Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 221

HOW TO PLAY

J 6 Z S E F E O T V O S

HOW TO PLAY
Privately published by J6zsef Eotvos, 2013
© Copyright J6zsef Eotvos
Cover Design by Daniel Csongar
Transleted by Anita Urgyan
Proof-readers Bruce Ammons, Felix Seuntjcns
Contents

BIOGRAPHY .......................................... 8

1. PREFACE ......................................... 10
2. PRELUDE......................................... 14
3. THE MANUSCRIPTS................ . .............. 23
4. ARTICULATION .................................. 32
5. BAROQUE ARTICULATION ON THE GUITAR ....... 37
6. MELODIC AND HARMONIC MOVEMENT .......... 44
7. LAYERS OF BACH'S MUSIC
- IMPLIED POLYPHONY........................... 52
8. APPOGGIATURAS ................................ 57
9. FINGERINGS ................................. . ... 61
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS,
EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES....................... 64

SUITE ING MINOR BWV 995


Prelude ................................................ 65
Allemande ......................... .................... 73
Courante ............................................... 75
Gavotte I ............................................... 76
Gavotte II............................................... 77
Gigue .................................................. 78
6 J6ZSEF EOTVOS: HOW TO PLAY ttf;ch-

SUITE IN E MINOR BWV 996 ................................ 80


Prelude ................................................ 80
Allemande ............................................. 86
Courante ............................................... 89
Gigue .....................................................

PARTITA INC MINOR BWV 997 ............................. 93


Prelude................................................. 93
Fugue .................................................. 97
Sarabande .............................................. 98
Gigue .................................................. 100
Double ................................................. 103

PRELUDE, FUGUE, ALLEGRO BWV 998 ...................... 109


Prelude................................................. 109
Fugue.................................................. 111
Allegro................................................. 113

PRELUDE INC-MINOR BWV 999 ............................ 122

FUGUE IN G MINOR BWV 1000 .............................. 123

SUITE IN E MAJOR BWV 1006A .............................. 134


Prelude................................................. 109
Loure .................................................. 137
Gavotte en Rondeau ..................................... 140
Menuet I ............................................... 145
Menuet II............................................... 146
Bourn�e ................................................ 147
Gigue .................................................. 149
CONTEN'I S 7

11. POSTLUDE .......................................150

12. BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................151

13. THE MANUSCRIPTS...............................173

SUITE ING MINOR BWV 995 ........·........................ 174


SUITE INE MINOR BWV 996 ................................ 183
P ARTITA IN C MINOR BWV 997 ............................. 187
PRELUDE, FUGUE, ALLEGR O BWV 998 ...................... 196
PRELUDE lN C-MlNOR BWV 999 ............................ 202
FUGUE ING MINOR BWV 1000 .............................. 204
SUITE INE MAJOR BWV 1006A .............................. 206
Biography

J6zsef Eotvos was born in Pees in 1962. He graduated from the


Franz Liszt College of Music in Weimar as a student of Roland
Zimmer and studied the art of composing under Franz Just. He
regularly gives concerts in countries around the world. He is
invited to perform both solo concerts and orchestral concertos,
and has made radio and television recordings both in Hungary
and abroad.

In his master courses, some of which concentrate on Baroque


and chamber music, he carries out excellent music pedagogical
activities. He is a regular jury member of international guitar
competitions and artistic leader of the International Guitar Festival
in Esztergom and the Balatonfured International Guitar Festival.
In his concerts, next to his own masterpieces and arrangements,
the popularization of 20th century and contemporary Hungarian
music plays an important role. (Among others: the works of Barna
Kovats, Ferenc Farkas, Mate Hallos and Ivan Madarasz.)

His arrangements are musical curiosities, and that they are played
on guitar, is unique in the world. His arrangement of Bach's
Goldberg Variations is regarded by critics as the arrangement
of the century. Following this success, he produced other
BlOGRAl'IIY 9

arrangements as well, such as Bach's lute works (Chanterelle),


Chopin's piano pieces (Professional Music Press - Poland and
Gendai Guitar - Japan ) and Brahms's 21 Hungarian Dances

�cl&0.

His compositions, which are written -on both the guitar and other
instruments, are also published, su<;:h as the Willow Variations
(Editions Orphee, Columbus Ohio 1991), the Five Aphorisms
(Trekel Verlag, Hamburg 1997) and the Featherlets (Trekel Verlag,
Hamburg 2000). His book titled ,,Thoughts On J. S. Bach's Music
And The Performance Of His Lute Works" was published by the
University of Pees in 2006.

He has been a professor at the Franz Liszt Academy of Music in


Budapest since 2002, establishing the first university level guitar
faculty in Hungary.

In 2002 and 2010 he was given the Artisjus Award for the
introduction and popularization of hungarian contemporary
music. He was also awarded with the Franz Liszt Award in 2004
in recognition of his work.
1.
Preface

The story behind this book goes back to 1999. At that time,
I had just finished arranging and publishing the sheet music for
J. S. Bach's Goldberg variations, and the previous year the CD
recorded in 1997 had been named best Classical music recording
of the year in Japan, subsequently remaining on the Bach
bestseller list for years to come. Michael Macmeeken, the owner
of Chanterelle Publications, contacted me one day, asking me to
arrange some of Bach's lute works for the guitar, to commemorate
the forthcoming anniversary of this legendary German composer.

I did not want to take on the job. As these works belong to the basic
guitar repertoire, there were already enough arrangements on the
market, why produce yet another? What could I add to these much­
revised guitar versions and interpretations of Bach's compositions
that were literally being played by millions of people? I did not see
the point. I thought for a long time about accepting the invitation,
until one day I took a peek at the well-known Bach - complete
edition. Almost immediately I noticed in amazement the obvious
notation and interpretation errors that this universally used and
trusted edition was full of. Arrangers had used this edition as a
benchmark for many years, almost without exception. I myself,
just as I discovered the notation and interpretation errors that
1. PREFACE 11

gradually began to unfold -had learned Bach's lute works from


an arrangement based on this edition. My good fortune lay in
the fact that after years of intensive arranging and research work,
I noticed these problematic sections in the music immediately.
I called my publisher and asked for copies of the manuscript,
to be safe. When they arrived a few <lays later, I saw that I was
right: Many score interpretation errors had been made due to
different interpretations in the Baroque era. In some cases, they
had even made incomprehensible corrections, which seem to have
been welcomed by the vast majority of guitar arrangers! Thus, at
this stage, I finally saw the point in providing yet another guitar
arrangement of Bach's Lute works, but a newly interpreted one.

In some respects, this arrangement was more difficult than that of


the Goldberg variations. The majority of these works were written
for keyboard instruments, and precisely for this reason, if we really
research what the compositional score really means -the capabilities
of the lute are not a good place to start and much less the tradition
of guitar playing and performance style a good place on which to
base our research. Yet, these works are considered an important part
of the guitar repertoire and their performance style demonstrates
strong traditional traits from which it is not quite appropriate to
depart. However, if we are really interested in what is hidden
in the manuscript and what baroque performance style adds to
it, then we need to approach these works in a different way. We
must forget the old stereotypes and try to look at this music we
know so well with a fresh, childlike sense of wonderment. Only
this way will it be possible to try out new ideas presented here,
information originating from baroque musical performance and new
interpretations arising as a result of rereading of the score, as well
as choosing between traditional sound production methods. I know
that familiar sounds always feel more reassuring when accompanied
by a tried and tested fingering, played many times. At first glance,
12 J6ZSEF EOTVOS: HOW TO Pi A Y {/(uh-

the conscious "disturbance" of this by means of new knowledge,


the rethinking of parts and the perhaps unfamiliar, constant use
of baroque articulation on the guitar may make the conscious
choice between the old and the new- more authentic - path more
difficult. Fortunately, thus far my own experience, my students and
the feedback of audiences attending my lectures demonstrate that
the musical sound that results from these original baroque ideas,
information and articulation system soon convince everyone.

While I was doing the arranging, I devoted much more time to


reading books on baroque music, listening to baroque music and
chatting about the topic with musician friends than was required by
the arrangement work. The answers to my questions often raised new
questions and this process still continues to this day. The thoughts
on interpretation that I have collected in this book and am now
publishing are the fruits of that period. My attitude towards music,
which has made my often unconventional musical thoughts possible,
was greatly influenced by the wonderful music theory lessons with
my friend, the composer Ivan Madarasz, of whom I was lucky
enough to become a student. The book itself came about towards
the end of the intensive period I spent researching and arranging.
It was written in two days, initially in German, and was intended
as a preface to the sheet music publication. However, because of
its size, there was clearly no space for the "Preface" I had prepared
and therefore it gave rise to a separate book. As the fingerings in
the arrangement and the printed score itself disregard the usual
traditions and, in my opinion, knowledge of the ideas described in
this book is absolutely essential to our understanding, I am amazed
at the unbroken success the sheet music publication has received for
over a decade. (I suspect that many of the fingerings I entered may
have been corrected, since without the background information, the
instructions entered would often seem to demonstrate difficulties that
are completely incomprehensible!). The success of the presentations
1. PREFACE 13

I have given at various European Universities and the questions


and reactions that have arisen as a result show that I have been
able to awaken ideas that will bring about a fresh approach to the
playing of Bach's works - but beyond this, also to traditional guitar
playing. Following the Hungarian editi�m, which appeared in a series
of university textbooks in 2006, readers can now finally get hold of
the English edition, with all the important information about my
published arrangement of Bach's lute works.

This book is not the usual umpteenth re-release, enumerating


the life and works of the great German master, J. S. Bach. Those
interested in such information should buy themselves another
book. Here, I address those who would like to rethink some of
the old seemingly clear and often assumed unquestionable roots
on a deeper level and in an as yet unfamiliar way, and those
who are not afraid of confronting new ideas and treading new
pathes. Change and the path of change is always difficult. This is
especially true if someone has been playing and listening to these
works for a long time. I, myself have gone through this painful
experience, as I have already mentioned, and therefore I know what
I am talking about! For this reason, I have tried, as far as possible, to
read these new ideas carefully, to support them with examples and
to pass on to practising musicians, rather than a book about theory,
a practical guide and handbook. I think that the significance of these
ideas goes beyond the sphere of those interested in classical guitar.
So far, in my presentations, I have found them able to provide new,
interesting stimuli to other early music instrumentalists. Therefore,
if you like baroque music or Bach's works but are not a guitarist,
don't put this book down! Read it! It will prove interesting!

I wish you all an enjoyable and a useful read!

Martonvasar - Hungary, 2013


2.
Prelude

Ever since the death of Johann Sebastian Bach so many books


have been published about his music that one could fill a whole
library with them. What is it about Bach that gives people the
urge to write so much about him, explaining, interpreting and
commenting on his works?

Most probably, Bach's music conveys such an eternal and


universal set of values that continue to be of relevance to us even
in the world of the 2151 century. Without in-depth study, however,
the musical devices he uses, as well as his way of thinking, and,
in more general terms, the socio-historical-musical roots of 17-
181h century German music, remain largely foreign to us. The era
and the place in which this music originated used the standard
musical language of the reformation. Protestant religious folk
songs and the secular songs closely related to them were very
much alive at that time, and were familiar to all and sung by all.
These songs were the soil which nourished the music of Bach and
other German Baroque masters. This movement - which broke
away from the tradition of Catholic religious music - added sacred
verses to well-known secular tunes and folk songs, thus supplying
the Evangelical Church with newly-written, easily-sung, syllabic
musical compositions. It was common for these new religious
folk songs to be clad once again with secular lyrics, and sung
2. PRELUDE 15

alike, thus restoring a fading practice in folk music, whereby the


roles of the listener and the performer were not strictly separate.
The comparison of protestant choral melodies appearing in
different contemporary song books shows an abundance of the
aforementioned variants, and confirms the folk-music-like feature
of these songs.

For historical reasons, the ongms of this unified musical


foundation are exclusively found in 17-18th century Germany1.
Naturally, the new music of this period, in which all of life's
movements were intertwined, became an important and almost
exclusive foundation for German composers of the time. It is
essential to understand this point if we are to understand the
music of Bach, and indeed, that of other German Baroque Masters,
whose music also displays this same unity.

All music played and listened to during this period was built upon
the of the time, which was known to all. The use of improvised
ornaments was vital in vocal and instrumental music. In the
language of music, the notion of "Singet dem Herrn ein neues
Lied!" signified that 'old' tunes always had to be reformulated.
New music and new musical settings were always considered
more beautiful and more interesting than old ones.2

Therefore, precise composer's notes destined for the performer


were redundant, such as an exact description of how the piece
should be performed in pract1.ce. In the majority of cases, they
would have even been disturbing for the performer. If we add to

1
The attitude of the Catholic Church towards religious music was far from open.
The music policy of the counter-reformation (the Council of Trent) distanced
itseli from this new, protestant music, from new musical trends, and called for
a return of music to its Gregorian roots.
2 This was to take a different turn in the 19'h century.
16 JQZSEF E0TV0S: IIOW TO PLAY .$.d;....

this the fact that in the majority of cases the composer himself was
also the performer, or at the very least, the leader of an ensemble,
we can gain further insight into this style of musical annotation.

(The performing artist, in today's sense, and the conductor who


does not compose and who requires precise instructions from
composers, are both an 'invention' of the 191h century3.) The
learning of a musical instrument was based on composition and
music theory, and these were prerequisites to the practice of
improvisation.

(Etude literature and the new methods for learning a musical


instrument, based on this literature, also have their origins in
the 191h century and continue to exist today.) Why would it have
been necessary to write, in today's sense, specific performance
instructions to accompany the musical notes? They did not
tend to play music belonging to other, previous eras, (consider
Bach's obligation to write cantatas on a weekly basis). Moreover,
they rarely played or listened to compositions by contemporary
musicians, and if these pieces were ever played, they were
presented in a new, revised form.

As a result of this practice and the mentality which accompanied


it, composers, including Bach himself, could not have even
imagined that people would want to play their compositions
again in the future, preferably in the same way and manner as
they had been played at the time. Therefore, neither could they
have imagined that without detailed instructions, it would be
rather difficult, if not impossible, to perform their music in an
authentic manner.

3 In England some time earlier, in the 18th century, a new kind of artist appeared
who dedicated himself purely to performance.
2. PRELUDH 17

To say that Bach notated his music with more precision than his
contemporaries would be only partly true. By considering Bach's
hand-written copies of music composed by his contemporaries
we may gain some insight into the musical thinking behind his
scores. By way of example, let us take Frescobaldi's work, the Fiori
Musicali. Bach had a high opinion of Frescobaldi, who always
provided precise instructions in his part-writing. In Bach's
manuscripts, the parts present in Frescobaldi's work reappear,
yet in a 'simplified' form. The complementary movement of
the parts is 'compressed' into one single part, resulting in the
implied polyphony that we find in many of his other works. Bach
probably did not play Frescobaldi' s music any differently to
how the great Italian composer had intended it to be performed.
Rather, it is more likely that whilst taking notes from this piece,
Bach applied his own unique musical-score-writing system. This
technique of implied polyphony, that is the hidden layers in music,
will be discussed later in greater detail. It is so characteristic of
Bach that if we failed to recognise it we would lose an essential
dimension of Bach's music.

Bach took it for granted that his contemporaries would, of course,


be able to interpret what he had written without the need for
additional comments in the score. The performance of his music,
like that of other composers, would have been subject to the
improvisational practice of the time. It is important, however,
Lo point out that this practice was highly different from the
improvisational style of the 19th century and it is perhaps worth
observing the essential differences between the two at this stage:

The essence of Baroque improvisation is that the listeper can


hardly distinguish the performance from the original composition,
as the tools used are the same as those employed in any other
written Baroque composition. Another form of improvisation,
18 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO PLAY f&zd;_
aside from this almost compulsory practice of improvising
during the performance - according to the principle of "Singet
dem Herrn ein neues Lied!" -, is the possibility for a composition
to adopt a given religious melody, allowing the congregation to
then sing to this new arrangement. Any written improvisation
can constitute a valuable composition, we need only think of the
birth of ,,Musikalisches Opfer".

In Baroque times, improvisation and performance were inseparable and


existed in perfect unity. Romantic improvisation, on the other hand,
was created to "entertain" the audience, who was interested in
the virtuoso technique and ability of the performer. The musician
would depict scenes and emotions with the sound he produced,
and amuse the listeners with his brilliant technique and the orgy
of colours learnt in virtuoso schools.

In Romantic improvisation the theme may have been a well­


known melody (e.g. a famous opera aria), a picture (e.g. the
Milan Cathedral, railways, etc.) or even a mood. The ability to
achieve a high level of technical proficiency on an instrument
and show that off to an audience gained its own separate
form of recognition which was, to a certain extent, different
from musical recognition. The written versions of these
improvisations form the essence of romantic virtuoso music.
Real composition, on the other hand, was more complex, more
serious and more difficult for the real romantic composer than
the practice of simply letting their 'fingers roam around the
keyboard'. For this reason, improvisation did not have any
real place in performance, as composers wrote out concerto
cadenzas in their entirety. Thus during the Romantic Period, the
improvisation possibilities for the performer slowly began to
wane. The focus shifted from the improvisation of pieces to their
interpretation and this remains the focus of performance today.
2. PRELUDI 19

Therefore, during the Romantic Period (i.e. the beginning of the 19th
century), improvisation broke away from the original composition,
developing into a separate entity, and its musical valu�s, in the
strictest sense, disappeared. To summarise, we could say that in
Baroque improvisation the core values of the music remained the
focus, whereas in the Romantic Period this was replaced by the
performer's technical brilliance and v.irtuosity.

