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Lec:7

10th Oct., 2018

Internal Combustion Engines


ME 4142
Dr. Saif ur Rahman
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Project Titles
1. Six Stroke Internal Combustion Engine
2. Cam-less Internal Combustion Engine
3. Comparison of 4-stroke & 6-stroke Engine
4. Comparison of Turbocharger & Supercharger
5. Conversion of Petrol Engine to Ethanol Engine
6. Comparison of Spark Ignition vs. Compression Ignition Engine
7. Increasing vol. efficiency of Internal Combustion Engine
8. Exhaust heat recovery for Internal Combustion Engine
9. Knocking in Internal Combustion Engine
10. Mechanical and Electronic throttling of IC Engine
11. Heat transfer in Internal Combustion Engine
12. Nano Internal Combustion Engine
Air Standard Cycle
Air-Standard Analysis of Reciprocating Internal
Combustion Engines
►To conduct elementary analyses of reciprocating internal
combustion engines, simplifications are required. Although highly
idealized, an air-standard analysis can provide insights and
qualitative information about actual performance.
►An air-standard analysis has the following elements:
►A fixed amount of air modeled as an ideal gas is the working
fluid. Ideal gas relations are reviewed
►The combustion process is replaced by heat transfer from an
external source
►There are no intake and exhaust processes. The cycle is
completed by a constant-volume heat transfer process while the
piston is at bottom dead center.
►In a cold air-standard analysis, the specific heats are assumed
constant at their ambient temperature values.
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BASIC PRINCIPLE OF ENGINES
• The chemical energy of the fuel is firstly converted into heat
through combustion, and then the heat is converted into
mechanical work by means of a working medium.
• This working medium can be a liquid or a gas. Indeed, the heat
produced by combustion increases its pressure or its specific
volume, and due to its expansion, either propulsion or
mechanical work is obtained.

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Air-Standard Analysis of Reciprocating
Internal Combustion Engines (Cont.)
►For reciprocating internal combustion engines, three cycles that
adhere to air-standard cycle idealizations;
►Otto,
►Diesel, and
►Dual cycles.
►These cycles differ only in the way the heat addition process that
replaces combustion in the actual cycle is modeled:
►Otto cycle: Heat addition at constant volume.
►Diesel cycle: Heat addition at constant pressure.
►Dual cycle: Heat addition at constant volume followed by
heat addition at constant pressure.

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Air-Standard Otto Cycle
►The Otto cycle consists of four internally reversible
processes in series:
►Process 1-2: isentropic compression.
►Process 2-3: constant-volume heat addition to the air from an
external source.
►Process 3-4: isentropic expansion.
►Process 4-1: constant-volume heat transfer from the air.

►The Otto cycle


compression ratio is:
V1 V4
r 
V2 V3
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Air-Standard Otto Cycle (Cont.)
►Ignoring kinetic and potential energy effects,
closed system energy balances for the four
processes of the Otto cycle reduce to give

W12 W34
 u2  u1 ,  u3  u 4
m m (Eq. 9.2)
Q23 Q41
 u3  u 2 ,  u4  u1
m m

►The thermal efficiency is the ratio of the net


work to the heat added:
(Eq. 9.3)
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Air-Standard Otto Cycle (Cont.)
►Since the air-standard Otto cycle is composed of
internally reversible processes, areas on the T-s and p-v
diagrams can be interpreted as heat and work, respectively:

►On the T-s diagram, heat transfer per unit of mass


is ∫Tds. Thus,
• Area 2-3-a-b-2 represents heat
added per unit of mass.
• Area 1-4-a-b-1 is the heat
rejected per unit of mass.
• The enclosed area is the net heat
added, which equals the net work
output. 9
Air-Standard Otto Cycle (Cont.)
►On the p-v diagram, work per unit of mass is ∫pdv.
Thus,
• Area 1-2-a-b-1 represents work
input per unit of mass during the
compression process.
• Area 3-4-b-a-3 is the work done
per unit of mass in the expansion
process.
• The enclosed area is the net work
output, which equals the net heat
added.
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Air-Standard Otto Cycle (Cont.)
►The compression ratio, r = V2/V1, is an important operating
parameter for reciprocating internal combustion engines as
brought out by the following discussion centering on the T-s
diagram:
►An increase in the compression ratio
changes the cycle from 1-2-3-4-1 to 1-2′-
3′-4-1.
►Since the average temperature of heat
addition is greater in cycle 1-2′-3′-4-1, and
both cycles have the same heat rejection
process, cycle 1-2′-3′-4-1 has the greater
thermal efficiency.
►Accordingly, the Otto cycle thermal
efficiency increases as the compression
ratio increases. 11
Air-Standard Otto Cycle (Cont.)
• As constant volume processes;
• Heat in and Heat out and thermal efficiency
are;

• Recalculating by replacing T2 and T3;


Air-Standard Otto Cycle (Cont.)
• Higher the Compression Ratio higher the
efficiency
Air-Standard Otto Cycle (Cont.)
• For a closed system work done is;

• Solving in terms of compression ratio, T1, g


and a = p3/p2
Air-Standard Otto Cycle (Cont.)
• Mean effective pressure;
Air-Standard Diesel Cycle
►The Diesel cycle consists of four internally reversible
processes in series:
►Process 1-2: isentropic compression.
►Process 2-3: constant-pressure heat addition to the air
from an external source.
►Process 3-4: isentropic expansion.
►Process 4-1: constant-volume heat transfer from the air.

►The Diesel cycle has


a two-step power
stroke: process 2-3
followed by process 3-
4.
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Air-Standard Diesel Cycle (Cont.)
V1
►The Diesel cycle compression ratio is: r
V2

V3
►The Diesel cycle cut-off ratio is:   rc 
The ratio of volume at the cutoff (3) to V2
the clearance volume (2)

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Air-Standard Diesel Cycle (Cont.)
►Process 2-3 is heat addition at constant pressure. Accordingly, the
process involves both heat and work.
►The work is given by

►Using this for the closed system energy balance for process 2-3
and solving for Q23/m gives

Note: Enthalpy appears only for notational convenience and does


not signal use of control volume concepts.
►The thermal efficiency is the ratio of the net work to the heat
added:

Like the Otto cycle, thermal efficiency increases with increasing


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compression ratio.
Air-Standard Diesel Cycle (Cont.)
►Similarly as in Otto cycle; areas on the T-s and p-v
diagrams of the Diesel cycle can be interpreted as heat and
work, respectively:
►On the T-s diagram, heat transfer per unit of mass
is ∫Tds. Thus,
• Area 2-3-a-b-2 represents heat
added per unit of mass.
• Area 1-4-a-b-1 is the heat
rejected per unit of mass.
• The enclosed area is the net heat
added, which equals the net work
output.
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Air-Standard Diesel Cycle (Cont.)
►On the p-v diagram, work per unit of mass is ∫pdv.
Thus,
• Area 1-2-a-b-1 represents work
input per unit of mass during the
compression process.
• Area 2-3-4-b-a-2 is the work done
per unit of mass in the two-step
power stroke: process 2-3 followed
by process 3-4.
• The enclosed area is the net work
output, which equals the net heat
added.
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Air-Standard Diesel Cycle (Cont.)

• Determination of efficiency Work and Mean


effective pressure; Efficiency
Air-Standard Diesel Cycle (Cont.)

• Determination of efficiency Work and Mean


effective pressure; Work
Air-Standard Diesel Cycle (Cont.)

• Determination of efficiency Work and Mean


effective pressure; Mean Effective P