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Composites Science and Technology 156 (2018) 87e94

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Composites Science and Technology

journal homepage: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/compscitech

Simultaneously improved electromagnetic interference shielding

and mechanical performance of segregated carbon nanotube/
polypropylene composite via solid phase molding
Hong-Yuan Wu a, Li-Chuan Jia a, Ding-Xiang Yan b, *, Jie-feng Gao c, Xiao-Peng Zhang a,
Peng-Gang Ren d, Zhong-Ming Li a
College of Polymer Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
The College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China
Institute of Printing, Packaging Engineering and Digital Media Technology, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710048, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Conductive polymer composite with segregated structure has been well demonstrated to achieve high
Received 27 May 2017 electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) due to the selectively distributed electrical
Received in revised form nanofillers to establish desirable conductive networks. Nevertheless, the formation of segregated
29 November 2017
structure in low-melt-viscosity semi-crystalline polymer is still challenged and the segregated composite
Accepted 23 December 2017
always suffers poor mechanical performance. Herein, elevated pressure and temperature were utilized to
Available online 27 December 2017
make a typical semi-crystalline polymer, polypropylene (PP), hold solid phase to restrict the diffusion of
carbon nanotube (CNT) into its interior. Segregated CNT networks were facilely constructed in the
Segregated structure
resultant CNT/PP composite and imparted it with a superior EMI SE of 48.3 dB at 2.2 mm thickness and
Low-melt-viscosity polymer 5.0 wt% CNT loading, the highest EMI shielding level among the reported CNT/polymer composites at
Electromagnetic interference shielding equivalent material thickness and CNT loading. Moreover, the elevated pressure and temperature effect
Mechanical properties dramatically increase the compressive, tensile, and flexural strength (modulus) of the CNT/PP composite
by 133% (65%), 74% (130%) and 53% (50%), respectively, in comparison to those for conventional segre-
gated CNT/PP composite, really overcoming the major mechanical shortcoming in the development of
segregated composites for EMI shielding. Our work provides a facile strategy to fabricate the efficient EMI
shielding and robust material with the construction of typical segregated structure in low-melt-viscosity
semi-crystalline polymers.
© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction EMI SE of 28.3e32.4 dB at an ultralow graphene loading (1.2 wt%)

[6]. Though excellent EMI shielding performance was attained, the
The formation of segregated structure in conductive polymer polymer matrices for fabricating segregated CPCs must maintain
composite (CPC) has been well proved to be an effective way to high enough melt viscosity to prevent the diffusion of electrical
achieve high electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness filler into their interior, thus mainly limited to UHMWPE [7],
(EMI SE) at low electrical filler loading [1e4]. Gelves et al. [5] re- crosslinked polymers [8], or amorphous polymers under low-
ported the first segregated CPC for EMI shielding. The 10 wt% temperature/low-pressure condition [9]. When it comes to low-
copper nanowire loaded polystyrene (PS) composite exhibited an melt-viscosity semi-crystalline polymer, basically the commodity
EMI SE of 26 dB, a fairly high shielding level at that time. In our polymers such as polyolefins, the construction of segregated
previous work, segregated graphene/ultrahigh molecular weight structure is challenged due to the fact that electrical filler would
polyethylene (UHMWPE) composite was demonstrated to possess migrate into polymer regions rapidly once the molding tempera-
ture exceeds its melting temperature (Tm). Very recently, our group
established a segregated carbon nanotube (CNT) network in poly-
lactic acid (PLA) [10], making use of the huge Tm difference of PLA
* Corresponding author.
crystallites, i.e., homocrystallites (160e180  C) and stereocomplex
E-mail address: yandingxiang@scu.edu.cn (D.-X. Yan).

