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BRITISH STANDARD BS 5500 : 1994

Specification for

Unfired fusion welded


pressure vessels

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I

Récipients sous pression soudés par fusion, Unbeheizte, schmelzgeschweisste Druckkessel


non soumis à l'action des flammes

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BS 5500 : 1994

Committees responsible forthis O


British Standard

The preparation of this British Standard was entrusted by the Pressure Vessel
Standards Policy Committee (PVE/-)to Technical Committee PVE/1, upon
which the following bodies were represented:

Associated Offices Technical Committee


British Chemical Engineering C,ontractors' Association
British Compressed Air Society
British Compressed Gases Association
nritish Gas plc
British Refrigeration Association
Department o f Trade and Industry (Mechanical Engineering and Manufacturing
Technology Division (Mmt))
Elect,ricity Association
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Energy Industries Council


Engmeering Equipment and Materials Users' Association
Health and Safety Executive
Independent Engineering Insurers' Committee
Institution of Chemical Engineers
Institut,ion of Mechanical En&'
meers
LP Gas Association
Lloyd's Register of Shipping
Power Generation Contractors' Association (BEAMA Ltd.)
Process Plant Association
Refrigeration Industry Board
Society of British Gas Industries
The Welding Institute

The following bodies were also represented in the draftingof the standard,through
subcommittees and panels:

AEA Technology
Association of Consulting Engineers
Association of Manufacturers Allied to theElectrical and Electronic Industry (BEAMA Ltd.)
BEAMA Ltd.
British Cryogenics Council
British Steel Industry
GAMRICA (BEAMA Ltd.)
Institute of Quality Assurance
Institute of Refrigerat,ion
Institution of Gas Engineers
Institution o f Plant, Enginerrs
Ministry of Defence
Transmission and Distribution Association (REAMA 1,td.)
l'ubes Investments Limited
This British Standard, having University of Liverpool
been prepared under the Welding Manufacturers' Association (BEAMA Ltd.)
direct.ion of the Pressure Vessel
Standards Policy Committee,
was published under the
aut,hority of the Standards
Board and comes into effecton
1 .January 1994

8 BSI 1994 Amendments issued since publication

First published March 1976


Amd. No. I Date ~ Text affected

Second edition .January 1982


Third edition January 1986
Fourth edition .January 1988
Fifth edition January 1991
Sixth edition January 1994

The following BSI reference


relates to the work on this
standard:
Committee reference PVE!1

ISBN O 580 22555 O

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B S I B S X 5 5 0 0 94 L b 2 4 b b 7 0395005 T 7 T m
BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Contents
Page Page
Committees
responsible
Inside
front
page Cylindrical shells
3.6.2 3/37
Summary of pages viii 3.6.3
Conical shells 3/47
Foreword xi 3.6.4
Spherical shells 3/49
3.6.5
Hemispherical ends 3/52
Specification
3.6.6
Torispherical ends 3/52
Section one. General 3.6.7
Ellipsoidal ends 3152
1.1 Scope
'I1 3.6.8
Procedure by which the departure
1.2 Interpretation 1/I from the mean circle may be
1.3 Definitions 112 obtained 3152
1.4 Responsibilities 112 3.7 Supports, attachments and interna II
1.4.1 Responsibilitiesofthepurchaser structures 3155
112
1.4.2 Responsibilitiesofthemanufacturer 112 3.7.1 General 3155
1.4.3 ResponsibilitiesoftheInspecting 3.7.2 Supports 3/55
Bolted flanged connections 3/56
e Authority 1123.8
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1.4.4 CertificateofConlpliance 112 3.8.1 General 3/56


1.5 Informationandrequirementstobe 3.8.2 Notation 3161
agreed and to be documented 115 3.8.3 Narrow-faced gasketed flanges 3/62
1.5.1 Information to be supplied by the 3.8.4 Full-faced flanges with soft ring
purchaser 115 type gaskets 3/63
1.5.2 Information to be supplied by the 3.8.5 Ungasketed seal welded flanges 3/64
manufacturer 3.8.6 Reverse narrow-face flanges 3/64
Section two. Materials 3.8.7 Reverse full-face flanges 3/64
2.1 Selection of
materials 2131.9 Flat heat exchanger tubesheets 31107
2.2 Materialsforlowtemperature 3.9.1 Notation 3/1 07
applications 2113.9.2 Characteristics of perforated plates 31108
2.3 Carbon, carbon manganeseand 3.9.3 Tubesheets of exchangers with
alloy steels 212 floating heads or U-tubes 31108
3.9.4 Tubesheets of fixed tubesheet
Section three. Design exchangers 311 17
3.1 General 311
3.9.5 Allowable shell and tube
3.2 Application 311 longitudinal stresses 31121
a -
3.3 Corrosion, erosion and protection
3.3.1 General
312
312
3.9.6
3.10
Allowable tube joint end load
Design of welds
31121
31124
3.3.2 Additional thickness to allow for 3.10.1 General 31124
corrosion 3133.10.2 Weld joints for principalseams 311 24
3.3.3 Linings and coatings 3/3 3.10.3Welded joints for other than
3.3.4 Wear plates 313 principal seams 311 24
3.4 Construction categories and design 3.10.4Welded joints in time dependent
stresses 313 applications 31124
3.4.1 Construction categories 313 3.1 1 Jacket construction 311 26
3.4.2 Design stresses 313 3.11.1 General 311 26
3.5 Vessels under internal pressure 314 3.1 1.2 Jacketed cylindrical shells 311 26
3.5.1 Cylindrical and spherical shells 314 3.1 1.3Welded jacket connections 311 26
3.5.2 Domed ends 315 3.1 1.4 Compensation 311 26
3.5.3 Conical ends and truncated cones 319 3.12 Manholes and inspection openings 311 28
3.5.4 Openings and branch connections 3/153.13 Protective devices for excessive
3.5.5 Flat ends and flat plates 3/30 pressure or vacuum 311 28

e 3.5.6 Spherically domed and bolted ends

3.6
of the form shown in figure 3.5.6
Vessels under external pressure
3/35 4.1
3136
Section four. Manufacture and workmanship
General aspects of
construction 411
3.6.1 General 4.1.1 General 4/1
3/36
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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, J a n u a r y 1994

4.1.2 Material identification


Page
411 5.7.1 General
Page
516
m
4.1.3 Order of completion of weld seams 411 5.7.2 Assessment of defects 516
4.1.4 Junction of more than two weld 5.7.3 Repair of welds 518
seams 4/1 5.8 Pressure tests 5115
4.2 Cutting, forming and tolerances 4/1 5.8.1 General 5115
4.2.1 Cutting of material 4/1 5.8.2 Basic requirements 5115
4.2.2 Forming of shell sections and plates 4/1 5.8.3 Hydraulic testing 5115
4.2.3 Assembly tolerances 4/2 5.8.4 Pneumatic tests 5116
4.2.4 Tolerances for vessels subject t o 5.8.5 'Standard' test pressure 5116
internal pressure Proof hydraulic test 5117
4/3 5.8.6
4.2.5 Tolerances for vessels subject t o Combined hydrauliclpneumatic tests 5118
5.8.7
external pressure 414
5.8.8 Leak testing 5118
4.3 Welded joints
5.8.9 Vessel nameplate 5118
4.3.1 General 414
5.8.1 O Final inspection 5118
4.3.2 Welding consumables 414
4.3.3 Preparation of plate edges and Appendices
openings 414 A Recommendations for design where
4.3.4 Assembly for welding 414 loadings and componentsare not
4.3.5 Attachments and the removal of covered by section three A/ 1
temporary attachments Recommendations for cylindrical,
4.3.6 Butt joints spherical and conical shells under
4.3.7 Welding: general requirements combined loadings, including wind
and earthquakes B/ 1
4.4 Heat treatment
Recommendations for theassessment
4.4.1 Preheat requirements of vessels subject to fatigue
4.4.2 Normalizing: ferritic steels Requirements for ferriticsteels in
4.4.3 Post-weld heat treatment bands MO to M4 inclusive forvessels
4.4.4 Methods of heat treatment required to operate belowO "C D/ 1
4.4.5 Post-weld heat treatment procedure Recommendations for welded
Surface finish connections of pressurevessels
4.5
Recommendations for an alternative
Section five. Inspection and testing design method for compensation using
5.1 General area replacement F11
Recommendations for methods of
5.2 Approval testing of fusion welding
procedures
calculation of stresses from local loads,
thermal gradients, etc. O
5.3 Welder and operator approval
Recommendations for post-weld
5.4 Production control test plates heat treatment of dissimilar ferritic
5.4.1 Vessels in materials other than steel joints h11
9 % Ni steel Recommendations for pressure relief
5.4.2 9 % Ni steel vessels protective devices j11
5.5 Destructive testing Requirements for the derivation of
5.6 Non-destructive testing material nominal design strengths for
construction category 1 and 2 vessels W1
5.6.1 General
Guidance on the basis of the design
5.6.2 Parent materials charts for openings and branches L/ 1
5.6.3 Components prepared for welding Guidance on safe external working
5.6.4 Non-destructive testing of welded pressure for cylindrical sections outside
joints the circularity limits specified in3.6
5.6.5 Choice of non-destructive test Not allocated
methods for welds
Recommendations for stainlesssteel
5.6.6 Non-destructive testing techniques for components with higher design
welds 515 stresses
5.7 Acceptance criteria
weld
fordefects
revealed by visual examination and
0 Recommendations for preparation and O
testing of production control test plates QI1
non-destructive
testing 516
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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Page Page
R Guidance onadditionalinformation 3.8.3( 1)
Gasket materials and contact
for flat ends and flat plates RI1 facings: gasket factors( m )for
S Guidance onoptionaldocumentation operating conditions and
for supply withvessel minimum design seating
stress ( y ) 3/66
TRecommendationsfor arc weldedtube
to tubeplate joints Values o f T,Z,Y and U (factors
involving K ) 3/68
UGuidance on the use of fracture
mechanics analyses 3.9
u11 Values of A Cas a function of F,
and Rfor all tubesheets, and C,
VRequirements fortestingand
U-tubesheets
for only O9 311
inspection of serially produced
pressure vessels v/1 3.9.6 Values of Fr for typical tube
joints 1 3112
Annex 4.2.4.1.1 Circumference 413
AA Supplement to BS5500. Requirements 4.2.4.1.4 Tolerance on depth of domed
for aluminium and aluminium alloys in ends 413
the design and construction of unfired 4.4.1.1 Preheating recommendations for
fusion welded pressurevessels AA/ 1
a Tables
4.4.3.1
welding
Requirements for post-weld heat
treatmentofferritic steelvessels
416

418
1.5 Purchaser options and features
5.1 Inspection stages in the course
requiring approval by the
of which participation by the
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purchaser 1I 6
Inspecting Authority is mandatory 511
2.2.2 Bolting materials for low-
5.2 Other principal stages of
temperature 211
inspection 512
2.3 Design strength values: index of
5.2.3 Tensile test temperature 512
steels 213
5.2.6 Weld procedure tests for butt
2.3A Additional materials that may be
welds in 9 % Ni steel 512
used for category 3 construction 2/39
5.6.4.1.1 Thickness limits for examination
3.4 Construction categories 313
of internal flaws 514
3.5.2.3 Values of elD x I O 3 for unpierced
5.7(1) Radiographic acceptance levels 5P
domed ends in terms ofh,/D
and p / f 316 5.7(2) Ultrasonic acceptance levels
applicable to ferriticsteels and
3.5.3 Junction at the large base of the
weld metals in the thickness
cone with knuckle: values of C,
range 7 m m t o100 m m inclusive 511O
as a function of Wand rlD, 3112
Visual and crack detection
3117 5.7(3)
a 3.5.4( 1)
3.5.4(2)
Thickness of branches
Design values of t,/Tr
3/20 5.7(4)
acceptance level
Radiographic acceptance levels
511 1

3.6( 1) Derivation of L, 3/48 (reassessment of category 2


3.6(2) Values for G and N which may construction) 5114
be assumed 3/49 5.7(5) Ultrasonic acceptance levels
3.6(3) E values for ferritic and austenitic (reassessment of category 2
steels and aluminium alloys construction) 5114
(Young’s modulus) 3/49 A.3 Classification of stresses for
3.6(4) Values of ( u e / €(d/ew)2
) for some typical cases N5
internal
stiffeners
bar
flat 3/53 D.4.1(1) Impact requirements forplates,
3.6(5) Values of (a,/€)(d/eWl2for forgings, castings and tubes Dl6
external
stiffeners
bar
flat 3/54 D.4.1(2) Design reference temperature Dl6
3.8.1.4 Recommendeddesign stress D.4.2 Design reference temperature
values for flange bolting for heat exchanger tubes Dl6
materials
3/57 G.2.2.2 Values of KI and K2 GI1O
3.8.1.4.1 Bolt root areas
3/59 G.3.3.2.3 Design factors K, and K2 GI60
3.8.1.6 Recommended surface finish on
G.3.3.2.4 Design factors K3 and K, and
gasket contact faces for body
allowable tangential shearing
flanges
- and flanges fitted with
stresses GI60
covers 3/60
G.3.3.2.5.1 Design factor K6 GI6 1
G.3.3.2.5.2 Values of constants C, K,,
K, and K8 GI62
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Issue 1, J a n u a r y 1994

G.3.3.3 Values of Klo and K,,


Page
G64 3.5.4(10)
Page o
G.4(1) Circumferential stress factor C, GP2 3.5.4( 11)
Notation applicable to cylinders 3/24,
G.4(2) Bending stress factor C, W 3 3.5.4( 12) 3125
G.4(3)
G.4(4)
Meridional stress factor C,
Branch bending stress factor C,
GP3
GP4
3.5.4( 13)
3.5.4(14)
J Protruding rim 312 5
H.l Classification of materials HI1 3.5.4(15) Flush rim 3125
P. 1 Design strength values Pl1 3.5.4(16) Arrangement factorg 3125
T.4 Tube to tubesheet ¡oints: 3.5.4(17),
, Branch
compensation 3/26
essential tests and-the suitability
optional
types
joint
for
of
tests
Notation
applicable
to
3/26
and2.3
nders spheres
values
strength
Design
5.4 Number of test specimens for
weld Drocedure
acmroval and 3.5.4(21) Modified flush branch
production
control'tests AN6 compensation 3127
5.7 Acceptance
levels AN9 3.5.4(22) Modified protruding branch
compensation 3/28
5.8.10 Principal stages of inspection
3.5.5(1) Typical welded flat ends and
Figures covers 3/30
3.5.2.1 Domed ends 3.5.5(2) Typical non-welded flat ends
315
and covers 313 1
3.5.2.3 Design curves forIJnpierced
domed ends 3.5.5(3) Flat unstayed heads: design
3P
CU rves 3132
3.5.3(1) Cone/cone and conelcylinder
junctions 311O 3.5.5(4) Value of coefficient Z f o r
noncircular flat heads 3/33
3.5.3(2) Maximum angle y f o r large base
cone of 311 1 3.5.5(5) Typical stays: areas supported
by stays 3/34
3.5.3(3) Value of coefficient M f o r a
junction at the largebase of the 3.5.6 Spherically domed and bolted
cone without knuckle 311 1 end 3/35
3.5.3(4) Design curves: determination 3.6(0) Stiffening ringsfor cylindrical
of c,- 3112 vessels subject to external
pressure 3/38
3.5.3(5) Maximum angle y f o r small base
cone of 3114 3.6( 1 Design curves: calculation of
minimum cylindrical shell
3.5.3(6) Value of coefficient M for a thickness (values of n for which
junction at the smallbase of the

3.5.4(0)
cone without knuckle
Positions of openings ornozzles
3/14 3.6(2
pmis a minimum)
Values o f € f o r use with
equation (3.12)
3/38

3/40
o
in dished ends
3/16 3.6(3 Curves for evaluation of
3.5.4( 1) Design curves for protruding allowable pressure p 314 1
nozzles i n spherical vessels
3.6(4) Schematic representation of
(d/D c 0.5) and for protruding
nozzles in cylindrical and conical stiffeners 3/43
vessels (d/D < 'x) 3/18 3.6(5) Design of stiffeners 3/45
3.5.4(2) Design
curves flush
for nozzles 3.6(6) Values of P for use with
in spherical shells (d/D < 0.5) and equation (3.13) 3/50
for
flush nozzles in conical
shells
3.6(7) Conical sections: typical
(d/D %) 3119 stiffeners 315 1
3.5.4(3) Designcurvesfor
flush nozzles in 3.8.3(1) Location of gasket load reaction 3/67
cylindricalshells (O < d/D c 0.3)3/20 3.8.3(2) Values of T, U, Yand Z 3/72
3.5.4(4) Design curves for flushnozzles i n 3.8.3(3) Values of F(integra1-type flange
cylindrical shells (0.2 < d/D ~ 1 . 0 )3/22 factors) 3/73
3.5.4(5) Nozzle in
conical
ashell 3/24 3.8.3(4) Values of V(integra1-type flange
3.5.4(6) factors) 3/73
3.5.4(7) Values of FL (loose hub flange
Notation
applicable
to
spheres 3/24
3.8.3(5)
3.5.4(8) factors) 3/74
3.5.4(9)
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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

m 3.8.3(6) Values of V, (loose hub flange


Page
D.3( 1) Permissible design reference
Page

factors) 3/7 4 temperaturelreference


3.8.3(7) Values of f(hub stress thickness/material impact test
correction factors) 3/74 temperature relationships for
as-welded components D/ 1
3.8.5 Ungasketed, seal-welded-type
flanges 3/75 Permissible design reference
temperaturelreference
3.9( 1) Design curves: determination
thickness/material impact test
of c, 311 O9
temperature relationships for
Page post-weld heat-treated
Design curves: determination 3111O components D12
of F, 3/11D.3(3)
1 Reference thickness: slip-on
Design curves: determination 3/112 and plate flanges, tubeplates
of Fi 311 13 and flat ends D14
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Typical clamped and simply D.3(4) Reference thickness: weld neck


supported configurations 311 14 flanges, tubeplates and flat ends D/5
3.9(7) Characteristics for perforated D.4( 1) Location of Charpy V-notch
thin plates, e < 2P 311 15 specimens in weld metal
3.9(8) Characteristics for perforated (as-welded vessels) D/7
thick plates, e 2 2P 311 16 D.4(2) Location of Charpy V-notch
3.9(9) Tubesheet: determination of Fq 311 18 specimens in weld metal(stress
relieved vessels) D/7
3.9(10) Tubesheet: determination of H
311 D.4(3) Location of Charpy V-notch
3.9(11) Determination of the buckling specimens in heat affected zone D/7
length L,
31121 D.5(1) Example of detail for avoidance
3.10(1) Butt welds in platesof unequal of severe thermal gradients D/8
thickness
31125 D.5(2) Examples of details for attaching
3.10(2) Butt welds with offset of non-critical components to
median lines 31126 pressure shell D/8
3.11(1) Some acceptable types of E.1(1) Typical weld preparations for
jacketed vessels 311 27 butt welds using the manual
3.1 l ( 2 ) Typical blocking ring and sealer metal-arc process E12
ring construction 3/127 E.1(2) Typical weld preparations for
5.6.4 Illustration of welded joints for circumferential welds where the
non-destructive testing 514 second side is inaccessible for
5.7 Partial non-destructive testing welding El3
(NDT) category 2 constructions 519 E.1(3) Typical weld preparations for
A.3 Stress categories and limits of butt welds using the submerged
stress intensity A14 arc welding process El5
B.3(1) Stresses in a cylindrical shell E.1(4) Typical weld preparations for
under combined loading B/3 butt welds using the manual inert
B.3(2) Stresses in a spherical shell gas arc welding for austenitic
under combined loading stainless and heat resisting
B14
steels only €16
B.3(3) Stresses in a conical shell under
combined loading E.1(5) Typical weld details for
B15
circumferential lap joints ED
c.2.1 Design fatigue curve forsteels for
temperatures up
and
toincluding E.1(6) Typical full penetration joint
375 "C and for aluminium alloys preparations for one-sided
for temperatures up to and welding only: aluminium and
including
C16 100 "C its alloys El8
C.3.1 Design fatigue curve forsteel E. l ( 7 ) Typical full penetration joint
bolting for temperatures up to preparations for two-sided
and including 375 "C and for welding only: aluminium and
aluminium bolting for its alloys E/9
and temperatures
to up E.1(8) Typical full penetration joint

m c.4.3
including 100 "C
Construction of test fatigue curve
CD
C/8
preparations for one-sided
welding with temporarybacking
or permanent backing:
aluminium and its alloys El1O

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E.2(1) Standard
details
weld
Page
E/14 E.2(37) Tubeplate to shell connections:
Page o
E.2(2) Transverse and longitudinal accessible for welding onboth
sectionsofbranchconnections El15
shell of sides El50
E.2(3) Welddetailsforset-inbranches E116 E.2(38)
Tubeplate to shell
E.2(4) E.2(39) E/5 1-E153
connections
E.2(40)
E.2(5)
F.2 Compensation of welded
E.2(6)
branchorstandpipeoropening F/2
E.2(7) branches
Set-on E/17-E/23 G,2(0)
Restriction on vessellattachment
E.2(8) geometry G12
E.2(9) G.2(1) Vessel with central
radial
load G13
E.2(10) G.2(2) Vessel with radial load out
E.2( 11) Set-in branches: fillet weldedcentre of G/3
connections E/24 G.2(3)
E.2(12)
welded
Set-in branches: partial
penetration
butt
connections E125
G.2(4)
G.2(5)
Graph for finding equivalent
length L,
Chart
for
finding
64
Cylindrical shells with ra ia1 load:
GI4
G15 +(y*
E.2(13)
E.2(14)
full branches:
E.2(15)
i
Set-in branches: full
penetration
Set-in
connections E/26,
E127
circumferential moment per
width millimetre
G.2(6) Cylindrical shells with radial load:
GI6

penetration connections with longitudinal moment per


asymmetrical
joints
butt E128
GP width millimetre
full 16)
E.2( branches:
Set-in G.2(7) Cylindrical shells with radial load:
penetration connections circumferential membrane force