The social and musical changes which began in the mid­


l8 1h century left behind the musical world of Bach and his
contemporaries. It was in the 19th century that Bach's music was
to be rediscovered, initially by Mendelssohn, who was the first
to pick up and play some of Bach's pieces. In accordance with
the expectations of the time, of course, the way these pieces were
performed was far from authentic, in today's sense of the word.
An authentic performance of these works was in fact out of the
question, as the roots of Baroque music remained in the past,
whilst audiences wanted to applaud contemporary virtuosos in
the newly built concert halls around Europe. Bach's music was
far too 'old-fashioned' for this and the only way to make it more
popular was to 'modernise' it. But how was this to be done?
Back in 1756, Leopold Mozart had stated: "We have to respect
the intention of the composer". However, copies of compositions
by the old masters provided little support to do so. Performers
tried to guess these intentions according to the musical thinking
of their own time. The fact that the socio-musical characteristics
of the old music were no longer relevant meant that a new type of
performer had to be created, whose task was to 'modernise' these
pieces, bringing them in line with the spirit of the romantic era.

This way of interpreting pieces has remained a feature of


performance practice for a long time. (If Franz Liszt, the great
Bach-player of his time, was to play Bach's music for us today,
20 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO PL/\ Y i&zeh-
his performance style would probably surprise us considerably).
It is not for us to judge whether this playing style was good or
bad without studying the era of the 19th century as a whole.
Rather, we should be content to accept that it must have been
considered good at the time; otherwise nobody would have
played or listened to Baroque music or that of Bach. Indeed,
we know for a fact that Bach's music was not only played and
listened to, but the great majority of 19th century composers
idolised the world of Bach's music and held him in great esteem.

In the middle of the 19th century a new movement emerged, which


sought to play and listen to old music in as authentic a manner
as possible. However, the romantic performance features which
had been added to Baroque music did not make it easy for this
movement to achieve its goal. Performances of music from different
eras were given in concert halls, and the authenticity of these
performances, in many respects, may have varied from one to the
next. The language of music ceased to be exclusive, as it had been
in Bach's time. After Bach's death, this exclusivity- the standard
musical language- gradually dissolved, giving way to a musical
language that still lives on today, which embraces different eras and
styles, and yet which, in comparison with the Bach-style unified
protestant language, is in fact losing its real roots.

When navigating our way through the veritable maze that


centuries of music history represent, it may help to use certain
tools to guide us: for instance, the music of a particular era, that of
particular composers, or the common features identifiable in the
music we listen to, which we could refer to as the quasi standard
musical language. Today we have to learn how to listen to music.
However, this was not necessary in Bach's era. For the reasons
mentioned earlier, music, the one and only form of music known
at the time, had become a standard language which was used in
2. PRELUDc 21

everyday life. At that time, even if a person was not familiar with
the intricacies of counterpoint, at a basic level he would �ave been
able to recognise well-known songs (or musical references to those
songs) or their melodies, which would have been familiar to all.
A characteristic tune or a harmonic modulation would have been
sufficient for the listener to recognise a musical reference. (Today's
pop songs and their musical remixes are similar in many ways.)

The fact that we do not speak this standard musical language


presents a number of obstacles for us as would-be authentic
performers, interpreters and listeners of Bach's music. This is why
so many books, essays and publications have appeared, seeking
to help us achieve that goal, which, however, for reasons already
mentioned, can never really be fully reached. Fortunately, in recent
decades, more and more authentic texts have been unearthed and
become available for reprint, which may prove extremely helpful
in providing a better understanding of Bach's music and enabling
us to interpret his works in a more authentic way.

In this book, I have not attempted, nor could I even try, to


address all the issues surrounding this topic, as one could indeed
fill many a volume by seeking to do so. Rather, I would like to
examine one small portion of Bach's instrumental works: his lute
pieces. I will consider some aspects of this strand of Bach's music,
which I consider to be particularly important, in an attempt to
offer readers some advice, and. put forward some new opinions
and reflections on the individual pieces. In many instances I will
go beyond outreaches Bach's lute pieces, and in some cases, the
Baroque music as well. Some areas of this subject will not be dealt
with extensively. Therefore, if you are particularly interested in a
specific issue, please turn to the bibliography where you will find
references to specific books and publications that are devoted to a
specific topic. One of the topics that I have not addressed is Bach's
22 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO PLAY i&zeh-
system of ornamentation. However, I have tackled some questions
and interpretation problems which, as far as I am aware, have not
yet been dealt with in other publications, such as harmonic and
melodic movement in Bach's music and how this relates to accents,
part-layering, and the resulting implied polyphony.

These latter questions were my principal motivation for writing


this book; to make the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, one of the
greatest geniuses of European music history, more understandable
for guitar players, other musicians, and, last but not least, the
audience. I can only hope that my work will bring Bach, his
thoughts, music and the mentality of his age, one step closer to
us all.
3.
The manuscripts

The table below contains a list of Bach's lute works that I know of, together with details of how to access them and other
data that I consider important. The versions written/ arranged by Bach for other musical instruments are also listed.

Manuscript sources of Bach's lute pieces:

Catalogue Written
Title Manuscript Library Original Title Versions for other instrument(s)
Number in
Pieces pour
Seal: II.4085
J. S. Bach' Bibliotheque Royale la Luth I a Suite in C minor BWV 1001 for cello -
(Fetis-
original Brussels / Monsieur 1718-23, Copy: Anna Magdalena Bach
Katalog: No.:
manuscript Schouster/ Ms.P. 269
Suite in 2910) t
par/ J. S. Bach 1727-
Gminor
1731
BWV995 JohannPeter Kellner
Anonymous GmolPieces (1705-1772) Ms. P. 804
Musikbibliothek, Becker
French pour le lut par
Leipzig III,II.3 Anonymous (2"d half of 18th century)
Tablature Sre J. S. Bach
Ms.P. 289
Catalogue Written
Title Manuscript Library Original Title Versions for other instrument(s)
Number in
Praeludio -
con la Suite/
Copy: Johann Deutsche da/ Gio: Bast.
Mus. Ms.
Gottfried Staatsbibliothek, Bach (Under
Bach P. 801
Suite in Walther (1684- Berlin with diiferent
E minor 1748) handwriting:) 1708-
BWV 996 aufs 1717
Lautenwerck)
Heinrich
The basis of the 1888 Published in
Nikolaus
publication.The 1888 by Hans
Gerber (1702- Bischoff
original is lost.
1775)
Sammlung/
von/
7Toccaten/
3 Capriccio's/
3 Partiten 3
Preludien mit
Fugen 1 Aria
Anonymous A Ms.II.4093 mit 10 Variat:
2nd half Bibliotheque Royale (Fetis- und/
of 181h century Brussels Katalog: No.: 1 Fuga fur das
(Collection) 1960 Clavier und
dieOrgel/
von / Johann
Sebastian Bach
/ ..... No. 15.
From the
collection:
Preludio con
la Suite
Catalogue Written
Title Manuscript library ' Original Title Versions for other instrument(s)
Number in
Sonata (Suite) in C minor BWV 997 Fiir
Cembalo 1738-1741
Copy: Johann Friedrich Agricola
Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz,
Berlin, Stempel: Mus. Ms. Bach P 650,
Title: (C. Ph. E. Bach manuscript) C moll
Praeludium, fuge, Saraband, und Gigue/
furs/ Clavier,/ Von J. S. Bach
Anonymous (1836), Hessische Landes,-
und Hochschulbibliothek, Darmstadt Mus.
Ms. 1322 (Fugue incomplete)
French Anton Werner (19th century) StPreuK -
tablature: MMs. Bach P 308
Johann Seal: Anonymous (19th century) StPreuK - MMs.
Partita in Partita/
Christian Musikbibliothek, Sarnmlung Bach P 552 (movements: 1,2,3 )
C minor al/ Liuto After
Weyrauch Leipzig Becker
BWV 997 Composta dal 1740 Anonymoµs (end of 19'h century)
Only lll.11.5.
/ Sig.re Bach Deutsche Staatsbibl. Berlin Mus Ms. 30169
movements 1,
(movements: 4, 5)
3, 4.!
G. H. Moering? (18th-19'h century.) StPreuK
- MMs. Bach P 513 (movements: 4, 5)
Anonymous (Early 19'h century Musikbibl.
Leipzig Ms. 2a (movements: 2, 3)
Anonymous (early 19'h century)
Konegliche Bibi. Kopenhagen C,I, 105
Weyses Sarnling (rhovement 2.)
Anonymous (end of 18th century) StPreuK
MMs. Bach P 7, P 286 (2 different Fugue
version)
Anonymous (18th century) Hochschule der
Kiinste, Berlin (2 different Fugue versions)
Catalogue Written
Title Manuscript Library Original Title Versions for other instrument(s)
Number in
Johann Philipp Kimberger (1721-1783)
StPreuK, MMs P 218 Title: Klavier = Sonata
/ von/ Joh. Sebastian Bach Anonymous
(18th century.) Private collection
Anonymous (181h century Deutsche
Staatsbibl. Berlin Am. B. 549-550
Friedrich AugustGrasnick (19'h century
StPreuK - MMs. Bach P 413
J. S. Bach
Original
manuscript,
end
UenoGakuen
of Allegro (tact
College, Tokyo
76.- 96.) written
Address: 24-12,
inGerman none
Prelude, organ tablature Higashi Ueno Prelude pour
Fugue, 4-chome, Taito-ku, la Luth o 1740-
in the margin
Allegro Tokyo 110, Japan Cembal. Par J. 45
of previous
BWV998 pages. S. Bach
C.P.E.Bach's
version is Jost
Osterreischische
Nationalbibliothek,
microfilm copy (PhA 22-P)
Musiksamrnlung,
Wien

Prelude Praelude in
Staatsb. Preuss.
Copy: Johann C mol / pour
inC Kulturbesitz, Seal: M. Ms. Circa
Peter Kellner La Lute/
minor Berlin or: Deutsche Bach P 804 1720
(1705-1772) di/ Johann
BWV999 Staatsbibl. Berlin?
Sebastian Bach
Catalogue Written
Title Manuscript library Original Title \' ersions for other instrument(s)
:'I.umber in
French Fugue in D minor BWV 539 For organ -
Seal:
tablature: Musikbibliothek 1724-25, copy StPreuK - MMs. Bach P 213
Sammlung Fugue/ del
Johann Leipzig Fugue in G minor(Measure 2, BWV
Becker Signore Bach
Christian 1001 From Sonata for Solo Violin) Circa
III.11.4
Fugue in Weyrauch 1718-23 J. S. Bach original manuscript,
G minor Carl Ferdinand Deutsche Staatsbibl. Berlin, Mus.
Circa Ms. Bach P. 297 or StPreuK - MMs.Bach
BWV Becker(1804- 1725 P 967?
1000 1877)
copy: Anna Magdalena Bach Urn 1725-34
StPreuK - MMs. Bach P 268
Anonymous Musikbibliothek Poel. Mus. Anonymous StPreuK - MMs. Bach P 267
19th century. Leipzig Ms. 30, 2 Johann Peter Kellner -1726 StPreuK -
MMs. Bach P 804
Title added
n the 19th
century:
J.S. Bach Musashino-
Seal: Littera Suite pour
Original Musikakadernie
rara vol. 2-14 la Clavecin
manuscript Nerirna-ku, Tokyo
Suite in compose par J. S.Bach Original manuscript Partita
E major Jean Sebast. Circa in E major BWV 1006 - 1718-23(violin)
BWV Bach. original. 1740 The Prelude is the introductory Sinfonia
1006a in cantatas BWV 29 and BWV 120
Anonymous Mus.Ms.
StPreuK
(1800) Bach P 641
I
Deutsche
Anonymous Mus.Ms.
Staatsbibliothek
19th century. Bach P. 1158
Berlin
28 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: IIOW TO PLAY i&zcb-
As the table clearly indicates, only three of Bach's original
manuscripts have survived, out of all the pieces listed here.
The manuscripts for the other pieces have been obtained from
different sources.

Let us examine the above data from the following two points of view:
1. Whether the pieces exist in the form of an original Bach
manuscript or not; 2. Which instruments these pieces may
originally have been written for.

The former is important because, to a varying degree, different


composers/musicians - which were usually one and the same
in the Baroque Period - had different ways of notating the score
of a given piece of music. This is an important factor to consider
when analysing the different parts in a score, as we will do later.

Regarding the second issue, the question of which instrument


a piece was composed for is more a present-day concern: In the
Baroque era, compositions were played on different instruments
with ease, and rewritten for other instruments without causing
any problem. We could well do the same today, playing pieces on
the guitar, which were originally written for the lute, or even for
the harpsichord, the lute-harpsichord, the clavichord, the organ,
the violin, or for any other instrument. We could even adopt
another common practice of the Baroque era, i.e. transposing these
pieces to a different key - except, of course, in the case where, by
doing so, we would rid the music of its very essence and structure.

1. Original Bach manuscripts:

Only BWV 995,998 and 1006a remain in the form of the original
score, written by Bach. It is possible that Suite in G minor BWV
995 was originally written for lute, as the front page of the
3. THE MANUSCRIPTS 29

manuscript states: "Pieces pour la Luth / a/ Monsieur Schouster


/ par/ J. S. Bach". This opinion is also shared by both researchers
and lute enthusiasts.

Bach wrote the last lines of Prelude, Fugue, Allegro BWV 998 on
the margin of the previous pages. What is more, he wrote these
lines in German organ tablature! What is the significance of this
choice of notation, we may ask? First of all, he most probably had
run out of paper. More importantly, it is possible that the piece
was originally written for a keyboard instrument, such as the lute,
the harpsichord or the lute-harpsichord, as the title of the piece is
"Prelude pour la Luth o Cembal. Par J. S. Bach".

On the lute it is impossible to play the long trill in the Gavotte


en Rondeau from Suite in E major BWV 1006a, whereas on the
I ute-harpsichord it can be played easily, without any technical
difficulties. Had he written the piece for the lute, Bach could have
found a solution which was easier to play than the trill, as he did
in the version for violin.

The opinion that a so-called "ribattuta4" should be played here


is not convincing enough for me, and, in fact, not at all plausible.
Bach had an excellent knowledge of the instruments he wrote
for, and did not write instrumentally unplayable pieces. The
four-beat trill of the Gavotte en Rondeau alone is a good enough
basis on which to suggest that the piece was indeed written for
harpsichord or lute-harpsichord.

Non-original Bach manuscripts:

' ribattuta: tremolo-like, quick repetition of a note.


30 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO PLAY J&u;_

Suite in E minor BWV 996 remains in three different versions:


In the manuscript of Johann Gottfried Walther (1684-1748)5 and
Heinrich Nikolaus Gerber (1702-1775)6, in addition to another
one dating from the second half of the 191h century, a copy of a
publication that contains the collection of an unknown musician7•

The key of E-minor makes it almost impossible to perform this


piece on a d-tuned Baroque lute. This, in addition to the rather
difficult Gigue movement, would point towards the fact that this
piece was written for a different instrument. This assumption
seems to be supported by the piece's title, which states: "aufs
Lautenwerck8" (lute-harpsichord), although we should remember
that this was written at a later date and by somebody else other
than the original composer.

16 - or possibly more - manuscripts remain of the Partita in


C minor BWV 997, out of which only one is written in lute
tablature9 . This version consists of only three movements; two
important movements, the Fugue and the Double are missing!
The other manuscripts, which are fragmented at times, all suggest
that the piece was written for a keyboard instrument ("Cembalo"
or "Clavier").

5 Johann Gottfried Walther, related to Bach on his mother's side, was an organist
in Weimar. He is known for compiling the first German musical lexicon.
6 The base of the Hans Bischof publication (1888). The original is lost. Heinrich
Nikolaus Gerber was the organ student(!) of Bach.
7
On the manuscript it says: ... grande collection de musique de Breitkopf et Hartel
/ faite a Leipsick au mois de Juin 1836.
8 Praeludio - con la Suite / da / Gio: Bast. Bach - underneath with different
handwriting Oohann Tobias Krebs? (1690-1762) - more probable that not from
him.): aufs Lautenwerck.
9
French tablature: Johann Christian Weyrauch.
3. THE MANUSCRIPTS 31

It is possible that the Prelude in C minor BWV 99910 is an original


lute piece. It can be well played on the Baroque lute. It is not
widely known that it became part of the small piano preludes
from this remaining manuscript.

The Fugue in G minor BWV 100011 �s probably a contemporary


lute arrangement of the violin version of this piece. The organ
version is also probably a contemporary arrangement. There are
some noticeable mistakes in the notation (e.g. the theme in the 5th
bar) and in some places it is arranged rather liberally, compared to
current arrangement practices. In fact, if such a version were to be
produced today, few contemporaries would accept this work. At
that time, however, this kind of arrangement was the norm. The
organ version, aside from its attempt to create organ-like features,
is much closer to the original violin version. As we know, Bach's
manuscript of this piece did not survive; therefore, the source for
both versions could have been the second movement of Bach's
BWV 1001 solo violin Sonata, which does remain in the original
manuscript.