0266-3538/© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
88 H.-Y. Wu et al. / Composites Science and Technology 156 (2018) 87e94

crystallites (220  C). The CNT/PLA composite was molded between segregated structure gives the 5.0 wt% CNT/PP composite an
these two Tm and the survived stereocomplex crystallites enabled excellent EMI SE of 48.3 dB, much higher than that for CNT/PP
the formation of segregated structure, resulting in high EMI SE of composite (30.6 dB) molded at regular molding condition (point C
35 dB at only 1.0 wt% CNT content. Unfortunately, the development in Fig. 1), and also superior to that for conventional segregated CNT/
of crystallites with obviously different Tm is just a special case for PP composite (42.1 dB) molded at regular solid phase (point B in
PLA, while for more widely-used semi-crystalline polymers, such as Fig. 1). More exhilaratingly, the elevated pressure and temperature
polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polyethylene glycol tere- were beneficial to suppress the interfacial defects of conventional
phthalate (PET), or polyamide (PA), only regular crystallites exist. segregated structure and thus endow the segregated CNT/PP with
Once the molding temperature exceeds the Tm, the melt viscosity significantly enhanced mechanical properties, compared to those
would dramatically reduce, which is adverse to forming segregated for conventional segregated CNT/PP composite.
structure using regular polymer processing method.
To construct segregated structure in CPC based on low-melt- 2. Experimental
viscosity semi-crystalline polymer, appropriate molding tempera-
ture below Tm should be chosen to make the polymer matrix 2.1. Materials
holding solid phase. Herein, PP, one of the most widely used semi-
crystalline polymer with low price, high mechanical performance, PP used herein is a kind of isotactic polypropylene (T30S), pur-
and good processability [11e15], was chosen as the model polymer chased from Dushanzi Petroleum Chemical Co. (China), with Mw of
matrix. The phase diagram of PP at different molding pressure and 39.9  104 g/mol, Mw =Mn  of 4.6, and Tm of 163  C (10  C/min, Fig. S2
temperature was shown in Fig. 1. The dotted line indicates the Tm of in ESI). PP granules were prepared via a dissolving-smashing
PP, which increases as the molding pressure rises. It is easy to un- method, according to a previous work [17]. The size distribution
derstand the choice of molding condition (Point B, low pressure of PP granules is shown in Fig. S1 in ESI. CNT was supplied by
and low temperature) can confine the polymer chain motion and Nanocyl S.A., Belgium (Nanocyl NC7000), with the average diam-
help formation of the segregated structure. Nevertheless, the eter of 9.5 nm, length of 1.5 mm, surface area of 250e300 m2/g, and
interfacial bonding between adjacent polymer regions would carbon purity of 90%. Xylene (AR grade), distilled water and alcohol
sharply decrease and inevitably lead to inferior mechanical prop- (AR grade) were purchased from Chengdu Kelong Chemical Re-
erties. In our previous work, elevated molding pressure was utilized agent Factory (China) and used as received.
to reduce the interfacial voids between polymer regions and
thereby increasing the mechanical properties of segregated CPC 2.2. Fabrication of CNT/PP composites
based on amorphous polymer [2]. With respect to semi-crystalline
polymer, the case becomes complicated because the Tm would in- The fabrication of CNT/PP composites using solid phase molding
crease with the increased molding pressure [16]. Additionally, the method under elevated pressure and temperature was shown
free volume of polymer would reduce and the polymer chain mo- schematically in Fig. 2. First, PP granules were dispersed in distilled
tion is further confined. Thus, simply increasing the molding water/alcohol and simultaneously the required amount of CNT was
pressure is inconclusive to the mechanical properties of semi- dispersed in alcohol under ultrasonication. Then the two suspen-
crystalline polymer based segregated CPC. Herein, apart from sions were mixed under ultrasonication for another 30 min. Sub-
application of the elevated pressure, elevated temperature (i.e. sequently, the CNT coated PP complex granules were obtained by
point A in Fig. 1) was chosen to enhance the PP chain motion to filtration, and dried in an oven at 70  C for 12 h to remove residual
benefit the mechanical performance of CNT/PP composite. Under solvent. Finally, the complex granules were compression molded
this condition, as PP regions still maintained solid phase during the under 100 MPa and 180  C (Point A in Fig. 1) for 10 min. The molded
molding process, CNTs would be squeezed at their interfaces to CNT/PP composite was labeled as CNT/PP-I. For comparison, CNT
form a typical segregated structure. As expected, the resultant coated PP complex granules were also molded at regular solid
phase (10 MPa, 140  C, point B in Fig. 1) and regular molding con-
dition (10 MPa, 180  C, point C in Fig. 1). The resultant composites
were labeled as CNT/PP-II and CNT/PP-III, respectively. Additionally,
CNT/PP composites were also prepared via solution mixing and
melt mixing process, which were labeled as CNT/PP-IV and CNT/PP-
V, respectively. Detailed preparation for CNT/PP-IV and CNT/PP-V
was shown in ESI.