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
weldedfrom
one
side
only E129 per millimetre
width G/8
E.2(17) Cylindrical shells with radial load:
Forgedbranchconnections E/30, El31 G.2(8)
E.2( 18) longitudinal membrane force per
E.2( 19) Set-on branches with added width millimetre GI9
compensation
rings E/32 G.2(9) Circumferential bending moment
E.2(20) due to a radial line load variation
E.2(21) Set-in branches with added circumference
round GI1 1
E.2(22) compensation
rings E/33-E/36
G.2(10 Longitudinal moment from
radial line load variation round
E.2(23) GI1 circumference 2
E.2(24) Studded connections E/37 G.2( 11 Circumferential membrane force
E.2(25) Socket welded and screwed
connections El38
from radial line load variation
circumference
round G/13 o
E.2(26) G.2( 12 Longitudinal membrane force
E.2(27) Flanges E/39-E/4 1 from radial line load variation
E.2(28) circumference
roundGI1 4
Jacketed vessels: typical vessel/ G.2(13) Circumferential bending moment
E.2(29)
blocking
attachments
ring €142 due to a radial line load variation
GI1 cylinder
along 6
E.2(30) Jacketed vessels: typical
blocking ringfjacket
attachments El43G.2(14) Longitudinal moment due toa
radial line load variation along
E.2(31) Jacketed vessels: typical cylinder GI17
El44 sealer rings
G.2(15) Circumferential membrane force
E.2(33) Jacketed vessels: typical due to a radial line load variation
connections
through E144 cylinder
along GI18
E.2(34) Flat ends and covers G.2( Longitudinal membrane force
E.2(35) Tubeplate to shell connections: due to a radial line load variation
accessible for welding onboth GI1 cylinder
along 9
sides of the shell G.2( Maximum radial deflection of a
E.2(36) Tubeplate to shell connections: cylindrical shell subjected toa
accessible for welding from Wuniformly
load
radial G120
outside
only
shellof El49 distributed
over a square G12 1 O
G.2( 18) 2cx 2 c

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Page Page
G.2(19)Graphs for finding the square G.2(43) Shakedown values for thrust and
2C1 x 2C, equivalent to a momentloadings(flush nozzle) GI48
rectangular loading area 2Cx x 2C, GI22 G.2( 44) Shakedown values for thrust
Circumferential
moment GI23 and moment loadings
Longitudinal
moment GI23 (protruding nozzle) GI48
stresses Sector GI27 G.3(1)
brackets Typical G150
Maximum stresses at a nozzle or G.3(2) Reinforcing plate on cylindrical
attachment on a cylindrical shell GI27 shell G/5 1
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Chart for
finding S and u GI32 G.3(4)support ring
Typical G152
Spherical shell subjected t o a G.3(5) Typical steelwork under ring
load radial GI33 support GI52
Deflections of a spherical shell G.3(6) Leg supports for vertical vessels G/53
subjected t o aradialload W GI33 G .3(7)girderring Typical GI54
Moments and membraneforces G.3(8) Typical supports for horizontal
in a spherical shell subjected t o vessels GI56
loadradial a W GI34 G.3(9) Cylindrical shell actingas beam
Spherical shell subjected to supports over GI57
moment
external
an GI35 G.3( 1O) Factor for bending moment at
Deflections of a spherical shell mid-span GI58
subjected to an external G.3( 1 )1 Factors for bending moment a t
moment M GI35 supports GI59
G.2(28) Moments and membraneforces G.3( 12) Portion of shell ineffective
in a spherical shell subjected to against longitudinal bending GI60
external
anmoment M GI36
G.3(13) Circumferential bending
G.2(29) Maximum stress in sphere diagrams
moment GI6 1
for internal pressure (flush nozzles) GI40
G.3( 14)
supports Saddle GI62
G.2(30) Maximum stress i n sphere for
G.3( 15) stiffeners
ring
Typical GI63
internal pressure (protruding
nozzles) GI40 G.4(1) Nozzle geometry GI67
G.2(31) Maximum stress in sphere for G.4(2) Transient fluid and metal
thrustloading(flush nozzles) GI4 1 temperatures GI67
G.2(32) Maximum stress i n sphere for G.4(3) Inner surface thermal stress
thrust loading (protruding nozzles) GI41 factors KI and kl GI68
G.2(33) Maximum stress in sphere for G.4(4) Outer surface thermalstress
momentloading(flush nozzles) GI42 factors K2 and k2 GI69
G.2(34) Maximum stress in sphere for G.4(5) Mean temperature factorsKb
moment loading (protruding and K, GPO
nozzles) GI42 J . l Typical pressure term relationships JI2
G.2(35) Maximum stress in sphere for T.5( )1 Tube to tubeplate connections,
shear loading(flush nozzles) GI43 fusion end tube T l1
G.2(36) Maximum stress in sphere for T.5(2) Tube to tubeplate connections,
shear loading (protruding nozzles) GI43 castellated
Tl weld 1
G.2(37) Shakedown values for pressure T.5(3) Tube to tubeplate connections,
(flush
loading nozzle) Tl2 GI45
weld fillet plain
G.2(38) Shakedown values for pressure
T.5(4) Tube to tubeplate connections,
loading
(protruding nozzle) GI45
front face bore fillet
weld
Tl2
G.2(39) Shakedown values for thrust
T.5(5) Tube to tubeplate connections,
and moment loadings (flush
Tl2
weld
groove
fillet
plus
nozzle) GI46
G.2(40) Shakedown values for thrust T.5(6) Tube to tubeplate connections,
and moment loadings Tl3 weld groove
(protruding nozzle) GI46 T.5(7) Tube to tubeplate connections,
G.2(41) Shakedown values for thrust back face insert bore
weld
Tl3
and moment loadings (flush T.5(8) Tube to tubeplate connections,
O G.2(42)
nozzle)
Shakedown values for thrust and
GI47 back face stub bore
weld T/4

moment loadinns - .(rxotrudinn - Index I


nozzle) GI47 Publicationsreferred t o III
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BSI B S x 5 5 0 0 94 m 1 6 2 4 6 6 90 3 9 5 0 1 21 2 T m
BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Summary of pages
The following table identifies foreach page of the standard the issue which forms the authorized
version of document when assembled to include the original pages and amendments identified on the
inside front page.
Page no. I Issue Page no. Issue Page no. Issue Page no. Issue
Preliminarv pages 212 2 1 312J 1 3/73 1
I 1 2/23 1 3/28 1 3/74 1
II 1 212 4 1 3129 1 3/75 1
...
III 1 2/25 1 3/30 1 3/76 blank
iv 1 2/26 1 313 1 1 3/7 J 1
V 1 2/27 1 3132 1 3/78 blank
vi 1 2/28 1 3/33 1 3/79 1
vi i 1 2129 1 3/34 1 3/80 blank
viii 1 2/30 1 3/35 1 31%1 1
ix 1 213 1 1 3/36 1 3182 blank
X 1 2132 1 3/37 1 3/83 1
xi 1 2/33 1 3/38 1 318 4 blank
xi¡ 1 2/34 1 3/39 1 3/85 1
Section one 2135 1 3/40 1 3/86 blank
111 2/36 blank 314 1 1 3/87 1
112 2/37 1 3/42 1 3/88 blank
113 2/38 blank 3/43 1 3/89 1
114 2/39 1 3144 1 3/90 blank
115 2/40 blank 3/45 1 319 1 1
116 Section thr ? 3/46 blank 3192 blank
1P 3/ 1 1 3/47 1 3193 1
1/a 312 1 3/48 1 319 4 blank
119 313 1 3/49 1 3195 1
111o I blank 314 1 3/50 1 3/96 blank
Section two 315 1 315 1 1 3/97 1

1
211 1 316 1 3/52 1 3/98 blank
212 1 3/7 1 3/53 1 3/99 1
213 1 31% blank 315 4 1 311O0 blank
214 1 319 1 3/55 1 311 O1 1
215 1 311O 1 3/56 1 31102 blank
216 1 311 1 1 315J 1 31103 1
2P 1 3112 1 3/58 1 31104 blank
21% 1 3113 1 3/59 1 31105 1
219 1 3114 1 3/60 1 31106 blank
I
211o 1 3115 1 316 1 1 31107 1
211 1 1 3116 1 3/62 1 31108 1
2112 1 3117 1 3/63 1 311 O9 1
2113 1 3118 1 3164 1 311 10 1
l
2114 1 3119 1 3/65 1 311 1 1 1
2115 1 3/20 1 3/66 1 311 12 1
2116 1 312 1 1 3/67 1 311 13 1
2117 1 3/22 1 3/68 1 311 14 1
2118 1 3/23 1 3/69 1 311 15 1
2119 1 3124 1 3/70 1 311 16 1
2/20 1 3125 1 3P 1 1 311 17 1
212 1 I 1
L
3126 1 3/72 1 311 18 1
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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Page no. Issue Page no. I Issue Page no. Issue Page no. Issue
311 19 1 Appendix B El25 1 GI1 7 1
31120 1 El26 1 GI18 1
31121 1 €127 1 GI1 9 1
31122 1 B13 €128 1 GI20 1
31123 1 €129 1 GI2 1 1
31124 1 B15 El30 1 GI22 1
31125 1 BI6 I blank El3 1 1 GI23 1
31126 1 Appendix C El32 1 GI24 1
"-T
1
31127
31128
Section four
1
1
c11
c12
c13
El33
E134
€135
1
1
1
GI25
GI26
GI27
1
1
1
411 I I c14 €136 1 GI28 1
412 1 c15 €137 1 GI29 1
413 1 Ci6 €138 1 GI30 1
414 1 CP €139 1 GI31 1
415 1 El40 1 GI32 1
416 1 Appendix D €141 1 GI33 1
4P 1 1 D l1 €142 1 GI34 1
418 11 Dl2 €143 1 GI35 1
419 11 Dl3 €144 1 5/36 1
411O 1blank Dl4 €145 1 5/37 1
Section five D15 1 €146 1 5/38 1
511 Tl 1 D16 1 €147 1 339 1
512 1 DP 1 €148 1 340 1
513 1 Dl8 I I €149 1 SI4 1 1
l
514 1 Appendix E €150 1 S142 1
515 1 E ll 1 €151 1 S143 1
516 1 €12 1 €152 1 5/44 1
5/7 1 El3 1 El53 1 345 1
5i8 1 €14 1 €154 blank 2/46 1
519 1 E15 1 347 1
511O 1 E16 1 348 1
511 1 1 Y7 1 S149 1
5112 1 El8 1 4ppendix C 350 1
?/I 3 1 El9 1 SI1 1 3 51 1
5114 1 E l lO 1 GI2 1 GI52 1
5115 1 El1 1 1 GI3 1 GI53 1
5116

I 1 E l l2 1 GI4 1 GI54 1
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

5117 1 El1 3 1 GI5 1 GI55 1


5118 1 €114 1 GI6 1 GI56 1
Appendix A E l l5 1 G/7 1 GI57 1
A l1 1 E l l6 1 GI8 1 GI58 1
Al2 1 €117 1 GI9 1 GI59 1
Al3 1 El18 1 GI1O 1 GI60 1
N4 1 €119 1 GI1 1 1 GI6 1 1
N5 1 El20 1 GI1 2 1 GI62 1
N6 1 El2 1 1 GI1 3 1 G163 1
An 1 €122 1 GI1 4 1 GI64 1
Al8 blank El2 3 1 GI1 5 1 G165 1
El2 4 I
1 GI1 6 1 GI66 1
-

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BSI BS*5500 74 m I1624667 0 3 7 5 0 L ~ T T 2

BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

r3
I Issue
~~

Page no. Issue Page no. Issue Page no. Issue Page no.

GI67 1 Appendix M Index


GI68 1 (1
GI69
Gt7 O
1
1 Appendix N
blank
Appendix U
I
II
T’7
I

GPl 1 Publication\ referred to


GP2 1 blank blank III 1

rS
GP3 1 Appendix P Appendix V IV 1
GP4 1 d 1
GP5 1 blank dl 1
GP6 1 Appendix 0 Annex AA inside
Appendix H
Hl1 1 E AN1
AN2
1
1
back page blank

r
Hl2 blank Appendix R AN3 1
Amendix J AN4 1
blank AN5 1
Appendix S AN6 1

1
Appendix T
blank
A M
AN8
AN9
1
1
1

1
AN1O 1
AN1 1 1
T13 AA112 blank

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Foreword continued-service reviews’ based on inspection


and consideration of actual load-temperature
This British Standard has been prepared under the history. This approach recognizes the limitations
direction of the Pressure Vessel Standards Policy inherent in any simple design method for vessels
Committee. It is a new edition of the 1991 version operating in the creep range and also provides a
and incorporates all technical changes upto and flexible basis that may be used incases where the
including Amendment No. 4 (September 1993) design strength values which have been derived
associated with thatversion. from IS0 data, are significantly different from
Despite the various amendments that have been those used with success in the past. Specific
made to thisstandard since it was first published requirements for these reviewsare not given in
in 1976, some of the requirementscan still be this standard because they require development
traced back to the proposals inISO/DIS 2694 and will be covered by other standards
’Pressure vessels‘ drafted b y Technical publications for the periodic inspection of
Committee 11 of the International Organization pressure vessels.
for Standardization ( K O ) which were taken into Recommendations covering aspects requiring
account in preparing the original edition. further consideration in particular cases are given
NOTE. Some of the figuresin this standard have been taken in theappendices. The British Standards
from ISO/DIS 2694 and employ the comma as the decimal Institution will be pleased to receive constructive
marker; normal BSI practice is touse the full point. proposals based on experience or research that
BS 5500, which covers pressure vessels may lead to improvements inthese appendices.
manufactured from carbon, ferriticalloy, austenitic An index has been added for thisissue for
steels, andaluminium, replaced the
following information purposes toassist users of the
standards: standard. The list of publications referred tohas
BS 1500 Fusion welded pressurevessels for been corrected so that documents that are no
general purposes longer referred to in the text of the standard have
Part 1 Carbon and low alloysteels been removed from thelist, and referenced
Part 3 Aluminium documents previously missing from the list have
BS 1515 Fusion welded pressurevessels for use been added. This correction processhas not
in thechemical, petroleum and allied addressed the updating of referenced BS
industries documents by replacement European documents;
Part 1 Carbon and ferritic alloy steels this will be addressed by amendments.
Part 2 Austenitic stainless steel Reference is made in the text to a number of
Previous editions have stated the intention of standards which have been withdrawn. Such
integrating into one British Standard the standards are identified in the ’Publications
requirements for design, manufacture, testing and referred to’ listing (see page III). Consideration is
inspection of fusion welded pressurevessels. It is currently being given to whether replacement
intended tokeep under review the question of standards are available or are being developed,
publishing appropriate supplements covering for example, in the European programme and to
other types of pressure vessels. the implications for BS 5500 of such replacement
standards. When a decision is made about any
It is anticipated that in due course an annex replacement standards, these will be identified by
0 covering requirements specific to copper willbe
added. In the meantime, by agreement between
the issue of an amendment.
the parties concerned, the existing provisions of As with the previous editions, it is intended to
this standard may beused as applicable. If there is keep this standard up to date by the issue from
sufficient demand from industry, the standard will time to time of
replacement pages, or additional
be extended to cover other non-ferrous materials pages where necessary. Each replacement or
like nickel and titanium. added page will carry anissue number (with date)
indicating its relationship to the original standard,
The requirements of this standard vary the pages of whichare marked ‘Issue 1’.
considerably depending upon the thickness and
type of material to be used. When this For example:
combination is such as will permit satisfactory Issue 1 will indicate an original page or one that
fabrication by relatively straightforwardprocesses, has been added to the original standard and
spot non-destructive testing is permitted without has not been amended since insertion;
any penalty in designthickness; in certain cases Issue 2 will indicate a first amendment of either
visual inspection only is permitted withan an original page or an added page;
appropriate penalty on design thickness.
Issue 3 will indicate a second amendment of
The strengths that may be assumed for design either an original page or an added page.
purposes of materials covered by current British
Side-lining on replacement pages will indicate that
Standards are individually specified in table2.3.
changes of technical or reference significance
Design strengths in the creep range are given for a have been madeat that point.
O range of design lifetimes that may be extended,
on expiry, on the basis of periodic ’fitness-for-

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

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The following figures are reproduced by courtesy


of the American WeldingResearch Council.
Figure G.2(35) was originally publishedas
figure 11 on page26 of WRC Bulletin 90 O
Figure G.2(29) was originally published as September 1963
figure 2 on page21 of WRC Bulletin 90 Figure G.2(36) was originally published as
September 1963 figure 12 on page 26 of WRC Bulletin 90
Figure G.2(30) was originally published as September 1963
figure 3 on page21 of WRC Bulletin 90 Figures G.2(37), G.2(38), G.2(39), G.2(40),
September 1963 G.2(41), G.2(42), G.2(43)and G.2(44) are
Figure G.2(31) was originally publishedas reproduced by courtesy of theInternational
figure 7 on page 24 ofWRC Bulletin 90 Journal of Solids and Structures, 1967.
September 1963 This standard is included in the listof 'Standards
Figure G.2(32) was originally published as Significant to Health and Safety a t Work'
figure 8 on page 24of WRC Bulletin 90 published by the UK Health and Safety Executive
September 1963 and is also referred to in HSE guidance
publications.
Figure G.2(33) was originally published as
figure 9 on page25 of WRC Bulletin 90 Compliance with a British Standard does not of
September 1963 itself confer immunity fromlegal obligations.
Figure G.2(34) was originally publishedas
figure 10 on page 25 of WRC Bulletin 90
September 1963

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

British Standard Specification for

Unfired fusion weldedpressure vessels

Section one. General additional to thatdue to the hydrostatic head does not
1.1 Scope exceed 140 mbart above or6 mbar below atmospheric

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
1.1.1 This British Standard specifies requirements for the pressure in accordance with such standards as BS 799,
BS 2594, BS 2654, BS4741, BS 5387.
design, construction, inspection, testing and verification of
compliance of unfired fusion welded pressure vessels.The (b) Low pressure, above ground storage tanks which
materials of constructionare specified in section two. The have a single verticalaxis of revolution designed for the
term 'pressurevessel' as used in this standard includes storage of liquidsa t a pressure not exceeding 1 bart.
branches upto the point of connection to the connecting (c) Vessels in which the stresses calculated in
piping by bolting, screwing or welding, andsupports, accordance with the equations given in section three
brackets or other attachments directly welded to the are lessthan 1O % of the design stress permitted by
pressure containing shell. section three.
1.1.2 In addition to the definitive requirements, this (d) Strip wound compound or other special designs of
standard also requires the items detailed1.5in to be vessels which may be appropriate for very high
documented. For compliance with thisstandard, both the pressures.
definitive requirements and the documented items have (e) Transport vessels, ¡.e. vessels used for transportof
t o be satisfied. contents underpressure.
1.1.3 This standard applies only to pressurevessels ( f ) Vessels for specific applications whichare covered
manufactured under the survey of a competent by standards listedin the BSl Catalogue.
engineering Inspecting Authority or Organization. The
intent of this requirement is regardedas satisfied where NOTE. Thetitles of the publications referred
to in this standard
are listed on the last page.
inspection is carried out by competent personnel of a
separate engineering inspection department maintained 1.2 Interpretation
by the purchaser of the vessel. An inspection department
If any ambiguity be found or doubt arise as to the meaning
maintained by the manufacturer does not satisfy this
or effect ofany part of this standard asor to whether
requirement except:
anything ought to be done or omitted to be done in orde
(a) that specific responsibilities may be delegated
at that this standard should be complied with full, in
the
the discretion of the Inspecting Authority or question shall be referred to thePressure Vessels
Organization; or Technical Committee (PVE/I) of the British Standards
(b) in thecase of vessels for the manufacturer'so w n Institution, whose interpretation of the requirements of
use and not forresale. this standard upon the matter issue
at shall be given free
This standardapplies only tovessels made by of charge and shall be final and conclusive. Parties
manufacturers whocan satisfy the Inspecting Authority adopting this standard for the purposesany ofcontract
or Organization that they
are competent and suitably shall be deemedto adopt this provision unless they
equipped to fulfil the appropriate requirements of this expressly exclude it orelse import an arbitration provision
standard. in terms extending to interpretation of this standard.
However, this provision is limitedto questions of
The requirements for testing and inspecting serially interpretation and does not confer upon the committee
manufactured pressurevessels are given inappendix V. I n any power, duty or authority to adjudicate upon the
all other respects the appropriate requirements in the contractual rights or duties any
of person under a contract
specification apply. except inso far as they may necessarily be affected by the
Glass lined steelvessels require special design interpretation arrived atby the committee.
considerations subject to the limits imposed by the all enquiries,
Findings or rulings of the committee upon
method of construction which should have the agreement
including matters of interpretation, which
are of sufficient
of the Inspecting Authority. importance that both enquiries and replies be made public
1.1.4 This standard does not cover the following. as soon as possible will be published inan enquiry-reply
(a) Storage tanks designed for the storage of liquids at form for inclusion in the BS 5500 ring binderas Enquiry
near atmospheric pressures, ¡.e. where the pressure in BSlNews.
Cases. Their availability will be notified

t 1 rnbar= 10' N/rn2= 100 Pa.


