methods and contents to be
developed should be clear in the develop-
ment of materials by grade. According to
textbook a nalysis, population education VALIDATING THE EFFECTIVENESS
content is included in the present text- AND RELEVANCY OF POPULATION
books, but require systematic arrangement EDUCATION CURRICULUM
and requires sequencing of the content by MATERIALS
grades. The content of population educa-
tion takes shape in grades I to IV elementa- 63
ry school social studies, but in grade V, Korean Educational Development Institute.
only the problems of population drift and A study on the curriculum and instruc-
overpopulation are presented. In grade VI, tional materials for population education
only emigration abroad is treated. in elementary and middle schools: sum-
In the middle schools, the number, mary report of the small-scale tryout.
distribution, density and composition of Seoul, 1975. 54p. (KEDI research
population is included in grade I; popula- report no. 22).
tion migration in grade II; and most popu- This study was aimed at validating the
lation education content equally in grade relevancy and effects of a draft population
III. Therefore, it is difficult to expect education curriculum and materials in
effective results from population education actual classroom instruction. It identified
without the support of other subjects, problems in applying the curriculum to
except for social studies. classroom instruction, with special empha-
Approaches to include population sis on content, time allotment, selection of
education in many other subjects in related subject areas and instructional
98

Js
Evaluation and research in curriculum development

process and obtained data which may be approach. Based on these finding it was
useful for improving the materials. The recommended that the number of subject
teaching/learning materials used in the trial areas into which population contents arc
instruction were both for teachers and infused be reduced and there be a more
pupils. The subjects involved in the tryout intensive coverage of the contents by a
were social studies, Korean history, mathe- smaller number of areas; training seems to
matics, physical education, and practical be one of the best ways to change aware-
arts for grades IV, V and VI in the primary ness, knowledge and attitudes of teachers
schools; and social studies, Korean history, about population education, efforts should
mathematics, science, physical education be made to avoid the permeation approach
and home economics for grade I, II and III as much as possible as the unit approach
in the middle schools. Pre-and post-tests appears to yield better effect into the
were conducted to measure the extent to middle and high schools than primary
which the instructional objectives were schools and in social studies, physical
attained. education, natural science and home econo-
mics; audio-visual materials bearing upon
The following are the findings of the population .education should be developed
study: (a) both teachers and students were to improve the learning outcomes of
relatively favourable and receptive to popu- population education; and efforts should
lation education irrespective of school level be made to fully reflect regional disparities
but the trial instructions in population in the process of developing population
education failed to yield a satisfactory level education curriculum.
in student achievement; (b) classroom
observation revealed that while teachers Descriptors: Curriculum Evaluation; Con-
were not making full use of the teachers' tent Analysis; Primary
guide, there was no serious difficulty in School Curriculum; Second-
learning the population content; (c) the ary School Curriculum;
following topics should be added: popula- Instructional Materials Eval-
tion policies in social studies, man and uation; Republic of Korea
ecosystem in nature sex education in Source: Population Education Project
physical education and the parents views Korean Educational Develop-
of children in practical arts; (d) the follow- ment Institute
ing topics should be deleted: human digni- 20.1 Umyeon-Dcng
ty and population in grade VI social studies, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-00
family size and clothing and family size and Republic of Korea
mothers' workloads in grade V; practical
arts in primary school and food and nutri- SELECTING AND ORGANIZING
tion in the middle school; (e) generally, the CURRICULUM CONTENT FOR
teachers found no serious problem with the OUT-I )F-SCHOOL POPULATION
time allotment for teaching population EDUCATION
education; (f) none of the contents in-
cluded in related subject areas were found 64
to be unsuitable to the characteristics of Korean Institute for Research in the Beha-
their respective subject areas; (g) a sizeable vioural Sciences. Curriculum and
portion of the teachers favoured incorpor- material development for the adult
ating population education into the exist- education programme. Seoul, 1977.
ing curriculum, through the infusion 82 p.
99