2.3. Characterization

Optical microscopy (OM) and field emission scanning electron

microscope (FSEM) were used for the morphology observation. The
specimens for OM were cut into 5 mm-thick films using a micro-
tome. The obtained films were placed between two pieces of
glasses and conducted using an Olympus BX51 microscope equip-
ped with a digital camera (Olympus C-4000 ZOOM). The specimens
for SEM were cryo-fractured in liquid nitrogen and the fractured
surfaces were coated with thin layers of gold before observed under
Fig. 1. The Tm of semi-crystalline polymer as function of molding pressure. PP is taken an accelerating voltage of 5 kV.
as the model polymer. Detailed discussions on the relationship between Tm and The electrical conductivity measurements were conducted on a
pressure are shown in Electronic Supporting Information (ESI). Point A indicates the Keithley electrometer model 4200-SCS (USA). Before the test, both
molding condition (100 MPa, 180  C) to fabricate the desirable segregated CNT/PP
composite. Point B indicates the molding condition (10 MPa, 140  C) to fabricate the
ends of the rectangular specimens were coated with silver paste to
conventional segregated CNT/PP composite. Point C indicates the regular molding reduce the contact resistance between specimens and electrodes.
condition (10 MPa, 180  C) to fabricate CNT/PP composite. The mechanical performance measurements were conducted on
H.-Y. Wu et al. / Composites Science and Technology 156 (2018) 87e94 89

Fig. 2. Schematic of the fabrication of CNT/PP composite using solid phase molding method under elevated pressure and temperature.

a test instrument (Model 5576, Instron Instruments, USA). For beneficial for the absorption of CNT. As shown in Fig. 3d, e and f, it is
tensile test, the specimens with dimension of 45  5  1.8 mm3 clear that CNTs are uniformly coated on the surfaces of PP granules,
were prepared, and conducted with a speed of 1 mm/min. The which is the precondition for the fabrication of segregated CNT/PP
specimen dimension for three-point bending test was the same as composites. Next, the SEM observation of CNT/PP-I, CNT/PP-II, and
that for tensile test, and the specimens were conducted with a CNT/PP-III was taken to reveal the effect of molding condition on
speed of 1 mm/min. For compressive performance measurements, the fabricated CNT/PP composites. Both CNT/PP-I and CNT/PP-II
cylindrical specimens with the 16 mm in diameter and 50 mm in present typical segregated structure with CNTs selectively distrib-
height were prepared, and performed with a speed of 1 mm/min. uted at the interfaces between polyhedral PP domains (Fig. 4a and
The EMI shielding performance measurements were conducted b). Because of the solid state of PP domain throughout the molding
via Agilent N5247A vector network analyzer in the frequency range process, CNTs are difficult to penetrate into the interior of PP
of 8.2e12.4 GHz (X-band), with the specimen dimensions of granules and the spherical PP granules only undergo plastic
diameter in 13 mm and 2.2 mm in thickness. deformation to form polyhedral PP domains. Moreover, it is noted
that CNT paths are more compact in CNT/PP-I compared to CNT/PP-
3. Results and discussion II, indicating that the elevated pressure and temperature benefit
the formation of more perfect conductive CNT networks in the
3.1. Morphology solid-phase molded composites. When the molding temperature
exceeds the Tm of PP, CNTs were partially diffused into melted
Fig. 3a, b and c show the SEM morphology of neat PP granules, polymer regions for CNT/PP-III (Fig. 4c), due to the low viscosity and
presenting spherical form and rough surface, which may be related thus the segregated structure was disturbed. The distinct SEM
to the interfacial tension and crystallization of PP during the observation demonstrates that molding temperature and pressure
evaporation of xylene [17]. The rough surface of PP granules is play important roles in constructing a segregated structure in low-

Fig. 3. SEM images of neat PP granules (a, b and c) and 1.0 wt% CNT coated PP complex granules (d, e and f).
90 H.-Y. Wu et al. / Composites Science and Technology 156 (2018) 87e94