1 bar = 1 0 5 N / m 2 = 0 . 1 N/mrn2=100kPa.
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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

is provided with
After taking intoac count any public comment thereon, ensuring that the Inspecting Authority
Enquiry Cases may be incorporated,as appropriate, into any information the manufacturer is required to supply,
the standardas amendments which will form part of theas specified in this standard.
next convenient annual updating. The organization which discharges the manufacturer's
m
responsibilities for construction and testing shall assume
1.3 Definitions overall responsibility for compliance with this standard
For the purposes of this British Standard the following during all related activities including part manufacture
definitions apply. and subsequent fabrication to completion a t works
1.3.1 purchaser.The organization or individual who buysand/or site. It shall satisfy the Inspecting Authority, as
the finished pressure vessel for itsuse or as an agent necessary, under the general provisions 1.1
own of that it is
for the owner. competent t o ensure by appropriate control or
1.3.2 manufacturer. The organization thatdesigns, surveillance of such activities, whether carried out by itself
constructs and tests the pressure vessel in accordance or by subcontractors, that all the relevant requirements of
with the purchaser's order. The design function bemay this standard are met.
carried out by the purchaser or his agent, independently Examinations carried out by the Inspecting Authority do
from the organization that constructs and tests the vessel not absolve the manufacturer from his responsibility for
(see 1.4.2). compliance with the applicable requirements of this
1.3.3 Inspecting Authority.The body or organization thatstandard.
verifies that the vessel has been designed, constructed Where the purchaser elects to perform the design
and tested in accordance with this standard. function for the vessel, the manufacturer shallbe
responsible for ensuring that all the design information he
1.3.4 Regulating Authority.The authority in the country
of installation that is legally chargedwith the enforcement
requires t o construct and test the vessel
purchaser and for ensuring that
is provided by the
all construction and
O
of the requirements of the law and regulations of that
testing is carried out in compliance with this standard. The
country relatingto pressure vessels.
manufacturer shall also be responsible for the accuracy of
any informationhe provides to enable the purchaser to
1.4 Responsibilities
fulfil the design function.
1.4.1 Responsibilitiesof the purchaser.The purchaser
shall be responsible for furnishing the manufacturer and 1.4.3 Responsibilitiesof the Inspecting Authority. The
the Inspecting Authority with the information required by Inspecting Authority shall
be responsible for verifying:
1.5.1. (a) that all parts of the vessel have been designed in
Where the Inspecting Authorityis nominated by the accordance with the requirements of this standard as
purchaser, the purchaser shall be responsible for ensuring are applicable for the conditions specified
by the
that any information which the manufacturer is required purchaser according to 1.5.1;
to supply, as specified in this standard, is made available (b) that the vesselhas been constructed and tested in
to the Inspecting Authority. accordance with this standard and any additional
Where necessary, it shall be the responsibility of the requirements in respect of purchaser options covered
purchaser to ensure that the Inspecting Authority is by this standard (see table1.5).
acceptable to the Regulating Authority. 1.4.4 Certificate of Compliance. On completionof the
Where the purchaser elects to perform the design vessel the manufacturer shall issue FormX to certify that
function for thevessel, the purchaser shall be responsible the vesselhas been designed, constructed and tested in
for maintaining a complete design dossier for the vessel every respect in accordance with this standard and with
(see 1.5.1 and for ensuring that all the information any additional requirements in respect of purchaser's
contained init, or agreed modifications it,
tocomply with options covered by this standard. FormX shall be
this standard; the purchaser shall also be responsible for countersigned by the Inspecting Authorityas required.
the accuracy of all design calculations for the vessel. Where some of the activities covered by this standard are
1.4.2 Responsibilitiesof the manufacturer.The performed under the surveillance aofsecond Inspecting
manufacturer shall be responsible for the completenessAuthority, each Inspecting Authority shall attach a
and accuracy of all design calculations and for compliancestatement to FormX, countersigned as required thereon,
with all applicable requirements of this standard for the confirming which part of the total works
has been carried
whole vessel. During fabrication, unexpected factors may out under its surveillance.
arise which justify deviations from the specified The countersigned Certificate and its attachments (if any)
requirements but which do not affect the safety
as shall be furnished to the purchaser with a copy to the
intended by this standard. Such deviations shall be Regulating Authority if required.
submitted to the purchaser for approval andbeshall
Where the purchaser elects to perform the design
recorded in accordance with 1.5.2.2 (e).
function for thevessel, the purchaser shall complete the
Where the Inspecting Authority is not nominated by the section of FormX which certifies that the design of the
purchaser the manufacturer shallbe responsible for vessel complies with this standard.

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BSI B S r 5 5 0 0 94 1624669 0395039 584 m
BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Form X Certificate of Compliance

Vessel description Type ........


Approx. overall dimensions. ....................
Approved drawing number(s) . ..................
...................
...................
...................
...................

Year of manufacture ....... Relevant BS 5500 issue. ..........


Purchaser. . ............. Purchaser's serial no . ............

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Manufacture Name of manufacturer. .........................
Manufacturer's serial number . . . . . . . . . . . . (see note 1)
Name of Design Organization(if not above manufacturer) . . . . . . . . . . . .
....................
Name of Inspecting Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Design Design conditionsof Construction


Design
Design
Corrosion
principal components pressure
allowance
category
temp.
(see notes2 and 3)
bar "C mm
. .
...............................................
. .
...............................................
. .
...............................................
. .
...............................................
...........................................
.............................................
of contents, environment)
Other factorsaffecting design (e.g. weight, nature
(see notes3 and 4)
..........................................................
..........................................................
..........................................................
..........................................................
..........................................................
Post-weld heat treatment Component Temperature Holding time
"C h
........................................
........................................
........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
........................................
....... .................................
....... .................................
. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure test Location pressure
Test
medium
Test
Date
(see note 5) and temperature
bar

.............................................
.............................................
.............................................
.............................................

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B S I BSm5500 94 m L624bb7 0335020 2Tb
BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Form X (concluded)

Certificate of Compliance (design)

5500
BS with
W e hereby certify that the design of this vessel complies

For manufacturer (see note6): Date:


Position: Name of company:

W e hereby confirm that we


have checked the design of the above vessel and that this complies 5500.
BSwith

For Inspecting Authority: Date:


Position: Name of company:

Certificate of Compliance (construction and testing)

with5500.
has been constructed and tested in compliance BS
W e hereby certify that this vessel

For Manufacturer:
Name Position: O
of the above vesselhas been carried out under
W e hereby confirm that the construction and testing our surveillance
and that to the best of our knowledge and belief all of
aspects BS 5500.
this work comply with

Authority:
For Inspecting Date:
Name Position: of company:

W e hereby confirm that the construction and testing of the abovehas vessel
been carried out under our surveillance
BS 5500.
and belief all aspectsof this work comply with
and that to the best of our knowledge

NOTE l . The suffix 'XX' is to be addedto the serial numberof each vesselfor which any deviations or concessions have been
authorized (see1.5.2.2 (e j).
NOTE 2. The design conditions associated with the operational duties specified by the purchaser should be given.
If a purchaser wishes to change the operational duty of a vessel, revised design conditions, consistent with the vessel scantlings, will
be established separately, as appropriate.
NOTE 3. Where the design covers operation below O "C the various combinationsof temperature, pressure and calculated membrane
stresses consideredin determining the design minimum temperature (see appendix D) should be stated.
NOTE 4. Where appropriate, cross reference to drawings or specifications will suffice.
NOTE 5. Where avessel is tested ina different orientation to that in which it will normally operate, this should be stated. O
NOTE 6.This part of the Certificate to be signed bythe purchaser in cases wherethe purchaser electsto perform the design function
(see 1.4.4).

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B S I BS+5500 99 D 1624669 0395023 132
BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

1.5,.2.1 Before commencement of manufacture. The


1.5 Information and requirements to be agreed
and to be documented manufacturer shall submit the information specified
in 4.1.1 for approval before commencement of
1.5.1 Information to be supplied by t h e purchaser. The
manufacture. In submitting this information, the
following information shall be supplied by the purchaser
manufacturer shall identify, in an appropriate manner,
and shall be fully documented.
any features of the proposed design andlor in the
Both the definitive requirements specified throughout the proposed manufacturing, inspection or test procedures
standard and the documented items shall be satisfied which by the terms of this standard require to be
before a claim of compliance with the standard can be approved by the purchaser.
made and verified.
NOTE. Table 1.5 lists and classifies such features and indicates
(a) The normal working conditions of the required in which of the documents required by this standard theyshould,
vessel, together with details any of transient cyclic if relevant, be identified.
and/or adverse conditions in which the vessel is 1.5.2.2 On completionof construction. The manufacturer
required t o operate andany special requirements for shall supplyto the purchaser for record purposes a copy o
in-service inspection. the following documentation,as finally approved, for each
(b) Any requirements relatingto thevarious options vessel or batch of vessels.
covered by this standard (see table 1.5). (a) A fully dimensioned drawing of the vessel, as built,
(c) Any special statutory or other regulations with together withany relevant supporting informationas
which the finished vessel is required to comply. specified in4.1.1 and whichis not covered by items (b)
(d) The name of the Inspecting Authoritv to be t o ($7).
commissioned by the p.urcha&. (b) A list of materials (including welding consumables)
(e)Thename of theRegulatingAuthority(ifany). used in the construction of the vessel with details any of
special heat treatments carried out by the material
( f ) The requirementt o obtain copies for record supplier.
purposes ofany documents other than those listed
in 1.5.2.2 (a) to (9)(see table1.5). (To facilitate the NOTE. Formaterials specified to a British Standard the date of
the standard is to be given. Whereother materials are used
identification of such documents, a check list of optional(See2.1.2.1 (b)) thefull specification is to be supplied.
documents is givenin appendix S.)
(c) The welding procedures used during vessel
Where the purchaser elects to perform the design
manufacture (see5.2.2).
function for the vessel, the purchaser shall supply any
additional design information required by the (d) The procedures used forradiography, ultrasonic
manufacturer in accordance with 1.4.2.The design inspection and/or crack detection of welds (see 5.6.6.1
dossier maintained by the purchaser in accordance t o 5.6.6.4).
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

with 1.4.1 shall cover all the information (whether (e) Records ofany specific deviations from the
supplied by the purchaser or by the manufacturer) which requirements of this standard (see table1.5).The
the manufacturer would otherwise be required 4.1.1
by 'XX' to theserial
manufacturer shall add the suffix
to submit before commencing manufacture. number of any vessel for whicha specific deviationhas
1.5.2 Information to be supplied by the manufacturer been approved.
The information in1.5.2.1 and 1.5.2.2 shall be supplied by (f) A Certificate of Compliance (Form
X) for each vessel
the manufacturer and shall be fully documented. (see 1.4.4).
Both the definitive requirements specified throughout the (9) A facsimile of the vessel nameplate (see 5.8.9).
standardandthedocumenteditemsshallbesatisfied NOTE. The durationfor which a manufacturerwill retain all
before a claim of compliance with the standard can be records heis required to generate during the manufacture of a
made and verified. vessel is influenced by a number
of factors which are outside
the scope of this standard.

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BSI BS*5500 94 m Lb24bb9 0395022 079 m
BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Table 1.5 Purchaser options and features requiringapproval by the purchaser (see 1.5.1. 1.5.2). lconrinuedl
.
(X denotes applicability)

Purchaseroption or feature requiring Classification Document in which option/feature


should
a
approval by purchaser (see 1.5.2.2 (e)) be identified

Purchase Approved Approved working


order drawing (see procedure
4.1.1)

Requirementsforadditional records; Purchaser option X


documentation additional to that specified
in 1.5.2 (1.5.1)

Any special requirements governing the Purchaser option X


selection, heattreatment ortesting of
materials (2.1.1,3.4.2,5.6.2)

Use of castings and appropriate inspectionVariation X


procedure (2.1.2)

by
Use of materials other than those covered Variation X
listed British Standards(2.1.2.3)

Design strength valuesfor materialsqualified


Basic requirement X
O
by notes(b), 1 (d),(f), 8,17 to table2.3

Use of increased designstresses for certain Purchaser option/ X or X


alloy steels as per note 6 to table2.3 variation

Use of steels with carbon content greaterVariation X


than 0.25 % (2.3.2)

Use of design methodsotherthan detailed in Variation X


section three (3.2.2, 3.5.4, 3.8.1,3.9)

Any relaxationof the design pressure for Purchaser option/ X or X


protected vacuum vessels (3.2.3) variation

The design lifetime for high temperature Basic requirement X or X


applications (3.2.4)

The service lifetime for applications whereBasic requirement X


fatigue strength is a potential life-limiting
factor (3.2.4)

(3.3)
The provisions for corrosion Basic requirement X X

I
The construction categoryforvessel or Basic requirement X or X
component parts(3.4.1)

Properties of alloy steels used for designBasic requirement X


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purposes when post-weld heattreatment


exceeds time and temperature limitsgiven in
table4.4.3.1 (3.4.2)

Useofthreadsofpitchcoarserthan3 mrnor Variation X


bolt stresses excess
in of values given
in table3.8.1.4 (3.8.1)

Use of plate material for flanged (3.8.1)


hubs Variation X

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B S I BS*5500 94 D L b 2 4 b b 9 0 3 9 5 0 2 3 T05 m
BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Table 1.5 Purchaser options and features requiring approvalby the purchaser (see 1.5.1,1.5.2) (continued)
O (X denotes applicability)

Purchaser option or feature requiring Classification Documentin which optionlfeatureshould


approval by purchaser (see 1.5.2.2 (e)) be identified

Purchase
order
4.1.1)

Use of filletwelds with throatthickness


less Variation X
than thickness of thinner adjacent section
(3.10.3)
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Commencement of manufacture before Variation Not applicable


approval ofall information specified in4.1.1

Any modifications to information supplied Formal


in revision or
I l X
accordance with4.1.1 of original
documentation

Relaxation of amount ofdressing on Variation Weld preparation


thermally cut edges of ferritic alloy steel and procedure
O aluminium (4.2.1)

Supplementary non-destructivetesting of cutPurchaser option/ or Weld preparation


edges and rectification of defects
(4.2.1) variation procedure

Proceduresforforming and inspection she1


of Basic requirement Heattreatment
sections and plates
(4.2.2) procedure

Assemblytolerancesforthicknesses Basic requirement


> 200 m m (4.2.3)

Departuresfrom specified tolerances on Variation


circumference of ends, circumference,
straightness and circularity of shells
(4.2.4)

Commencement of production welding priorVariation Not applicable


to approval ofwelding procedures, welders,
welding operators(4.3.1); orassembly
of category3 components (4.3.1)

Useofwelding consumablesotherthanthose Variation Welding procedure


usedintheweldingproceduretest (4.3.2)

9 %ofNi
Consumables used in the welding Basic requirement Welding procedure
steel (4.3.2)

Use of attachments of different nominal Variation Welding procedure


composition to shell
(4.3.5)

Use of backing strips for welds


(4.3.6) Variation Welding procedure

Specific deviation
Thinning ofwelds by dressing or grinding to Not applicable
lessthan thicknessshownon drawings I I
(4.3.7)

Use ofsingle layerweldsfor attachment of Variation X Welding procedure


branch pipes in aluminium vessels
(see 4.3.7 of annex AA)

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BSI BSX5500 9 4 M L624669 0395024 941
BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994
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Table 1.5 Purchaser options and features requiring approval by the purchaser (see 1.5.1,1.5.2) (continued)
(X denotes applicability)

Purchaseroption or feature requiring Classification Document in which optionlfeature


should
approval by purchaser (see 1.5.2.2 (e)) be identified

Purchase Approved Approved working


order drawing (see procedure
4.1.1)

Approval ofwelding procedure (preheat Variation X Welding procedure


requirements) (4.4.1)

Modified post-weld heat treatment Variation X Heat treatment


procedures (4.4.3,4.4.4,4.4.5) procedure

Welding carried out after final post-weld heat


Specific deviation Not applicable
treatment (4.4.3)

Requirementsforspecial finish(4.5) Purchaser option

Criteria for welding procedure tests (all weld


Basic requirement X
tensile) (5.2.5)

Welderto retake whole or of


part
approval Purchaser option
test (5.3.3)

(5.4)
Production test plate requirements Purchaser option

Reduction in width of standard production Variation X


(5.4.2)
test platesfor aluminium

Necessity of micro-examination of welds in


Purchaser option
aluminium (5.5.5)

Comprehensive schedule covering Purchaser option


non-destructivetesting requirements(5.6.1)

Acceptance standardsfor defects revealed byBasic requirement X Non-destructive


non-destructive testing in parent material testing procedure
(5.6.2)

Non-destructive testing techniques for Basic requirement Specific repair


examination of authorized repairs to parent procedure
materials (5.6.2)

Any relaxation in requirementsfor Variation X Non-destructive


ultrasonic/radiographic non-destructive testing procedure
testing of welds,otherthan full penetration
buttwelds, in category 1 components
(5.6.4)

Use of magnetic particle or penetrant Purchaser option/ X Non-destructive


methodsforexaminationofTypeAweldsin variation testing procedure
category 1 components and
categories 1 and 2 in case of aluminium
vessels (5.6.4)

Grouping of nozzles and branchesfor Basic requirement X Non-destructive


(5.6.4)
examination of internal flaws testing procedure

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

e by the purchaser(see 1.5.1,1.5.2) (continued)


Table 1.5 Purchaser options and features requiring approval
(X denotes applicability)

Purchaser option orfeaturerequiring Classification Document in which option/feature


should
approval by purchaser (see 1.5.2.2(e)) be identified
Approved working
order drawing (see procedure
4.1.1)

Use of magnetic particle or penetrant Purchaser option1 X or X Non-destructive


methods for examination of category3 variation I testing procedure
components (5.6.4)

Choice of non-destructive testing techniqueBasic requirement X Non-destructive


(5.6.5,5.6.6)

Method used to provide reference pointsfor Basic requirement


"S' Not applicable
testing procedure

I l
accurate location of non-destructive testing
reports (5.6.6)

Weld defect acceptance criteria different toPurchaser X or X Non-destructive

e 5.7 (1)
those in table optionlconcession

Acceptance of specific welds with defects Specificdeviation


in
I
Not applicable
testing procedure

excess of levels specified in table


5.7 (1 )

Basic requirement Weld repair


Repair of welds(5.7.3) Not applicable
procedure
Options permitted in pressuretestsspecifiedBasic requirement X Pressure test
in 5.8 procedure

Agreement to waive repeatteston vessel Specificvariation /Jotapplicable


(5.8.2)
repaired after pressure test

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Section two. Materials 2.1.3 Materials for non-pressureparts


Materials for supportinglugs, skirts, baffles and similar
2.1 Selection of materials
non-pressure parts welded vessels
to shall be of
2.1.1 General established identity and shall be compatible
with the
2.1.1.1 The selection of the materials of construction for material to which theyare attached.
pressure containing parts and their integral attachments
2.2 Materials for low temperature applications
shall take into account the suitability of the material with
regard t o fabrication' and to the conditions under which 2.2.1 to the selection
Special consideration shall be given
they will eventually operate. of materialsfor vessels designed to operate Obelow "C or,
Annex AA gives requirements specific to aluminium andwhere it is considered by the purchaser or manufacturer
aluminium alloys. This section shall be modifiedas given that there would otherwise be undue risk of brittle fracture
in annex AA for unfired fusion welded pressure vessels in pressure testing a vessel at the temperature of the
constructed of aluminium and aluminium alloys. available test fluid.
2.1.1.2 Any special limits, for example
with respect to 2.2.2 Table 2.2.2 specifies bolting material suitable for
composition, heat treatment, or non-destructive testing, use at low temperature and the minimum design
which the manufacturer or the purchaser is permitted temperature
to foreach material.
specify in relation to the particularuse
endof material,
shalt be the subject of agreement between the purchaser Table 2.2.2 Bolting materialsfor
of enquiry and order (see low-temperature
and the manufacturer at the time
table 1.5).
Material* Application Impact Min.design
2.1.2 Materials for pressureparts requirements requirements
2.1.2.1 All the materials used in the manufacture of
pressure parts shall either:
BS 1506-1 62 Nuts Not specified
(a) comply with the appropriate British Standard
BS 1506-240 Nuts Not specified
referred to in the design strength tables of this standard,
BS 1506-240
except as otherwise permittedby this section; or LT 1O0 Nuts 20J at - 1 0 0 ° C 1-1 O 0
(b) be agreed between the purchaser and the ES 1506-62 A 1 Bolts Not
specified 150
manufacturer (see table1.5) provided that: BS 1506-62 1A
LT 1O0 Bolts 2OJ at -1 00°C -1 O 0
(11 they complywith the appropriate requirements of
BS 1506-801B Nuts, bolts Not specified -200
this section forthat material type, and are covered by
ES 1506-82 1Ti Nuts, bolts Not specified -200
a written specification:
BS 1506-821Nb Nuts, bolts Not specified -200
(i) at least as comprehensive as the British
BS 1510LT100 Nuts, bolts 27J a t - 1 0 0 ° C -1 O 0
Standards listed in the design strength tables of
this standard forthe nearest equivalent material;and "This table will be updated by a future amendment to cover the
(i¡) as a minimum specifying the manufacturing steel designations included in the current edition of BS 1506.
process, compositional limits for all constituents, Also see the foreword.
deoxidation practice, heat treatment and
appropriate mechanical properties for acceptance 2.2.3 The impact requirements for ferritic steels in band
and other purposes; MO t o M 4inclusive used forvessels designed to operate
(2) the nominal design strength of materials below O "C shall be in accordance with appendix D.
specified are derived in a manner consistent with Appendix D shall also be used as specified in5.8.2.4when
appendix K and details of the procedure used are it is agreed by the purchaser and manufacturer to carry
agreed between the purchaser and the manufacturerout the final pressure test of a vessel a t a temperature
and recorded (see table1.5); higher than that of the available test fluid.
2.1.2.2 Welding material shall comply with sections four2.2.4 Requirements for theuse of ferritic steels in bands M5
and five. (3%% Ni) and M7 to M10inclusive, usedfor such vessels,
2.1.2.3 The use of castings for pressure parts shall be shall be agreed between the purchaser and manufacturer.
subject t o agreement between the purchaser and the 2.2.5 The impact requirements for ferritic steels in band
manufacturer (see table 1.5). An appropriate 'quality M 6 (9 % Ni) used for vessels designed to operate below
specification' for such castings shall be agreed between O "C shall be in accordance with the British Standards
the manufacturer and the material suppliera t the time of listed in table2.3 for M6 steels.
enquiry, specifying the standards of inspection to be 2.2.6 Austenitic stainlesssteels (including the high
applied and of acceptance for defects. As a minimum, all nitrogen and warm worked varieties) are not
accessible fillets and changes section,
of etc., shall be susceptible t o low stress brittle fracture and no special
subject to magnetic particle or penetrant inspection. requirements are necessary for their use at
2.1 -2.4 Bolts and nuts shall comply with the material temperatures down to-196 "C.
4 of BS 4 8 8 2 : 1 9 7 3
specifications listed in tables 3 and 2.2.7 Aluminium and aluminium alloys are not
or table 3 of BS 1 4 7 3 : 1972. susceptible to lowstress brittle fracture and no special
requirements are necessary for their use at
temperatures down to-196 "C.