99
Curriculum development in population education

This is a report of the results of a growth" was revealed in the enlisted men,
project undertaken to select and organize but not in the officer group; (i..) the en-
the curriculum content related to popula- listed men showed their behavioural inten-
tion problems and to develop the relevant tion about contraception acceptance, while
materials. Specifically, the project: (a) the officer group did not.
established the general goals and the speci-
fic objectives which should be terminally The final tryout was applied on un-
reflected in population education pro- married female workers employed in a
grammes; (b) selected the content relevant textile factory. The aims were to validate
to the population problems and organized the curriculum and materials developed
it into various types of educational pro- for population, to collect data for develop-
grammes; and lastly (c) conducted pilot ing guidelines for leader instruction and
studies to obtain the basic information personal self-learning and to determine the
necessary for further revision and modifica- effectiveness of each material in the pro-
tion of the programmes developed. Aftei gramme. The results of the study were:
the project had identified the general objec- first, the booklet programme was effective
tives and content areas of an adult popula- in changing population consciousness,
tion education programme, the following attitudes related to the population, and
printed materials were developed: booklets, value of children. Secondly, the groups
charts, cartoons, dialogues and brochure. which were treated with the slides and
These materials were trial tested three chart showed little change in population
times. The first tryout was administered consciousness, but made come changes in
on a group of mothers of the children value of children and in ideal number of
attending a middle school in Seoul. It was children. Thirdly, the groups with the
found that many recipients could not drama and cartoon showed some changes in
understand what the instructors taught by population consciousness, but almost no
means of the lecture method; lectures change in value of children related to the
accompanied by .dio-visual media were population problems. Fourth, every
boresome to some adults; learners were workers group showed no changes as far as
interested in the topics about child rearing contraception acceptance is concerned, but
and education, rather than population some changes occured in population con-
problems; they showed interest in the sciousness and in value of children. Al-
lecture at first but their interest gradually though, the adult population education
decreased. programme thus developed has its own
limitations in its effectiveness, it is the
la the second tryout, the subjects contention that the present project has
were sampled from military groups. The attested that such an approach is effective
results showed that: (a) the enlisted men in changing certain aspects of attitudes
has higher population consciousness than toward population and population-related
the officers; (b) change in attitude toward issues.
"daughter" occured among the officers,
but not among the enlisted men; (c) change Descriptors: Curriculum Outline: Mater-
in attitude toward "having fewer children" ials Preparation; Instructional
was revealed among the enlisted men group Materials Evaluation; Adult
but not among the officer group; (d) Education; Republic of
change in attitude toward "population Korea