Fig. 4. SEM images of (a) CNT/PP-I, (b) CNT/PP-II, (c) CNT/PP-III, (d) CNT/PP-IV, and (e) CNT/PP-V composites at 1.0 wt% CNT content. The images at low magnification are shown in
Fig. S4 in ESI.

melt-viscosity polymer. As for CNT/PP-IV and CNT/PP-V molded filler contents, stimulating us to examine the superiority of CNT/PP-I
from CNT/PP mixture instead of CNT coated PP complex granules, in electrical performance. Fig. 6 presents the electrical conductivity of
CNTs are randomly distributed throughout the whole composites the above five CNT/PP composites with different CNT networks. CNT/
system (Fig. 4d and e). Some agglomerates are even observed in PP-I exhibits the highest value among all CNT contents. For example,
CNT/PP-V due to the large aspect ratio and specific surface area of 1.0 wt% CNT gives CNT/PP-I with an electrical conductivity of 14.2 S/
CNT, while CNT/PP-IV displays better CNT dispersion with the m, which is 37% and 10 times higher than that for CNT/PP-II and CNT/
assistance of ultrasonic effect. PP-III, particularly, and also overwhelming enhancement of 253
To further verify the formation of perfect segregated structure times and 8 orders of magnitude higher than that for CNT/PP-IV and
via solid phase molding method under elevated pressure and
temperature, the OM observation of CNT/PP-I containing different
CNT contents was performed, as shown in Fig. 5. CNTs are confined
along specific paths (dark line) among the interfaces of PP regions
(bright region) to form interconnected networks in the whole
system. At only 0.5 wt% loading, the CNT pathways feature low
density and thickness, indicating that such a low CNT loading is not
sufficient to support completed networks. As CNT loading increases
to 1.0 wt%, denser and meaning well-defined CNT networks appear.
When the CNT loading further rises, the CNT networks become
thicker rather than denser. Whereas, CNT agglomerates are
observed in OM images of CNT/PP-IV and CNT/PP-V (Fig. S3 in ESI),
which will dramatically reduce the utilization of CNTs.

3.2. Electrical conductivity

The formation of segregated conductive networks is of great

importance for achieving high conductivity in CPCs at low electrical Fig. 6. Electrical conductivity of CNT/PP composites.

Fig. 5. OM images of CNT/PP-I with (a) 0.5 wt%, (b) 1.0 wt%, and (c) 5.0 wt% CNT.
H.-Y. Wu et al. / Composites Science and Technology 156 (2018) 87e94 91