Sometimes the characteristic purity of Bach's part-writing is quite


simply lost in the manuscripts of other score-writers. Later on
we will seek to infiltrate the hidden thoughts and features of the
composer's original scores in order to gain further insight into the
specific characteristics of Bach's musical language.

10
Copy: Johann Peter Kellner (1705-1772) cantor, organist, a contemporary adrn.irer
of Bach.He made copies of numerous Bach pieces between 1725 and 1726.
11 French lute tablature: Johann Christian Weyrauch, Becker's Bach collection,

Leipzig.
Modern keyboard sheet music: Carl Ferdinand Becker (1804-1877), violinist,
pianist, organist, music collector. He propagated the old music, mainly Bach's
musical pieces.
4.
Articulation

"The notes should not appear to be stuck together. "12

"The note heads in music indicate the exact value of notes; however,
their real values and the value of pauses which belong to them and serve
to separate the notes are not indicated.

(.. .) Nevertheless, they [the notes] are not all sustained in the same way
when played; even notes with the same rhythmic value can be played
quite differently.

(...) During a perfonnance, whether a note is trilled, struck or played in


another manner, it consists of a sustained note and a pause; this means
that the pause belongs to the note, and together they make up the full value.
The part I refer to as the 'sustained note' always comes at the beginning
of the rhythm value; whereas the part I refer to as the 'pause' comes at the
end. The length a note is sustained for can vary according to the score; the
length of the pause depends on the length of the sustained note.

12
,,Es darf nicht scheinen, als wenn die Nolen zus11111111en klebeten" - Johann Joachim
Quantz 1752.
4. ARTICULA rlON 33

(...) The pause determines the articulation to be used, and is as important


as the note itself; without it, separating one note from another would be
impossible, and listening to the most beautiful piano piece without such
articulation pauses would be extremely unpleasant, rather like those tunes
played on ridiculous Poitiers bagpipes, with their loud and inarticulate sound.

We can also distinguish held and struck notes; in the case of held notes, the
majority ofthe note value is audible, and the articulation pause is shortened
accordingly, whereas struck notes have a very short value, which indicates
only the beginning of the note value, followed by a longer pause.

(.. .) Even trills are separated by short intervals, between the pressing
and lifting motion of our fingers. All of these short or long separations
are what I call articulation pauses, which belong to each note. "13

13
(Die Noten in der Musik zeigen priizise den vollstiindigen Wert jeder Note an; ihre
tatsiichliche Haltedauer jedoch und die Dauer der Pausen, die zu ihnen gehoren und
die dazu dienen, die einzelnen Noten voneinander zu trennen, sind allerdings durch
kein Symbol gekennzeichnet. (. . .) Trotzdem werden sie beim Spielen nicht a/le in der
gleichen Weise ausgehalten; sogar Noten von gLeichem Wert konnen ganz verschieden
gespielt werden. (. . . In der Ausftihrung bestehen a/le Noten, seien sie getrillert,
gestoflen oder auch nicht, teils aus dem gehaltenen Ton, teils aus Pause; d.h. daft sie a/le
einen bestimmten TeiL Schweigen enthalten, was zusammen dann den vollstiindigen
Wert der Note ergibt. Der TeiL, den ich das Aushalten oder den Ton nenne, steht immer
am Anfang der Note; der Tei/, den ich das Schweigen nenne, am Ende. Das Aushalten
kann, je nach Art der Note, verschieden Lang sein: die Dauer des Schweigens hiingt
von der Dauer des AushaLtens ab. (. .. ) Diese Pause am Ende jeder Note besti111111t
sozusagen die ArtikuLation und ist genauso wichtig wie das Aushalten; hiitte man sie
nicht, konnte man die Noten nicht voneinander trennen; und das schonste Musikstiick
ware ohne diese Artikulationspausen nicht schoner anzuhoren als Volkslieder aus der
Gegend von Poitiers auf LiicherLichen Dudelsiicken, die nur Laute und unartikuLierte
Tone erzeugen. Man unterscheidet weiterhin die Noten in gehaltene und angestoflene
Noten: die gehalterten sind diejenigen, die man wlihrend des groflten TeiLs ihres Wertes
hart, deren Artikulationspause de111entsprec/1end sehr kurz ist; die angestoflenen sind
im Gegensatz hierzu diejenigen, deren Haltedauer sehr kurz ist, sodafl sie nur den
Schlag der Note 111arkieren, und deren Ende de,nentsprechend aus einer liingeren Pause
besteht. (. . .) Selbst Trillerschllige werden immer durch sehr kurze Interval/e zwische11
Aufsetzen und Abheben der Finger auf der Tastatur voneinander getrennt: all diese
mehr oder minder Langen Abstiinde nenne ich in der Musik die Artikulationspausen,
die zu jeder Note dazugehoren. - Joseph Pere Engramelle 1775.
34 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO l'LA Y .t&zcb-
These two quotations reveal much about the significance of
Baroque articulation. In summary:

In the Baroque period, notes were separated by so-called


articulation pauses, the length of which depended on the duration
of the note and the character of the piece. This is a basic rule which
applies to the performance of Baroque music and which, like the
majority of ancient musical conventions, is not easy to define. This
rule, in addition to playing an essential role in creating character
in dance pieces, shares certain similarities with syllabic vocal
music, separating notes in the same way as unsingable consonants
separate singable vowels. In fact, by translating the movements we
make when playing an instrument into the language of singing,
we can allow the voice, as a basic means of musical expression,
to help us to tackle the majority of articulation problems (and not
only when it comes to Baroque music).

Let us consider some of the exceptions to the articulation pause


referred to above:

In Baroque scores - although less frequently than in Classical


or Romantic works - we can still come across groups of slurred
notes, which can denote several things:

Firstly, slurs can denote a legato performance style, as in the case of


melismatic singing, which is the most common use of slurs today.

Secondly, in a composition containing groups of slurred notes, it


is the repeated notes, as in the example below, that may provide
a good starting point from which to interpret the music. This is
because these repeated notes must be separated from each other,
using an articulated pause. This is a good example of the fact
that, in certain cases where slurs are concerned, the essence of
4. ARTICULATION 35

the music is actually to be found between the slurs. The same can
be true of vocal articulation, where several syllables are sung on
the same note, and are divided by consonants, creating longer or
shorter 'silences', depending on the words.

'
Example taken from BWV 997 Sarabande.

=:u:
� � � ,-..

; �w
,...--:,
J�
g
IM j J J � j
,......._

[!J
� � � �_J_ �� 5
,......._
:;;!
I
F r
F r

---.. ---.. ,......._ ,.---.:,

The third use of slurs, and one which is typical of Bach, is to


denote liaison, i.e. the suspension of a note beyond its time
value. This can be followed by a fleeting, almost unrecognizable
overlap of two notes - one of the key characteristics of polyphony
-, or even the simultaneous striking of certain notes within the
harmony of a chord.

As we can see, there are many more ways to interpret slurs in


Baroque music than in contemporary works. Without knowing
the character and the structure of a work or the characteristic
features of the composer and the era in which he wrote, it is
impossible to discover what lies behind the notes-and even if
one does possess this knowledge, the results can be unreliable.
We are still left guessing as to how these pieces would really have
sounded. Unfortunately, this comment does not only apply to
articulation problems relating to Baroque music, but indeed to
the interpretation of old music as a whole. To understand what
is happening in the heart of the musical world, we must possess
36 J6ZSEF E0TV05: HOW TO l'l.A Ya�

certain knowledge of composition, or at least experience in the


theory of harmony, counterpoint or form. This will at least give
us a slim chance of achieving a more or less reliable result in the
course of our work.

Another exception to the rules of Baroque articulation is that fast


passages, triplets and triplet-like patterns (e.g. 6/8, 9/8) should
generally be played in a legato style, unless otherwise marked or
contrary to the character of the piece.
5.
Baroque Articulation
on the Guitar

Having gained some insight into Baroque articulation, let us now


move on to look at how it should be applied to the guitar. Initially,
this is no easy task. In the case of most instruments, other than the
guitar, articulation is something which occurs naturally. Just think
about the piano (without pedal!) How simple it is to play a single
melody, without the notes overlapping. And yet how complicated
it is to play the same simple motif on the guitar, especially, if
we want to implement the Baroque articulation discussed in the
previous chapter. The fact is that there is hardly any accepted
methodology for teaching this articulation on the guitar.

During a pupil's first few violin or flute lessons, some form of


articulation can be achieved, even in first few notes he or she
attempts to play. This is not the case when it comes to the guitar,
apart from the rare pupil here or there, whom I deeply respect.
Why is this? It could or even should be taught from the very
beginning! If it is not, the beginner guitarist's ears will soon
become accustomed to the resonant sound of the instrument,
and after a short time may not even hear the difference. As a
consequence, the player will not be able articulate on the guitar.
38 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO PLAY J1lzc4-.
The question is the following: Is such a level of articulation really
necessary on the guitar? Can a piece of guitar music convey its
message without the use of articulation? The fact that music
'talks' and has something to tell is a commonly-accepted truth.
The performance of a poem would be ruined by the absence of
articulation or inadequate articulation; whereas if the performer
uses appropriate articulation - in addition to word stress and
other elements - this emphasizes the meaning of words and
provides an almost spiritual-emotional bridge which connects the
poet and the listener. Although everybody can speak, actors still
learn the art of speaking properly. 1n my opinion, music should
not be any different.

So should the jingling sound of the lute be imitated when playing


Baroque lute music? In the case of some instruments, like the
lute, the kind of articulation referred to as the essence of Baroque
interpretation in the beginning of the chapter is almost impossible
because of the numerous, freely ringing strings and other
technical aspects of the instrument. (Although we can only make
assumptions as to how these instruments were actually played
as we do not know for sure.) Take the lute, for instance: The
increasing number of strings it gained during the Baroque Age
ran contrary to the thoughts on articulation, as the lower strings
resonated and could have a'dimming' effect on the melody being
played, in the case of polyphonic music. Does this mean that if
these pieces are arranged for guitar, which also possesses this
'dim', resonant sound, this feature of the original instrument be
included in the interpretation?

In order to answer to this question, let us run through all the


issues arising.
5. BAROQUE ARTICULATION ON l'IIE GUITAR 39

Firstly: The tuning and the number of strings are significantly


different in the case of Baroque lutes and today's guitars. If
we tried to imitate those ringing and vibrating SOUllds that
may appear while playing the lute, we would be faced with an
insurmountable problem. Even if, by using certain fingerings, the
same effects could be achieved and the same notes could be made
to sound together as they would on a Baroque lute, which is in
itself an impossible task in most cases, the resonance of the lower
strings would still be completely lost during the performance.
If other notes sounded together on the guitar because of the
physical and tuning differences between the guitar and the lute,
this would completely ruin the piece, as of course the composer
would have taken great care to choose which notes should sound
at the same time and which should not.

Secondly: According to the general principles of Baroque music


(see the quotations about Baroque articulation) this sound must
have been a disadvantage to be eliminated, rather than an
advantage worthy of being imitated. To take another instrument
as an example: Would you play Bach's Chaconne on a guitar
by imitating the known chord-breaks of the violin? Would the
violinists keep those breaks, if they suddenly had access to a
device which could make these chords sound together? Let us
take a brief look at how Bach responded to the "defects" of certain
instruments. Take a look at the example from violin part of the
Fugue in BWV 1003, considering the fact that the tight structure
of the Bach-fugue does not allow changes in motifs. The excerpt
begins in bar 234 of the piece, with the following motif:
40 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: IIOW TO PLAY fllz.cJ._
Then comes the answer, which is a tone lower:

But this cannot be played on a violin, because it does not have a


lower string than the G-string.

So what did Bach do? He wrote this:

.,
This free choice and momentary rebellion against the strict
rules governing fugal structures, in favour of adjusting to the
instrument's characteristics, reveals a lot about how musical
instruments influenced Bach's way of thinking.

What notes should we play if we arranged this piece for the


guitar? What would Bach have written if the piece had been
arranged for the harpsichord? The answer is obvious and beyond
doubt: an F sharp. Should we also play an F sharp despite the
fact that, to our knowledge, he had never arranged this fugue for
another instrument-which could prove our presumption? Or
should we respect the composer and leave the original A, which
he wrote for violin only because of necessity? I believe that part
of respecting Bach and his works is understanding what and why
he wrote. Therefore, whenever a similar action is spotted in one of
Bach's works, which was taken to accommodate the characteristics
of a certain instrument, we should interpret it in into the language
of our own instrument, just as he did several times. This may be
the real way to respect Bach's music. Do we really want to imitate
the disadvantages of an instrument when arranging a piece? This
5. BAROQUE ARTICULATION ON TIIE GUITAR 41

mentality does not fit with that of Bach or the Baroque era as a
whole.

The third, and perhaps most important, aspect of this issue is


the following: The works we examine in this book, just as most
of Bach's pieces for lute, were not -originally written for lute,
but rather for the lute-harpsichord. The only similarity between
these two instruments was their tone. The features of articulation
on lute-harpsichord were identical to those of other keyboard
instruments. Would Bach have been satisfied with an instrument
that is barely able or, indeed, completely unable to imitate the lute
if its ringing sound had been so important to him? According to
contemporary descriptions, this instrument perfectly imitated the
sound of the lute, but only in the manner which was considered
to be the most important: its tone. The polyphonic structure of
Bach's works favours clear and distinct part-writing over tone,
which, for articulation reasons could be achieved more easily on
the lute-harpsichord than the lute.

What conclusions can we, guitarists, draw from these points?

If the duration of notes is not determined by us but rather by


the playing technique of the given instrument, we lose control
over the interpretation of music in the Baroque sense. The various
parts merge into one another, the characters become uncertain,
and the music becomes incomprehensible and unpleasant. This
can be avoided by learning to control the duration of notes. It
requires a great deal of persistence and consistent practice to
achieve this, and to succeed will not be easy and will take more
than one or two weeks. The goal is achieved when we no longer
have to pay more attention to articulation technique than to the
notes we play. Although, whenever we play, we will still have to
42 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO J'LA Y J&,zc4-

work twice as hard as before. It is important to note that, in a way,


articulation can be found in the music of all eras. The thousands
of bowing variations for violinists and the different types of
piano-playing techniques each have their purpose. We should
listen to music played on other instruments, and find a way to
produce different types of articulation on our instrument. The fact
is, even talking without proper articulation is not very effective,
so what if one tries to perform a piece of music, which alludes to
sophisticated and elusive subjects that no words could describe?
I believe that as far as our playing technique allows, we have a
duty to do our best to articulate our performance on the guitar,
even if this is a difficult task and requires extra work.

The issue of articulation is rather a sore point when it comes to


guitar playing, as unfortunately no methodology has ever been
produced to help people apply this important musical device. As
a result the individual is left to develop and apply the appropriate
technique for him or herself. Below are some words of advice with
regards how to articulate well on the guitar.

Here are some important points:

I. Use a proper picking technique when playing fretted notes.


2. Use both hands to achieve articulation.
3. Initially, only practice articulation on easy pieces.
4. As with other aspects of music, imagine what you want to hear before
playing it.
5. Practise articulating from the outset, when learning the piece itself,
rather than later on. Look at articulation as an element which works
together with other aspects of playing technique.
5. BAROQUE ARTICULATION ON TIIE GUITAR 43

6. Invent exercises to improve your articulation, or integrate aspects of


articulation into exercises you already do.
7. Practice the action required to achieve good articulat(on until
it becomes second nature, and think of articulation as being as
important as any other well-known technique such as alternate
picking or position changing.
8. Learn to bring your articulation technique under control so that you
can apply it when sight-reading. Practise this!
9. Try to alternate different types of articulation when practising, if the
piece permits you to do so.
10.Most important of all: listen to music, music, and more music,
anything but guitar music!

Finally, this is how the BWV 996 Prelude would look in a


contemporary score, beginning from bar 16. Perhaps this is not
the best example from the point of view that whilst there are many
possible ways of articulating this excerpt, some of that freedom
is lost simply by writing one possibility down. However, for the
time being, it is sufficient to give us an idea of how we could
articulate this piece.

-�
1 Jp 1. r
J
�-
r r r r
6.
Melodic and Harmonic
Movement

It would appear that Baroque polyphony is a key feature of Bach's


music. He does not think in terms of melody and accompaniment,
but rather harmonising, complementary parts.

Harmony, which evolves from notes sounding simultaneously


within a melody, is the result of basic horizontal movement of
music. The most typical example of this is the organisation
of the Baroque fugue, the importance of which for Bach cannot
be overstated.

Let us examine some fugues to establish the general rules and


characteristics regarding the movement of parts. First, we will
consider the position of parts according to accents. It will become
clear that, apart from a few exceptions, every piece starts off
unstressed, although not with an upbeat. Bach very clearly
wrote out the rests to be observed before the start of the theme.
At the end of the piece, the last note is stressed, except when it
is ornamented. This "unstressed beginning-stressed ending"
combination appears to be an extremely important element in
all of these pieces. However, each piece itself can be constantly
divided into smaller and smaller sections until all that remains
is a single pair of unstressed and stressed notes. Consequently,
6. MELODIC AND HARMONIC MOVEMENI 45

melodic (part) movement must change from being unstressed to


stressed, regardless of how big the section we examine is. This kind
of movement can be followed throughout the different pieces.