See appendixG of BS 5135 : 1984 for general guidance on the susceptibility of materialsto lamellar tearing during fabrication.

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

2.3 Carbon, carbon manganese and alloysteels for plates, 15 % for castings and1 4 % for tubes and
2.3.1 Materials covered by British Standards.
2.3.1.1 Permissible materials complying with
forgings, unless the use of the steelis subject to special
agreement (see 2.1.1.2). o
appropriate British Standards shall beas given in The rate of testing and methods of acceptance testing
table 2.3.t shall generally be consistent with appropriate British
Standards for similar product forms.
Hot testing to confirm the properties of material supplied
shall not be required for materials listed in table
2.3. 2.3.2.5 For materials thatwill be used above5 0 "C, a yield
Additionally, it is permissible to use materials complying point or proof stress properties shall be specified by the
with British Standards listed in table2.3A for the manufacturer for acceptance tests accordance
in with
construction of only category vessels
3 provided the ES 3688.
qualifying requirements indicated in table
2.3A are 2.3.2.6Stress rupture properties shall be specified for
satisfied. materials which will be used in the creep
range. These
Non-destructive testing requirements shall be
as specified shall be determined in accordance with the procedure laid
in 5.6.2. down in BS 3228 : Part 2. The manufacturer of the vessel
shall be assured that the product supplied
capable
is of
Where relevant, the restrictions in2.3.2.2
shall apply. complying with the specified properties by a statement
2.3.1.2 Nominaldesignstrengthvaluesformaterials that the manufacturing processeshave remained
complying with appropriate British Standards shall as
be equivalent to those for the steel for which the test results
given in tables2.3 and 2.3.A. were obtained.
These values are for design purposes as specified in the 2.3.2.7Charpy V-notch impact test properties at
relevant sections of this standard only and shall not be appropriate temperatures shall, wherenecessary,
used as a basis for acceptance or rejection of material. comply with 2.2.3t o 2.2.5.
NOTE 1. Their derivation is described in appendix K.
2.3.2.8Materials shall be supplied in a heat treated
a
NOTE 2. Values between those given in the various columns of
the table may be linearly interpolated. condition appropriate to the nearest equivalent British
Standard unless otherwise agreed between the
2.3.2 Materials not coveredby British Standards purchaser, the manufacturer and the material supplier
(see table 1.5).
2.3.2.1Othermaterials as specifiedin 2.1.2.l(b) shall
complywiththegeneralrequirements of 2.3.2.2 t o NOTE. Plates for hotforming may be supplied in any suitable
2.3.2.11. condition as agreedbetween the manufacturer and the material
supplier.
2.3.2.2The maximum allowable phosphorus and sulphur 2.3.2.9Carbon and carbon manganese steel platesfor
content shall not exceed 0.05 % each in the ladleanalysis. cold forming shall be supplied in the normalized condition
For ferritic steels intended for welding, the upper limit ofexcept when their thickness less
is than 25 mm, when it is
the carbon range(in the ladle analysis) should not if guaranteed
permissible to supply plates as-rolled
normally exceed0.25 %, but in the cases of such steels elevated temperature properties are not required.
with a carbon content higher than 0.25 % intended for Low alloy steel plates for cold forming shall be supplied in
welding, they shall only be used subject to special the normalized and tempered condition except that, where
agreement on welding procedures between the metallurgically suitable and where post-weld heat
purchaser, the manufacturer and the Inspecting Authority treatment will suffice as the tempering treatment, plates

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
(see table 1.5). supplied in the normalized condition shall be permitted.
2.3.2.3The deoxidation practice shall be appropriate to 2.3.2.10I t is permissiblet o use electric resistance welded
the type of steel ordered particularly where
the level of elevated or low temperature
it influences
properties. it is
or induction welded tubes in the as-welded condition
provided the specified upper limit of tensile strength does
o
permissible touse semi-killed steel in accordance with not exceed 540 N/mm2 and they are not intended for
this standard forplates, seamless and welded tubes in service below a temperature Oof"C.
carbon and carbon manganese steels with an upper limit
range of 640 N/mm2 and 2.3.2.11 The heat treatment condition to which the
of the specified tensile strength
with a thickness not exceeding 100 mm. Rimming steelspecified properties relate shall be clearly stated in the
shall only be used for welded tubes in carbon and carbon material specifications. These properties canbe affected
manganese steel types with an upper limit of the specifiedby reheating during fabrication and, where necessary
tensile strengthrange of 490 N/mm2 under service (see 3.4.2or 4.4),the manufacturer shall discuss the
temperature conditions betweenO "C and 380 "C. application and proposed heating or reheating of the steel
with the material supplier. However, the test plates shall
2.3.2.4Mechanical properties at room temperature shall be supplied and tested in a condition corresponding to the
be specified for acceptance tests accordance
in with material specification specifically requested by the
ES 18 covering,R, Re (see appendix K) and minimum manufacturer. The heat treatment to be given to the test
elongation at fracture. pieces and the acceptance properties shall be agreed
The specified minimum percentage elongation at fracturebetween the manufacturer and the material supplier at the
referred to a gauge length of 5.65Go* shall be time of order.
appropriate to the type of steel with a lower limit % of 16

t In certain applications higher design strengths than those specified


in table 2.3 for commongrades of stainless steel are
permitted
(see appendix P).
S, is the original cross-sectional area of the gauge length
of the tensile test specimen.

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Table 2.3 Design strength values: index of steels


e Standard

"

Steel plates BS 1501 :Part 1


BS 1501 : Part 2
BS 1501 : Part 3
Steel sections and barsBS 1502
Steel forgings BS 1503
Steel castings BS 1504
Steel pipesand tubes BS 3059 : Parts 1 and 2
BS 3601, BS 3602 :
Parts 1 and 2
BS 3603
BS 3604 : Parts 1 and 2
BS 3605 : Part 1
BS 3605
BS 3606
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--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

c
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i
1
E
$ 2

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Issue 1, January 1994

Used for category 3 Construction


Table 2.3A Additional materials that may be

Product Material standards, Conditionsfor use Design stressfor areas remote from
form BS references welded seams (3.4.2.2)

Plate
I
1 BS EN10025 : Fe360BFNSee
Fe360C
I

I notes 1,4and 5
1
I

asforBS1501 :Part1 :1980:151/161400(table2.3)


I I

\
Fe 430A
Fe 4306

BS 1449 : Part 1 37/23HR


I See notes 1,2, and 4
asforBS1501 : Part1 : 1980: 151/161430(table2.3)

Plate, sheet as for BS 1501 : Part 1 : 1980 : 151/161360 (table2.3)


or strio 37123CR

43/25HR asforBS1501:Part1:1980:151/161430(table2.3)

BS1449:Part2 304S15 See note 3 asfor BS 1501 : Part3: valuesforequivalent plate


31O S24 material (table 2.3)

NOTE 1. The copper content shall not exceed 0.30 96.


NOTE 2. Rimming steel shall not be used.
NOTE 3. The steel supplier shall provide a certificate
of compliance which shall also state:
(a) the ladle analysisof the material supplied;
(b) the resultsof mechanical tests on test pieces taken
from samples representing the material supplied.
NOTE 4. The negative tolerance on thickness permittedinthe material standard shall
be taken into accountin specifying the ordering thickness
(see 3.1.5).
NOTE 5. The additional procedure for correction of minor defects specifiedin 9.2.2 of BS 4360 : 1986 only applies with the
agreement of the purchaser. Specific inspection shouldbe carried out anda certificate issued.

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Issue 1, January 1994

Section three. Design (e) weight of water under hydraulic


pressure test
conditions;
3.1 General (f) wind loading;
3.1.1 The minimum thicknesses or dimensions ensure
to
(9) earthquake loading;
the integrity of the vessel design against the risk of gross
plastic deformation, incremental collapse and collapse (h) other loads supportedby or reacting on thevessel.
through buckling shall be determined using the materialsConsideration shall be given to the effect of the following
specified in sectiont w o and the calculations specified loads whereit is not possible to demonstrate the accurac
in 3.1.2 t o 3.1.6 or 3.2.2. of the proposeddesign, e.g. by comparison with the
3.1.2 Minimum thicknesses or dimensions for particular behaviour of other vessels:
components ofvessels under internal pressure (see3.5) ( 11 local stresses caused by supporting lugs, ring
shall be calculated inaccordance with the subclauses girders, saddles, internal structures or connecting piping
identified in (a) to (f). or intentional offsets of median lines in adjacent
(a) cylindrical and sphericalvessels (3.5.1); components;

(b) domed ends (3.5.2); (2) shock loads caused by water hammer or surging of
the vessel contents;
(c) conical ends and truncated cones(3.5.3);
(3) bending moments caused by eccentricity of the
(dl openings and branch connections(3.5.4); centre of the working pressure relative to the neutral
(3.5.5);
(e) flat ends and flat plates axis of the
vessel;
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(f) spherically domed and bolted ends (see figure


3.5.6) (4) stresses caused by temperature differences
(3.5.6). including transient conditions and by differences in
O 3.1.3 Minimum thicknesses or dimensions for particular
3.6)
components ofvessels under external pressure (see
coefficients of thermalexpansion;
(5) fluctuations of pressure and temperature.
shall be calculated in accordance with subclauses
the
Where portionsof a vesselare subjected to high cyclic
identified in (a) to (f).
forces/moments or thermal stresses in service which will
(a) cylindrical shells (3.6.2); not be reproduced during the pressure test specified in
(b) conical shells (3.6.3); 5.8, the possibility of unacceptable local strain
(c) spherical shells (3.6.4); accumulating over the life of the component shall be gi
appropriate consideration.
(d) hemispherical ends (3.6.5);
3.2.2 Design requirements specified in this section will
(e) torispherical ends (3.6.6); provide satisfactory designs for the types of loading
(f) ellipsoidal ends (3.6.7). accounted for by the equations' therein. If a component is
3.1.4 Minimum thicknesses or dimensions for bolted subjected to loading other than that accounted in thefor
flange connections, flat heat exchanger tubesheets and equations, reference shall be made to other design criteria
jacketed construction shall be calculated in accordance (such as in appendixA), unless it is possible t o
with 3.8,3.9 and 3.11, respectively. demonstrate the adequacy of the proposed design by
NOTE. Recommended methodsof calculating stresses arising comparison with the behaviour of similar existing
from local loads (on spherically or cylindrically shaped vessels) Components.
due to nozzles, supports, etc., andthermal gradients are given
in NOTE 1. The equationsin this section are based on mean
appendix G. diameter rules and are not necessarily applicable when the ratio
3.1.5 Since the thicknesses determined by the various of the outside diameter of the vessel to the inside diameter of the

O equations are minima, the specified nominal thickness


shall be increased by the amountany ofnegative
vessel DJD,exceeds 1.3.The designof such vessels should be
given special consideration, taking
safety against gross plastic deformation
into account that the factorof
will be greater than that
tolerance permitted by the specification to which the implied by the equationsin this section, andthat the onset of
material isordered. plasticity (locally at the bore)will occur at relatively low pressure.
3.1.6 Supports, attachments and internal structures (non NOTE 2. An aid to the selection of standardized pressure vessels
is givenin BS 5276 : Part 4, where a range of dimensions and
pressure parts) shallbe designed in accordance with 3.7. pressure ratingsfor basic unpierced cylindrical pressure vessels
NOTE 1. Detailed recommendationsto safeguard the vessel with domed ends is given.
against fatigue conditions are given in appendix C. NOTE 3. Where the specified design strength of a material timeis
3.1.7 Detailed requirements to safeguard against brittle dependent, the design procedures covering situations where
fracture of vessels, ferritic steels in categories MO to M 4 internal pressure isnot a dominantform of loading (e.g. see 3.6)
may not in themselves provide adequate margin against the
inclusive, are given in appendix D (see also 2.2). possibilityof creep deformation leadingto instability or creep
rupture during the agreed design lifetime. In such casesthe
3.2Application design procedures specifiedin this section should, where
indicated, be supplemented by appropriate analysis to confirm
3.2.1 In the design ofvessela the following loads shall be that this lifetime will be achieved. The design procedures
taken into account, where relevant: included in this section donot necessarily cover mechanisms
(a) internal and/or external design pressure; (e.g. creepratchetting) which can significantly increasethe
deformation rate of components operating in the creep range and
(b) maximum static head of contained fluid under subject to frequent temperature cycling. Where such cycling is
operating conditions; likely, deformation rates should be confirmed by appropriate
supplementary analysis.
(c) weight of thevessel;
(d) maximum weight of contents under operating
conditions;
'The equations in this section may be used
with any consistent set ofunits.

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Issue 1, January 1994

For other components for which no requirements are NOTE 2. NO such vesselshould remainin service once the agreed

o
specified in thissection, referenceshall be made to other a periodic review basedon
Service life has been completed, without
methods of evaluating the stress systems (suchas in the inspectionhonitoringofthe part(s) in question.
appendix A). Where, during normal operation, a vessel is subjected to
By agreement between the purchaser and the manufacturer, more than one loadingt/temperature condition, the
it is permissibletousedesignsbased c'n requirementsother thickness shall be determined from that condition which
than those given in section this provided theycan be shown results in thegreatest thickness.
to comply with the design criteria in alopendix A, but inno 3.2.5 The minimum design temperature which is used to
case shall the minimumthickness for pressure loading only determine the suitability of the material resist
to brittle
be less than that requiredby 3.5.1 to 3.5.3 (see table 1.5). fracture shall be the lowest metal temperature expected in
service. In thecase of components thermally insulated
The designpressure of vessels (or vessel parts) for which
externally, the lowest metal temperature shall be taken to be
the strength cannotbe satisfactorily calculated shall be
the minimum temperature of the contents of thevessel at
determined from the results of a proof hydraulic test carried
the appropriate loading condition. In the case of
out inaccordance with 5.8.6 in thepresence of theInspecting
components not thermallyinsulated, the minimum
Authority.
temperature of the components under operating conditions
3.2.3 The design pressure(¡.e. the pressure to be used in the and the methodused for assessing the lowest metal
equations for the purposes of calculation) shall be not less temperature shall besubject to agreement.
than:
In cases where thecalculated membrane stress can vary
(a) the pressure which will exist in the vessel when the with the minimum design temperature, e.g. auto-
pressure relieving device startsto relieve, or theset refrigeration duringdepressurisation, the various
pressure of thepressure relieving device, whichever is combinations ofstress andtemperature shall be evaluated
the higher(see 3.13);
(b) the maximumpressure which can be attained in
to determinethe onewhich is most onerous forthe purpose
of selection of materials(see D.3.1).
O
service where thispressure is not limitedby a relieving 3.2.6 Provision shallbe made in thedesign to permit
device. thermal expansion and contraction so as to avoid excessive
The design pressure shallinclude thestatic headwhere thermal stresses.
applicable. 3.2.7 Unless otherwise agreed (see 3.2.2), wind and
Vessels subject to externalpressure shall be designed for earthquake loadings shallbe calculated in accordance with
the maximum differentialpressure to which the vessel may appendix B and the higher permissiblestresses given in
be subjected in service. It is recommended thatvessels A.3.6 apply.
subject to vacuum be designed for a full negative pressure
of 1 bar*unless a vacuum break valve or similardevice is 3.3 Corrosion, erosion and protection
provided, in whichcase it is permissible fora lower design 3.3.1 General. The word 'corrosion'asused in thisstandard
pressure to beused by agreement between the purchaser shall be taken to mean corrosion, oxidation,scaling,
and the manufacturer(see table 1.5). abrasion, erosion and all other formsof wastage.
3.2.4 The maximum design temperature which isused to The purchaser andthe manufacturershall give joint
determine the appropriate nominal design strength for theconsideration to the likely effect which corrosion (both
selected material shallbe not less than theactual metal internal and external) willhave upon the useful life of the
temperature expected in service. Themaximum design vessel (see table 1.5). Under conditions where stress
temperature shall include an adequate margin tocover corrosion mayoccur, consideration shall be given to the
uncertainties in temperature prediction. Where different materials used andthe residual stress in fabricated vessels.
metal temperaturescan confidently be predicted for
different parts of thevessel, it is permissible to base the
NOTE l . Forms of corrosion, including the following, require
consideration.
o
design temperature forany point in thevessel on the (a) Chemical attack where the metal is dissolved by the reagents.
predicted metaltemperature. It may be general over the whole surface or localized (causing
pitting) or a combinationof the two.
An appropriatedesign lifetime shall be agreed between the
purchaser andthe manufacturer for each vessel whose (b) Rusting causedby the combined action of moisture and air.
maximum design temperature is suchthat the nominal (c) Erosion corrosion where a reagent that is otherwise
innocuous flows over the surface at a velocity greater than some
design strength intable 2.3 is time dependent (see table 1.5). critical value.
NOTE 1. No vessel designedon this basis should remain in service (d) High temperature oxidation (scaling).
beyond the agreed design lifetime unlessa reviewisthen madeof its
continued fitnessfor service basedon inspection for creep damage When in doubt consideration shall be given to undertaking
and considerationof its temperaturektress history and the latest corrosion tests to be carried out on theactual metal
materialsdata. Particular attention should be paid, during inspection,(including welds) or combination metals of under exposure
to geometrical discontinuities and details subject
to load or
temperature cycling. Subjectto satisfactory periodic review,it is to the actual chemicals used in service.
permissible to extend service lives beyond the original design life. NOTE 2. It is very dangerousto assume that the major constituent of
a mixture of chemicals is the active agent, in many
as cases small
An appropriateservice life and design margin (as in C.1.2) traces of impurities exert an acceleratinginhibiting
or effect out of all
shall beagreed between thepurchaser andthe proportion to the amount of impurity.
manufacturer foreach vessel of whichany integral part
requires a detailedfatigue analysis (asin C.2) (see table 1.5).

O
* 1 bar = lo5 N/m* = 0.1 Nimm' = 100 kPa.
t In this context, theterm 'loading' means any combination
of loads (includingpressure loading) acting simultaneously.
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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Fluid temperatures and velocities should be equivalent 3.3.4Wear plates. Where severe conditions of erosion
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

to those metin operation. Corrosion tests should be and abrasionarise, consideration shall be given to fitting
O continued for a sufficiently long period to determine thelocal protective or wear plates directly in the path of the
trend of any change in the rate of corrosion with respect impinging material.
to time.
3.3.2 Additional thickness to allowfor corrosion.The 3.4 Construction categories anddesign stresses
additional thickness specified over and above that 3.4.1 Construction categories. For the purposes of this
required for design conditions shall be adequate cover
to standard, a construction category in accordance with
the total amount of corrosion expected on either or bothtable 3.4shall be agreed between the purchaser and
surfaces of thevessel and shall beagreed between the manufacturer foreach pressure containing component of
purchaser and the manufacturer (see table 1.5). It shall be the vessel (see table1.5).
at leastequal in magnitudetr! the expected wastage due
NOTE. Any one of the three construction categories in table 3.4
t o corrosion during the specified life of vessel
the and shall will provide adequateintegrity for normal purposeswithin the
be a minimum of 1 mm unless a protective liningis material and temperature limitations specified therein.The
employed. justificationfor any special precautions(e.g. additionalinspection
and/or test requirements, secondary containment,)to reduce
Where corrosion effectsare negligible noexcess external risks in the postulated eventof an escape of hazardous
thickness need bespecified. vessel contents involves consideration matters
of by the
purchaser (andregulatingauthority)which are beyond thescope
3.3.3 Linings and coatings. It is permissible forvessels t o of this standard. Any modificationsto the requirements of this
be fully or partially lined (or coated) with standard which are required for this purpose shouldbe covered,
corrosion-resistant material.It is permissible for linings to as appropriate, under 1.5.1.
be loose, intermittently attached to the vessel base 3.4.2 Design stresses
material or integrally bonded to the vessel base material.
Thesurfacefinishforcoated vessels shallbe agreed
3.4.2.1 Categories 1 and2. Except as qualified in 3.4.2, the
design stresses shall not exceed the appropriate nominal
between the purchaser and the manufacturer
design strengthvalue given in table 2.3, etc. for the
(see table 1.5).
material of constructiona t the design temperature.
Provided contact between the corrosive agent and the
The following points shall also be taken into account.
vessel base material is excluded, it shall not be necessary
to make a corrosion allowance against internal wastage of (a) Carbon and carbon manganese steels
the base material. Corrosion-resistant linings shall not be (1) The nominal design strengths given in table 2.3
included in the computation of the specified wall are intended for general use with the steels listed
thickness exceptin the case of cladsteels, when as and acceptance tests on material heat treated with a
agreed between the purchaser and the manufacturer, the completed vesselare not required, any reduction in
combined thickness of steel and cladding is permitted to properties of such steels due to post-weld heat
be used in calculating the wall thickness (see table 1.5). treatment being consistent with the overall benefit
The design of lining shall take into account the effects of obtained by stress relief of the structure. A purchaser
differential thermalexpansion; integral linings shallhave requiring suchtests, or tests on samples subject to
sufficient ductility to accommodate any strain likelyto be
imposed on them during service.