100
1
Evaluation and research in curriculum development
Source: Korean Institute for Re- planning for the future; and (h) national
search in the Behavioural and international population policies and
Sciences (KIRBS) programmes. In the existing primary curri-
163 Ankook-Dong, Chongno- culum, population education concepts were
Ku incorporated into science, history, civics,
C.P.O. Box 3528 health science and geography from grades
Seoul, Republic of Korea IV to VI. At the secondary level, popula-
tion education concepts were incorporated
into home science, health education,
DETERMINING THE EXTENT OF mathematics, geography, civics, general
INCORPORATION OF POPULATION science, and biology. At the teacher train-
EDUCATION INTO THE SCHOOL ing level, population concepts were intro-
CURRICULA duced into health education and Lane
science.
65
Malaysia. Ministry of Education. Curri- To determine the extent of incorpora-
culum Development Centre. An analysis tion of population education into the
of the extent of infusion and integration school curricula and teacher training curri-
of population education into the school culum, a content analysis was undertaken
and teacher training curriculum; report. following three procedures: (a) identifying
Kuala Lumpur, 1983. 101 p. the materials where incorporation had
taken place; (b) identifying topics in the
The population education curriculum syllabus and other materials where popula-
in Malaysia provides for a study of popula- tion concepts had been incorporated; and
tion characteristics with emphasis on the (c) assessing the coverage with regard to
determinants and consequences of popula- topics/concepts of population in terms of
tion growth in the family, community, width and depth. The materials that were
nation and the world and which aims at looked into were syllabuses, textbooks and
developing in the students, rational and teachers' guides. These materials were
responsible attitudes and behaviour to- studied to identify the various areas in the
wards population situations. The three materials where the population topics and
major areas of concerns in the population concepts had been dealt with. The study
education curriculum are: (a) basic demo- presents the findings into three main cate-
graphic concepts; (b) population situations; gories. In the primary curriculum, the
and (c) population issues. These three population topics that have been ince:-
main concerns were organized into nine porated in the subjects are: (a) demo-
themes that recur at primary level, lower graphic concepts and processes; (b)
and upper secondary levels. These nine population characteristics in Malaysia; (c)
themes include (a) demographic concepts population change and consequent de-
and processes; (b) determinants of popula- mands for goods and services; (d) needs of
tion change; (c) population characteristics a changing society; (e) population resources
in Malaysia and other countries in tilt: and environment and; ( f) role of i: id iv idual
world; (d) population change and conse- in decision-making. Under the topic
quent demands for goods and services; (e) "demographic concepts and processes", the
needs of a changing society; (f) population, following concepts have been covered in
resources and environment; (g) role of the human and environment, geography,
individual and decision-making towards science and civics: population size and
101
Curriculum development in population education

composition and population change. While Source: Curriculum Development


the coverage on the topic "Population Centre
characteristics in Malaysia" is minimal, Ministry of Education
ample coverage has been made for the Pesiaran Duta
topic, "Population change and consequent Kuala Lumpur 11-04
demands for goods and services". The Malaysia
topic "Needs of a changing society" is least
covered. The Human and environment
subject provides a wide coverage of popula- IDENTIFYING THE ROLE OF HOME
tion-related topics. The treatment of the ECONOMICS FOR PROMOTING
topics is mainly towards bringing about POPULATION EDUCATION
awareness and understanding of the factors
or situation related to population. 66
In the secondary curriculum, out of Manee Kuanpor,npol. Home economics
the eight topics, seven have been identified education and population education; a
as existing in home science, civics, health survey study in selected Asian countries.
science, integrated science, mathematics at Bangkok, Unesco Regional Office for
the secondary level and home science, Education in Asia and the Pacific, 1976.
civics, mathematics, general science and 163 p.
biology at upper secondary level. The
topic that is not successfully incorporated The study was undertaken to identify
is "Needs of a changing society". At the the role of home economics in school curri-
teacher training level, five out of eight cula for the development of population
topics of population were included in education; examine the home economics
health education and home science. In the structure in Asia, particularly in relation to
health programme, population concepts the total curriculum; and determine the
appeared under two broad objectives: (a) composition of a strong home economics
understanding concepts, principles and programme in relation to the particular
factors of health; and (b) understanding of educational system and nation and the
the role of individual with regard to current quality of educational manpower. The
issues. In home science, population con- respondents of the study included person-
zepts were successfully incorporated into nel of home economics programmes of nine
four areas, namely; (a)-the nature of family countries India, Indonesia, Iran, Malay-
and family living; (b) management of sia,the Philippines, Republic of Korea,
family resources; (c) family health; and (d) Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Data
food and nutrition. The scope of content collection and analysis technique were
however, has been limited to those aspects undertaken through a survey of documents
relating to health. Within these aspects, the and materials available from the govern.
population-related message have been ments and international agencies including
adequately covered as well as given the classroom materials and teacher notebooks;
appropriate approach and emphasis. interviews with authorities in the countries;
observation of classes in action; and ob-
Descriptors: Primary School Curriculum; servation of homes in urban and rural areas
Secondary School Curri- and out-of-school activities and pro-
culum; Teacher Education grammes.
Curriculum; Curriculum Out-
line; Malaysia Several findings arose from the study:
102