Let us pause briefly to define some terms and expressions such as


accent, the interpretation of rhythmic i!lstructions in the score and
the comparison between stress and tension-resolution.

First let us take stress. We have all come across single-stress time
signatures such as 4/ 4. The main stress is placed on the first beat
of the bar, then a lighter stress on the third beat, whereas the
second and fourth are comparatively unstressed.

We can compare where stresses are placed by looking at the


examples below, taken from scores.

Take a look at example (a). The second and fourth beats are
unstressed, as mentioned above. But only in comparison with
the first and the third quarters!
ln example (b), the second beat (2) is stressed compared to the
preceding quaver (la).
In example (c), the unaccented quaver (la) becomes stressed
compared to the preceding semiquaver (lb), which is unstressed here.

After making further divisions in example (d), even the unstressed


semiquaver becomes stressed, compared to the preceding demi­
semiquaver (le).

w I 2 3 4 llil1 la 2

�tJ J J J 11 t ) J £==-tl

[e" I
= Jla
lb 2
uB
[di) le lb la
*
2

�7 J
46 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: IIOW 10 PLAY aeb--
In the following example we can see that, in exactly the same
time-signature, the stresses can be redefined. The arrows show
where the stresses fall: upwards arrow = unstressed; downwards
arrow = stressed.

Example: Gavotte en Rondeau, BVW 1006a

t i t
f r
i t i t i t
f r
The following example would not be a good solution of the piece
(the closing chord is unstressed):

t +
'51--
J I .J

This is another poor solution:

In my opinion, these examples speak for themselves. We can


conclude that as a result of the relative nature of stress, stress pairs
6. MELODIC AND HARMONIC MOVEMENT 47

work in the same way between two notes of the smallest value,
as they do between two full beats, or between longer sections
of the piece. The other important issue that needs to be clarified
is that time signatures were not placed in a score to �ark the
individuality or unity of the different movements within a piece,
but rather to make it easier to work out the note values within a
bar. Here I am referring to quavers and smaller values.

Let me explain this point by referring to the following excerpt


from Bach's fugue BWV 1000 in A minor, which is familiar to most
guitarists. Despite the fact that the note stems serve to divide up
the stresses, it is clear that the theme is separated into two sensible
musical motifs.

F F r r cr E3

'
The following musical interpretation would be completely
incorrect:

r r r E3 I r
r----1 r,
¥ F F f
I think that I have made my point. However, let me conclude that
when analysing a piece and looking for where the stresses fall, we
should not forget that neither the beginning of motifs, nor time
signatures, or crochets or smaller note values, will provide any
indication of where the notes exactly belong to.

On a final note about stress, as we have already analysed endings,


we should not avoid the question of how to play them. When
we get to the end of a piece, we should put greater stress on the
penultimate note, which would otherwise have been unstressed,
and we should, in fact, play it louder that the accented closing note.
48 J6ZSEF E0TV05: HOW TO l'LA Y ac4-
Here is an example:

If our previous statement is true and the unstressed word is


referred to as "softer", whereas the stressed one is referred to as
"louder", which would be the natural approach, such an ending
would sound very strange, as we would like to hear the tension
on the dominant "louder", and the resolution on the tonic softer.
There has to be an explanation for this paradox. The answer can
be found in the relationship between tension and resolution.
Musical tension is a long process which extends over time, while
resolution is just a point at the end of this process.

In the light of this, the previous example becomes comprehensible,


and the musical progression more natural. If we associate the
word "tension" with the expression "unstressed", and the word
"resolution" with the expression "stressed", we have a musical
progression that fits the above example.

This musical progression can be even better explained by the


physical process of breathing:

(inhalation = (unstressed) tension; exhalation = (stressed) resolution)

or by the process of conducting: (up = (unstressed) tension; down


= (stressed) resolution) 14

14 When explaining this movement to my students, I favour using the pointing


movement of the index finger as an example. As I am raising my hand and
stretching my index finger, one can expect that I am going to point at something.
The growing of tension can be felt as the thing to be pointed at becomes gradually
distinct (unaccented tension and its growth towards the" crescendo" - a linear
process in time). And then comes the moment, when my hand stops and what
I wanted to point at becomes certain (accented resolution - the accent is like a
point in time). So does melody movement, when it" points at" the next accent.
6. MELODIC AND HARMONI MOVEMENT 49

This brings us to another type of progression, that is, harmonic


progression.

Besides applying harmony, this tension-resolution relationship


can be reached by many other means, such as through melody,
rhythm, meter, and form (no matter when and where it was
created, music has always sought to achieve this relationship
between tension and resolution, by a·variety of means).

The following example, however, may appear to contradict this


last comment. Let us look at "Kunst der Fuge", a well-known
fugal theme written by Bach. Here there is no sign of an unstressed
beginning. What does this suggest?

This example denotes another type of progression, that is,


harmonic, or chord progression.

In this example, the harmonic movement of the first motif is a broken


D minor triad, the basic key of the piece, which leads towards
the stressed leading note (C sharp) in the next bar. As we know,
Bach preludes generally start with a harmonic progression
which introduces the key of the piece, and the same is true of
this particular example. In the second group of notes, we find
an example of the stress-based melodic progression we have
just discussed. Thus, the fugal theme includes a prelude-like
introduction in the tonic key, with harmonic progression, and
its continuation with melodic progression. Whereas the first half
of the theme begins on an unstressed beat, in accordance with
harmonic progression, the two motifs in the second half proceed
from being unstressed to stressed.
50 J6ZSEF EOTVOS: HOW TO PLAY f&zcJ-
In music, harmonic and melodic progression work together,
supporting and completing each other. However, the presence of
one or the other can vary from piece to piece, i.e. there are pieces with
mainly melodic progressions and others with mainly harmonic ones.
The Klavier Prelude in C major in Wohltemperiertes is a good
example of the latter (here arranged for guitar):

The difference between stresses in harmonic progressions and


those in melodic ones is clearly visible in the above example.
A harmonic progression changes on a stressed beat and endures
until the next harmony begins. Also, unlike in a melody, stresses
within harmony can not be divided. (Arpeggios, like melodies,
can be analyzed horizontally, but this is not a common way to
analyse this musical feature). Naturally, in harmonic progression
there is also a stress-relationship between different bars, and
between different beats within a bar and in larger sections, just
as in melodic progressions. However, if we look at the following
example, we can spot the biggest difference between melody and
harmony. In this excerpt the melody is marked above, and the
harmonic progressions, underneath: (Bach, BWV 998/1)

,---, ,---, .--------, .---, .--------,.---,

�f1J�1fnpw11�NJF1;
L.---1 L.---JL.---1 L______l L.---1 L.---JL.---1 c___ _J

In this example, the harmonic and melodic movement does not


coincide. To put it simply: the last note of each motif falls on a
new harmony, then a new motif begins, which in turn ends at the
onset of the following harmony and so on.
6. MELODIC AND HARMON!<. MOVEMENT 51

They are connected to each other like the links in a chain or the
pieces in a game of dominoes.

This might be the main reason that so many of Bach's pieces


appear to flow on into eternity: As if the endings and beginnings
of the harmony and the melody were never to meet and they will
inevitably keep rolling on forever!
7.
Layers of Bach's Music
- Implied Polyphony

Baroque scores differ in many ways from the scores we know and
use today. This does not mean that Bach and his contemporaries
would have written down their compositions less perfectly than
the composers of our time, but suffice it to say that they only
wrote down essential instructions required by the performer
to interpret the intentions of the composer. Often the composer
himself was the performer, in which case the score contained
only the most crucial information. The music of the Baroque
period was standardized and did not mix with the musical styles
of previous eras, which was scarcely played. Composers could
not have imagined that they were writing their compositions for
future generations as well: Who would want to play these pieces
after the unique conditions they were created for had died out?
Therefore, they did not write more in the score than contemporary
requirements dictated.

An awareness of this approach is essential in enabling us to


understand why something was or was not written in the
score to facilitate the performance by Bach and those whose
manuscripts contain his compositions. What has remained in
these compositions - in addition to theoretical writings - indicate
7. LAYERS OF BACH'S Music- IMPLIED POLYPHONY 53

how necessary it was to write in the score and how precisely one
needed to comment on the performance style at the tirne. 15

Why is it so hard for us, 21't-century dwellers, to discover these


lost thoughts behind the notes? It is r:i.ot because we are clumsier
than Baroque musicians. When we think about it, the beauty of
ancient music only started to be rediscovered at the beginning of
the 19th century, after which they were played and listened to with
increasing frequency. The devices and style of old music were often
mixed with styles which were currently in fashion and adored by
the audience. The socio-historical and emotional background of the
compositions created in the Baroque age did not survive with the
music; therefore, could not live on in the people of the romantic era
in the same way. Old compositions had to be modernized. It was a
huge temptation for the virtuoso performer, the new 19th century
model of musician, to use musical devices known and loved by the
audience and which were effective in the concert hall, as achieving
success was of great importance to them.

As we can see, during the period after Bach's death and in the
later Romantic period, audiences were not interested in hearing
old music as it had been intended to be played. Baroque music
was composed for church congregations, small groups of nobles
in courtyards or as chamber music to be played at home, not
for large, formal concert halls with hundreds of spectators. The
inner delicacy of Baroque music could not compete with the
compositions of romanticism and the audience's taste for new

"It is interesting- see the dates at the beginning of the chapter about articulation
- that most of the remained writings were born at the end of, or after, the
Baroque age (around 1740 and 1780). The reason is quite simple: it is needless
to write down what everybody knows. This becomes necessary only when this
knowledge is beginning to fade away ...
54 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO PLAY a@-
colours and virtuosity. The gradual rediscovery of old music,
including that of Bach, entailed the rearrangement of these
compositions in accordance with the tastes of the 19th century.
Bousoni' s Bach Chaconne or Gounod's Ave Maria for Bach's
prelude are just a couple of the numerous examples.

A long time passed before the public started to become interested


in looking for, and rediscovering, the real face and meaning of
pre-19th century compositions. This work has required a great
deal of painstaking research - in the end we are still left guessing
to a certain extent as to what lay behind the original thought.
In spite of this, more and more people have become interested
in the authentic performance of ancient music and consider it
important to rediscover how this music would have been played
in their own day.

An important aspect of Baroque instrumental music was that


is was born out of a close connection between polyphonic
instrumental and vocal pieces. Polyphonic instrumental music,
which slowly came to develop a life of its own in the Baroque
age, also developed its own notation style. Instead of writing the
parts in separate lines, a score based on practical performance
was used, and this was also employed by Bach. In many cases,
in polyphonic pieces based on complementary rhythms, two or
more parts could be covered by using the acoustic effects of one
single instrument. Polyphonic instruments also adopted this kind
of movement, thus one of its parts can be divided into further
polyphonic movement, which rhythmically complement each
other and contain the same notes.
7. LAYERS OF BACH'S Music- IMPLIED POLYPHONY 55

This kind of musical movement is called implied polyphony


henceforth. It was a type of ornament used in the Baroque age,
when compositions composed this way were sounded with real­
time polyphony on those instruments, which were capable of
doing this. Let us see an example for this from BWV 998 Fugue
of Bach:

BWV 998 Fugue from the 461h measure:

Original:

t
tt:=::i:=: j
�·

With the parts written out:


56 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO PLAY�

The above example is substantially more difficult to play as it


is written here than it would be if we played it in the manner
we are accustomed to today. However, it is not impossible. The
Parts naturally cling onto each other in line with the rules of
counterpoint. Music receives a new dimension due to how it is
interpreted during the performance.
8.
Appoggiaturas

I believe that the rules of Baroque appoggiatura are relatively


familiar to all. However, one can still come across unclear
examples in sheet music and therefore perhaps it is a good idea to
review them at this point. In order to gain a better understanding
of Baroque appoggiatura rules, we must be aware that in this
era the purpose of ornaments was to draw attention to the flow
of the music and strengthen the relationships of inner tension
that existed. This approach differs from the virtuoso style of
romanticism, where the showcasing of a performer's technical
skills plays a much larger role, or even the most important role,
at times. The appoggiatura itself creates a certain amount of
tension compared to the main note it supports and the underlying
harmony, and this affects how long it is held for. It functions as a
suspension, which divides the notational value of main note into
two parts: tension and resolution. Throughout its evolution, the
notational value of the appoggiatura became longer and longer.
While in the early Baroque it was generally relatively short, after
1750 its notational value was lengthened until it reached more
than half that of the main note. In addition to literature which has
survived about how to play appoggiaturas, approximate guidance
in this matter can generally be gleaned from looking at the era in
58 J6ZSEF EOTVOS: HOW TO PLAY aa-
which the piece was written, the character of the piece, and the
precise positioning of the appoggiatura within the piece.

a. The appoggiatura divides the value of the note that follows it

The value of the main note is halved irrespective of the written


length of the appoggiatura, meaning that no matter how long
the appoggiatura is, it will divide the value of the main note. If
we consider the time it takes to apply the necessary articulation,
it can happen that the main note becomes even shorter than the
appoggiatura. If we examine the movement that takes place in
the context of a tension-resolution cadence, it becomes clear that
the note which creates the tension (the appoggiatura) is in fact
as long as or even longer than the resolution note. If we look at
the meaning of such a musical progression, the reason for this is
clear: the tension is what creates the movement, the action, and
the interest, while the resolution simply brings all this to a close.
Thus, how long the note is played for is essentially irrelevant.

Example:

� L: H
.,r t,J 11
1� 1 1\ l \
b. If the appoggiatura comes before a dotted note, it will receive 2/3 of
the main note's value, thus decreasing the value of the main note to 1/3.

The above-mentioned closure of the tension-resolution


relationship can be more clearly seen in the following example.
The main note may be only touched upon briefly during
8. APPOGGIATURAS 59

performance, whlle the length note creating the tension takes on


most of its value.

Example:

c. If the dotted main note is followed by another note of the same pitch,
the appoggiatura receives 1/3 of the main note's value, while the main
note itself retains 2/3.

At first sight, thls comment would appear to contradict the


lension-resolution relationshlp whlch has been referred to several
Limes. However, if we consider the articulation rule discussed
'arlier, whereby notes of the same pitch must always be separated
from each other, this fact becomes more comprehensible.
E sentially, the main note needs to be held for longer because of
the extra time required to articulate the next note, whlch is of the
same pitch, in order to separate the notes properly.

Example:

4#'( � f' 11 p r � f' 11 p � � f'


d. If a dotted crotchet is tied to a note of the same pitch in the second
!t11/f of a 6/8 bar, the appoggiatura should be played as a dotted crotchet,
while the length of the main note is shortened to the value of the note in
//1e second half of the bar.

Example:
60 J6ZSEF EOTVOS: HOW TO PLAY t8zd-
Of course the above rules are just general truths, which can vary
according to the period, the composer and the characteristics of
the composition. However, it is true for music of all periods that a
good general understanding of the relationship of tension between
notes will help us to ascertain how to play an appoggiatura, even
if we do not know a great deal about the background of the piece
we are playing.

Moving on to Bach's appoggiaturas, there are two different types


of appoggiaturas in his manuscripts: the first is tied to the main
note with a slur, whereas the second type is not. In the first case
the appoggiatura is usually shorter than in the rules mentioned
earlier, whilst the second kind is typical of those appoggiaturas
already mentioned. Unfortunately, it is common to come across
slurs which have been added by the publisher but are not present
in the original manuscript, so only by checking the original can
we establish if these slurs are authentic. Thankfully, in new
publications, appoggiaturas and the acciaccaturas are rarely
mixed up, although the same cannot be said for older scores.

Finally, the special characteristics of various Baroque dances and


other music types often affect and shape the way appoggiaturas
are to be performed, thus causing us "breaking" the rules, but in a
way which brings us closer to the character of the composition. In
conclusion, it is important not to apply Baroque performance rules
too dogmatically, including those which refer to appoggiaturas.
9.
Fingerings

In addition to simply discussing musical thought, it is, or course,


important to implement it into our performance technique. The
most basic and general way to do this is through our fingerings.
The guitar-playing technique does not allow us to produce
polyphony very easily, unlike the keyboard. In addition to having
a sound knowledge of musical styles, we also need to develop an
in-depth awareness of our instrument, so as to project the very
essence of the piece we are playing and our interpretation of it
through our performance.

Frankly, I do not like writing fingerings all over my score, because


it makes the music more static and prevents us from forming
new thoughts about the music. How clever the Baroque musicians
were, who knew that there were no two performers in the world
who would express their composition in the same way. Indeed,
even an individual performer's take on a piece will change over
time. For this reason, I only write fingerings in the score when I
come across a section which is hard to play on the guitar or if there
is only one possible fingering, and I often change these personal
notes later on. In addition, I only write my current favourite
fingering in the part, because if those that use the part after me
have a similar opinion regarding fingering, our joint thoughts may
62 /6ZSEF EOTVOS: HOW TO PLAY i&zcb--
just help someone else to develop a fingering which suits them.
Although, having said this, I would still advise you not to adopt
anyone's fingerings without subjecting them to some criticism,
no matter whose they are, or which publisher has written them.
We should always stop to ask ourselves why we are considering
using a particular fingering, and if the answer is based on a musical
reason (never on a technical one), we may adopt it. If, on the other
hand, the fingering runs contrary to our musical convictions, then
we should change it immediately.