CNT/PP-V. Moreover, it is excited that only 0.3 wt% CNT is required for be helpful to develop highly efficient EMI shielding material [18].
CNT/PP-I to gain an electrical conductivity (2.1 S/m) that satisfies the Fig. 7a shows EMI SE of the five CNT/PP composites with the same
target value for commercial EMI shielding application (1.0 S/m) [2], CNT loading of 5.0 wt%. As expected, the highest electrical con-
while 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 wt% CNT are required for CNT/PP-II, CNT/ ductivity gives CNT/PP-I the highest EMI SE of 48.3 dB, which is 6.3
PP-III, CNT/PP-IV, and CNT/PP-V. The superior electrical performance and 17.6 dB higher than that for CNT/PP-II and CNT/PP-III, respec-
of CNT/PP-I in comparison to other CNT/PP composites can be related tively. And CNT/PP-IV and CNT/PP-V show low EMI SE of 28.0 and
to the unique microstructures of CNT networks. For CNT/PP-I and 16.7 dB, only 58% and 35% of that for CNT/PP-I. The compact
CNT/PP-II with segregated structure, the interfacial distribution segregated structure means the formation of more dense CNT
significantly increases the efficient utilization of CNTs to construct networks in CNT/PP-I, resulting superior electrical conductivity and
continuous networks, which benefits the achievement of high elec- EMI SE to those for the other four CNT/PP composites. We also
trical conductivity. Moreover, the more compact interface of CNT/PP- compare the EMI SE of CNT/PP-I to the representative CNT/polymer
I means a closer contact of CNTs and lower contact resistance, shielding composites, as shown in Fig. S7. Significantly, our CNT/PP-
resulting in the higher electrical conductivity. For CNT/PP-III com- I exhibits the highest EMI SE at similar composite thickness and
posites with partly segregated structure, some CNTs would permeate CNT loading. For instance, Al-Saleh et al. [18] reported an EMI SE of
into PP regions and be wrapped in the insulating polymer matrix, ~25 dB for a melt-blended CNT/PP composite at 2.8 mm thickness
thus presenting a dramatic drawback of electrical conductivity. and 5.0 wt% CNT loading. Wang et al. [19] utilized the segregated
When it comes to CNT/PP-IV or CNT/PP-V, the randomly distributed structure to obtained an improved EMI SE of 30.9 dB in CNT/pol-
CNTs or CNT aggregations are separated from others, leading to poor y(vinylidene fluoride) composite, with composite thickness of
electrical conductivity. The fitted percolation threshold is 0.013, 2.0 mm CNT loading of 7 wt%. It is well known that the high EMI SE
0.015, and 0.028 vol% for the CNT/PP-I, CNT/PP-II, and CNT/PP-III can be achieved by enlarging filler concentration in polymer com-
composites, respectively, manifesting again the high efficiency of posites. Arjmand et al. [20] achieved a very high EMI SE of 63.6 dB
the compact segregated structure in constructing conductive net- in the CNT/PS composite at a CNT loading of 20.0 wt%. However,
works (detailed discussions about the statistical percolation model high filler loading is hardly suitable for potential applications [4].
are shown in ESI). These results indicate that the targeted method The realized compact segregated conductive networks not only
not only overcomes the difficulty of constructing segregated struc- greatly increase EMI SE compare to CNTs randomly distributed
ture in a low-melt-viscosity polymer, but also further enhances the systems, but also further exhibit considerable superiority to con-
electrical conductivity of the resultant segregated CPC owing to the ventional segregated CPCs owing to the elevated pressure and
elevated pressure and temperature effect. Moreover, CNT/PP-I with temperature effect. Aside from CNT, many other functional fillers
5.0 wt% CNT reaches an electrical conductivity of 117.0 S/m, which is have also been studied for EMI shielding, such as carbon black (CB)
the highest value compared to the reported CNT/polymer composites [21,22], reduced graphene oxide (rGO) [23e25], carbon fibers (CFs)
at similar CNT content (Fig. S6). [22,26], metallic [27e29] and intrinsically conductive polymer
[30,31]. A comparison of EMI SE for CNT/PP-I with the reported
3.3. EMI shielding effectiveness CPCs with other functional fillers was performed. As presented in
Table S1, the EMI SE of the CNT/PP-I is outstanding compared to
It is well known that EMI SE of a CPC crucially depends on its those for the reported CPCs, at similar filler loadings and sample
electrical conductivity and the high electrical conductivity would thickness.

Fig. 7. (a) EMI SE of CNT/PP composites with 5.0 wt% CNT. (b) EMI SE of CNT/PP-I with various CNT contents. (c) Comparison of SETotal, SEA, and SER at the frequency of 12.3 GHz for
the CNT/PP-I with various CNT contents. (d) The shielding mechanism of CNT/PP-I (0.3 wt% CNT) and CNT/PP-V (5.0 wt% CNT) with similar SETotal.
92 H.-Y. Wu et al. / Composites Science and Technology 156 (2018) 87e94