1 112
Evaluation and research in curriculum. development
In most countries, policy-makers and Home economics is essentially a
administrators appear to agree that home family-centred, skill-oriented, and decision-
economics is a subject with which popula- making subject. The learning experiences
tion education can be fused rather natural- should be planned not only to foster know-
ly. However, it should be remembered that ledge, skills and attitudes, but also to focus
home economics is usually compulsory in on the family. When teaching-learning acti-
some countries for all girls, but not for vities arc focused on the family in a situa-
boys. In some countries where work ex- tion simulating reality, students can be
perience is a compulsory subject for all in guided to discover for themselves impor-
elementary and lower secondary schools, tant issues related to family size.
there is an excellent opportunity to have
home economics (work experience in the The most frequently used instruc-
home) required of all children of both tional methods in Asian countries are the
sexes. lecture and individual projects in needle-
work and handicrafts. Class discussion,
Home economics in Asian countries is group discussion, research and inquiry, and
demonstration have been employed in
generally based on two different models.
The earlier model relates home economics teaching home economics with varying
frequency. It is obvious that there is a
to the girl's and women's role in the home
and tends to concentrate on skills in house- need to improve the quality of teaching.
work, cookery and needlework; the subject Teacher training, both pre-service and in-
is meant only for girls. The newer model service, should emphasize methodology
particularly a family-centred, skill-oriented
sees home economics as the whole inte-
grated body of knowledge aiming at the and problem-solving approach an ap-
quality of life and the well-being of the proach which helps the learners to discover
family. This model includes other skills, problems rooted in reality, to think about
them, and try to solve them.
such as decision-making, pro'alem-solving,
managerial skills, and the sharing of res- Textbooks, references, and other in-
ponsibilities among members of the family. structional aids, even teaching guides in
It tends to involve everyone in the family -- home economics in national languages are
male and female, adults and children. scarce in many countries. An investment
in reading mat,-,-;i1s, textbooks, and other
Obviously, in the latter context home instructional materials is as essential to
economics is more closely related to popu- home economics as other subjects.
lation education. Based on this model, More than half of the teachers teach-
population education concepts can be inte- ing home economics in the lower levels,
grated very naturally in many topics from elementary and lower secondary schools,
each of the various areas of home econo- are insufficiently trained.
mics food and nutrition, clothing, hous-
ing, home management, and family and In some countries with advanced pro-
child development. gramme in home economics at the univer-
sity level, the teacher training component
Three countries under this study, the in home economics seems to be less attrac-
Republic of Korea, the Philippines and tive and produce very few teachers.
Thailand, have already integrated popula Descriptors: Curriculum Evaluation; Con-
tion education into various areas of home tent Analysis; Home Ec: no-
economics. India is preparing to do so. mics Education; Asia
103