So how do we start to learn a piece? The most important thing


is to forget any personal connection we have with the piece, for
example concerts we have attended or recordings we have listened
to. We have to find the thoughts embedded in the composition
and to form our own views instead of copying someone else's
performance willy-nilly, without exercising any judgement. We
should look at the score as if we have never seen it or listened to
the music. If we want to discover something "new" in the music
we should probably also get rid of all the musical markings and
personal comments which have been added to the part over time,
and really only represent a straight-jacket. Ideally, after reading
through the part (maybe several times) we will have a clear
idea of how we would like to hear the composition and which
musical characteristics are important for us. Then we should find
a fingering which fits with this (perhaps the printed fingering
might also come in useful), possibly writing it into our part, whilst
maintaining the right to change it anytime. Finally, if we would
like to emphasize other movement of the musical context - we
can start to play the composition.

But what should we do if we are not clear about how we would


like the piece to sound? We cannot possibly create a fingering
if we lack a defined musical objective, as, by doing so, our
9.FINGERINGS 63

performance would inevitably reflect the uncertainness of our


musical thoughts. The best strategy in such cases may be to
reread the piece (both with and without our instrum(mt) and
give ourselves time to think about it, which may just help us
to see the way ahead. We should not commit to one particular
fingering until we know what sound ·we want to make and how
we intend to achieve it. Until we have reached this point, we
should try out different fingerings which suit the various possible
interpretations. As we become more and more confident about
how we want the music to sound, the fingerings we should use
will become clearer and clearer.

ln conclusion, fingering is not a way to simplify the piece by


listing the notes separately from the context of the music, but
rather a tool to help us get to the heart of the piece's structure and
message and form our own personal interpretation of it.

It is important to mention that, on the guitar, fingering does not


merely refer to the left hand, but also the right! The left and right
hand techniques are, in fact, intricately linked. What the left hand
does influences what kind of technique is to be used by the right
hand, and likewise, the type articulation used by the right hand
has an influence on the fingerings of the left hand. Articulation can
actually be achieved either by the right or the left hand, whichever
least disturbs the notes being played. We may need to develop
new technique in order to achieve this, but it is important to do
so if we wish to articulate properly.

One last note on fingering: a good fingering is one that releases


I he hidden elements in the music which the performer considers
lo be the most important, and conveys them to the listener in the
most comprehensive manner. This is true for all music, including,
of course, that of Bach.
10.
Examples from Compositions,
Explanations of Scores

Let us look at some excerpts of Bach's lute compositions in order


to demonstrate what has been discussed. Although the number
of these compositions is finite, they provide endless examples
because of their musical richness. For me, these snippets exemplify
the musical phenomena which have been discussed thus far, but
which have perhaps not always been looked at in enough depth.
I will try to be brief and clear so that we may examine as many
examples as possible in this chapter.

The variations and ornaments written in the examples generally


only provide a rough indication of how the music would sound,
but in the absence of a clearer signal, they illustrate these excerpts
sufficiently. If we played a Baroque piece of music according to
contemporary rules on accuracy, we would create the wrong effect
entirely. In some ways, the musical style and vividness of Baroque
music can be compared to jazz: Only the bare outline of the piece
is provided, our task being to bring the score to life with our use
of rhythm, melody and an appropriate improvisation style.

So, let us have a go! I hope that the following selection of examples
and my reflections on them will prove useful and inspire you to
develop your own thoughts about Bach's music!
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 65

Suite in G minor BWV 995


(In A minor on the guitar)

Prelude
In the first section of the piece, dotted rhythms -a typical feature
of French overtures - should be double-dotted. (Double-dotting
is a particularly pronounced type of uneven playing)

It is rather difficult, although not impossible, for a guitar player


lo play the chord at the beginning of the second bar. This chord
plays a fairly important role at the beginning of the composition.
Bach often established the key of a piece at the beginning of the
prelude by using a T-S-D-T (Tonic-Subdorninant-Dorninant-Tonic)
progression. But what happens here?

� J7J £lj lcl


t - r r
8

At the beginning of the first bar the music opens with an octave
on the tonic, A, which leads to a chord in the second bar, which is
both subdominant and dominant, due to the combination of notes
used. It then returns to the tonic, again played as an octave, at the
beginning of the third bar. The opening bars of this Bach prelude
thus ends with the key strengthened, allowing the movement
proper to begin.
66 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO PLAY i&zcb-
Let us examine the harmony in a bit more detail, by looking at the
subdominant and dominant notes:

All the notes in this harmony need to be present in the opening


in order to establish the key. Here is a solution, which is easy to
play and contains all of these notes:

In Baroque music, the length of the upbeats is always adjusted to


the subsequent movement of the music. Therefore, if the upbeat
is a dotted quaver, whereas the figure which follows it is a group
of semiquavers, then the upbeat also needs to be played as a
semiquaver.

Here is an example, which is not easy to work out initially, but


becomes clearer when divided up:

Bar 2 of the BWV 995 Prelude in its original rhythmic pattern:

r r 8

Played as follows:

r r 8
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 67

Or even:

r F
Or, we could even play it as follows, if we want to produce a
calmer end to the phrase:

Look back at the figure which follows the chord in the second bar.
[f we examine this section on the basis that Bach often applied
ornaments in such places, we begin to see what appoggiaturas
might have been used:

Basic figure without appoggiatura:

With appoggiaturas, indicated in the usual way:

The actual rhythms played when performed, with the upbeat


shortened:
68 J6ZSEF EOTVOS: HOW TO PLAY £8zc4-.
As to which of these solutions is the best, that is essentially a
matter of individual taste.

Appoggiaturas can be applied in the fourth bar of the Prelude


as follows:

Original, as written:

&&r }t�-s r f i

r r 8

How it actually sounds:

'·* •
>�

qj:Je E i I�r

,.,
And with double-dotting:
>,,.--.._

r F r I@f

)§�� f

In the second half of the seventh bar we could make an addition


to the existing motif, which would create implied polyphony. This
addition would begin on an unstressed beat and lead towards the
G sharp in the eighth bar by stepping in seconds, thus anticipating
and justifying the opening of the original into two parts.

Original movement:
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EX PIA NA I JONS OF SCORES 69

Divided into more oarts:

The first two Ds in the 151h bar are octave leaps in the bass part
which bring the phrase to an end. This is a movement which is
also present in the first section of the piece and reoccurs several
Limes throughout the remainder. The next melody begins on the
E on an unstressed beat.

Original:

Interpreted:

Beginning in bar 21 is an example of the fact that groups of


(our semiquavers do not always belong together, as here it is
lhe four notes from second serniquaver of one group to the first
semiquaver of the next which belong together.
70 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO PLAY a�
With the real groupings of the semiquavers marked:

In bar 94 there is a good example of implied poliphony:

Original:

& j J J J J,J lud 3 J,J 3 J Ic f f 'F f F I P


1

With the parts written out:

Let us look at a longer section in order to get a better picture of


this implied polyphony. Here is a whole page from the original
score, followed by a polyphonic version of it:
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 71

BWV 995 Prelude - beginning at bar 135:

Wft±} 1•r J J J j iJr 'J J J j iJ J J J J) IJ .l j J J 5 I


7 7 7 L_j
7 7
[ r r

,J IJw 1 1 5
r , , J 1 r1 , a w, a 1 ,1 J LJ tt
J J 3 iJ a e, J ; • 1.� #j j i
r

J J .J J J I J J J J j J IJ J 3 J ' ] I; n
'J
r , , ' �'L..J r , , c: E IP
J:>
2l£i I
72 J6ZSEF E0TV05: HOW TO PLAY J&zc4-...
With the implied parts written out:

II �,=o==.............. 7 7 n l, ,
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 73

Allemande
The appoggiatura in the 2
nd
bar would look like this, according

'
to the rules:

Original:

Written out:

By holding the appoggiatura for longer, the whole tension­


resolution progression can be made as long as the A which is
played under it:

If we take a few steps back and look at the essential movement


of the top part, we can distinguish a rhyming pattern between
the two bars. The following two lines demonstrate this point, the

'
first with the mordent in place, the second one without, in order
to show the pattern more clearly:

>

iI P
=
¥ f ¥' i I {251J1

iI
� P
=
i I4
¥ l ¥ 1 =?1
74 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO PLAY acb--
According to the strict rules of counterpoint, the augmented
second interval is not permitted within a single part, although
this does not mean that examples of it cannot be found. Let us
look at two examples. The first one can be found at the beginning
of the 4t1, bar:

The reason for the existence of this interval here is simple: The G
sharp is the last note of the previous melody, while the F is the
first of the next.

In the second example, in bar 19, the first note of the augmented
second belongs to one part, while the second belongs to the next
part, if we write out the implied polyphony. In the version written
for a single part, the appoggiatura does not receive its proper
length from the dotted crotchet; however, in the polyphonic
version it is lengthened:

Example: BWV 995 Allemande - bar 19

Original:

Written out:
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 75

The basic movement:

A suggestion for the trill in bar 28:

BWV 995 Allemande - bar 28

r ..1l
Original: 40

J ;-=
If
") �

ro> r. #f ,

My suggestion:

r
� (j) �
4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 4 0 2 0

1 J J�J�
3 3

ttf!? J J j � � � �
I _J-=
Courante
Suggestion for the appoggiatura:
BWV 995 Courante - bar 11

'
Original:
tr
��
),
i #r 1.h -)>
I�
r
M4i

r ��.
76 J6ZSEF EOTVOS: HOW TO PLAY f&zeb-
Written out:

¥ -�

A suggestion for the trill:

BWV 995 Courante - bar 19

Original:

Written out:

Gavotte I
Suggestion for articulation: By playing the first two crotchet
upbeats of the Gavotte in a light manner, using short notes and
leading towards the stressed beats of the next bar, the dance will
gain a spring-like, lively character. The typical gavotte-character
can be very effectively produced in this piece thanks to the
gavotte-articulation present throughout the dance.
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOS! I IONS, EX PLANA !"IONS OF SCORES 77

BWV 995, beginning of Gavotte I

later...

at the end...

Gavotte II
By using the same articulation in the bass - as in the Gavotte I - the
two Gavottes become a unified whole.

BWV 995, beginning of Gavotte II

F=:9°3 [F)931,(llip9 rn m I
3 3 .1 3 3
3 3 3

&t P? fP I
3

�r r �r r r
Ji
· .
78 J6ZSEF EOTVOS: HOW TO PLAY $c4--

Example of implied polyphony:

BWV 995 Gavotte II - beginning in bar 13

Original:

Written out:

Gigue
Suggestion for articulation: By separating the dotted quavers from
the semiquaver or semiquavers that follow, the dance character
of Gigue can easily be created.

BWV 995 the beginning of Gigue

Original:
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 79

Articulation suggestion:

Suggestion for the trill in bar 55

BWV 995 Gigue, beginning in bar 55

Original:

,_
J. .J.
#J----ln: - _j i
I Ir
C � b J r:- -J j �

,-
Written out:

d�hJ n .J.
d
J. jJ
S r: j- I�
-
1 Ir
r 1 �
80 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO PLAY f&ia-.
Suite in E minor BWV 996
(On the guitar: E-minor,
possibly with F sharp scordatura,
some movements with D scordatura as well)

Prelude
The introduction contains important information about the
tonality of the piece, as do other Bach Preludes. Here I think it
is important to mention this, because the semiquaver figuration
covers over the musical progression to a larger extent than
usual, especially if we do not know where to look for it: (Tonic -
Subdominant - Dominant - Tonic)

Besides this, there is a characteristic type of movement hidden


in this part of the piece, the recognition of which will help us to
interpret this part:

The hidden polyphony in the movement may look like this: Notes
marked with * are those that belong to the triads which indicate
the T-S-D-T progression:
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EX Pl.ANA I IONS OF SCORES 81

The exact points where the notes in these triads fall in the bar are
highlighted below. What it interesting is that within each of these
triadic groups it is the second (middle) note that falls on a stressed
beat, and it is the second (middle) note in the second group which
falls on the most stressed beat:

'!

Here are the triads again, in their chord form:

f
Another interesting observation is that the same notes are used in
the opening motif of both the first and the second (presto) sections
of this piece.

Opening of the Prelude:

f 1 fr f fu
itt w 1C r f I l
Opening of the Presto:

In the first part of the piece the "solo-tutti" parts alternate. The
solo part opens, then the tutti section dissolves this opening. Here,
the solo and tutti parts are marked. As every solo section should
end as a solo, the framed chords do not fit in this musical series.
Knowing that this manuscript was not written by Bach himself,
and that his other pieces are characterized by a logic and order, we
82 J6ZSEF EOTVOS: HOW TO PLAY i&zeb--
can safely leave out these chords, enabling us to obtain a unified
movement. We will come across other similar problems with the
manuscript of this work, BWV 996, in other places .

.olv

F f r iJ IUlll

Jr j:r:.....Jj Ifr
solo

Frr lffJ
tutti �chords}
j J j J J 11J J g.
I
#
'y

r F 115 f F E [ r [ ur E F r 1$=j- f.11


solo tutti

f
'/'
I V t._J' 8

,- i 5 J -I
solo

J
lutli

j qj
j 1Fl
I #W
f3 115
LJ r
solo

j j .J j j j J h 1[ffi
tutti

#
qEl •!
'
t;__J r
I

Here is a good example of the importance of stress and melodic


movement in Baroque musical thinking. The key signature is often
only put in front of the stressed note but it is assumed that the
preceding note, which steps onto it, should also be played in the
same key:
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 83

BWV 996 Prelude - bars 11-12

The following excerpt is an example of harmonic thinking


in Baroque notation. Here it should be taken as red that any
harmonic progression towards A minor will contain the leading
note, that is, G sharp:

BWV 996 Prelude - bar 14

tPijLlp
(#)

The key to the development of the Presto part resides in the


hemiolas. In Baroque times, composers had a penchant for
employing hemiolas. This special metric structure creates a
deceleration-widening sensation by augmenting time in the
cadences of pieces with uneven beat, without actually slowing
down the tempo.

Let us examine what is happening with the internal cadences in


Presto! The hemiola of the first and second cadences are concealed,
incorporated into the surrounding parts:
84 J6ZSEF EOTVOS: HOW TO PLAY Jil.c4-.

_, .tr-1 ¥1

,.
I I



• •
I I I L:....J• I
• ©

-;
' ' I
-
- ff�

The hemiola of the third cadence, having been moved to the


bass, becomes far more exposed:

The next cadence in the parallel G major becomes completely


overt. Harmonically, this is the highlight of the piece:
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 85

Then the final cadence follows, which maintains the completely


open hemiola, albeit calming down in E minor.

t t t
1. .1
('Ir)

ol ,1 ':J-J"]. I
-

- -
- -
- -
r. �- •( •)

Here is an example of the interconnection between guitar fingering


· and right-hand technique:

If we use our articulation skills to keep the notes we play short,


during the pause between these notes we can play other ones on
the same string, which are notated in a different part:

BWV 996 Prelude - bar 30

�3 2 . 2 .0 r:• r.
i
ti :r;
s r.
(5) t (5)
1-,;......:::i:::1:::i!::::!:::::=
86 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO PLAY f&;.Cb--

Allemande
How many parts is this movement written for? This question can
be answered by playing the first section through until the end.
After doing so, the following parts become recognizable from the
texture of the music:
(the "4 - 3" written in the second excerpt marks a ritardando)

BWV 996 Allemande - bar 8

Original:

Suggested parts:

The beginning of the movement is perhaps another place where


the music could be divided into parts:

wfE f'J
Original:

f'i ) I : J J J J p 11;
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 87

Suggestion as to how this section could be divided into parts:

At the beginning of the second section there is an unclear


moment in the sequence: Towards the end of the second part
of this sequence, notes that belong to a prominent triad from
this movement are written in the music. However, the last two
of these notes are notated in the wrong parts. Again, this is not
characteristic of Bach. Therefore, the question arises as to whether
this is an idea of the person who wrote this manuscript. If we
return these notes to where we would expect them to be, then the
following note, the third in the sequence, starts on an E, just as in
the previous two parts of the sequence.

Let us look at the original version in addition to a possible way


to play it:
88 J6ZSEF EOTVOS: HOW TO PLAY i&z_ch-

The second and third parts of the sequence could look like this:

The trill will be brief if it appears amongst a fast-moving group of


notes, as naturally there is not enough time to hold it for longer
(sometimes there is only time for the upper changing note to be
played). If the note before the trill is the same as the one on which
the trill starts, these notes can be tied. The Baroque trill ALWAYS
starts on the upper changing note. Finally, the Baroque trill is
nothing else but a complex way to slow down the music. The
following example shows why this is:

BWV 996 Allemande - bar 13

Original:

�wf
- 2
f 3

8282
(i§)
0 4

A written-out trill suggestion:


10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 89

A short trill:

Courante
At the end of the first section we come across some part-writing
which is not easy to put into practice on the guitar. When
performed, in the majority of cases we hear something like the
bass stepping from the dominant onto a C sharp (the note in the
tenor part) and then back to the dominant. Musically, however,
this is a terrible solution. I cannot emphasize the importance of
the bass enough, from the point of view of both counterpoint and
harmony. In music, everything moves according to the bass. This
is especially true if we consider the ending in the bass part of a
bigger section of music.