Table 3.4 Construction categories


Construction Non-destructive Permitted Maximum Temperature limits
category testing (NDT) material thickness
(6s5500 band) (mm) (see note) Lower

1 I 100% All None, except See general See appendix D limitations


(see 5.6.4.1) where NDT note (b) to
method limits table 2.3 also
note 3 t o 3.2.2
Limited random
Mol
(spot)(see5.6.4.2) M 1
40 See general
note (b) to
\ See appendix D limitations

i:o 1
M2 table 2.3
Austenitic
steel
also note 3
to 3.2.2 i
1
Aluminium
alloys 1050A,
3103,5154, 2A.3; also
5 154A, 5083 See table
3.4.2.1 (c)(3) None

3
I Visual only
(see 5.6.4.3)
C & CMn steel
(R,,.,* 4 3 2
N/mm2)
16
1
}3OO0C 1
See appendix D limitations

Austenitic 25

I
steel J None

1
"For definition of Rm see K . 2
NOTE. In the case of flat ends andflanges, the limitation on thickness appliesto the governing dimension of the attachment
weld and not to the thickness of the flat end orflange itself.
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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

non-standard heat treatments, shall specify them in 3.4.2.3Additional limit for statically cast components. In
the supplementary specification together with the case of static castings the design stress shall not
appropriate acceptance criteria (see table
(2) In designs where slight deformation
1.5).
is important
exceed 0.7 x the nominal design strength value given in
table
makes
2.3, unless the quality specification (see
full provision for the detection and
2.1.2.3)
repair of
e
or where the proposed post-weld heat treatment
times or temperatures will significantly exceed thepotentially harmful defects in all critical sections, in which
limits givenin table 4.4.3.1, plate which will meet the case it is permissibleto take this limit as 0.9 x the nominal
properties in the material specificationin the design strength value given in table
2.3.
normalized plus simulated (3-hour) post-weld heat
treated conditionis to be specified.
3.5 Vessels under internal pressure
(b) Alloy steels
3.5.1 Cylindrical and spherical shells
(1) Manufacturers shall discuss the application
and 3.5.1.1Notation. For the purposesof 3.5.1.2 and 3.5.1.3
proposed heating or reheating of alloy steels with the following symbols apply. All dimensions exclude
corrosion allowances.
the material supplier before selecting the appropriate
nominal design strength. is the inside diameter of
shell;
(2) The nominal design strengths given in table 2.3 is the outside diameter shell;
of
shall be used provided the proposed post-weld heat is the minimum calculated thickness of shell
plate;
treatment does not exceed the time and temperature
is the nominal design
stress;
limits given in table4.4.3. l . This doesnot apply to
the limits permitted for maximum softening and is the longitudinal bending moment;
optimum creep properties for grades M 7 and M9; in is the designpressure;
these and all other cases the properties used for
design purposes shall be subject to prior agreement
between the purchaser and the manufacturer (see
M ortoW,
is the longitudinal force in cylinder due
per unit length of inside circumference (positive if
e
tensile); see equation (3.7);
table 1.5). Appropriate time and temperature limits
is the inside radius of
shell;
for non-standard heat treatments shall be
established a t the design stage. If acceptance tests (for vessels with a vertical longitudinal axis
only);
on material heat treated with a completed vessel or (a) for points above plane of support: is the weight of
in a non-standard mannerare required, these shall vessels, fittings, attachments and fluid supported
be specified in the supplementary specification above pointconsidered, the sum to be given a
together with acceptance criteria agreed between negative sign in equation(3.7);
the purchase and the manufacturer (see table 1.5). (b) for points below plane of support: is the weight of
( c ) Aluminium vessels, fittings, attachments and fluid below point
(1) Post weld heat treatment of aluminium
vessels is considered plus weight of fluid contents not
not normallynecessary or desirable. supported above point considered, the sum to be
given a positive sign in equation(3.7).
(2)The nominal design strengths given in table2.3 of
annex AA for materials in the annealed condition is the nett longitudinal compressive stress.
shall be used in the design of welded constructions. 3.5.1.2Minimum thickness for pressure loading only.The
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(3) In the light of current experience materials for minimum thickness for pressure loading only shall be
vessels subject to external pressure shall be calculated from the following equations.
restricted to materiais 51 54A, 5083 and 5454". (a) Cylindricalshells
3.4.2.2 Cafegory3. The following designstress limits shall
apply irrespective of the orientation of the main welded e = PDi ~
(3.1)
2f-p
seams.
or
(a) Carbon and carbon manganese steel. The design
e= - PD0 (3.2)
stress shall not exceed tR,/5.
2f +P
(b) Austenitic steel. The design stress shall notexceed
120 N/mm* or ( b) Spherical shells

1 2 0 ( 4 5 0 ) ,whichever is the smaller, where t is the e= PDi (3.3)


400 + t 4f - 1.2p
design temperature("C). or
In cases where the specified minimum yield strength PD0
e= (3.4)
( 1.O % proof stress)is less than 230N / m d the design 4f + 0 . 8 ~
stress so calculated shall be multiplied 0.8.
by
For seamless components, or where, in areas remote from 3.5.1.3Minimum thickness for combined loading
main weldedseams, the local thickness required to 3.5.1.3.1Cylindricalandsphericalshells. Where a shell is
withstand pressure has to becalculated (e.g. for design of subjected to loads in addition to internal pressure
local reinforcement,flat ends and flanges),
the design stress (see 3.2.2) it is not possible to give explicit equations for
shall notexceed the values permitted for construction the minimum thickness and solution by trial anderror
is
necessary (see appendixB).
categories 1 and 2.
O
'In view of the lackof appropriate data it is recommendedthat use of 5154A and 5083 materials be restricted to below 66 "C.
tFor definition of R, see K.2.

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237 m
BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

3.5.1.3.2Approximationforcylinder. Where the effect of 3.5.2.2 Limitations. The following design limitations shall
such loadings isto produce an axial loadWand a bending apply t o pressure vesselends:
moment M, a first approximationto the thickness required (a) hemisphericalends: O.O02D,< e G 0.16D
shall be determined in the followingmanner. The first
approximation is always an overestimate byan amount
(b) ellipsoidalends: 0.0020 e0.08D <
he> 0.180
which is greaterfor cylinders with larger values of e/Ri.
NOTE. Where equations(3.5) and (3.6)indicatethat an increase (c) torisphericalends: O.O02D< e ,< 0 . 0 8 0
in the thickness overthat given by 3.5.1.2(a) is required, reference r>, 0.06D
should be madeto appendix B to establish theminimum r>, 2e
thickness. R<D
The first approximation to the minimum thickness is the
The t w o relationships in(b)and the four relationships in
largest of the values given by equations (3.5)and ( 3 . 6 )and
(c) shall be fulfilled simultaneously.
by 3.5.1.2(a).
In no case shall the thickness of the cylindrical or straig
For Q tensile: flange (see figures 3.1 O(1 1 and 3.1 O ( 2 ) )of a domed end be
0.25pDi + Q 0.25pD0 + Q less than the thickness of a seamless unpierced cylindrical
e= ore= (3.5) shell of the same diameter and material for the same
f -0 . 5 ~ f
design pressure and temperature.
For Q compressive (¡.e. term '-Q' having positive value):

( 3e. =
6)
0.25pDi -Q or e =
0.25pD0 "Q
f f+0 . 5 ~
In these equations:

Q=
w 4 M
- +- (3.7)
7~Di nDi2

Where Q is compressive, u,, given by:

(T
Q PD.
"_L
z-
e 4e
(a) Ellipticalend
A.3.5.
is not to exceed the limit given in
These calculations shall be performed all
forcombinations
of load expectedin service.
Conditions during pressure testing shall be the subject of 1
on. special h
NOTE 1. For dealing with local stresses inthe neighbourhoodof
the points of applicationof the additional loads see appendix G. I

NOTE 2. For dealing with torsional loading, wind or earthquake


loading see appendixB. I I II
3.5.2 Domed ends
R
I
3.5.2.1 Notation (see figure 3.5.2.11. For the purposes
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

of 3.5.2.2 to 3.5.2.4 the following symbols apply.All


dimensions exclude corrosion allowances.
ide the D is end; l
(b) Torispherical end
D, is the outside diameter of crown section of
torispherical end measuredto tangent between

4
crown andknuckle;
e is the minimum calculated thickness after
dishing;
f is the nominal designstress;
h is the outside headheight, ¡.e. external height of end
measured from plane of junction of end with
cylinder skirt;

he
P
NOTE.h=ß,- ( ( R - 0 / 2 ) ( R + 0 / 2 -2r)) 112
(approximately)
is thesmallestof h, D2/4 ( R + e ) and dD(r+ e ) / 2 ) ;
is the designpressure;
D
(c) End with manhole (ellipticalor torispherical)
R is the inside spherical
radius, for torisphericalends;
r is the inside knuckle radius, for torispherical ends. Figure 3.5.2.1 Domed ends

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3.5.2.3 Unpierced ends the basic thickness shall be determined 3.5.1.2


from (b)
3.5.2.3.1 Hernisphericalends. The thickness of taking D, or Di (as appropriate)as follows:
hemispherical ends shall be determined using equations Do = D for hemispherical ends
(3.3) or (3.4) in 3.5.1 -2.
o
Di = 2R for torispherical ends
3.5.2.3.2 Ellipsoidaland torisphericalends (see figure D , = D x (factor obtained from the following table) for
3.5.2.3 and table3.5.2.3).The thicknessof ellipsoidal and ellipsoidal ends
torispherical ends shall be determined using the following
procedure. h, / D Factor Factor
h,/D
P
(a) Calculate - from the design pressurep and the
f 0.1 8 2.52 0.278 1.63
design stress of the chosen material f. O. 1 92 2.36 0.31 3 1.46
0.208 2.1 7 0.357 1.30
(b) Enter figure3.5.2.3 with this value, read up to the
0.227 0.41 7 1.981.14
appropriate he/D line for the proposed end shape and
0.2 5 1.80 0.50 1.o0
then acrossto thee / D axis for the corresponding e/D

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
value.
The thickness shall be assigned the value of Tin 3.5.4for
D t o obtain the end thickness.
(c) Multiply by the purpose of determining local compensation T, for
Interpolation betweenhe/D curves is permissibleor, isolated or closely grouped openings as if situatedin a
alternatively, values may be read from the next highest spherical shell of equivalent diameteras above, subject t o
h,/D curve. the conditionsin 3.5.4.2(d) and figure3.5.4(0)being
NOTE l . The thickness of the sphericalportion of a torispherical satisfied*.
end may be determined as for a hemispherical end of spherical
radius R within the area ofdiameter D,-&, where:
If T, reinforcement thickness is less than
3.5.2.3,then the dome end shall have
e given by
a uniform
O
x= 0.5dRx torispherical thickness minimum thicknesse.
NOTE 2. Figure 3.5.2.3 may be usedwith values of h, and D NOTE. In cases wherethe design strength is time dependent,
h,/D < 0.27; beyond this
based on internal dimensions, provided these procedures should generally give adequate margins against
value external dimensions
are to be used. creep rupture. However, for domed ends made from ferritic
materials with a largeD/e ( > 100). and also for domed ends
3.5.2.4Piercedends. To determine the thickness of made from austenitic materials,it is desirableto check that any
pierced ends they shall first be considered
as a sphere and end oflife deformation that may beexpected is acceptable.

Table 3.5.2.3Values of e/D x 103 for unpierced domed ends in terms of h e / D and p / f

-
he
D 0.001 0.0025
0.0015 0.004 0.006 0.010
greater
0.050
0.025
0.015
values

0.1 5 2.1 3 2.70 3.73 5.22 7.20 10.9 15.4 24.0 44.5 880 x p/f
I
0.16 (1.95) 2.50 3.50 4.90 6.70 10.2 14.3 22.2 41.5 8lOxp/f
0.17 (1.80) 2.30 3.24 4.58 6.30 9.6 13.5 21.0 39.2 770 x p/f
0.18 (1.65) 2.1 1 2.99 4.23 5.80 8.8 12.6 19.7 37.0 730 x p / f
I
0.19 (1.95) 2.77 3.95 5.43 8.3 11.8 18.5 35.0 695 x p/f
0.20
0.2 1
0.22
(1.80)
(1.65)
(1.52)
2.55
2.39
2.22
3.64
3.42
3.20
5.00
4.75
4.45
7.7
7.3
6.84
11.0
10.4
9.7
17.3
16.2
15.4
33.0
620 x p / f
585 x p / f
650 x p/f
o
0.23 (1.40) 2.08 2.95 4.1 2 6.30 9.1 14.5 555 x p / f
0.24 13.6 8.5 5.90
(1.92)
3.83 2.76 530 x p / f
0.2 5 (1.75)
3.56 2.58 5.50 7.8 500 x p / f
0.26 7.35 5(1.64)5.1 3.34
2.40 475 x p / f
0.27 2.25 (1.52) 2 3.1 445 x p / f
0.28 425 4.50 2.93 2.12
(1.41) x p/f
0.29 2.73
(2.00)
0.30 ( 1.86) 2.54 3.95 385 x p/f
0.3 1 I ( 1.71) 2.41 3.80 370 x p / f
0.32 ( 1.61)
3.65 2.30 358 x o/f
0.33 ( 1.52) 2.20
0.34 ( 1.45) 2.10
0.35
0.36 319xp/f
0.38 307 x p/f
0.40 295 x p / f
NOTE 1. This tableis not valid for valuesof e/D x 1 0 3 < 2.00.
NOTE 2. Intermediate values may be obtained by logarithmic interpolation.
NOTE 3. Values in parentheses are provided for purposesof interpolation.

"Symbols defined in3.5.4.1.

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0.001 0.01 01 1.0


Vf
Figure 3.5.2.3Design curves for unpierced domed ends

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Issue 1, January 1994

3.5.3 Conical ends and truncatedcones a minimum


The increased cylinder thickness shall extend
3.5.3.1 Minimum thickness for pressure loadingonly distance from the junction by the dimension:
3.5.3.1.1 Notation. For the purposes of3.5.3.1.2 @Pë&Ï-
t o 3.5.3.1.4 the following symbols
apply. All dimensions and the increased cone thickness shall extend a minimum
exclude corrosion allowances. distance from the junction by the dimension:
C1
D,
is the factor given by figure3.5.3(4)or by table 3.5.3;
is the outside diameter at cone base of which
junction is considered. For junctions at largebase
E
These requirements shall onlyappty provided that the
of cone, D, is measured as indicated in
figure 3.5.3.(1);for junctions at smallbase of cone, following conditions are satisfied:
D, is the outside diameter at smallbase of cone; (a) the two parts to be joined have theaxis of
same
Dk is the inside diameter at largebase of cone; rotation;
e is theminimumthicknessof cone; (b) the loading is internal
pressure;
ecyl is the minimum thickness of cylinder with inside (c) the joint is a butt weld where the inside and outsi
diameter D, required by3.5.1.2(a); surfaces merge smoothly with the adjacent cone and
cylinder thicknesses without reducing the
thickness;
f is thenominaldesign stress;
NOTE. In cases where the design strength istime dependent, (dl the junction is not closer to another junction (such
components designed by the procedure specifiedin this section as a coneJcylinder, conehone, coneJdishedhead,
should be reviewed to ensure that creep deformation (local or cylinderhubesheet, etc.) or major non-axisymmetric
general) will be acceptable throughout the agreed design lifetime. discontinuity (such as a branch opening) than the
O L is thelengthequalto 0.5 D,e/cos y; dimension:
M is the ratio of corte and cylinder minimum thickness 2-
at the junction ecyl;to where
p is thedesign pressure; M = 1, when theangle y/does notexceed the limit
r is theinsideradiusof knuckle; 3.5.3(2);
value shown in figure
a is the semi-angle at apex of conical section M has the value shown in figure 3.5.3(3)if the angle
calculated; exceeds its limitvalue.
ly is the angle between generating lines of t w o NOTE. Equivalentreinforcement may be provided in the form
adjacent conical or cylindrical shell sections. of an external stiffeningring as indicated in figure 3.5.3(l)(a).
3.5.3.1.2 Thickness of conewall 3.5.3.1.3.2 Reinforcement with knuckle. When y is greater
3.5.3.1.2.1 Cones with a d 7 0 e. The cone wall thickness than 30 r 2 0.06De.
a knuckle shall be provided with
O,

shall not be less than that given by the equation:. The knuckle shall have a thickness at equal
least to the
value given by the equation:
1
e= -PDk x -
e= (seefigure 3.5.3(4)forvalue of C,1.
2f-p cosa
2f
This requirement shall only
apply if the following
The same requirement shall apply to the adjacent parts
conditions are satisfied:
3.5.3(1)(c)) or oft w o
the cylinder and cone (see figure
(a) the conical shell is axisymmetrical; 3.5.3(1)(dl) over a
consecutive cones (see figure
(b) the thicknesse obtained remains belowD,/6. distance L.
NOTE. Theconical wall may consistof several shell sections of This thickness of the knuckle and the adjacent parts of th
which the thickness reduceswith the diameter. For the cylinder and cone shall
not, however, be less than that
calculation of each of these shell sections
D k is takenas the
inside diameterof the jointat itslarge base. specifiedfor the cone by3.5.3.1.2.1 or 3.5.3.1.2.2.
3.5.3.1.2.2 Cones witha 7V.The minimum cone wall These requirements shall only apply provided that the
thickness shall be takenas the lowerof the values given following conditions are satisfied:
by 3.5.3.1.2.1 and theequation: (a) the two parts to be joined
have the sameaxis of
rotation;
(b) the loading is internalpressure;
(c) the tangent lines of the knuckle
are not closer than a
3.5.3.1.3 Reinforcement of junction ar the large base of the distance L from another junction or a tangent line of a
cone. No reinforcement of cone/cylinder or cone/cone knuckle or a major non-axisymmetric discontinuity
junctions is required provided
ly is within the limits shown (such as a branch opening);
in figure 3.5.3(2)(max. 3 0 O).
(d) the stresses in thin knuckles ( e / D G0.005)are
3.5.3.1.3.1 Reinforcement without knuckle. Where y is shown by suitable anlysis or test to meet appendix A
outside the limit shown in figure 3.5.3(2)and equal t o or criteria.
less than 3 0 it is permissiblet o provide reinforcementby
O,
The thickness of knuckles radius
of lessthan O.O6D,
increasing the cone and cylinder thickness. In the case of (permitted whenlyQ 30 "1 shall be calculated in
a cone cylinder junction (see figure 3.5.3(1)(a)), the ratio ofaccordance with 3.5.3.1.3.1.
theincreasedconeandcylinderthicknessatthejunction
to the minimum cylinder thickness required by 3.5.1.2(a)
shall be takento be the valueMof shown in figure
3.5.3(3).
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--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
(c) Cone/cylinder, with knuckle
(a) Cone/cylinder, without knuckle

4 *

without
(b) Cone/cone,Cone/cone
(d)knuckle with knuckle

Figure 3.5.3(1)Cone/cone and cone/cylinder junctions

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@
Figure 3.5.3(2) base of cone
Maximum angle yfor large

NOTE. Figure 3.5.3(3)


shows aminimum value of l/cos y f o rM. This is based on the minimum thickness
for thecone. The
cylinder thickness maybe reduced e,,, as permittedby figure3.5.3(2)
for thep/fvaluesshown by small circles on the
M= 1 .O
line above.

Figure 3.5.3(3) of the cone without knuckle


Value of coefficient M f o r a junctiona t the large base

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5 -

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
2

O IO 20 30 40 50 60

Figure 3.5.3(4)Design curves : determination of C1

Table 3.5.3Junction at thelarge base ofthe cone with knuckle: valuesof C1 as a function
of W and r / D ,

W I=0.06 0.08 0.1o 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50


De

IO"
20
30

45 a
60
75 o
0.90
0.55
0.60
0.80

1.1
1.6
3.1 5
I
0.55
0.55
0.70

0.95
1.4
2.7
0.55
0.55
0.65

0.90
1.25
2.4
0.55
0.55
0.55

0.70
1 .o
1.55
0.55
0.55
0.55

0.55
0.70
1 .o
0.55
0.55
0.55

0.55
0.55
0.55

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Issue 1, January 1994

3.5.3.1.4 Reinforcement of thejunction at the smallbase of NOTE. Where loadingsof the type listed in 3.5.1 produce an axial
the cone.No reinforcement is required providedy is within load W and a bending moment M, a first approximationto the
thickness of the cone required may be determinedthe inmanner
the limits shown in figure 3.5.3(5)(maximum 6 O).
detailed inthis note (for torsional loadingsee appendixB), The
3.5.3.1.4.1 Reinforcement without knuckle. Where y first approximation is always an overestimateanby amount
outside the limits shown in figure and equal to or which is greater for cones
3.5.3(5) of large eh?,.
less than3 0 it is permissible to provide reinforcement For
O, by the purposes ofthis note the following symbols apply.All
dimensions exclude corrosion allowances.
increasing the cone and cylinder thickness. Theofratio
Di is the inside diameter measured normalto axis of shell at
the cone and cylinder thickness to the cylinder thickness
transverse sectionconsidered';
required by3.5.1.2(a) shall be taken t o be the value M
of
D, is the outside diameter measured normal to axis of shell at
shown in figure 3.5.3(6). transverse sectionconsidered.;
The increased cylinder thickness shall extend a minimum e is the minimumthicknessattransversesection
distance from the junction by the dimension: considered.;
d m f is the nominaldesignstress;
and the increased cone thickness shall extend a minimum M is the external bending moment acting in plane containing
distance from the junction by the dimension: cone axis at transverse sectionconsidered.;
p is the design pressure;
JD$Mec,t Q is the longitudinal force duetoMand Wper unit length of
inside circumference (positive if tensile);
cos y
W is the axial force (positive if tensile) acting a t transverse
These requirements shall only apply provided that the section considered., (excludes pressure load);
following conditionsare satisfied:
a is the semi-angle at apex of conical section calculated:
(a) the two parts to be joined have the same axis of u, is the nett longitudinalcompressivestress.
rotation;
The first approximation to the minimum thickness is the
(b) the loading is internal pressure; largest of the values given by the following equations and
(c) the joint is a butt weld where the inside and outsidethat in3.5.3.1.2.1.
surfaces merge smoothly with the adjacent cone andFor Q tensile:
cylinder thicknesses without reducing the thickness;
0.25pDi + Q 1
(dl the junction is not closer to another junction (suche = x-
as a conelcylinder, conelcone, coneldished head, f 0.5~ -cos a
cylinderltubesheet, etc.) or major non-axisymmetric or
discontinuity (such as a branch opening) than the O.25pD0+ Q 1
e= x-
dimension: f cos a
2@3=CYl For Q compressive (¡.e. term '-U having positive value):
where -

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
0.25~0, Q 1
M = 1 when the angley does not exceed the limit e= x-
value shown in figure 3.5.3(5); f cos a
or
M has the value shown in figure 3.5.3(6) if the yangle
exceeds its limit value. O.25pD0 - Q 1
e= x-
3.5.3.1.4.2 Reinforcement with knuckle. When y > 3 0 o a f +0 . 5 ~ cos a
knuckle shall be provided and a detailed analysis carried In these equations:
out to determine the thickness necessary, over the
distance L, t o keep the maximum hoop stress within W 4M
Q="t-
acceptable limits. nDi nDi2
3.5.3.2 Minimum thickness for combined loading Where Q is compressive, the nett longitudinal
3.5.3.2.1 Conical shells subject to
combined loading. compressive stress, uZ,is not to exceed the limit given in
A.3.5, ¡.e.
Where a conical shell is subjected to loads of the type
listed in 3.2.1 in addition to internal pressure, it is not
possible to give explicit equations for the minimum
oz= [;--- @
J
cos a
x
- '
should not exceed this l

thickness, and solution by trial and error shall be used, The calculation shouldbe performed t o satisfy all
reference being madeto the design recommendations combinations of load expected in service.
and procedure detailed in appendixB.
Conditions during pressure testing should be the subject
of special consideration.
For dealing with local stresses in the neighbourhood of th
point of application see appendix G.