l')3
Curriculum development in population education

Source: Population Education Clear- V for the intermediate level and First and
ing House Third years for the secondary level. To
Unesco Regional Office for collect data, every page of the current text-
Education in Asia and the book was read. All the subject matter
Pacific related to population education was iden-
P.O. Box 1425, General Post tified, analysed and tallied. For quantita-
Office tive analysis, the number of sentences
Bangkok 10500, Thailand devoted to population education were
counted and converted to pages on the
basis of the mean number of lines per page
DE MRMINING WHAT PROPORTION computed for every book. Qualitative
OF CURRENT TEXTBOOKS HAVE population discussion in a specific text was
BEEN DEVOTED TO POPULATION rated as either pre-natal, anti-natal or
EDUCATION neutral. The treatment of population
content in a specific text was rated as 'sys-
67 tematic', `semi-systematic', 'casual' or 'non-
systematic' according to a four-point scale.
Philippines. Ministry of Education, Culture The unit of analysis was the textbook or
and Sports. Population Education Pro- volume.
gramme. An analysis of the population
content of current textbooks in the Descriptors: Textbook Analysis; Content
Philippine public elementary and second- Analysis; Primary Grades;
ary schools. Manila, 1973. 22 p. Secondary Grades; Philip-
pines
This study was undertaken to deter-
mine what proportion of current textbooks Source: Population Education Pro-
have been devoted to population content gramme
and to determine the manner in which the Ministry of Education, Cul-
content has been treated; to provide in- ture and Sports
formation that would serve as baseline data Palacio del Governador on
for curriculum and textbook writers in Aduana St.
preparing the scope and sequence of the Intramuros
curriculum and textbook content on popu- Manila, Philippines
lation education by subject areas and
school levels. Specifically, it sought to find
out to what extent the topics in population DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS USED FOR
education are included in the current text- EVALUATING POPULATION
books and the topics and sub-topics are EDUCATION SUB -UNITS
covered in each subject area and school
68
level; if the population topics treated in
each book are systematic, semi-systematic, Philippines. Ministry of Education, Culture
casual or non-systematic; and if the presen- and Sports. Population Education Pro-
tation of the population topic is classified gramme. Consultant's evaluation of
as pro-natal, anti-natal or neutral. population education sub-units. Manila,
1973. 7 p.
The 74 volumes that were analysed
were drawn from the textbooks used in This study was conducted to evaluate
grades I and III for the primary level, grade the population education sub-units in
104

104
Evaluation and research in curriculum development

health, home economics, mathematics, c) the use of background in-


science and social studies in terms of the formation for teachers.
usefulness of the overview and objectives, 2. Illustrations should be taken from
contents and strategies, evaluation proce- the Medical Anatomy Book to make them
dures, materials for reference, time allot- accurate and simpler.
ment and style and format of the lessons.
The respondents for this study were 22 3. The sub-units should relate with
subject specialists and experts selected other sub-units in other subjects. Should it
from the Ministry of Education and univer- make use of information taken up in a pre-
sities and colleges to evaluate the materials. vious grade, then refer to it i11 the sub-unit,
Data were collected by distributing the sub- to assist teachers to tie up concepts.
units in different subjects to the selected
4. Include information for teachers
consultants for their evaluation on the
as appendices.
following aspects: usefulness of the over-
view and objectives, contents and strategies 5. In citing sources, make use of
used, evaluation procedures, materials for scientific journals or books where the
reference, time allotment and style and excerpts originated, to give it authority
format of the lessons. The sub-units were and credibility.
content analysed and evaluated using des-
criptive analysis. C. Health

Below are some o the selected find- 1. There is no formal evaluation as it


ings as a result of the study: is built into the activities.

A. Home Economics 2. Health is closely linked with home


economics and biology.
1. Time allotment is too short to
carry out the suggested activities. 3. Some of the teaching aids may not
be available in the field.
2. Overview and objectives as a
whole are useful, but the language should Suggestions offered:
be made simpler. Difficult or new terms a) Where references are not available,
should be explained. appendices and Le . ckground in-
3. Classify objectives according to formation intender for teachers
the three domains: cognitive, affective and should be more comprehensive.
psychomotor.
b) Include teacher observation of
4. Include general objectives. pupil activit;e3 and practices in
evaluation.
5. Present the content in more com-
prehensive, detailed outline form. 4. Revise illustration carried in one
sub-unit.
B. Science
1. Instructions should be detailed on: 5. Give alternative activities for areas
where suggested activity may not be fea-
a) the use of the audio-visual sible. The overview will be more useful for
materials, the teacher, if sub-headings are made for
b) the performance of experi- the purpose, content and methodology of
ments, the sub-unit. Give the teacher at one
105