The "usual solution" described above can be played easily and


often there are no other solutions which arise - as at first sight it
would appear impossible to play the parts based on their scoring.
There are, however, many other solutions that we can consider
and enable even those with smaller hands to solve the problematic
length of the bass.

The nicest solution can be achieved by using an F sharp


scordatura. Once we have the chance to hear what it should
sound like, surely, we will no longer be content with the "usual"
solution. If not using a scordatura, we should leave out the
C sharp, which will bring us even closer to the meaning of the
original.
90 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: IIOW TO PLAY Jilzeb--

BWV 996 Courante - end of the first section:

With F sharp scordatura:

' g [if· i! l: ' =11


'I
®® ®

A more simple variation, without scordatura:

' =II
'I

There is also an occasion in this movement where the key


signature, G sharp, is only written in front of the stressed note,
but also refers to the G in the preceding group of notes.

BWV 996 Courante - end of the second section:

&1 �· m,pp
Original:

� r---r
As it would be played:
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 91

Gigue
Bach rarely wrote long figurations where two parts move in
parallel. If we look at the following example, especially if we
know the manuscript does not originate from Bach himself, we
may suspect the copywriter of" simplifying" the scoring in order
to make it easier to read, as, in reality, �his section would include
the crossing of parts in a Bach manuscript:

BWV 996 Gigue-bar 2 of original:

The same section, as Bach would have written it:


(The lines indicate the main motifs, which are repeated several
times)

The same, written on two separate staves:

�Js_t m_o_it f___�,2nd_m_o_ti__


f count�rpa --------1
rt
-
--,r

4th moif
t

If this close succession of examples of the principle motif, which


is not initially obvious in the third group of notes in the sequence,
does not convince us that this third group of semiquavers does
not follow on this pattern in a straightforward way, we only need
92 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: I-IOW TO PLAY Jilzcf;,_
to look at the notes in the counterpart to this section (marked in
the previous example with a dashed line), which are soon after
repeated note for note in the soprano part, one octave higher.

• 0 •

8 8

Finally, there is a written-out example of implied polyphony


which is a variation upon the movement's principle motif:

BWV 996 Gigue -bars 11-12


10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EXl'LANA"I IONS OF SCORES 93

Partita in C minor BWV 997


(On guitar: A minor, sometimes D minor)
(The original tonality, C minor, can be achieved
by using capodaster in 3rd position,
based on the A minor transposition.)

Prelude
Here, the A to G movement is interrupted by a semiquaver pause,
which, if held for longer, will create even more tension in the
melodic movement (although not in the harmonic movement).
This is not necessarily so, but it is not foreign to the Baroque way
of thinking. (1)

An interval jump in a fast-moving figuration is highly likely to


signal polyphony. (2)

BWV 997 Prelude - bars 3-4

Original:

���/11.¥•PTIF IF
[C n:; 1 r vl;:; n
8 8 8 8

·zwsi::
With the parts written out:

1
94 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO PLAY i&zcf>--

The same goes for the following:

BWV 997 Prelude - bar 7

Original:

i?�
" ,..
1,
l"
8

11
8
f[PfW{w Pmi[P-frn1ffi
'
s

r-

I•
8
, i l"
1•

With the parts written out:

Another nice example from the same movement:

BWV 997 Prelude-from bar 26

Original:

With the parts written out:


10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 95

If we jump back a few bars, we can find the same in the following
example:

BWV 997 Prelude - from bar 11

Original:

With the parts written out:

The endings in the following examples sound particularly nice if


the implied polyphony is observed in performance:

BWV 997 Prelude - from bar 16

With the parts written out:


96 J6ZSEF E0TV0S: HOW TO PLAY J&;c4-..

As we can see, the character of this entire movement has changed


and become more polyphonic. It is entirely up to the individual
as to whether the movement sounds good played in this way,
but the possibly is there to do. Obviously, one way to play the
piece is simply to afford each note its proper value, according to
the score. However, this is at least as difficult, or possibly even
more difficult, on the guitar than it would be to play out the
covered parts described above. We should bear in mind that this
piece was not written for the guitar, the strings of which resonate
uncontrollably, impeding the clear communication of the music.

At the end of the movement there is another section, which is


difficult to transpose satisfactorily for the guitar. In the original
manuscript, the tenor part moves in second intervals on
approaching the last chord. One solution would be to change
octaves when we reach the extended second (for reasons already
mentioned, the extended second interval can act as a point which
divides the covered parts.) If we leave the notes as they are, we
will not be able to find such a suitable place further on where the
octave change would not break up the descending seconds in the
middle part. In addition, if we do not change octaves we would
exit the range of the guitar. My suggestion - to play an E in the
bass - gives us the impression that the music is still descending.

BWV Prelude-ending

Original hand written version:


10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOS! I IONS, EXl'l ANA r10NS OF SCORES 97

I suggest the following solution for the arrangement:

4- 1 Y11MfE� Ir���� �'/.1'-r


8 8 8 8
11

Fugue
We may think that there are already enough parts in a fugue
to justify us not going looking for implied polyphony in such a
piece. However, there are places - as can be seen in the following
example - where, if we read between the musical lines, we can
identify some other dimensions to this piece:

BWV 997 Fugue- from bar 66:


2-----i
I\ 4# 21

u I f' I

-
I\
:
-· ...
E r.-r
'u ..... .....
fo

©
98 J6ZSEF EOTVOS: HOW TO PLAY Jllzc4-..
Written out:

Sarabande
The repeated interval jumps in the part written below suggest
implied polyphony:

BWV 997 Sarabande - from bar 6

Original:

• • • 1jW�1�:�1
mPfffiii:
r r -ft · ·· LJ
8 8 8 8
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSI l"IONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 99

Written out:

The continuation also shows signs of implied polyphony:

BWV 997 Sarabande - from bar 9

Original:

As this part would look, if written out:

The slurs in this section originate from the handwritten


manuscript and mark the notes that are not separated from
each other. I used staccato marks to show notes that should be
separated from each other, according to Baroque articulation. In
the serniquaver figuration we can see that the repeated notes are
separated (refer to the chapter on articulation.)
100

The bar-long 'm,,jor dwrd towards the end of the first part dies
away quickly wlwn pl,1ycd on the guitar. The following can be
found in the Frcn h lute labialure of Johann Christian Weyrauch:

In Baroque times, this type of ending and other similar ones were
"sustained" artificially on instruments which cannot hold a note
for long periods, for example by breaking the chord up. In these
cases, the performer could choose what figuration to play. Being
aware of this fact, we might well play something which resembles
the following, if faced with this choice:

'�'., r rJ
2.

Gigue
The appoggiatura might be played like this, thus strengthening
the dance character of the piece:

BWV 997 Gigue - bar 3

Original:
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMPOSITIONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES ]0I

Written out:

Written out, with the dotted rhythm emphasized:

Another appoggiatura:

BWV 997 Gigue - bar 8

Original:

The appoggiatura, written out, according to 6/8 time signature


rules:
_,.--..,_
FT
I
102 J!l/'dl II IVII'\ i\llW I() l'l,AYac4-

An example of D wrillvn ,lpJ oggialura (as frequently played in


Baroque music):

BWV 997 Gigue - bar36

At the end of the movement, we could play a short appoggiatura,


which would make the ending appear more natural:

BWV 997 Gigue - ending

Original:

·11

Appoggiatura:

Short appoggiatura, at the end of the movement:


10. EXAMPLES FROM OMl'ClSI I IONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 103

Double
In this movement an example of implied polyphony can also
be found. It is harder to perform than simply playing the parts
which are 'visible', but once we have a go, we will soon get
used to playing it this way. One of my students described the
acoustic difference between these two styles as similar to the
visual difference between two and three dimensional pictures. I
will leave it up to you to decide, then, which is more beautiful, a
painting or a sculpture ...?
BWV 997 Double - beginning

Original:

' ; ' f. �.

Written out from bar 2- the scoring underneath is with the


original bass part:
104 111/.'d I I 11 I VI I J IIIIV I <I 1'1 /\ Y �.:4-

As we can sc, in Lill' bollolll line of lhe previous example, the 2nd
bar of the bas part in Llw original manuscript cannot be played
on the guitar. We have lo find another solution. It is important to
keep the initial C in lhc bass part so as not to interrupt the flow
or the upwards movement of the music:

1. Original:

2. No good because the figure is turned around!

3. No good because the bass note should be C, and not A!

4. No good because the figure stops in the middle due to the


repeated notes!

1. 2. 3. 4.

Maybe like this?

If we take a do er look al lhe arpeggio-like movement, we might


come to appr it1tl' that il ould reveal more about the inner story
of the musi than L11,1t is p< rm ill d by the way in which we usually
play it:
10. EXAMPLES FROM OMl'OSI I ION•,, liXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 105

BWV 997 Double-from bar 5

,
3 d g j 0 D d d ; 1 ,a 1 :f d J #� ]
<2)

g #@ J g
1

r. ' ! '
-
With the parts written out:

-
[i - .,,,,,,..__
=--
..,. ., #r :.t· 7 #r:.i:• 7 F
�·
F r·
The piece continues with more polyphony, which can also be
played on the guitar with a good fingering.

D #� D ; 11d � � d
4-
� � 9� �� � �
� [Jr.
� � fi� � �
9 -�


I
8 � 8

II 4 0 t
4
I I 0,=::::;4 :::::;::::::;:::::;:::;;i

....
1• 8
8
106

The implit•d pol pl11111 w, 1111•11 out, from bar 8:

In the 24th bar, once again, there is a long, upwards arpeggio­


movement. This is within the guitar's range. However, from bar 25
onwards, we should continue an octave lower, to enable us to play
the following section. As the whole of the 24th bar aims towards
the beginning of the 25th bar, this is the best place to break up the
long arpeggio movement. This way the leading notes - D flat in
the original key, and A flat-g, in the arrangement: b-c, and f-e - are
played in the same place as they are in the original version, even
if the movement is not the same:

BWV 997 Doublc-b;;irs 24-25


10. EXAMPLES FROM OMl'll'>I I J(lN',, XPLANATIONS OF SCORES I 07

The following is a possible solution:

,� � � 'F
The b leads to c

; ;����;��
$

:; !
8

8 q·�
8 t 1

8
-2

The f leads to e

7 7
·� 8
7 7

Here is another example of implied polyphony:

BWV 997 Double-from bar 28

Guitar score (the fingering refers to how the implied polyphony


could be played)

��
d �d d ; � s 3 • � I-� � l lt,; s d •
·� k'
� ·�
-�
:i r
I

,,3 ·� 3i.3 d d w 3 3
8 �

tt/ J3J
:J

,,
JI
� � I,� � � � §
II�
8 7 8 r. �
7

J Q J 1d � Q d d d '. t=M
8

� ol
d
31
]
3 .�

8 8

8
·r8
j.
8 8··· ·-····· . .7 ..... f,

:Fn l
8 8 8
8 H
108 JI I 11 I• 11 l'<h: llllW 10 PLAY J&,zc4-..

The inlerpn•l,1lion of the parl (from bar 28):

L
g rr
[!; 7� ,�l;srn� �1;:'1

[
10. EXAMPLES FROM llMl'll�I I ll•N•,, I• 1'11\NI\ I IONS OF SCORES 109

Prelude, Fugue, All gro BWV 998


(On the guitar: D major)
(Original: E flat major - can be achieved on the guitar: by using
a capodaster in the 1st position)

This 3-note motif summarizes the three movements in this piece.

Naturally, the motif can also be played in a different key, or even


back-to-front or with different rhythm values. In both the Prelude
and Fugue these are the notes in the main theme, whereas in the
Allegro these three notes make up the ongoing repetition in the
accompaniment.

Prelude
Layers of implied polyphony are once again present in this
movement. The following example can speak for itself:

BWV 998 Prelude - beginning

r
-r::::-
f�M$��$�-- -�J-. -;� r-� r
:� � J
.,-Jm .---r J • Jm JJJJ
110 1<•1. II l1JIV11'1 llllW 10 J'LAY.t&z@-..

Throughout tlw 111<1v(•111l1 nt il is important not to use a guitar


fingering whi 'h slurs th• nol 'S of the motifs and separates them
from olh r notes. I\. good example of this is the fingering of the
motif in bar 20. Most often we hear something like this:

Changing strings and positions clearly breaks the motif up.


Unfortunately, this can be heard by the listener. If we use short
articulation in the bass part, this will give us ample time to play
the whole motif in the new position:

or

Look for the principl(• motif ar fully, as it is often hidden in this


movement. I low{'V{'r, it is rl'lc1tively easy to find if we analyze
how th nwlodi{ nwvt•11wnt shifts from unstressed to stressed
beats in th• b,,r.
10. EXAMPLES FROM OMl'O�I I l<>N'•, EXl'LANATIONS OF SCORES 111

BWV 998 Prelude - bars 44-45:

·�
,•n � D {JjJ
�- fP iJJ
�- I_p2 JJJ
�- _p3 .J�- JJ IfE
r , r , r , r , r ,

1
With the parts written out:
,----, ,------;i
,----,

"" • r:J I r-1 �

r

r i { i t· r i �-
r i �-
r i

Fugue
At the beginning of the Fugue, it is easy to recognize the type of
melodic movement I discussed in the chapter called "Melodic and
harmonic progressions in music". Wherever we look, and no matter
how large a section of music we look at, movements that start on an
unstressed beat in the bar always step onto a stressed beat.

BWV 998 Fugue - beginning:


DUX
lstp.art If

Ji j .l � J
r i
I 0�11

fII pP f!iP I lriiffe�


--, .-- �r
- --�

-�----���--Jl
112

The real tli11H·11s1011 of llw p<1rl writing, which appears simple,


is provided by implil•d polyphony. Let us take a look at how
the groups of semiquavers step from an unstressed beat place to
stressed one.

BWV 998 Fugue- from bar 46

Original:

=:1:::::1�=
1 r r
= ==1=:1W-; :� l
With the parts written out:

...
10. EXAMPLES FROM CoMJ'()�I I l(lNS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES I I;\

When looking at the previous section, we should not overlook


the fact the first half of the Comes is repeated three times in the
bass part, naturally, moving from an unstressed to a stressed beat:

Here is another example which sounds nice in three parts:

BWV 998 Fugue - from bar 55:

ii
�:: ��==�1
�=
Allegro
At the beginning of the movement, in the 3,ct bar of the bass part, it
is impossible to hold the B in 1st position, and there is not enough
time to change to a higher position. Or is there? Here is po sible
guitar fingering for this part:
114 Jill 11 1111 V11 ° 1 llllW IP l'I.AY J:ilzcb--.
Can the C sh,11p in tlw }'" 1 b.ir of the bass part and the E, which
imm c.liatt•ly follows 11 in the soprano, be played on the very same
string? The <1bovt' fing •ring is possible on the guitar due to the
articulation shown b ,Jow. The guitar fingering thus depends on
the technique used in the right hand:

'-..._.,· -

As the C sharp in the bass is short, there is time to play the next
note on the same string, so the higher position for the next B note
can be reached.

From the very outset of the movement, we begin to suspect that


there might be implied polyphony here as well:

4
r
BWV 998 Allegro-bar 4

111f J
J j I,,..
.J
-
-
� t...
With the parts written out:
10. EXAMPLES FROM COMl'O�I I JllN',, i:\J'I.ANATIONS OF SCORES 115

The following sections are example of implied polyphony:

BWV 998 Allegro - from bar 7:

Original:

With the parts written out:

BWV 998 Allegro-from bar 27

Original:
116 , .. ,.,, j 11\1!•, IIPW ro PLAYJ&;c4--..

With Llw p,11 b wiill\•11 out:

rl�.
�� m � 4�.JH:=J l J J j
t LI r t..J
BWV 998 Allegro-from bar 34

Original:

J J j J lj J J J
j
i V
With the parts written out:

[�::: r____r__r -

f�
- -

BWV 998 Allegro-from bar 37

Original:

r r rcr rcr r
11 1.::
10. EXAMPLES FROM Co�11•o�I I ltlN�, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 117

[�
With the parts written out:

: r r r_:J::
J
: ;/

3 3

BWV 998 Allegro-from bar 41

Original:

With the parts written out:


118 111/',I I I'<'> I VOS: HOW TO PLAY i&zt:b--
BWV 998 Allegro from bar 49

Original:

'»u 1 J $ ij J I j J ; 5 � J IJ J $ J4 J IJ J,J 3 .J J I
j
� q� � c r r

r c r r r r r____r.........r r. r j
With the parts written out:
; ". --- -
fl. ....... - -
,.., = - -
p c r r
-
� � �
; fl. -
". Fr=;

,...,
r c r r r r r rr r:.EJ
BWV 998 Allegro-from bar 57

Original:
10. EXAMPLES FROM OMl'(P,IIIONS, tXl'LANATIONS OF SCORES J 19

With the parts written out:

BWV 998 Allegro-from bar 64

Original:

With the parts written out:

t,. . ... . .
..,
fl. � .F:n. .F:n. .F:n.
i I r r r
BWV 998 Allegro-from bar 73

Original:

'•11 _:_ J ; 5 11J 5 I j ,J O J 5 j I j J t J ; J I � J ; j 'jg



r � � ,. �
1J J J J
1•11 � � r-
0 J �
55I J J j J t J If J � i � � tj
· r r r
120 Jill I I I 111 I'll',! IIOW IO PLAY a_cb---
Wilh LIH' p,11 ls WI illl•11 Olll:

... and finally, one last example: BWV 998 Allegro - from bar 81:

Original:
10. EXAMPLES FROM 'll�ll'll�lllllNS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 121

With the parts written out:


122 J6ZSI I I() I VllS; I IOW TO PLAY acb--
Prelude in C-minor BWV 999
(Original key: C minor; on the guitar: D minor)

An important point to mention about this piece is that, when


performed on the guitar, an E is often played in the bass part
in bar 23 rather than an F, in order to fit with the E in the organ.