'See figures B.3(1),8.3(2)


and 8.3(3).

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2 3 4 S 6

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
3
Figure 3.5.315) Maximum angletyfor small baseof cone

0.001 0.002 0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.10


P/f

NOTE. Figure 3.5.3(6) has not been extendedto the minimum values of M because of a practical maximum O.lOforp/f.
of
The minimum thickness of the cone is ecvl/cos y. The cylinder thickness may be reduced
to ecvlas permitted by figure
3.5.3(5)for thep/fvalue shown by a small circle ont h e m 1.O line above.

Figure 3.5.3(6)
Value of coefficientMfor ajunction at thesmall baseof the cone without knuckle

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Issue 1, January 1994

3.5.4 Openings and branch connections T, is the actual thickness of the shell plate;
3.5.4.1 General. The amount of compensation to be T, is the total thickness of shell as required by 3.5.4;
provided atan opening shallbe not less than that specified Tr is the modified thickness of shell (see figures 3.5.4(21)
i n 3.5.4. The design chartsare based on approximate and 3.5.4(22));
analyses considering internal pressure loading only, butthe
t is the branchthicknesscalculatedusingbranchdesign
effect of other loads shall be taken account
into by the
stress by equations for pressure loading only i n 3.5.1
selection of an appropriate value of the factor Cand using
for a plain cylinder;
the procedurein 3.5.4.3.
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

ta is the actual thickness of the branch wall;


The effects of attachments and discontinuities in the
proximity of the openings shall be taken account
intoand in t, is the total thickness of branch as required by 3.5.4;
no case shall branch connections be less than the thickness f r is the modified thickness of branch (see figures
specified in 3.5.4.7. Where itI S proposed touse material for 3.5.4(21) and 3.5.4(22));
branches or added compensation which is dissimilar to thea is the one-halfapex angleof cone(see figure 3.5.4(5));
main shell material,3.5.4.3.7 shall be used. All branch
connections, nozzles and openings not covered in 3.5.4.2 (a)
=L p
to (d)shall be designed on thebasis of special analysis, D 2Tr
experimental evidence, or teststo thesatisfaction of the
3.5.4.2 Application. The requirements in 3.5.4 are valid for
purchaser (see table 1.5). The use of thealternative methods
the designof circular and obround openings and nozzles
given in appendixF is permitted whereexperience has
(including oblique nozzles), arranged singly or in groups, in
shown it to be satisfactory.
spherical, cylindrical, domed and conical shells, positioned
NOTE.The basison whichthese requirements are founded isoutlined to comply with3.10.1.2, provided that the following
in appendix L.
conditions (a) to (d) are satisfied.
For the purposes of 3.5.4.2 to 3.5.4.5 the following symbols NOTE. In cases wherethe design strengthis time dependent, these
apply. All symbols exclude corrosion allowances. procedures should generally give adequate margins against creep
are the cross-sectionalareas used in calculating rupture. However,for vessels madefrom ferritic materialswith a
large DiTa 100) and also vessels made from austenitic materials, it
compensation for adjacentbranches (see figure is desirableto check that any endof life deformation that may be
expected is acceptable.
is a factor applied
to Tr/T; (a) Spherical shells
is the mean diameter of spherical or cylindrical section (1) Openings andnozzles normal to shell surface
of shell (2R, for conical sectionof shell)(see figure (i) The major axis (mean dimension or, where no branch
3.5.4(5)), or in thecase of domedends, the mean is fitted, the bore) of the opening
does not exceed one-
diameter of the equivalent sphere derived in 3.5.2.4; half of the diameter of the shell.
is the bore of opening not provided with branch, or (i¡)The ratio of the major to minor axes of the opening
mean diameter of branch; in the case of non-circular does not exceed 2.
openings (see 3.5.4.3.6);
(2) Oblique nozzles.The nozzle is of circular cross section
isthe average valueof dfor anytwo adjacent openings complyingwith(a)(l)(i)andtheanglebetweentheaxisof
being considered; the nozzle and a line normalto the shell surface does not
is halfthe length of a reinforcing plate in the axial exceed 50 O.
direction (see figure G.3(2)); (b) Cylindrical shells
is half the length of a reinforcing plate in the (1) Openings andnozzles normal to theshell surface. The
circumferential direction(see figure G.3(2)); ratio of the major to minor
axes of the openingdoes not
is the design
stress of shell; exceed 2.
is the design
stress of rim or forging; (2) Oblique nozzles.The nozzle is of circular cross section
is the arrangement factor from figure
3.5.4(16); and the angle between the axis of nozzle
the and a line
normal to the shell surface
does not exceed 50 O.
is the distance along shell within which shell
thickening isassumed to contribute to reinforcement (3) Protruding nozzles. d-tdoes not exceed one-third of
of opening; the mean diameter of the shell.

is the distance along branch within which


branch (4) Flush nozzles. d-tdoes not exceed one-third of the
thickening isassumed to contribute to reinforcement mean diameter of the shell if D/Ta> 200. (If D/TaC200, no
of opening; limit is placedon the permissible diameter of a flush
nozzle.)
is the compensation ratio;
(c) Conical shells
is the pitch
measured between centre lines of two
openings along mid-thickness of shell; (1) Openings andnozzles normal to the shellsurface

is the mean radius of conical shell section at opening


(i) The major axis (mean dimensionor, where no branch
(see figure 3.5.4(5)); is fitted,the bore) of the opening
does not exceed one-
third of the diameter of shell.
the
is theshell thicknessas calculated by equations for
pressure loading onlyin 3.5.1,3.5.2.4 and 3.5.3 for (ii) The ratio of the major to minor
axes of the opening
plain spherical, cylindrical or conical shell section; does not exceed 2.

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(2) Oblique nozzles.The nozzle is of circular cross (iii) Openings and nozzles in torispherical and
section complying with (c)(l)(i) and the angle betweensemi-ellipsoidal endsare positioned to comply with the
the axis of thenozzle anda line normalto the shell requirements shown in figure 3.5.4(0). Where
surface does notexceed 50 O, reinforcement is provided by means of pads or local
(d) Domed ends thickening of the head plate, the distanceL shall be
( 1 ) Openings and nozzlesnormal to the shell surface measured from the edge of the weld or taper nearest
the outside of the vessel. Where a dished end has
(i) The majoraxis of the opening does not exceed
uniform thickness, the distance L shall be measured
one-half of the diameter of the sphere for a
from the outside of the nozzle or rim of the opening.
hemispherical end or one-half of the diameter of the
equivalent sphere (obtained from 3.5.2.4)for a (2) Oblique nozzles.
The nozzle of the circular cross
torispherical or semi-ellipsoidalend. section complying d(
with 1)(i) and theangle between
the axis of thenozzle and a line normal to the shell
(¡i) The ratio of the major to minor
axes of the opening
surface does not exceed 50 O.
does not exceed2.

I'"I
L&+-

h
O

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
D ( mean diameter 1
I
.I

(a) When reinforcementis provided by means ofpads (or local thickening of shell)

L#?íC

,.". D (mean d i a m e t e r )

(b)When no local reinforcementis provided

Figure 3.5.4(0) Positions of openings or nozzles in dished ends(for weld details see appendix
E)

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Issue 1, January 1994

3.5.4.3 Design of isolated openings and branchconnections If the valueof fr obtained differs from the estimate, a
3.5.4.3.1 General. The thickness ofshell, 7, shall be not revised valueof T, shall be used and the calculation
less than 7and the thickness fòr a branch connection, t, repeated.
shall be not less than f. Figures 3.5.4(1)t o 3.5.4(4)are provided for ease of
Where external loads are negligible, the factorC shall be application in manual calculations and definitive
taken as not more than l .l . thicknesses shall be obtained from the data in
table 3.5.4(2)and figure3.5.4(4).Where it is requiredt o
Where branch or nozzle connections are attached t o a
determine t,/T,for CT,/Tandp values that are not
piping system designed with due allowance for expansion
explicitly tabulated, the following procedure shall used.be
thrusts, etc. (e.g. complying with the flexibility
requirements ofBS 806) Cshall be taken as not more (a) For the nearest listedpvalue below that required,
than 1.0. find the nearest tabulated CT,/Tvalues bounding the
exact value above and below. Interpolate linearly to
Other loadings shall be evaluated in accordance with
obtain t,/Tr corresponding to the required value of
appendix G and the thickness of shell or branch increased
CT,/T.
if necessary, such as by selection of a valueC less of than
1.o. (b) Similarly obtaint,/T,for the exactCT,/Tvaluefor
the nearest tabulatedp value greater thanrequired. that
For vessels operating in the creep rangeC l.
(c) Finally interpolate linearly to obtain
tJT,for the
3.5.4.3.2 Openings not fittedwith branchpieces. If
exact value of p.
Extrapolation of the data beyond the limits presented is
p= - - 0.1, no further reinforcement is not permitted. If the chosen
CT,/Tvalue for the vessel is
D 27, required.
greater thanCT,/Tfrom the figure for whichr, = O for the
For larger values ofp thevalue oft,/T, = O in figure3.5.4(2) relevant value ofp, then no reinforcement of the branch is
for spherical or conicd shells or shown in 3.5.4(3) figure required andr, can be chosenas the minimum permitted
for cylindricalshells, shall be taken and the factor C = l .1 by table3.5.4(1 ) .
used to obtain the shell thickness T,. A n iteration
procedure shall then be performed using a revised valueTable of 3.5.4(1)Thickness of branches
p until the assumed and derived values T, are
of equal.
Branch nominal size Minimum thickness
3.5.4.3.3 Branch connections. It is permissible t o reinforce
branch connections by means of increase an in shell mm mm
thickness ornozzle thickness or by a combination of such 15 2.4
increases, subject to the branch thickness limits specified20 2.4
in 3.5.4.3.4(c) and external pipeworkloads. The design 25 2.7
charts covering the following cases shall beused: 32 3.1
figure 3.5.4(1),protruding nozzles in sphericatvessels 40 3.1
with d/D < 0.5 and protrudingnozzles in cylindrical and 50 3.6
conical vessels with d/D < %; 65 3.9
80 4.7
figure 3.5.4(2),flush nozzles in sphericalvessels with
1 O0 5.4
d/D 0.5 and flush nozzles in conical vessels with
125 5.4
d/D %;
150 6.2
figure 3.5.4(3),flush nozzles in cylindrical vessels with 200 6.9
O < d/D < 0.3; 250 8.0
figure 3.5.4(4),
flush nozzles in cylindricalvessels with 300 8.0
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

0.2 < d/D < 1.O. 350 8.8


A value of shell thickness T, 2 Tshall bechosen, and an 400 8.8
estimate of the branch thicknesst, 2 t made so that the 450 8.8
mean branch diameter dand hence d/D and (where 500 10.0
necessary) p can be calculated. A n appropriate value ofC 600 10.0
from 3.5.4.3.1 shall beused, CT,/Tshall be entered in the
NOTE l . It is recommendedthat branches ofup to 80 mm
relevant design chart to obtain t,/T,. In thecase of flush nominal size in aluminium vessels should be forged or machined
nozzles in cylindrical vessels where 0.2 d/D < 0.3 from wrought material, as indicated in figureE.2(25),types (i),(i¡)
a valuetrl shall be derived from figure 3.5.4(3)and a value or (iii),in preference to pipe connections weldeddirectly to the
of tr2shall be derived from figure 3.5.4(4)and the required shell.
thickness f ,obtained as follows; NOTE 2. These tabular values incorporate a margin of strength,
suggested by experience, to cover additional loadingby
t,= rrl + 1O(d/D - 0.2)(tr,- t,,). connected pipework of the order normally to be expectedwith
a properly designed and supported pipingarrangement. They
apply to nominal pipe thickness before deducting any
manufacturing under-tolerance.

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 3.5.4(1) Design curves for protruding nozzles in spherical vessels (d/D ~ 0 . 5and
) for protruding nozzles in
cylindrical and conical vessels ( d / D < W )

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

.-C
-u)
al
N
õC
c
u)
J
E
ô
.c
U
C
m
O
a
V
9
-
b

.-C
-al
u)

N
õC
c
u)
a

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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Issue 1, January 1994

c:r,
'i

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
/

NO1-Ei. For values of 1d/D :


0.2 < d/D < 0.3see 3.5.4.3.3.
'

(O< d/D < 0.3)


Figcre 3.5.4(3)Design curves for flush nozzles in cylindrical shells

Table 3.5.4(2)Design values of tr/Tr


(a) Associated with figure 3.5.4(1)

1.8 2.0 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.70.2 0.3
0.6 0.4 0.5 0.1

3.2
3.1 .O4
a
3.0 .11
2.9 .15 .O6
2.8 .19 .13
2.7 .22 .17 .O7
2.6 .25 .2 1 .13
2.5 .29 .24 .17 .O6
2.4 .33 .28 .13 .21
2.3 .36 .3 1 .18.25 .O4
2.2 .40 .3.13
5 .22.29
2.1 .45 .39 .18
.26
.33 .O0
2.0 .49 .44
.12
.23
.30
.37
1.9 .55 .49 .35.42 .19
.28 .11
1.8 .61 .54 .39.46 .25
.32 .20 .10
1.7 .68 .6 1 .45.52 .30
.37 .19.26 .O7
1.6 .75 .68 .51.59 .35
.42 .17.26.31 .O4
1.5 .85 .77 .58.68 .40
.49 .15.25.31.36 .O2
1.4 .9 5 .88 .79 .68 .47
.58 .32.37.43 .24 .15 .O1
1.3
1.2
1.O8
1.22
1.o0 .80 .91
1.14 1.04 .93
.56
.68
.14 .25.33.39.45.51
.81 .68 .61 .55 .48 .41 .34 -25 .14 O
1.1 1.37 1.29 1.19 1.08 .96 .82 .75 .67 .58 .51 .43 .35 .25 .O9
1.o 1.53 1.44 1.35 1.24 1.13 .99 .91 .81 .71 .62 .52 .44 .21.34 .O6

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Table 3.5.4(2) (concluded)

O (b) Associated with figure 3.5.4(2)

4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.4


1.6
1.8 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

4.0 .5 .38.27 .14


3.9 .53 .41 .30 .17
3.8 .56 .44 .33 .21
3.7 .59 .47.36 .24 .O0
3.6 .63 .51.38 .27.O9
3.5 .67 .54.42 .29 .14
3.4 .72 .58.45 .32.I7.O6
3.3 .78 .62.48 .35 .21 .I 2
3.2 .86 .67.52 .38.24.17.O2
3.1 .96 .73.56 .41 .27.21 .10
3.0 1.12 .80 .61 .45.30.24.16
2.9 1.42 .89.66 .49 .33 .27 .20 .O7
2.8 2.00 1.01 .72 .53 .36 .30 .24 .14
2.7 1.20.80 .58 .40 .33 .27 .19 .O0
2.6 1.52.90 .64 .43 .36 .30 .23 .IO
2.5 2.00 1.04 .71 .47 .40 .33 .26.16
2.4 1.26.80.53 .44 .37.30.21.O4
2.3 1.68.91.60.49 .41 .33.25.12
2.2 2.081.09.66.55.45.37.29.I8 .10
2.1 1.34.76.62.50.42.33.23.17.O6
2.0 1.68.90.72.56.46.37.27.22.15
1.9 2.00 1.10 .84.65.52.42.32.27.20 .10
1.8 1.36 1.02 .77 .60 .47 .37 .31 .26 .18 .O4
1.7 1.68 1.26 .96 .71 .54 .42 .36 .31 .24 .14 .O0

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
1.6 2.00 1.58 1.22.90 .65 .49 .42 .36 .30 .22 . 1 1
1.5 1.90 1.54 1.16 .82 .59 .50 .42 .36 .29 .20 .O7
1.4 2.33 1.90 1.50 1.09.73 .61 .51 .43 .36 .27 .17.O2
1.3 2.15 1.80 1.46.94 .78 .65 .53 .43 .34 .25.12
1.2 2.13 1.80 1.30 1.06 .85 .66 .52 .42 .33 .22 .O8
1.1 2.091.721.381.16.86.69.52.42.31.17 .O
1 .o 2.12 1.69 1.44 1.16 .93 .67 .50 .39 .25 .10

(c) Associated with figure 3.5.4(3)

2.0 1.6 1.8 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

.O4
3.0 .11
2.9 .15
.O6
2.8 .19
.13
2.7 .23
.17
.O8
2.6 .27
.22
.13
2.5 .31
.26
.18
.O6
2.4 .35
.30
.22
.12
2.3 .40 .35 .27
.18
.O7
2.2 .45
.39
.32
.23
.15
2.1 .50
.45
.38
.30
.22
.O7
2.0 .56
.50 .44 .36.27
.16
.O6
1.9 .63 .56 .49 .42 .33 .23 .14 .O4
1.8 .70 .63 .56 .48 .39 .28 .21 .14 .O3
1.7 .80 .71 .63 .54 .44 .33 .26 .12.21
1.6 .92 .82 .72 .62 .51 .38 .32 .27 .20 .11
1.5 1.06 .95 .83 .72 .59 .46 .38 .32 .26 .20 .O9
1.4 1.23 1.1 1 .98 .84 .70 .55 .46 .39 .33 .27 .19
.O3
1.3 1.44 1.30 1.17 1.02 .84 .67 .57 .50 .41 .34 .26
.I6
0 1.2
1.1
1.77 1.60 1.42 1.26 1.05 .85
1.81
1.57
1.33 1.10
.72 .61
.95
.79
.65
.53
.43
.35
.25
.50 .42 .34
.26 .14
.10
1 .o 1.96
1.68
1.42
1.22 1.04 .82
.66
.54
.45
.34
.22 .10

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Issue 1, January 1994

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

.I4
.o2
.94
-82
*
.60
.48
.42
74
a
* 34
-26
.19

O 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
Y

NOTE l . This figure maybe representedby the followingexpression which may also be used for CTJTvalues greater than 3:
64
Y=
[4CTr/T+ 0.8+ 1 6(CT,/T)' - 12.8CTr/T+ 0.64}0'5]2 {
NOTE 2. For values of d/D : 0.2 < d/D < 0.3see 3.5.4.3.3.
Figure 3.5.4(4)Design curves for flush nozzles in cylindrical shells (0.2<d/Dd 1.0)

a
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Issue 1, January 1994

3.5.4.3.4Limitson reinforcement. The limits on The rim shall be designeda smooth


to profile,
reinforcement shall be
as follows: concentrating materialnear the edge of theopening, such
(a) Where reinforcementis provided by uniform branch that one-half of the total cross-sectional
area falling
thickening, the thicknesst, of thebranch, andprotrusion within the outermost extremities of the dimensions h and
be reduced within a distance
if fitted, shall not h = fir Has calculated and measured in3.5.4.3.4(a) and (b) shall
measured from the relevant surface of the shell of be notless than the following:
thickness T, (see figures 3.5.4(7),
3.5.4(8), 3.5.4(9), [2ht, + T,(H + t,)] (fs/fn) if the rim
protrudes;
3.5.4(11),3.5.4(12)and3.5.4(13)). [ht, + T,(H + t,)] (fs/f,,)if the rim is flush.
It is permissible to modify the distribution of NOTE.The cross-sectional areaof the rim requiredin this
reinforcement so as to concentrate the material close to derivation will vary depending on the particular combination of T,
and t,. A trial procedureusing different combinations of T, and t,
the opening in the shell. For flush nozzles, one-half of
may be employed to establish the minimum area required. For
the total cross-sectionalarea of the branch walls falling the protruding rim,the cross-sectional area should be equally
within the distanceh as calculated and measuredin this disposed aboutthe shell mid-thickness.
item (a) shall be not less than ht, (see figure3.5.4(21 )l. 3.5.4.3.6Obround, elliptical openingsand oblique nozzles.
For protruding nozzles, the corresponding Non-circular openingsand oblique nozzles shall be treated
cross-sectional area shall be notless than Zht, and the according to the rules for circular openingsnozzles and
reinforcement shall be (approximately) equally disposed normal to theshell with the following exceptions.
about the shell mid-thickness (see figure 3.5.4(22)). The
(a) For a cylindrical shell with the minor axis of the
value of h is established for the uniform branch
opening parallelto theaxis of the shell and for a conical
thickening case and shall not be recalculated if tris
shell with the minor axis of the opening lying in a plane
varied.
containing theaxis of the conical shell, dis the
(b) Where reinforcement is provided by uniform shell dimension measuredon the chord across the minor axis
thickening, the thickness T, of the shell shall not be of the opening where a branch is not provided and dis
reduced within a distance H measured from the outer the corresponding dimension of the opening plus the
surface of the branch piece of thickness r, or the bore of nozzle thickness where a branch is attached.
the opening if no branch is fitted (see figures 3.5.4(6),
For allother cases, dis the dimension measured across
3.5.4(9),3.5.4(10),3.5.4(13)and3.5.4(18)),whereHis
the majoraxis of the opening where a branch is not
the smallerof H = d l 2 and H= fl provided and dis thecorresponding dimension of the
I t is permissible t o concentrate the reinforcing material opening plus thenozzle thickness where a branch is
close to theopening. In thiscase, one-half of the total attached.
cross-sectional area taken between the outermost
(b) In determining dimensions H and h, the value ofd
extremity of the dimension H on oneside of thenozzle
shall begiven as in (a).
and a similar point on the opposite side of thenozzle,
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

but excludingany area included in(a), shall be notless (c) In thecase of multiple openings the value of dA used
than T,(H + r,). The value of H shall be calculatedand in 3.5.4.4.1shall be determined using das given in (a).
measured as in this item (b)
(see figures 3.5.4(21) and 3.5.4.3.7Dissimilarmaterials. The design procedure
3.5.4(22)) and once established it shall not be normally assumes the use of similar material in the branch
recalculated. and shell but where this is not thecase and provided that
(c) The required thickness of the branch, t,(except for the design strength of the branch, f,,, is within the range
studded pads, see 3.5.4.8) shall be not greater than 0.6 fst o 1.5 fs,the following shallapply:
(2 - d/D)Tr. Where the distribution of the reinforcement if 0.6 fs f,, < fs,the calculated branch thickness
has been concentrated close to opening,
the as (disregarding here the requirement of table 3.5.4(1))
permitted in (a) and (b), the modified thicknessest; and shall be increased to
T; (see figures 3.5.4(2 1) and 3.5.4 (22)) shall be
substituted in this relationship
as appropriate. trswhere trs)2
:(rt

(dl The transitions between sections of shell or A check shall be made ensure
to that trscomplies with
between sectionsof branch or nozzle connections of the minimum thickness requirements given in table
different thicknesses shall be achieved by means of a
3.5.4( 1).
smooth taper. The requirements 3.10.2
of shall apply in
the case of shell sections. Where the thickness tris modified in accordance with
this subclause, it shall not be necessary to recalculate
3.5.4.3.5Rim reinforcements and set-in nozzle forgings.It is the mean branch diameter, d, and iterate further and
permissible for thedesign of rim reinforcements (see neither is it necessary to recalculateh.
figures 3.5.4(14) and 3.5.4( 15)) to be derived from that for
If fn > fs,no reduction in t, is permitted.
branch connections in the following manner.
NOTE l . Where reinforcement is concentrated near the
In accordance with 3.5.4.3.3,a combination ofT, and t, 3.5.4(21)
opening, see also figures and 3.5.4(22).
is t o be
shall bedetermined, using figure3.5.4( 1) if the rim NOTE 2. For forged nozzle inserts,the procedure in 3.5.4.3.5
protruding (see figure3.5.4( 14)) and figure 3.5.4(2), includes the necessary thickening correction factor.
3.5.4(3) or 3.5.4(4) for a flush rim (see figure 3.5.4( 15)).