Moreover, the dependence of EMI SE of the CNT/PP-I composite obtain SETotal of 17.1 dB in CNT/PP-I, while 5.0 wt% CNT is required
on CNT loading is shown in Fig. 7b. EMI SE increases gradually with to obtain SETotal of 16.7 dB in CNT/PP-V. Additionally, SEA for CNT/
CNT content, which is consistent with the increased electrical PP-I (16.0 dB) is higher than that for CNT/PP-V (13.8 dB). The very
conductivity. Higher CNT content means more free electrons among low CNT loading requirement and the higher SEA demonstrate the
PP polyhedrons that can interact with the incoming electromag- positive effect of segregate structure on improving the EMI
netic wave. It is exciting that CNT/PP-I with only 0.5 wt% CNT shielding performance.
already achieves an average EMI SE of 24.3 dB, exceeding the target
EMI shielding level for commercial application (20 dB). It is fairly 3.4. Mechanical properties
convincing that CNT/PP-I exhibits excellent potential applied as
efficient EMI shielding material even at very low electrical filler Aside from high EMI SE, the mechanical properties are also
loading. critical to practical shielding applications of CPCs. As mentioned
To understand why CNT/PP-I shows such excellent EMI shield- above, CPCs with segregated structure always sustained inferior
ing performance, the shielding mechanism, including EMI SE mechanical performance due to the weak interfaces. Herein, the
(SEtotal) from reflection shielding (SER) and absorption shielding elevated pressure and temperature effect also endow CNT-PP-I with
(SEA), is presented in Fig. 7c. The detailed calculation for SER and satisfied mechanical performance besides the optimal EMI shielding
SEA can be found in ESI. SER changes slightly with CNT loading and performance. The compressive, tensile, and flexural properties of the
remains very low value below 5 dB. Whereas SEA increases mark- five CNT/PP composites were measured, and the results were
edly with CNT loading and contributes to the markedly improved plotted in Fig. 8a, b and c, respectively. As shown in Fig. 8a, it is
SEtotal, revealing that the high EMI SE of CNT/PP-I mainly originates apparent that CNT/PP-II shows the lowest compressive strength and
from the absorption shielding. For instance, the SEtotal, SEA and SER modulus, due to the inherent defect of regular segregated structure,
at 12.3 GHz frequency of 1.0 wt% CNT/PP-I are 32.6, 28.9 and 2.4 dB, i. e., the voids at the interfaces of PP domains here. The elevated
respectively, indicating that the SEA contributes 89% to total EMI SE. pressure and temperature holp eliminating the voids and com-
This means that the segregated composite works effectively in pacting the segregated structure (Fig. 4b). The resultant CNT/PP-I not
absorbing the incoming electromagnetic radiation, revealing an only exhibits improved EMI SE (Fig. 7a), but also exhibits enhanced
absorption dominant shielding mechanism. compressive properties, with 133% and 65% enhancement in
The excellent EMI SE and the absorption dominated shielding compressive strength and modulus compared to those for CNT/PP-II.
mechanism of CPCs are related to the microstructure of conductive Moreover, the compressive strength of CNT/PP-I is also comparable
networks. CPCs with multilayers [32], 3D saw-tooth [33], honey- to that for CNT/PP composite molded at melted state (CNT/PP-III,
combs [34] and foams [35,36] structures exhibit enhanced EMI SE CNT/PP-IV and CNT/PP-V). And the compressive modulus shows
compared to conventional CPCs. Herein, a “foam-like structure” can 31%, 57% and 13% increasement, respectively. The tensile and flex-
be found in CNT/PP-I with segregated structure, where PP domains ural tests confirm the superior of CNT/PP-I again (Fig. 8b and c). In
act as “micro-cells” and conductive CNT layers act as “cell walls” comparison with CNT/PP-II, the tensile strength and modulus of
[3,34]. Such a special structure provides numerous interfaces that CNT/PP-I exhibits a remarkable increase by 74% and 130%, respec-
reflect, scatter, and absorb the permeated microwaves many times tively (Fig. 8b). The flexural strength and modulus rise from
[2,8]. As a result, the microwaves are difficult to escape from the 32.0 MPa to 3091 MPa for CNT/PP-II to 46.8 MPa and 4651 MPa for
composite before being absorbed, revealing the enhanced SEA and CNT/PP-I, showing 53% and 50% increasement, respectively. Addi-
absorption dominated shielding mechanism. The shielding mech- tionally, the tensile and flexural modulus of CNT/PP-I are far superior
anism of CNT/PP-I and CNT/PP-V with similar SETotal was further to those for CNT/PP-III, CNT/PP-IV and CNT/PP-V, and the tensile and
investigated. As shown in Fig. 7d, only 0.3 wt% CNT is required to flexural strength are comparable to the three CNT/PP composites.

Fig. 8. (a) Compressive, (b) tensile and (c) flexural properties of the five CNT/PP composites at 1.0 wt% CNT loading.
H.-Y. Wu et al. / Composites Science and Technology 156 (2018) 87e94 93

Fig. 9. Schematic of the formation of partly mechanical interlocking structure in CNT/PP-I.

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