BWV 998 Allegro-bar 23


Original manuscript (where the organ Ds are clearly visibly
between the E flats):

On the guitar it would look like this:


(Playable on an instrument with 8 or more strings)

Unfortunately, it is not too nice, but the only possible way to play
it on a 6 tring guitar is:

�· �·illfmgp1!J
<J) <J) r
10. EXAMPLES FROM OMl'\lSI 11\lNS, ·XPLANATJONS OF SCORES ] 23

Fugue in G minor BWV 1000


(Original key: G minor. On the guitar: A minor,
but also possible in G minor)

Let us start by looking at the mistaken note in this piece, which


was probably due to J. Ch. Weyrauch, a contemporary of Bach
who copied the piece, but which subsequently appeared in the
various publications. The lute tablature, as we know, is a fingering
chart, where the lines represent the strings, and suitable positions
are indicated, in addition to the place where the string should be
held down. As the Baroque lute is tuned in the key of D, the upper
two lines represent the F and D strings, which were indicated
by letters in French lute tablature. The letter "a" marks an open
string. In bar 5 we can see that in the lute tablature the theme is
written in a different way than in the violin and organ versions:

BWV 1000 Fugue - bar 5


Extract from the lute tablature, which contains the presumed
mistaken note:

Violin version:
124 1(1/ 11 1111\11•, 1111\\1 1(1 l'l.AYJ:8zc:4-.

Organ Vl'l'sin11, wlw11• Wl' c.in ,1lso observe an example of written


out implil'd pol plHlll (i.v. the slurred note):

The guitar version, here in G minor, with the mistaken note from
the lute tablature ...

.,

r
... and the violin and organ versions, where the mistake has been
corrected:

Ir Wl' pu L Lhc "a" sign one string lower on the lute tablature than
ilH misl,lkL'n position, we will produce exactly the same sound
10. EXAMPLES FROM �llMl'<l'>l I IPN�, EXPI.ANATIONS OF SCORES J 25

as the following. Therefore the wrong note in the tablature is


probably the result of a copywriting mistake.

The implied polyphony of the passage beginning in bar 9 is clearly


visible and strengthens the sequential movement in this section:

BWV 1000 Fugue - from bar 9

The parts are swapped around beginning in bar 26 and in the


manuscripts for this section the opening tenor part contains two
wrong quavers:

BWV 1000 Fugue - from bar 26

The original lute tablature and the (poor) bass-violin clef solution:
126 J(l/Sl!I, i,()J'VOS: HOW TO PLAY acb--

� ; ::·f;: ��� I
Naturally, the part marked with a dashed line begins with a
crotchet, and after the change of parts the bass answers as follows:

i ni J ;.
'-,--------�
E'.Jr r r #�
l ............................. .l
thema counterpart

Allow me to make a suggestion as to how to interpret this section.


If we examine the examples of harmonic tension-resolution, it
becomes clear that they fit together as follows:

BWV 1000 Fugue -from bar 32 (original):

The same section, in my interpretation:

With the harmonies separated:


10. EXAMPLES FROM 'oMl'll�I I lllNS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 127

The parts in the following extract are extremely interesting and


tell us much more than one would initially think. Let us begin
with the fact that melodic movement aims towards a stressed beat
from an unstressed one. Therefore, the first note in bar 40 is the
closing note of the previous melody, and the second note marks
the beginning of a new idea. This part can be easily interpreted,
even at first sight, if we do not erase the first chord in the bar, as is
usually done (cf. the example). If we follow the parts through until
the end, we come across a two-part movement, where the alto part
in the first section is repeated in the soprano in the second section,
starting one tone lower, not counting the octave difference.

We should also add that Bach did not write out any chords. Let
us take a look at this section in the violin and subsequently in the
organ version:

On the violin ...


128

... and on 1lw org,111:

First of all let us look at a mechanical solution for this part, which
is often used on the guitar:

BWV 1000 Fugue - from bar 39

#l � 1 � d: � #l �J 1 � � J d J.
! = c r)fr= rr= rr= r= r)Lg:£!
4.�rr = r= r= r = r= r= r = r=3
q� �

r---rr r r r r r ,-
r r r

Here is my suggestion as to how to interpret the part-writing in


this section, whilst keeping the broken chord movement:
10. EXAMPLES FROM 'oMl'll',11 IONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES I 2lJ

���J = �J=�:��.
-{rrrr r r rr'-{rrrr rr rrr
Here are the two parts which answer each other, without the
octave difference. This is what we should hear when this section
is played:

4 ,,t1fiirrI r•r r•rccirr,11E!Effeirr1•E!rif•c U·


(ong9"'---------------------------------1·

There is another important note that belongs to this section and is


indicated differently in the lute tablature than in other versions.
Johann Christian Weyrauch, who wrote it out probably changed
the note to make it easier to play. On the basis of the violin and
organ versions, we can write the original note back in (cf. also the
examples above).
130 Jc'l/Sl•I 11'11 v,h IIIIW ro PLAY .{&zc4--

The wrong note in lh' I ult' labia lure (once again in the bass-violin
key version):

I I I I I I I I

I I I I I r rr 1 I I I f

The following broken chord part also hides an example of implied


polyphony:

BWV 1000 Fugue - from bar 44

Original:

As the implied polyphony would be played:


10. EXAMPLES FROM OMl'OSI I IONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES I:\ I

Here is the closing motif in bars 53-54. 1£ we look carefully at th


implied polyphony, the following becomes apparent:

BWV 1000 Fugue - bars 53-54

Original:

�!¢rm�lvW1�tbpiiU
The implied polyphony:

On the basis of the violin and organ versions, we can ignore the
well-known dotted rhythms in the lute tablature, as were added
to the piece by J. Ch. Weyrauch, and not by Bach himself. By doing
so, we restore the movement of the theme in this piece.

BWV 1000 the dotted rhythm in bar 54 of the lute tablature:


132 1117 11 1111\'IJ', Jlt)W t() PLAY j&;_Cb--

Based on the violin and organ versions, the closed-position D


minor chord in bar 61 of the lute tablature can be restored to the
open position:

Here is a suggestion of how to play BWV 1000 Fugue -bars 60-61:

11
rnm
,m
� '
t...t....r
l ..
, rr I"' i

Even the easy, arpeggio-like sections are also made up of parts


that should be articulated:

BWV 1000 Fugue-from bar 71 (again, a suggestion):

Although it is not present in the lute tablature, on the basis of the


violin and organ versions it is certain that Bach wrote a slur on the
first note of this passage. At the end of this figure the continuation
of the parts also changes accordingly:
10. EXAMPLES FROM CllMl'll�ITlllNS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 1:\:1

BWV 1000 Fugue - end

The lute version:

Here is a suggestion as to how is could be arranged:

®
134 J6LSI I I() I VII',: lltlW 111 l'I.AY aa-.
Suite in E major BWV 1006a
(E-major on the guitar, possibly with an F sharp scordatura)

Prelude
Let us play around a bit with the beginning of the Prelude: What
kind of implied polyphony can we recognize here? If we split the
beginning of the piece into three instrumental parts, we discover
that two of them are closely related to each other, or even identical,
and they echo each other at an octave interval from each other.
The opening figure is different but is still comparable. The aim of
the melodic movement, which is to lead towards a stressed beat
from an unstressed one, defines where the two parts should be
divided. If we play out the parts in the manner suggested below,
it becomes easier to understand where certain notes belong:

BWV 1006a Prelude - beginning

I\• H ...
��� �.;..
., 7 y .....

-"
1-.J fl 7 f f
� �
- --
I\• H /"

.,
r r
In bar 17, the harmony of the next main musical idea begins.
Where the harmony belongs, as well as its place in the musical
process, can be better understood if we augment it and remove
the arpeggio movcm nt:
10. EXAMPLES fROM 'oMl'tl�l I lllN�, EXl'I.ANATIONS OF SCORES 135

BWV 1006a Prelude - from bar 17

-4r= �r�� r�r �� r�r 1 � r %A-�r�r Jr1-�= r JrJt rJr 3� r�


if rp

f@#• JrJrJr-JrJrJm If= :Ila;;,: rt Jlc1 rt -�0-r Ir -�u r Ju


- r Jlr..r 1

enen E3L1{gfjE[j
rf

,, »11#1 r-�&fJCt r-�Ct IfsLJ I I

ft*-riv52ti41�521

ftt�I .=a 9J U IG?J 52J 53J I fn5ZJ5ZJ I

The same, augmented:

first part second part - wilh aUb,tfllCnlalion

Two clear parts can be distinguished in this section. The first part
stretches from the tonic to the dominant (E-A), then a part, which
is twice as long, leads back to the tonic. This asymnwlry c,111 be
136 J11;:s11 1111111• 11111V 111 1'1.AY J;8ic4--

better sensed if w, rn11li11ut' lo augment the second half of the


figuration unlil Lwo pMls bc·ome the same length:

first part second part - without augmentation

Having understood this, the figuration is restored to its former


place and form, perhaps making it easier to interpret the real
action occurring in this part of the movement.

Later on, starting in bar 29, we have the opportunity to discuss


melodic movement.

BWV 1006a Prelude - from bar 29

Let us take a brief look at this first melodic progression, comparing


it to the movement at the beginning of the movement. As notes
are positioned according to the stressed beats, it is easy to see the
connection:

,-u#u 1 J J J J DJ D IJ
�:1rrrf::#A IJ
10. EXAMPLES FROM l.'ll�ll'll 11 l(IN�. EXPLANATIONS OF Seo RES 137

At this stage I would like lo point out that, the (commonly-used)


type of slur seen below is not a particularly good solution for this
and similar figurations in this piece:

=f¥tfrr r Gr n It
r
or

The reason is simple: This slur ties such notes or groups of notes which
do not belong together from the point of view of melodic progression.
The first note in the slur is actually the closing note of the previous part,
while the second note is the first note of the following part!

Loure
The interpretation of the Loure is always a matter for much
debate. What was written about this dance in the Baroque period?

The Laure is a slow pace musical piece, in 6/4 time, to be conducted in


two beats; usually it begins with an upbeat. Normally, the middle note
of every bar is dotted. (Rameau-D'Alembert)

The Entree, the Laure and the Courante should all be played pompously; and
the bow should be lifted between each crotchet, whether it is dotted or not.
(Qunntz)

Thefirst beat of every bar should be emphasized more than t/1e s1•co11rl 0111•.
(Hm.,.,r1nl)
138 1111 Ii 1111V11, 111>\\'T<ll'I.AYaa-

Laure: I\ 1mrlirn/111 s111:,;i11s slyle i11 which, where two notes have the
same vn/11e, suc/1 11s lwo crolc/1els, lwo quavers, etc., the first of these
is receives 111ore I i111e 11111/ nccen t, without actually being dotted or hit.
(Brossard)

Without further explanation, let us move on to look at a possible


solution for the ornaments in the Loure:

J, tr
.,

�� >� ::;:. �:::


f :: ·:: :
�.L-.L-.t1. ; n

, .b y
I
),J J J, Ji; J -. _.rn

l• i/• )i J ,,;. .,._) J J>. • _)TI_


10. EXAMPLES FROM OMl'll',11 IONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 139
140 111/ I I •I� 11 , 111 I\Y 111 !'I.A Y .{8.d-.-

Gavotte •n Rond •,u,


The articulation whi ·h was suggested and discussed with regard
to the BWV 995 avoll' would also be suitable here, as this is the
same type of dance (the suggested articulation is also written out
in the example).

BWV 1006a Gavotte en Rondeau - beginning

Oricinal:

r r.
The suggested aticulation and appoggiaturas:

In lh manuscript, from bar 10 onwards, slurs are written in by


Ba h i1imself. As Baroque slurs can mean many different things,
such as the suggestion of some kind of polyphony, this part could
b' interpreted in this way:
10. EXAMPLES FROM (lMl'(l',llll>N", EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 14 I

The slurs in the original manuscript:


BWV 1006a Gavotte en Rondeau - from bar 10

fn a pd):J I {J � :i 5r J J � la� ; J J r fl? I


n

r
,�1'i fillIf ill IfP r,£P I_[DJ � ,J 1•1
Here is a possible interpretation of the slurs, seen here only in the
leading bass part:
Bach started writing in the slurs in bar 10, and then in bar 12 he
stopped, possibly because he thought that the parts were clearly
divided due to the bigger difference in intervals. He continued
writing in the slurs from bar 14 but only on the first four notes,
after which there are no slurs written in the part. The first four
notes of bars 14 and 15, which contain the same figuration, may
have been intended to be played by different instrumental parts
because Bach wrote in the slurs in one case, but not in the other.

BWV 1006a Gavotte en Rondeau - from bar 10 (Only the leading


part and the bass)

The above solution is also based upon a certain call and response,
where the parts answer each other.
142 Ill 11 I II 11, 1t11W 111 l'I AY J:8,ic4-_

Tlw highlighlc•d p,11 ls 11•1!•1 lwn• lo the first call and response:

f
... and here to the second one:

The articulation of the section beginning at bar 32 is clearly


recognizable. However, the gavotte-articulation continues in the
implied polyphony which follows:

BWV 1006a Gavotte en Rondeau - beginning on the upbeat


to bar 32

First the original, and below the gavotte-articulation for the


leading part:

The sequen c that begins in bar 60 draws attention to, and


emphasiz s, th( 7-.(1 dt•l,1 bdw 'n the soprano and the bass
10. EXAMPLES l'KllM ( 11 11·11 11111N , I l'I ANA rlONS OF SCORES 143

parts. If interpreted as implied pol phony, the appropriate notes


in the soprano part are slurrl'd ,il>ovl' tlw ba s note that follows:

BWV 1006a Gavotte en Rondeau - Crom bar 60 (Above is the


original, below is an interpretation)

Ir

There is a part in bar 72 that came up during a lesson when I was


trying to find a fingering for one of my students. If interpreted
this way, these simple, arpeggio-like chords change to create a
rich polyphony, if we hold them back tempo-wise.

BWV 1006a Gavotte en Rondeau - from bar 72 (First the original,


and below it, an interpretation)

From bar 81 a long trilled section begins, which makes il doubtful


that this piece could have been written for the lute. This is how
the original manuscript looks:
144 111 11 !10l\1J• JJIIW Ill l'IAYaa-

BWV l()(lC1.1 l :.,vn1t1• 1•11 l<omlt >au - from bar 81 (Original


manuscript)

If we keep the lower part of this detail and add the upper part of
the violin version, then we will achieve a part which is playable
and looks like this:

W, 1 e L F r t F fil I f t f F t c fu ! r L f f [f fu I
#
11

,�{q]{q? l.11fIP 1ffP Ir 22J


Now let us interpret these parts, using the points where gavotte­
articulation is used as a guideline. It will not take long before we
recognize the real parts that are hidden among the notes:
10. EXAMPLES l'Kll�I ( 11�11·11• 11111N•,, I! 1'1 ANATIONS OF SCORES 145

Menuetl
The first part of the appoggialur.1 in th' Mcnuet I probably suits
the character of the movement bell •r if played short. The other
appoggiatura, however, sounds equally good when played for
longer.

BWV 1006a Menuet I - beginning

The melody, with the appoggiaturas written out. The first


appoggiatura is short.

It is easy to recognize the hemiola when it comes before an ending:

BWV 1006a Menuet 1-ending


146

A suggl·�lulll ·"' In how to pl,1 the appoggiaturas:

.-
r- 1--r

Menuet II
The two appoggiaturas at the beginning of the movement go well
with each other if the second is not adjusted to the crotchet but
rather reinterpreted, as part of the polyphony and adjusted to suit
the movement of the upper part. As a result, it will receive almost
half the value of the note, just as the first appoggiatura does:

BWV 1006a Menuet II - beginning

'*' ,.p,r
A suggestion as to how to play the appoggiaturas:

n JJJJ p
*"'
.J J 1 I JF J t
t t t t 'f° };

.J J n 1f¥(}-44D J J J J I jz
)
t t t t fj t r
In bar 12 anothl'r appoggiaturn can be found, which can
strength '11 llw i ndqwndl•nn• of the part , if the note-value it is
given is n•ll'v,rnl In ih nwn l,1yl'r in the part-writing:
10. EXAMPLES FROM CoMl'll'd I lllN�, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 147

BWV 1006a Menuet II- bars 1 J-12

Original:

A suggestion as to how to play the appoggiatura:

Bourree
At the beginning of the Boum�e manuscript, out of the dynamics
written in by Bach only the first one is marked to coincide with
the slurs. The rest are all written at the beginning of the bar, but
of course they also refer to the upbeat. The original manuscript
looks like this:

BWV 1006a Bourree - beginning (Original manuscript)


148 J t II l1ll\tl*1! lltlW It) /'LAY ad,_
I Jen• is how llw l il,111g1•s i11 d nc1111ics should be made:

BWV 1006J l3ourr(•l' from bar 4

Here, the upbeats in the soprano line contain three notes. Let us
look at how the melodies answer each other:

BWV 1006a Boum�e - from bar 5 with the upbeat

o/ 1" 1 p , , , J ,#, J J J )
j
10. EXAMPLES l'HOM \lMl'll I I IONS, EXPLANATIONS OF SCORES 149

Halfway through the melodi progression we come across the


same three-quaver upbeat:

,r
BWV 1006a Bourree - bar 7 with the upbeat

4•jlttl .CT2 -
J J J r J J :JdJ J JJ )
i t r r i l

Gigue
And one final suggestion to add to the examples:
The appoggiatura in bar 4 of the Gigue may receive two thirds of
the value of the main note:

BWV 1006a Gigue - bar 4

f d j j J i j ....t·o J
#
11 1 )
r
A suggestion as to how to play the appoggiatura:
�11.
Postlude

This brings us to the end of the examples and suggestions


I wanted to make. I hope I have managed to highlight some new
aspects of Bach's music, as well as provide new ideas on how to
play his lute pieces on the guitar. If one wants to study Baroque
performance in more depth, there is no way to avoid reading
and poring over dozens of books. Unfortunately, however, most,
if not all of these books are written in foreign languages. The
bibliography that follows will help you to find the publications
that exist on this subject. The list is far from complete, however,
and only represents a fraction of the literature written on this
topic.