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 3.5.4(5)Nozzle in a conical shell Figure 3.5.4(9) Notation applicable


to spheres

Figure 3.5.4(6) Notation applicable \D


to spheres Figure 3.5.4(1O) Notation applicable
to cylinders

Figure 3.5.4(7)Notation applicable Figure 3.5.4(11) Notation applicable


to spheres to cylinders

Figure 3.5.4(8) Notation applicable Figure 3.5.4(12)Notation applicable


to spheres to cylinders

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Figure 3.5.4(13) Notation applicable


to cylinders
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

NOTE. The dimensionsT,, H, r, and h refer to the design of a branch connection using components of constant thickness
from
which the design of theprofiled rim isderived on an area basis.
Figure 3.5.4(14)Protruding rim Figure 3.5.4(15) Flush rim

Spherical vessels Cylindrical vessels

,
g=(1 +-cos2 8)/2
For holesarranged
along the axial direction
(P=P,),g=l
For holes arranged along
the transverse direction
P=P,,g=0.5

Cylindrical tube sheets

Takeg=l or
g= P x P
r - --d 1 +cosa e
P P,-d x ___ 2
whichever is larger
-Axial
direction
NOTE. For elliptical and oblique nozzles the valuedis
of the dimension of the opening in the direction of
the relevant pitch.

Figure 3.5.4( 16) Arrangement factor


g

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Issue 1, January 1994

NOTE l . All dimensions taken in fully corroded condition.


NOTE 2. For set-in or set-through branch,A, andA, should be adjusted accordingly.When branch materialis weaker than
shell material,A, andA, should be reduced inthe ratio of the material design strengths.

Figure 3.5.4(17) Branch compensation

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 3.5.4(19)Notation applicable


to spheres and cylinders

Figure 3.5.4(18)Notation applicable


Figure 3.5.4(20) Notation applicable
to spheres and cylinders
to spheres and cylinders

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Area m 2 [r).lr+q
t,+<x ] 41-4

2 TH"7;X

Area of weld metal maybe


added to either area above

O L H

(a) Set-in

Area of weld metal may be


added to either area above

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(b) Set-on

Figure 3.5.4(21)Modified flush branch compensation

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/ I I Area B = hf,fJf,

Area H
+

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Area 3 T H-TrX

Area of weld metal may be


added to either area above

Figure 3.5.4(22) Modified protruding branch compensation

3.5.4.4 Design of groups of openings and branch (2) Calculate the compensation ratioK2 from the
connections following:
3.5.4.4.1 Calculations. The following calculations shall be
carried out. K z = l -( I - K l ) (~-2~577
(a) A group of openings or branch connections is W
defined as being where the shortest distance (measured NOTE. If KI calculated from ( 1 ) is greater thanunity, use K,
along the mid-thickness line) between the bores any of = 1 in this equation.
t w o is less than 3- (3) Increase the dimensions calculated in (b) if
required so that, for each ligament,
(b) Calculate reinforcement requiredas for the isolated
As + A , - At 2 K2gPT
H is available.
case assuming that the full width
(e) The final thickness of the branch, r,, shall be less
(c) Where the shortest distance (measured along the
than (2- d/D)T,.
mid-thickness line) between the bores of adjacent
openings is lessthan 2 m,
the reinforcement
so that, for
calculated in(b)shall be increased if required
(f) The transitions between sections of shell or between
sections of branch or nozzle connections of different
16) and 3.5.4( 1 7 ) ) ,
each ligament (see figures 3.5.4( thickness shall be achieved by means of a smooth taper.
A , + A , - A t 2gPT. The requirements of3.10.2 shall apply in the case of
(d) Where the shortestdistance,^, (measured along the shell sections.
mid-thickness line) between the bores of adjacent 3.5.4.4.2 Ligament efficiency.Where openings such as
openings lies between 2 *rand 3 the F, it is permissible
tube holesare drilled in a definite pattern
reinforcement required shall be determined by linear use it in
t o dFtermine a ligament efficiency and
interpolation as follows, using the dimensions accordance with BS 1 1 13.
determined in (b). 3.6.4.5 Reinforcingpads
K , using the
( 1) Calculate the compensation ratio 3.5.4.5.1 Pressure considerations.I t is permissible for the
reinforcement required in(b): requirements in3.5.4.1 t o 3.5.4.4for the design of integral
As+A,-A, reinforcement to be used for reinforcement of
K, =
gT(dA+ 3 fin

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BSI BSS5500 9Y 1b2Ybb9 0395090 b l T m
BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

penetrations or openings incorporating pads or doubling 3.5.4.7Branchpipes. The design of branch pipes shall be
plates, but all of the following conditions shall be governed by the following three main considerations.
observed. (a) Ability to withstand design pressure.
For this
(a) The d / D ratio is not greater than: purpose the minimum thickness aofbranch shall be
one-third for double-sided pads; calculated in accordance with3.5.1for cylindrical shells.
one-quarter for single-sided pads. (b) Ability to withstand superimposed loading by
is not less than H/2.
(b) The width of the pad connected pipework or fittings. Notwithstanding the
(C) The thickness ofa pad does not exceed40 m m or minimum thicknessas required for (a) or to comply
the as-built shell
thickness, whichever is the lesser. with 3.5.4.3,the nominal thickness of a branch intended
for connection to external piping shall notless
bethan:
(dl The thickness of the pad is not
less than T/4.
( 11 the value given in table
3.5.4( 1 ) increased by the
The amount of compensation to be provided shall be
amount ofany required corrosion allowance; or
equal to the amount which would have been necessary
had the compensation been integral. (2)the nominal (as-built) thickness of the main
( 1 1.
portion of the vessel sheli where this is less than
The design of reinforcingpads for branches where one or
more of the criteria (a)
in to (d)are not satisfied shallbe (c) Suitability for the recommended forms of branch to
the subject of special considerationand the adequacy of shell attachment welds (see appendix E).
the proposed design shall be demonstrated either by 3.5.4.8Studded socket welded and screwed connections.
experience or byan hydraulic proof testin accordance Permissible forms of construction studded,
of socket
with 5.8. welded and screwed connections are shown in figures
3.5.4.5.2Non-pressure considerations.Conditions (a) to E.2(24) and E.2(25).Where required by3.5.4 appropriate
(d) of3.5.4.5.1 do notapply to reinforcingpads which are reinforcement shall be incorporated.
used to limit the local stresses due to mechanical loads on The thread forms on which jointsare to be made shall
branches, supports or mounting. However, the maximum comply withES 21 unless otherwise specified (see 3.2.2)
thickness of a pad which can be counted as effective and shall notexceed the 1% thread size designation unless
reinforcement of a branch for pressure loading shall be taperhaper thread joints are used.Taper/taper thread
in 3.5.4.5.1 (c)
limited to the value given joints shall not be used with thread
size designations
If the thickness of the reinforcing pad is greater than the greater than the following:
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

vesselshellthickness,itssize(d,xd,infigureG.3(2))shall 2%where pressure 6 1.25 N/mm2


be such that the design leg length ofthe attachment3 welds where pressure d 1.O5N/mm2
to thevessel shell does not exceed the vessel thickness 4 where pressure d 0.90 N/mm2
(see G.2).
3.5.4.5.3 General. Reinforcing pads are permitted to have Irrespective of threadform, screwed connections in
excess of the 1% thread size designation shall not be used
one ventilation hole which shall remain open during
welding and/or post-weld heat treatment.
when the design temperature exceeds 260 "C. If parallel
threads are used, a collar and a facing around the hole
Reinforcing pads shall not be used under conditions
shall be arranged t o provide a joint
face. Welded sockets
where severe corrosion/oxidation is possible or where
complying withBS 3799 or of equivalent form are
there is the possibility ofsevere temperature gradients
permitted. The maximum diameter holes of tapped in
occurring, in service, acrossthe thickness of the shell.
exceed the thicknessof the plate before
plates shall not
3.5.4.6 Vessels subject to external pressure addition of the corrosion allowance.
3.5.4.6.1 Compensation of openings in single-walled Stud holes shall straddle the centre line of the vessel
vessels subject to externalpressure shall be designed in where practicable and shall be tapped to a depth of not
accordance with the requirements vesselsfor subject to less than the diameter of the stud3 plus mm. There shall
internal pressure specified in3.5.4, using an internal be a minimumof 6 m m of metal between the bottom of
design pressure equal to the external design pressure. the stud hole and the pressure retaining surface of the
3.5.4.6.2Compensation required for openings in each vessel before the addition of the corrosion allowance.
shell of a double-walled 3.5.4:6.1
vessel shall comply with
The thickness of a studded connection shall be not less
for the shell subject to external pressure and with the
than the largest of the following:
requirement forvessels subject to internal pressure
irrespective of whether there aiscommon branch (a) T l r ,the minimum thickness required for
connection rigidly attached to bothshells or not. compensation (see 3.5.4.1);
(b) t, the minimum thickness required fora flange
(see 3.8.3);
(c) the minimum thicknessas given above for
tapped holes.

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B S I BS*5500 94 m Lb24667 0395093 55b m
BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

3.5.5 Flat ends and flat plates F isthetotalbolt load;


3.5.5.1Notation.For the purposes of
3.5.5.2the following
symbols apply.All dimensions exclude corrosion
allowances.
f is thenominaldesignstress;
NOTE. In cases where the design strengthtimeis dependent,
components designed by the procedure specified in this section
a
a is the smallest dimension of rectangular, elliptical or should be reviewed to ensure that creep deformation (local or
general)will be acceptable throughoutthe agreed design lifetime.
obround end;
H is the total hydrostatic end force;
b is the greatest dimension of rectangular, elliptical or
obround end; p is thedesignpressure;
C is the factor as given in figures 3.5.5( 1)(a) and r is thecorner radius;
3.5.5(2)(a), (b) and (dl or, in the case of welded flat u is the distance between flat end and end of
ends or plates (e.g. figures 3.5.5(1)(b)and (c)),C is thickness reduction (figure 3.5.5(1 )(a));
determined from figure 3.5.5(3); W is the minimum length of shell of thickness
ecylin
D is the diameter measured as in figures 3.5.5(1) and figure 3.5.5(1)(b)and (c):
3.5.5(2); W 2 + ecyl) ecyl
Di is the diameter measured as in figure 3.5.5(1); Z is the coefficient for rectangular, elliptical or obround
e is the minimum thickness of end or plate; ends givenin figure 3.5.5(4).
ecyl is the thicknessof cylindrical shell;
ecylo is the minimum thickness of cylindrical shell
as
derived from3.5.1.2;

r a 2e

alope 1 : 4 / C = 0.35

if u 3 r + [ 1.1 -0.8 ( . 7
cv9*] d/D,e
Otherwise, C = 0.41.

-" Cl-

¡D

(b)
~ ~ ~ . "

Dotted lines indicate alternative profiles. r 2 5 mm or eCYl/4.


The end may be undercutas shown to make
provision for the radiusr or to improve access for non-destructive
testing of the weld (see figure E.2(34))provided that r < ecyland
the thicknessof the end is nowhere less than e.,

NOTE. The thickness of the cylinder, ecylneed only be maintained over a distance wfrom the end. Thethickness of the cylinder maybe
increased above eCyl(but not so as to exceed e ) local to the end and be reduced
to a value not less than at more distant points
eCylo
within the distancewfrom the end is not less than wecyl.C is
providedthat the total cross-sectionalarea of the shell walls falling
determined from figure 3.5.5(3).

Figure 3.5.5(1 ) Typical welded flatends and covers (for typical weld joint
details, see figure E.2(34))
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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BS 5500 : 1994

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Issue 1, January 1994

D
I

(b) Blind flangewith a full face gasket C=0.41

P
(a) Flat coverwith a full face gasketCz0.41

G
I 1 thG

(c) Blind flangewith gasket entirelywithin the bolt circle

and el =
J1.g:9sXhG
or el = J 1.90~991h~ whichever is the greater

where
G, W, W m l ,hG, SF* and SFOare as defined in3.8.2;
a t and beyond gasket.
el is the minimum thickness
(d) Cover with self-sealing joint
Non-circular end plates
c= /'O 17+0.75 f
'
e=J0.3G2@2 + 6WmlhG 1 H
sFO m sFO where
G being measured along the shorter
axis F is the total bolt load
H is the total hydrostatic end load

or el = 4 n m SF0
whichever is greater
the

where
m is the minimum boltspacing;
n is the numberof bolts.

Figure 3.5.5(2)
Typical non-welded flat ends and covers

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

z>
L
3
o
S
.-m
v)
a
o
U
..
ln

O O o O O

CI

a
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1.60

0
1.50

1,40
h
I
C

-:
.-
o
c

o
1.30

1,20

a
1 10

O 0.2 00.4
.8 0.6 1
Ratio a h

NOTE. In thecase of long flat ends (where a / b 0.2) other thanas shown in figure3.5.5(2),a minimum value of CZ equal to 0.71
should be used in accordance with 3.5.5.2.1to determine the thickness required.
Figure 3.5.5(4)Value of coefficient Z for noncircular flat heads

3.5.5.2Flat unstayedheads * aluminium plates shall be calculated in accordance with


3.5.5.2.1Calculations. The minimum thickness ofan the following:
unstayed flat end without
an opening shall comply with
I-
the following:
e=KDd:
circular head:e = C O F f
end:e =CZaGplf
rectangular, elliptical or obround where

a For blind flanges with the gasket entirely within the bolt
circle reference shall be made
Flat heads that have
to figure 3.5.5(2)(c).
an opening of diameter D / 2 or less
D is the diameter of a circle drawn through at least
three points of support pitched at reasonably
regular intervals circumferentially;
shall be provided with a total area of reinforcementequal e is theminimumcalculatedthickness;
to half that determined in accordance with appendix F. f is thedesign stress;
Where an opening of diameter greater than D/2 is
K is a constant depending on method of attachment
present, theflat head shall be designed in accordance with K shall bea
of stay to plate (see figure 3.5.5(5)).
the basic principles used in 3.8 for flangedesign. mean value when more than one type of support
If, in thecase of weldedends/covers, the nominal design is involved;
stress of the cylinder and end/coverare different, the p is thedesign pressure.
lower value shall be usedevery
in case.
3.5.5.2.2Additionalloads.Where the external load on the Designs in which plate deflection and/or differential
end (or the loading duereverseto pressure) can expansion are significant shall be given special
exceed 1O % of the load due to design pressure, or where, consideration.
in thecase of weldedends/covers, the temperature 3.5.5.3.2 Methods of support. Themethod of support shall
difference between the end/cover and the vessel branchbe chosen from the typical methods shown in figure
exceeds 5 0 "C ( 3 0 "C for austeniticsteel), the design shall 3.5.5(5)(a) to (f).
be given special consideration. NOTE. When it is undesirable to drill a plate for the attachmentof
stays, e.g. when theplate is to be lined, the use of stays of the
3.5.5.3Flat stayedplates without openings type shown infigure 3.5.5(5)(a)or (b) is recommended.

a 3.5.5.3.1Plate thickness. The thickness of stayedand


braced carbonand carbon manganese steel and

"For supporting information,see appendix R

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BSI
BSt5500 94 L b 2 4 b b 9 0395095 I T 1 m
BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Inside diameterof
staytube is
greater thanits
diameter length

(a)K = 0.55
(b)K = 0.55

a
(C) K = 0.50 (d)K=0.50

2%tor r whichever
is the lesser

/- i t

/ \ /
’““0 ““Y /

( e )K=0.45 (f) K = 0.45

type as in (b)

Equally spaced
(9)
NOTE. For weld details see appendixE

Figure 3.5.5(5) Typical stays: areas supported by stays

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

3.5.5.3.3Stays. The design stress of


stays, calculated on The equations are approximate in thatthey do not take account
the least cross-sectionalarea, shall be not greater than of the structural continuitythat exists atthe junction of the head
and flange.A more exact (and often less conservative) analysis is
the following: given by Soehrens’. The stresses calculated using this approach
forsolidstaybars: O. 7 5 f should be assessedin accordance with appendix A.
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

staytubes:
0.70ffor For the purposes of 3.5.6.2 and 3.5.6.3the following
staybolts:
0.65f for symbols apply. All dimensions exclude corrosion
where fis the designstress from table 2.3 or 3.8.1.4, as allowances.
appropriate.
For the purposes ofcalculation, the grossarea supported is the outside diameter of flange
or, where slotted
by each stay shall beas shown in figure 3.5.5(5)(9). In the holes extend to outside flange,
of the diameter to
it is
case of stays of the type shown in figure 3.5.5(5)(b) bottom ofslots;
permissible to use the nettarea supported in the is the inside diameter flange;
of
equations. (see 3.8.2);
is the bolt pitch correction factor
The design stress in attachment welds shall exceed
not of spherical
is the nominal design stress for material
0.5f in fillet welds
and 0.6f in penetration welds. crown section;
Stays shall be of welding quality wrought materials is the hydrostaticend force onarea inside of flange
complying with section two and shall be compatible with (¡.e. force applied via connection to
the material of the plates which they support. Stays shall flange) = 0 . 7 8 5 8 2 ~ ;
not bewelded, except a t the point of attachment. Where
is the gasketload;
necessary, long stays shallhave additional supportt o
prevent sagging. is the radial componentof membrane force
developed in spherical crown section, acting at
3.5.5.3.4 Tube to tubeplate connections.The centre line of edge;
tubes thatare t o be expanded shallnot be closer together
is the hydrostatic end force due to pressure on
than 1.125d+ 12.7 mm, measured at the tubeplate, where
flange face, = H - H,, where H is defined in3.8.2;
dis the outside diameter of the tube in millimetres.
is the radial distance from bolt circle to circle on
NOTE. This subclause doesnot apply to tubeplates covered which HDacts;
in 3.9.
is the radial distance from gasket load reaction to
bolt circle=(C- G)/2 where C and G are as defined
3.5.6 Spherically domed and bolted ends of the form
in 3.8.2;
shown in figure 3.5.6
is the axial distance from mid-surface of crown
3.5.6.1 General. Except as specified as follows for bolted
section at edgeto centroid of flange ring cross
ends of the form shown in figure 3.5.6, conical and domed
section;
and bolted ends shall be designed by treating the domed
end and the bolted flange as t w o separate components in is the radial distance from bolt circle to circle on
compliance with the relevant clauses of this standard. which HT acts;
M
,, is the total moment acting upon flange for gasket
sealing conditions;
is the total moment acting on flange for operating
Full conditions;
is the designpressure;
is the inside radius of curvature of spherical crown
section;

T*
is the nominal design stress for flange material at
atmospheric pressure from table2.3;
is the nominal design stress for flange material at
design temperature (operating conditions) from
2
, cl,2a h] ; \ sides table 2.3;
Centroid is the minimum flange ring thickness;
is the flange thickness required for operating
condition;
is the flange thickness required for bolting-up
Use any suitable type of gasket
condition;
Figure 3.5.6 Spherically domed and bolted end is the minimum thickness of spherical crown
section;
NOTE. Themethod of determining the thickness of the flangering
involves assessing the final thickness
in order to arrive at the is the angle between tangent to domed crown
location of the centroid and hencethe value ofh, and isthus a a plane parallel t o flange face.
section at its edge and
‘trial and error’ calculation.

J. E. SOEHRENS. The design


of floatingheadsfor heat exchangers. Pressure Vessel and Piping Design. Collected Papers
1927 to
1959, ASME.