1f15
Curriculum development in population education

glance, cues on what the section offers, ii) Most specific objectives for
which may encourage him to read it tho- each sub-unit are not subsumed
roughly. undcr general objectives.
6. Children find the lesson very iii) Most objectives are categorized.
interesting. Furnish teachers with visual
aids. iv) Objectives should be develop-
mental, culminating and valuing.
D. Mathematics v) Some objectives are too
ambitious.
1. Update the data.
2. Start with Philippine data in any
2. Whether the situations develop the
process skill emphasized for the
level, if available.
trade.
3. In making projections assume that
a) Lacks models of inquiry that may
events do not change.
help teachers structure the pro-
4. Use also negative population cessing of content.
growth.
b) Role-playing activity could better
5. Bring in population concepts in realize the objectives desired if
proper sequence. model for role-playing is appended
in the teacher's guide.
6. Write the topics instead of the
pages in the mathematics guide. c) Techniques of interviewing sug-
gested by sociologists may enable
7. Place captions fox figures. the students to be more 'scientific'
8. The definition of population in their approach.
growth should be distinct from the natural d) Simulation games may be more
increase.
made easier for the class to use if
a model is followed.
Social studies
e) A more systematic evaluation of
1. The usefulness of the overview and the student's acquisition of pro-
objectives. cess skills is needed, otherwise it is
difficult to have a basis for saying
a) Overview
that the process skills have been
i) Use of model may help the developed.
teacher see clearly a e intent of
f) There should be a summing up,
the sub-unit.
rounding up or generalization at
ii) Summary of teaching method the end of a lesson.
should be given.
3. Whether activities lead to the attain-
b) Objectives ment of objectives.
i) Action words used for stating a) The lesson activities and pro-
objectives behaviourally are not cedures do not seem to wind up
sufficiently varied. explicitly with the attainment of
106

106
Evaluation and research in curriculum development
the generalizations envisioned for a) Comparison of large and small
each sub-unit. families appear to be biased in
b) Only one sub-unit winds up with a favour of small families.
statement of commitments. b) Large families are pictured as
c) Many of the teaching units do not undesirable.
have a well-designed evaluation to 7. Others
check whether the objectives set
for the lesson have been attained. a) Lacks value judgements.

d) Some of the tests only check the b) Concentrates too much on the
attainment of knowledge. They number f children.
should also test understanding,
c) Time a;lotment is not realistic.
abilities, attitudes and values.
d) Content is relevant.
rs` Many of the activities tend to
indoctrinate concepts of 'family e) Content is too heavy.
control' and 'population control'.
f) Approach is simple and to the
f) Readings appear to be inadequate. point.
g) More explicit directions or ex- g) Approach is technical.
planations should be given in
carrying out some of the activities. h) Most situations and values are
middle -ck s.
h) Game in grade VI is too long and
complicated. Descriptors: Instructional Materials Evalua-
tion; Content Analysis;
4. Whether the facts are up-to-date and Philippines
accurate. Source: Population Education Pro-
a) Low level questions for evaluation. gram
Ministry of Education, Cul-
b) One sub-unit is not explicitly ture and Sports
designed to follow the conceptual Palacio del Governador on
approach. Aduana St.
Intramuros
c) Storytelling by the teacher is
Manila, Philippines
frowned upon by some in social
studies education.
5. Whether the ideas are clear. ASCERTAINING THE QUALITY OF
POPULATION EDUCATION
a) Statement of related ideas may be CONTENTS IN THE
improved. TEXTBOOK
b) Some sub - generalizations do not
69
seem to reflect the generalization.
Taninta Buacharoon. An analysis of text-
6. Whether parts of the sub-units are books concerning ideas towards popula-
controversial. tion. Bangkok, Population Education
107

1cJ7
I
Curriculum development in population education

Project, Mahidol University , 1975. 40 p. 3. Social studies contained most


(Research report paper No. 15) population content followed far behind
by natural sciences.
The study was undertaken to (a)
examine the quality of population educa- 4. Two-thirds of the content was
tion content by topic and sub-topic as simple and casual (that means that passage
integrated in various textbooks used in was concerned with only one or a few of
elementary and secondary schools; ascer- the components of a stud) of population).
tain the quality of the population content Virtually all of the remainder was 'simple'
by: (i) identifying the content as being and 'systematic'.
simple or complex; (ii) identifying the
treatment of the content as being sys- 5. From the entlre survey, only two
tematic, casual, wrong or outdated; and passages were judged to be exceptionally
(iii) determining wnether ideas on fertility good, comprising a systematic treatment of
and rural/urban migration are supporting, complex content. Although they were
opposing or neutral; (c) identify any
from two differe7t subjects, both covered
outstanding passages. The sample used
the same topics, the relationship between
population growth and natural resources.
were 389 selected commonly used text-
books in elementary and secondary schools. Descriptors: Textbook Analysis; Content
Data were collected through content Analysis; Primary Grades;
analysis. Specifically, population content Secondary Grades; Thailand
was: (i) counted for number of sentences;
(ii) identified as being a particular topic Source: The Mahidol University
and sub-topic of the population content; Population Education Pro-
(iii) identified as being systematic or casual gramme (MPEP)
or wrong; (iv) identified as being simple or Faculty of Social Sciences
complex; (v) (if fertility or migration) and Humanities
identified as being supporting or opposing Mahidol University, Salaya
or neutral. The tabulation sheets were Campus
then combined by subject and grade and 25/25 Moo 5 Puthamoltola 4
population sentences were then converted Tambon Salaya, Amphor
into population pages. Nakorn Chaisri
Nakorn Pathom 73170
The findings showed the following: Thailand
1. Out of 389 textbooks (60,361
pages) only 120 volumes (about one-third) DETERMINING THE APPROPRIATE-
include some population discussions. NESS OF POPULATION EDUCATION
2. Most population content was UNIT FOR CLASSROOM
found under the sub-topic 'demographic IMPLEMENTATION
factors and data' of the topic 'Population'
Study'. Ideas on 'fertility' and 'study and
70
understanding of population situations and Weerapol Sararattana. Expectations of
problems and ways of solving problems' educators in Ubonratchathani upon the
were rarely discussed. The presentation of implementation of population education
population content emphasizes facts rather unit of the B.E. 2521 primary school
than problems. curriculum. M. Ed. thesis, Mahidol
108
1 t:
Evaluation and research in curriculum development
University, 1 t...4. 143 p. Unpublished. b) Objectives should be more
In Thai with English abstract. precisely and clearly stated;
The study was conducted for the c) They should not only be
following reasons: (a) to
determine limited to memory or recall
whether the population education unit, ability but also include some
with regard to learning objective, concept other cognitive abilities;
or principle, and content in the B.E. 2521
primary school curriculum was appro- d) Criteria should also be added
priate for classroom implementation; (b) to in the objective section so that
compare the expectations of curriculum it will be readily used in
administrators. academic personnel or cur- evaluating teaching.
riculum supervisors, and teachers in the
primary education level, on the imple- 4. Concept or principle setting.
mentation of the population education a) Concepts or principles should
curriculum with respect to their immediate give more stress to causes and
role; (c) based on their recommendations, consequences of population
undertake an improvement of the popula- change in the community and
tion education unit. provincial levels;
The respondents of the study were
145 curriculum administrators, 65
b) The wording in this section
academic personnel or curriculum super- should be more clearly and
visors and 125 teachers in Ubon Rat- precisely defined for better
chathani. The results of the study showed understanding;
the following: c) Stated concepts or principles
1. A high percentage of educators in should follow the 'shared
the three groups agreed that the learning problem solving method';
objectives, concept of principles, and
d) Concepts or principles should
content of the population education unit
were be presented in short and pre-
highly appropriate for classroom
cise statements.
implementation.
2. When the research compared the 5. Content setting.
expectations among three groups of edu- a) Content should be limited to
cators, there were statistically significant the family community and pro-
differences in the learning objective section vincial rather than the national
but not in the concept or principle and level;
content sections.
b) More issues including details
3. Learning objective setting.
should be added;
a) Certain objectives should give
c) Population education training
more emphasis to the locality
on content and teaching
and provincial levels than the method should be given more
national level with regard to the
emphasis for the teacher;
numeration of population unit
and population change in the d) Content and issues should be
curriculum; frequently updated.
109

l'19
Curriculum development in population education

Descriptors: Curriculum Evaluation: Pri- and Humanities


mary School Curriculum; Mahidol University, Salaya
Thailand Campus
25/25 Moo 5 Puthamoltola 4
Source: The Mahidol University Tambov Salaya, Amphor
Population Education Pro- Nakorn Chaisri
gramme (MPEP) Nakorn Pathom 73170
Faculty of Social Sciences Thailand