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B S I B S x 5 5 0 0 94 m 1624669 0395097 T74
BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Subject to internal pressure (concave to pressure) associated documentation. (See the notes 3.6.2.1
3.5.6.2 to and
Crownsection. The minimum thickness of the
3.5.6.2.1 3.6.4.)
spherical crown section shall
be: NOTE 1. In cases where the design strength is time dependent,
components designed by the procedure specifiedin this clause
t, =-5PR I (3.8) should be reviewedto ensure that creep deformation (local or
6f general) will be acceptable throughout the agreed design lifetime.
3.5.6.2.2 Flange ring.The boltingarea required, the bolt NOTE 2. For moreinformation on the background to this section
see proceedings of 1.Mech.E. Conference, 7 December 1972, on
loads and the gasket width check shall be calculated in Vessels under Buckling Conditions, and in particular the following
accordance with 3.8. papers.
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3.5.6.2.3 Flange ring thickness.The minimumthickness, T, C l 87/72 Buckling under external pressure of cylinders with
of the flange ring shall be the greater Tf, orofTfA either torispherical or hemispherical end closure,
by G.D. Galletly
and R.W. Aylward.
determined as follows, but shall be not less than twice the
crown thickness,¡.e. T > 2 t c . C190/72 Collapse of stiffened cylinders under external pressure,
by S.B. Kendrick.
(a) Operating condition: C191/72 Collapse of domes under external pressure, by C.N.
Tf, = F + $ W (3.9) Newland.
where 3.6.1.1Notation. For the purposes of3.6.2t o 3.6.3the
pBd4R: - B* following major symbolsapply. All dimensions exclude
F= corrosion allowances.
8 s ~ o ( A- B )
is the modifiedarea of stiffener= R2As/R:;
Mo,C~(A + B ) is the cross-sectionalarea of stiffener plus effective
J, =
BSFO(A- B ) = (A, + ef e);
length of shell
M,, = H D h D + H G h G + H T+ Hrhr
~ is the cross-sectionalarea of stiffener;
= 2eN/a!/l +be);
H, = HDcot ßI
is the width of stiffener in contact shell;
with
NOTE. Theproduct H,h, may be negativeif the sense ofthis
moment isopposite to themoments HDhD, H G h G andThis is a parameter dependent on stiffener proportions
negative sense is indicated in figure The absolute values of
3.5.6. (see figure 3.6(4));
p and Mopshould be used in the equations
for FandJ,.
= i ( R - Rf) - X, + e / 2 orXc, whichever is larger
(b) Bolting up condition: whereX, is given by equation(3.1 5);
is the radial heightof stiffener between flanges (if
CF(A+ B)M,t, (3.1O) any);
T~A=1
1' (A - B)BSFA is the modulus of elasticity of material of under
part
3.5.6.3Subject to externalpressure (convex to pressure). consideration at design temperature (see table
The crown sectionand flange ring shall comply
with the 3.6(3));
following. is the minimum calculated thickness of shell plate;
(a) Crown section.The minimum thickness of the of stiffener section(see
is the thickness of flange
spherical crown section shall
be the greater of: figure 3.6(4));
( 1) thickness determined in accordance with is the thickness of web of stiffener section (see
3.5.6.2.1; figure 3.6(4));
(2)thickness of a spherical shell of radius
RI under maximum stress in
external pressure determined in accordance with = stiffener flange( a t factored load) (see equation
3.6.4. yield stress of stiffener (3.17);
(b) Flange ring.The thickness of the flange ring shall be are the nominal design strengths from table
2.3 for
determined in accordance with3.5.6.2.2 except that: shell and stiffener respectively;
M,,=HD - hG) +HT(hT - h G ) - h r H r
NOTE. The gasket should be checked against excessive al al al af
deformation under the action of the
bolt load andthe external -
2 sinh- cos-
2 2
+ cosh-2sin- 2
pressure thrust. -
sinhaL + s i n a l
3.6 Vessels underexternal pressure is the second moment area
of of stiffener cross
3.6.1General. These requirements take account of section aboutaxis through centroid parallel to
loading due to pressure and temperature and, where cylinder axis;
significant loadings as listed in 3.2.1are present, support is the unsupported length of shell (see figure 3.6(4));
shall be provided forsuch loads, if necessary, by is the distance between heavy stiffeners (see figure
increasing the shell thickness or by other means. 3.6(4));
The thickness ofa component under external pressure is the effective length of shell acting with stiffener
shall not beless than the thickness required by this (see table3.6);
standard for similar components under the same internal
L ~ " etc.
, are components ofL,;
pressure, or that requiredby 3.6,whichever is the greater.
is the distance between light stiffeners (see figure
The allowable deviation from the shape assumed in
3.6(4));
design shall be specified on the drawing or in the

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= (cosh aL - cosaL) / ( s i n h d + s i na L ) (see table (a) Estimate a value fore (e.g. not less than that
3.6(2)); required for internal pressure (see 3.6.1))and calculate
is the required external design pressure; pyas follows. is It permissiblet o use the approximation
y = O to simplify the calculation but this may lead an to
is the elastic instabilitypressure for collapse of
underestimation of the allowable pressure p.
spherical shell (see equation (3.25));
sfe (3.1 1)
is the elastic instability pressure for collapse of Py =
cylindrical shell (see equation(3.1 2)); R(1 - yG)
is the elastic instabilitypressure for collapse of (b) Calculate pmas follows (using the same value fore
conical section between stiffeners (see equation assumed incalculatingp,).
(3.19)); EeE
Pm’ - (3.12)
is the elastic instability pressure
of stiffened R
cylinder(see equation (3.1 3));
The value ofE is obtained directly from figure 3.6(2).
is thepressure a t which mean circumferential stress
(c) Calculatep,/p,and determinep/pyfrom curve (a)
in cylindrical shell midway between stiffeners
of figure 3.6(3).
reaches yield point of material (see equation
(3.1 1));
(dl Calculate the allowablepressure p. If this valueis
is the pressure at which mean circumferential stress
less than required, the assumed value e ofshall be
in conical section between stiffeners
reaches yield
increased or the spacing of the stiffeners, any,ifshall be
point of material (see equation (3.1 8));
adjusted until the required value is obtained.
is the pressure causing circumferential yield of
NOTE. The design curve in figure 3.6(3)only appliesto
stiffener (see equation (3.1
6)); cylinders that are circular to within 0.5 % on the radius
is the pressure at which membrane stress in measured from the true centre. A procedureby which the
spherical shellreaches the yield point of material departure from the mean circle may be obtained is given in
3.6.8.For cylinders outsidethis to1erance.p rnay be
(see equation (3.24)); estimated by the proceduregiven in appendixM.
is the meanradius of cylindrical, conical or spherical 3.6.2.2 Stiffening ringsfor cylindrical shells
shells or sections, or crownradius of torispherical
ends; 3.6.2.2.1 General. Any stiffening rings assumed to act in
the derivationo f p shall comply with 3.6.2.2and 3.6.2.3.
is the radius of standing flange of stiffener; The size of thestiffeners’ (acting atL,) necessary t o
is the radius of centroid of ring stiffener cross comply with these requirements will depend significantly
section; upon theuse that is made of occasional heavy stiffeners
is the mean knuckle radius of torispherical ends; or diaphragms (acting at LC) to control the effective leng
is the radius of toe at point of rotation; and overall collapse of the stiffened cylinder; stiffeners
used for this latter purpose are hereafter termed‘heavy’
is the radial distance of frame centroid from toe; stiffeners and all other stiffeners ‘light’ stiffeners.
is the factor relating f to effective yield point of NOTE. Stiffeners may take the form of purpose-built rings
material; for the purposes of 3.6 S may be taken to encompassing the shell. Such rings may be located internally,
be 1.4 forcarbon, carbon manganese and ferritic externally or partly internally and partly externally to the vessel.
alloy steels and 1. I for austenitic steelsand Geometric discontinuitiesor otherstructural features may also
provide effective stiffening as illustrated in figures 3.6(4)and
aluminium alloysN5, N8and N51; 3.6(5).
is the outstanding width of flange of stiffener (seeRings for supporting trays, etc. in fractioning columns and similar
figure 3.6(4)); constructions rnay be used as stiffeners provided that they are
adequate for the duty and that they also comply with 3.6.2.3.
= nR/L;
Stiffening rings and other features used as stiffeners shall,
= 1.28/ J R T
where practicable, extend and be completely attached
is the mean elastic circumferential straina t collapse; around the circumference;any joints shall be so designed
is the angle of inclination of conical shell to verticalas to develop the full stiffness of the ring also (see3.10).
axis; Stiffening rings arravged with local spaces between the
is a parameter= + 1 for internal stiffeners,- 1 for shell and thering, as shown in figure 3.6(0), shall be
subject to special consideration, but in no case shall the
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

external stiffeners;
length of the unsupported shell plate exceed the value:
is Poisson’s ratio(to be takenas 0.3);
circumference
=A(1 -/d2)/@+be)(l+B)=Ofornostiffeners.
4n
3.6.2 Cylindrical shells where n is derived from figure 3.6( 1).
3.6.2.1 Unsupportedcylinders. The thickness of Welds attaching stiffening rings to the shell should be
unsupported cylinders, or cylindrical lengths between designed in accordance with3.10. Intermittent welds
points of support, shall not be less than that determinedshould not beused where crevice corrosion is likely
to
by the followingprocedure. occur.

*An approximateestimate of the order of magnitude of the moment of inertia of therequired stiffener cross section,I , (after which
the full calculations requiredcan be done to check design adequacy) may be obtained from the following:
i.URL,R,~~
I=
E

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also either w f / e f 0.5 j € / s f ,


or wf/et ,< 0.32 \i€p,,/sf,p
(b) For flat bar stiffeners:
UP,
P < X
4sfs
Where ue is obtained from table3.6(4)or 3.6(5),
Crosspiece welded to depending on whether the stiffeneris internal orexternal,
using the value noffrom figure3.6(1 ) .
3.6.2.3 Stiffened cylinders
3.6.2.3.1 Alternative methods of assessment.The
thickness of stiffened cylinders shall assessed
be by any
of the methods described 3.6.2.3.1.1
in t o 3.6.2.3.1.3(see
Unsupported length not figures 3.6(4)and 3.6(5)).
to exceed value specified in3.6.2.2 3.6.2.3.1.1 MethodA. Method A which comprises a
Figure 3.6(0)Stiffening rings forcylindrical simple and conservative assessment of each stiffener
vessels subject to external pressure assuming that adjacent stiffeners support individual bays
in an infinitely longvessel, shall be used for
vessels
3.6.2.2.2 Limitingproportions ofstiffeners (see figure stiffened only by light stiffeners with vessel
the ends
3.6(4)).To ensure lateral stability, stiffeners shall comply treated as light stiffeners. The following calculations shall
with the following. be performed.
(a) The proportions of stiffeners (other than flat bar (a) Calculate pn from equation(3.131, taking the first
stiffeners) shall be such that: term as zero, n = 2, and L, as half the distance from the
( 1 either C > sf,/€ centre line of the stiffener to the centre line of the next
or C > sf,p/€p,, stiffener on one side plus half the distance to the centre
line of the next stiffener on the otherside.
( 2 ) For stiffeners flangeda t the edge remote from the
vessel shell: The value ofpn shall not be
less than 1 . 8 in
~ thecase of
I
fabricated or hot formed stiffeners 2pandin thecase of
either d/e, 6 1.1 \'€/sf, cold formed stiffeners.
or d/e, 6 0.67 ~i€pvs/sf,p (b) Calculatep,, from equation (3.16 ) .

!considered.

Figure 3.6(1)Design curves: calculation of minimum cylindrical shell thickness (valuesof n for which pm is a
minimum)
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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(c) CalculateF, from equation(3.171, taking n = 2. If the calculated values of pnor F, are outside the limits
O The valueF, shall be equalt o or less than 1.O,but
greater thanO.
specified, either additional orheavier stiffeners shall be
introduced or the shell thickness increased.
If the calculatedvalues of pnor F, are outside the limits (b) Heavy stiffeners
specified, use one of the followingprocedures: (1) Calculate P, from equation(3.1 3),taking the first
(1) perform a more rigorous assessment (¡.e. use term as zero, n = 2 and L, as L,.
methods B or C ifappropriate); The value ofpnshall not beless than 1 . 8 in
~ thecase
(2) introduce additional orheavier stiffening; of fabricated or hot formed stiffeners 2p andin the
(3) increase the shell thickness. case of cold formed stiffeners.
3.6.2.3.1.2 MethodB. Method B shall be used for a more (2)Calculate pysfrom equation (3.16).
rigorous assessment than method A. As in methodA, it (3) Calculate F, from equation (3.17)for value of
shall be used forvessels stiffened only by light stiffeners, n=2.
but accountis taken of the increased resistance to
collapse of the vessel when treated as having a finite The value ofF, shall beequal t o or less than 1 .O but
length between the planes of substantial support provided greater thanO.
by thevessel ends. The following calculations shall be If the calculatedvalues of pnor F, are outside the limits
performed. specified, either additional or
heavier stiffeners shall be
(a) CalculateP, from equation(3.131, for values of n = 2, introduced or the shell thickness increased.
3,4,5 and 6 using the appropriate value IC
ofin each 3.6.2.3.2 Equations for assessment of
stiffened cylinders.
case and takingL, as the distance between domed or be used for the assessment
The following equations shall
O A.
flat ends, and L, as defined in method of stiffened cylinders.
1.8~
In each case, the value of pnshall not be less than
in thecase of fabricated or hot formed stiffeners 2pand
pn=-
EeB
+ (n2 - I)
~

EI, (3.13)
R R3Ls
in thecase of cold formed stiffeners.
(b) Calculate pysfrom equation (3.16).
P for values of n = 2, 3,4, 5 and 6, as required, is
obtained from figure 3.6(6);
(c) CalculateF, from equation(3.17) for values of n = 2,
I, is the second moment of area of the composite
3,4, 5 and 6 using the appropriate value p,ofin each cross section of stiffener, and effective length (L,) of
case.

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
shell acting withit, about axis parallel t o axis of
In each casethe value of F, shall beequal to orless than cylinder passing through centroid of combined
1.O but greater thanO. section (see figure 3.6(4));
If the calculated values of pn or F, are outside the limits The value ofL, shall be determined from table 3.6( 1) for
specified, either additional orheavier stiffening shall be the value ofn that is used for determining
pn from
introduced or the shell thickness increased. . equation (3.13) for methodsA, B and C.
3.6.2.3.1.3 MethodC. Method C shall be used forvessels NOTE. The valuesof n used throughoutthis clause shouldnot be
having planes of substantial support intermediate confused with n used in figures 3.6(1 ) and ( 2 ) .
between thevessel ends ¡.e. designs employing only IC may be evaluated
as follows:
heavy stiffeners or those with heavy stiffeners and
intermediate light stiffeners.
NOTE. Theseintermediate planes of substantial support can be
diaphragms, bolted flanges,etc.orcanbedeliberatelyintroduced where
as heavy stiffeners.
The following calculations shall be performed.
(a) Light stiffeners
)i
A, (5.;5)
r 7

( 1) Calculate pnfrom equation(3.13)for values of sfseRf


Pvs = (3.16)
n = 2,3,4,5 and 6 using the appropriate value IC ofin R2(1-.L&!) be + 2Ne
each case and takingL, as half the distance from the ~

a
centre line of the light stiffener to the next line of
NOTE. The simplification A = O is always permissiblebut will
support on oneside plus half the distance to the nextresult in a larger stiffener section.
side, and L, as the
line of support on the other
distance from the centre line of the heavy stiffener to
the centre line of the next heavy stiffener or point of
substantial support.

i
In each case the valueofp, shall not beless than 1 . 8 ~ in thecase of fabricated or
in the case of fabricated or hot formed stiffeners and hot formed stiffeners (3.17)
2p in thecase of cold formed stiffeners. or
-
(2)Calculate pysfrom equation (3.16). -
" +-[Ed (n2 - 1)O.OlOp
(3) Calculate F, from equation(3.17) for values of Pys Rsf, Pn - 2~
n = 2,3,4,5 and 6 using the appropriate value pnof in
O each case.
In eachcase the value ofF, shall beequal t o or less
in thecase of cold formed stiffeners

than 1.O but greater thanO.

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~~

BSI BS*5500 74 m 1624669 0375101 225 m


BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
m

1 1 e2
E= + (n2 - I + Z2)2
12R2(1 - $1
n2- 1+E
2
+ 11

where n is an integer, > 2, obtained fromfigure 3.6(1) to minimizepm.

Values of c for use with equation (3.12)


Figure 3.6(2)

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Key to symbols Kand A

Application
IA IK
Cylindrical shells
(3.6.2.1
)
Conical shells
(3.6.3.1)
Spherical shells
(3.6.4)

(a) Cylinders and cones (hoop stress governing)

(b) Spheres and dished ends, cylinders and cones (longitudinal stress governing)

K O 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.5 2.0 3.5 3.0 5.0 4.5


5.5 4.06.0 6.5andabove
A O 0.12 0.06 0.216 0.17 0.319 0.29 0.257 0.38 0.378 0.373

Figure 3.6(3)Curvesfor evaluationof allowable pressurep


--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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BS 5500 : 1994
Issue 1, January 1994

Suggested working form

Cylindrical shell external pressure


Simplified hand calculation. Method A for light stiffeners
a
Units =

Shellcheck Material : 1
Young'smodulus E =
Design
stress f =
Stress
factor S =
(1.4for ferritic steels Mean radius R= e=
1.1 for austenitic steels)
Poisson's ratio ,u = 0.3

With nostiffeners (figure 3 . 6 ( 5 ) ) For stiffeners (figure 3.6(5))


Unsupported shell length L = 1- = (=+1 for internal stiffeners or=
1 for external ~

stiffeners)
maximum distance between stiffeners
L, =

Allowable external pressure Assuming 7 = O and L = L, Required f =


Corroded assumed
thickness
L/2R
From figure3.6(2)
PY = sfe/R =
Pm
p/pyfrom figure3.6(3)
:. (allowable) p

Stiffenercheck Material :
I
e2/12R2 -
L,/2nR -
a = 1.28/tRe = aL =
N = from 3 . 6 ( 2 )

If LS/2nR < 0.1 with n = 2


from table 3.6( 1 ) L,/L, -
NOTE. Use linear interpolation.
Hence L, =

If LS/2nR > 0.1


from
table 3.6( 1 )
withn = 2
Z =
Cross-sectional area
stress Stiffener
As
fs T a
NOTE. Use logarithmic interpolation, Radius R,
see Enquiry Case No. 5500/52. radius Flange Rf
moment
2nd
of area I,
L, = Z R
Modified area = R2A,/ßi A
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A, = A , + eL,
X, = (0.5e2L, +A, [0.5e+ i ( R - ß , ) ] ) / A ,
I , = e3L,/3+I,+A,[0.5e+i (R-Rs)]2-A,J~
sf,eRf A
Pys =
R'( 1 - p / 2 ) be + 2Ne/a
pn = 3€I,/R3L, N0TE.p" to be > 2p ( > 1 . 8 for
~ fabricated or hot formed stiffeners) -
7 of
= greater i ( R - R f ) -Xc+e/2 and X, -

F,= -+-["-I
2p Ed 0 . 0 3 ~ o r = -1 . 8 ~+-[Ed 0.027~ ] for fabricated or
stiffeners O < F, ,< 1.0
hot
=
formed

PYS Rsfs Pn- 2~ ~ y s Rsfs Pn -1.8~

if pn
3.6.2.2.
Check stiffener proportions comply with < 2p or F,, > .I
1.O see 3.6.2.3.1

tion Date

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--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Issue 1, January 1994

I I s

dei +8 e f 4
C=
q[6d2e,+ 1 2 e f w f ( 2 d +ef)]

f "4 I"
d e i +e f 4
C=
4[6d2e,+6efwf(2d+ef)] Internal stiffener
CG, - Centroid of stiffener
CG, - Centroid of stiffener plus effective lengthof shell - L,
For unequal spacingof stiffeners, L, shall be taken as
the average value
using table3.6 for the two adjacent bays.

I f' Centroid of
te section

(a) Structural members

where
Af is the area of flange;
A, is the area of web;

O If
I,
is the second momentof area of flange about its own centroid;
is the second momentof area of web about its own centroid.

Figure 3.6(4)Schematic representation of stiffeners

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Axes of elastic
r"-
centre of effective
r--
r - '

-.-./
-. -. -. -. -.

NOTE.A, of one flange to be taken asthe shaded area minus e(e, +L,).CombinedA,
and I , of both flanges shallbe taken when evaluating their adequacy as stiffeners, in
accordance with 3.6.3.2.
(b) Bolted flanges

L
* c

3.6.3.3)

I-

NOTE. For plain cylinders enclosed by dished ends, the effective unsupported length
of thecylindrical shell is the
tangent length plus0.4 x internal depth of each end.
Ends to be designedin accordance with 3.6.5,3.6.6, or 3.6.7as appropriate.
(c) Dished ends and junctions

Figure 3.6(4)(concluded).
--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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BSI BSU5500 94 m Lb24bb9 0395306 807 m

R
t
n

I
l
,
I

--``,``````,,``,,``,```,,,,,,`-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

.
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3.6.3Conical shells. The procedures specified in3.6.2for The value ofL, shall then be obtained by taking the
appropriate value ofL,/L, from table 3.6(1) and
O cylindrical shells shall be modified in accordance
with 3.6.3.1t o 3.6.3.3to determine the thickness of multiplying it by L,/cosO.
conical shells with an angleof inclination8 to the vertical 1

axis ,< 75 O.

3.6.3.1Unsupportedlengths (see figure


3.6(7)(a)).Unsupported lengths shall be designed using
the following equations. NOTE. The simplificationA = O is always
. .Derrnissiblebut will
result in a largerstiffener section.
(a) Assume a value for e and calculate
pycas follows:
[
esfcos0
Pyc = 7
Hmax
1) by
This equation is obtained from equation (3.1
(3.1 8)
F,=- 1 . 8 ~
pys
+ €2
Rmaxsfs
Pn
in thecase of fabricated or
(n2- 1)O.OOS~
-1.8~ 1
hot formed stiffeners (3.22)
substituting e'for e where e'=ecos0, Rmaxfor and
R
taking y = O or
(n2- 1)O.OI op
(b) Calculatepmcas follows:

Pmc =
Eeecos30
(3.1 9)
-
" 2p
~ y s
+
Ed'
Rmaxsfs [ pn"p
Rmean in thecase of cold formed stiffeners
This equation is obtained from equation(3.12) by
whered'=Xf+ef/2 (seefigure3.6(4)(a)).
substituting fore, R and E as follows:
3.6.3.2.2Procedure whereshell thickness and stiffener
e' =ecos8