110
Subject index

SUBJECT INDEX
Adult education 17, 64 Home economics education 29, 34, 38, 66
Agricultural education 25-27 Instructional materials development see
Biology 30 Materials preparation
Communication approach 26 Instructional materials evaluation 60, 63,
64, 68
Conceptual framework 17
Integrated areas (non-formal education)
Content analysis 12, 30-36, 48,51, 59, 61,
63, 66, 68 Adult education 17, 64
Content areas 08, 59,66, 69 Agricultural education 25-27
Cooperative education 26 Cooperative education 26
Course contents 04, 07, 11, 13, 24, 26, Family planning education 19, 23, 28
28-36,4243, 50, 53,55-58 Farm management courses 27
Curricular renovation 13 Integrated rural development 19-20,
Curriculum development strategies 22, 25
School systems 01-16 Integrated rural development 19-20, 22, 25
Non-formal education 17-23 Integrated subject (school systems)
Curriculum research/evaluation 51, 53, Biology 30
59-70 Economics 39
Curriculum outline 25, 27,52, 64, 65 Environmental education 31, 38
Curriculum planning 18, 41, 46,51 Geography 33, 39
Discovery learning 02 Health education 35, 38
Economics 39 History 39
Educational goals 05,50, 52, 53, 55, 56 Home economics education 29, 34,
Educational innovations 04, 13, 40, 44, 46 38, 66
Educational levels 01, 39, 55 Medical education 28
Educational objectives 05, 07.08, 10-11, Moral education 02
42, 57 Science education 03. 24, 30, 32, 35,
Environmental education 31, 38 38-39
Evaluation see Curriculum research/evaluation Sex education 58
Family planning education 19, 23, 28 Social science education 03, 33, 36,
Farm management courses 27 38, 59-60, 62
Teacher education 37, 48, 57, 65
Field tests 59.60
Integration approach 06.07, 10, 12, 14-15,
Geography 33, 39 19, 23.42, 48-50, 56-58
Health education 35, 38 Learning process 02
History 39 Literacy education 19, 22
111
Curriculum development in population education

Materials preparation 20-21, 43-44, 47, 50, Science education 03, 24, 30, 32, 35, 38
54, 64 Scope and sequence 13, 42, 52, 54
Medical education 28 Secondary school curriculum 24, 30.36,
Moral education 02 39, 49, 51-53, 56, 60, 52, 63, 65
National experiences in curriculum devel-
Sex education 58
opment 48-58
Non-formal education 17, 19, 22, 25-27, Social science education 03, 33, 36, 38.39,
41, 43-47, 67 59-60, 62
People-centred curriculum 19 Social values 18, 53
Primary school curriculum 24, 49, 51, 56, Teacher education curriculum 37, 57, 65
59, 61-63, 65, 70
Teach;ng methods 02, 04, 17-19, 27, 50,
Problem-centred curriculum 19 58
Problem-solving 02 Textbook analysis 59, 67, 69
Research see Curriculum research/
evaluation Values clarification 04

GEOGRAPHICAL INDEX

Asia 41-42, 44-47, 66 Pacific Islands 4243


Bangladesh 50 Pakistan 30-37
India 48, 49,53, 55 Philippines 40, 54, 56, 58, 67-68
Malaysia 65 Republic of Korea 40, 51, 59-64
Nepal 52-57 Thailand 69-70