I hope that my book has succeeded in awakening an interest in


this subject and that in the future, the performance of Bach's music
on the guitar will be enriched by this musical discussion.

J6zsef Eotvos
12.
Bibliography

1. MUSIC LEXICONS FROM THE 1srn CENTURY


Brossard, Sebastien de (1655-1730)- Dictionaire de musique, Paris 1703
Gerber, Ernst Ludwig (1746-1819) - Historisch-biographisches Lexicon
der Tonkiinstler Leipzig 1790-92
Grassineau, James (-1715-1767)-A Musical Dictionary of Terms, London
1740
Koch, Heinrich Christoph (1749-1816) - Musikalisches Lexikon, Frankfurt
a.M.1802
Mattheson, Johann (1681-1764) - Grundlage einer Ehren-Pforte, Hamburg
1740
Rousseau, Jean Jacques (1712-1778) - Dictionnaire de musique, Genf 1767,
Paris 1768
Sulzer, Johann Georg (1720-1779) - Allgemeine Theorie der Schonen
Kiinste, Leipzig 1772-74
Walther, Johann Gottfried (1684-1748) - Musicalisches Lexicon oder
Musicalische Bibliothec, Leipzig 1732

J. S. BACH BIBLIOGRAPHY
EDITIONS OF BACH'S WORKS
Johann Sebastian Bach, Werke. Edited a Bach-Gesellschafl. L •ipzig,
Breitkopf and Hartel, 1851-1899. Kiegandzitand: 1931 New 1•dilinn:
152 111 1111111,1 IJ•JI\ ll>l'IAY�d-

I 9•17 (/\1111 11>111) ,. lit ,A" ( 11.,di CL•samtausgabe) or ,,ABA" (= Alte


13,ich /\11 ...g.ilw)
Johann Scbasti.rn B.1 h, Nl'lll' Ausgabc s/imtlicher Werke. Edited a Johann
Sebasli,111 B.i h lnslitul '(Htingcnb n and in the Bach-Archiv in Leipzig,
Kass I, Basel Leipzig, 1954- ,,NBA"(= Neue Bach Ausgabe).
Johann Sebastian Bach: Opere per liuto. Edizione critica di Paolo
Cherici Edited: Edizioni Suvi.ni Zerboni-Milano 1996

2. BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bach-Jahrbuch: Editors: Arnold Schering (1904-1939), Max Schneider
(1940-1952), Alfred Durr and Werner Neumann (1953-1974), Hans­
Joachim Schulze and Christoph Wolff (1975).
Dorffel, A.: Thematisches Verzeichni.s der Instrumentalwerke van Joh.
Seb. Bach. Leipzig, 1867 (1882).
Kast, P.: Die Bach-Handschriften der Berliner Staatsbibliothek. In: Tilbinger
Bach Studien II-III. Trossingen, 1958.
Kinsky, G.: Die Originalausgaben der Werke Johann Sebastian Bachs.
Vienna etc., 1937. (Hilversum, 1968).
Krause, P.: Ed., Handschriften der Werke Johann Sebastian Bachs in der
Musikbibliothek der Stadt Leipzig. Leipzig, 1964.
Krause, P.:Ed., Eredetiausgaben und :iltere Drucke der Werke Johann
Sebastian Bachs in der Musikbibliothek der Stadt Leipzig. Leipzig, 1970.
Kretschmar, H.: Verzeichnis samtlicher Werke und der einzelne Satze aus
Werke Johann Sebastian Bachs. Leipzig, 1899.
Schmieder, W.: Die Handschriften Johann Sebastian Bachs. In: K. Matthai,
Ed., Bach Gedenkschrift 1950. Zurich, 1950.
Schmieder, W.: Thematisch-systematisches Verzeichnis der Musikalischen
Werke Johann Sebastian Bachs; Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis. Leipzig, 1950
(1966) (1971) (1976) Wiesbaden (1990)).
Schulze, H.-J. and Wolff, Chr.:Bach Compendium. Analytisch­
bibliographisches R pcrtorium dcr Werkc Johann Sebastian Bachs.
4 Volumes. Leipzig, Frankfurt, 1985-1989
Tessmer, I I.: Johann Sl'l1,1sti,111 ltwh in, t)ffcntlichen Schrifttum seiner
Z�it. In: Nl'lll' Musil /1•1l1111g (i lJ19), l'.\7-215.
12..111111 l<H,llAl'IIY 153

Wolff, Chr.: Ed., Bach-Bibliogr,1ph1t•. Nachdruck der Verzeichnisse des


intemationalen Schrifllum zu J. . Bach (Bach-Jahrbuch 1905-1984),
mit einem Supplement und R 'gister. Kassel, 1985.
Wolff, Chr.: ,,Die Originaldrucke J.S. Bachs: Einfilhrung und
Verzeichnis." In: Die Nurnberger Drucke von J.S. und C.P.E. Bach.
Nuremberg, 1973, 15-20.

4. SOURCES
Bach-Gesellschaft, Ed., Bachs Handschrift in zeitlich geordneten
Nachbildungen. Leipzig, 1910.
Diirr, A.: ,,Zur Chronologie der Handschrift Johann Christoph Altnickols
und Johann Friedrich Agricolas." In: Bach-Jahrbuch (1970), 44-65.
Dii.rr, A.: Johann Sebastian Bach: seine Handschrift-Abbild seines
Schaffens. Wiebaden, 1984.
Freyse, C.: Ed., Eisenacher Dokurnente urn Sebastian Bach. Leipzig, 1933.
Hertin, U.: ,,Zur Uberlieferung der Autographe und Handschriften
Johann Sebastian Bachs." In: Die Handschrift Johann Sebastian
Bachs. Musikautographe aus der Musikabteilw1g der Staatsbibliothek
Preussischer Kulturbesitz Berlin. Ausstellungskatalog 1985.
Wiesbaden, 1985
Janecke, J.: ,,Zur Uberlieferung der Werke Johann Sebastian Bachs in
Drucken." In: Die Handschrift Johann Sebastian Bachs. Musikautographe
aus der Musikabteilung der Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz
Berlin. Ausstellungskatalog 1985. Wiesbaden, 1985, 51-58.
Kast, P.:Die Bach-Handschriften der Berliner Staatsbibliothek. Trossingen,
1958.
Klein, H.-G.: ,,Bach ilber die Schulter geblickt: ein Kornponist bei der
Arbeit." In: Die Handschrift Johann Sebastian Bachs. Musikautographe
aus der Musikabteilung der Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz
Berlin. Ausstellungskatalog 1985. Wiesbaden, 1985, 13-29.
Kobayashi, Y.: ,,Neuerkenntnisse zu einigen Bach-Quellen an
Handschriftkundlicher Untersuchungen." In: Bach-Jahrbuch (1978),
43-60.
Neumann, W.: Ed., Facsimile-Reihe Bachscr Wcrkc und Schriftstilcke.
Leipzig, 1954-.
154 l<•t 11 111 I V11•,: llllW Ill l'I.AY �

Ncum,u111, W , I '"'I','' 1w111• )udlen zu Johann Sebastian Bachs


I le1,1u..,g.1l>1• 1•1g1•111•1 1111d /11111 M,tverlrieb fremder Werke." In: Musa­
Mt'ns Mwm1. h·�h1 h11ft Hlr Waller Vetter. Leipzig, 1969, 165-168.
Neumann W.•rnu Schulze, I 1.-J.: Eds., Schriftstiicke von der Hand
Johann baslian Ba hs. Bach Dokumente I. Leipzig, 1963
Schmieder, W.: ,,Bcmerkungen zur Bachquellenforschung." In: W. Vetter
and E.H. Meyer, Bericht iiber die Wissenschaftliche Bachtagung der
Gesellschaft fiir Musikforschung, Leipzig 23. bis 26.Juli 1950. Leipzig,
1951, 219-230.
Schulze, H.-J.: Ed., Fremdschriftliche und gedruckte Dokumente zur
LebensgeschichteJohann Sebastian Bachs 1685-1750. Bach Dokumente
II. Leipzig, 1969.
Schulze, H.-J.: Ed., Dokumente zum NachwirkenJohann Sebastian Bachs
1750-1800. Bach Dokumente III. Leipzig, Kassel, 1972.
Schunemann, G.:Musikerhandschriften von Bach bis Schumann. Berlin,
1936.
Stinson, R.: ,,J.P.Kellner's Copy of Bach's Sonatas and Partitas for Violin
Solo." In: Early Music 13 (1985), 199-211.
Wolff, Chr.: ,,Ordnungsprinzipien in den Originaldrucken Bachscher
Werke." In: M. Geck, Ed., Bach-Interpretationen. Gottingen, 1969,
144-167.
Zietz, H.: Quellenkritische Untersuchungen an den Bach-Handschriften
P 801, P 802, und P 803 aus dem ,,Krebschen Nachlass" unter
besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Choralbearbeitungen des jungen
J.S. Bach. Hamburg, 1969.
Kuester, K.: 300 JahreJohann Sebastian Bach : sein Werk in Handschriften
und Dokumenten Musikinstrumente seiner Zeit, seine Zeitgenossen :
eine Ausstellung der Internationale Bachakademie in der Staatsgalerie
Stuttgart 14.9. bis 27.10. 1985. Tutzing, 1985.
I ) , 111111 /111.llAl'IIY 155

5. LIFE AND WORK


Arnold, D. J. S. Bach. Gollingcn, 1989.
Bach-Archiv Leipzig, Ed., Kalendarium zur Lebensgeschichte Johann
Sebastian Bachs. Leipzig, 1971.
Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel and Agricola, Johann Friedrich: Obituary of
J.S. Bach. In: H.-J. Schulze, Ed., Dokumente zum Nachwirken Johann
Sebastian Bachs 1750-1800.
Bach Dokumente III. Leipzig, Kassel, 1972, 215-224.
Berthold, 0.: Das Leben in der Thomasschule zur Bachzeit. Leipzig, 1950.
Besseler, H. and Kraft, C.: Johann Sebastian Bach in Thiiringen. Erfurt,
1950.
Blankenburg, W.: Ed., Johann Sebastian Bach. Wege der Forschung, Band
170. Darmstadt, 1970.
Blume, F.: ,,Bach, Johann Sebastian." In: Die Musik in Geschichte und
Gegenwart, I, cols. 962-1047. Kassel, 1949-51.
Blume, F.: ,,Bach in the Romantic Era." In: Musical Quarterly I (1964), 290.
Boehme, W.: Johann Sebastian Bach: Prediger in Tonen. Karlsruhe, 1985.
Brinkmann, R.: Ed., Bachforschung und Bach-Interpretation heute.
Bericht Uber <las Bachfest-Symposium 1978 der Philipps-Universitat
Marburg. Kassel, 1981.
Butler, G. G.: ,,Leipziger Stecher in Bachs Originaldrucken." In: Bach­
Jahrbuch 1980, 9-26.
Cherbuliez, A. E.: Johann Sebastian Bach: sein Leben und sein Werk.
Olten, 1946 (1947).
Dammann, R.: Der Musikbegriff im deutschen Barock. Koln, 1967 (1984).
Defant, Chr. ,, Johann Adam Reinckens ,,Hortus Musicus". Versuch
einer Deutung als Metapher fiir die hochbarocke Musikauffassung in
Deutschland." In: Die Musikforschung 42 (1989), 128-148.
Drummond, P.: The German Concerto: Five Eighteenth-Century Studies.
Oxford, 1980.
Durr, A.: ,,Neues iiber Bachs Pergo!csi-B •arbeitung." In: Bach-Jahrbuch
(1968), 89-100.
156 tll It i• IV" ll"W IPl'IAY.acb--

Elkr, R ,, VI\ ,ii.Ii I >,, ..,d, 011 ll,11 II" In: Bcilrage zur Musikwissenschaft 3
(1%1), 11 IH. (l{q11111lt 0d 111 W. Blc.1nkenburg, Ed., Johann Sebastian
B<1ch. l),11111st,1d1, 1 1170).
Federhofer, 11. ,,D,1s Vl•rm:ichlnis von Johann Joseph Fux an Johann
Sebastian Bach." In: J. Trummer and R. Flotzinger, Eds., Johann
Sebastian Bach und Johann Joseph Fux. Bericht ilber das Symposion
anlasslich des 58. Bach£estes der neuen Bachgesellschaft 24.-29. Mai
1983 in Graz. Kassel, 1985, 16-21.
Fischer, A. F. W. and Tilmpel, W.: Das deutsche evangelische Kirchenlied
des 17. Jahrhunderts. Giltersloh, 1905 (Hildesheim, 1964).
Fischer, H. C.: Johann Sebastian Bach. Sein Leben in Bildern und
Dokumenten. Neuhausen-Stuttgart.
Forkel, J. N.: Uber Johann Sebastian Bachs Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke.
Leipzig, 1802 (Kassel, 1968. English translation 1920, reprinted in
H.T. David and A. Mendel, Eds., The Bach Reader: A Life of Johann
Sebastian Bach in Letters and Documents. New York, 1945 (1966)).
Fiirstenau, M.: Zur Geschichte der Musik und des Theaters am Hofe zu
Dresden. 2 Vols. Dresden, 1861. (Facsimile reprint: Leipzig, 1971).
Hilgenfeldt, C. L.: Johann Sebastian Bachs Leben, Wirken und Werke;
ein Beitrag zur Kunstgeschichte des 18. Jahrhunderts. Leipzig, 1850
(1965) (1978).
Hindemith, P.: Johann Sebastian Bach. Heritage and Obligation.
New Haven, 1952 (German edition: Johann Sebastian Bach: Ein
verpflichtendes Erbe. Wiesbaden, 1953).
Hochreither, K.: Zur Auffilhrungspraxis der Vokal-Instrumentallwerke
J. wS. Bachs. Berlin, 1983.
Hoppe, G.: ,,Kothener politische, okonomische und hofische Verhaltnisse
als Schaffensbedingungen Bachs (Tei! 1). In: Cothener Bach-Hefte 4.
Kothen, 1986, 12-62.
Kinsky, G.: Die Eredetiausgaben der Werke Johann Sebastian Bachs.
Vienna etc., 1937. (l Jilversurn, 1968).
Krohner, C.: Struktur, Funktion und Bedeutung des deutschen
protestantischcn Kantor.its vom 16. bis 18. Jahrhundert. Oschersleben,
1995.
I ) 111111 1111,l(,\l'IIY 157

Kiihn, H.: Johann Sebasli,111 11,H Ii. M11�ik ,111 dcr Wende der Zeit. Berlin,
1984.
Marshall, R. L.: Ed., Studies in Rt•n<1iss,111n• and Baroque Music in Honor
of Arthur Mendel. Kassel, 1974.
Neumann, W.: ,,Das Problem ,, vokal-instrumental" in seiner
Bedeutung fur ein neues Bach-Verslandnis." In: R. Brinkmann, Ed.,
Bachforschung und Bach-Interpretation heute.
Neumann, W.: ,,Ober das funktionale Wechsclverhaltnis von Vokalitat
und Instrumentalitat als kompositionstechnisches Grundphanomen,
dargestellt am Schaffen Johann Sebastian Bachs." In: Sitzungsberichte
der Sachsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Phil.-hist.
Klasse, Bd. 123, Heft 3. Leipzig, 1982.
Stinson, R.: ,, The ,,Critischer Musicus" as Keyboard Transcriber Scheibe,
Bach, and Vivaldi." In: Journal of Musical Research 9 (1990), 255-271.
Bitter, C.H.: Johann Sebastian Bach. 2 Vols. Berlin, 1865 (1881) (1951).
Dahlhaus, C.: Die Musiktheorie im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert, Tei! I.
Darmstadt, 1984.
Dahlhaus, C.: Die Musiktheorie im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert, Tei! II.
Darmstadt, 1989.
Blankenburg, W.: ,,Die Bachforschung seit etwa 1965." In: Acta
Musicologica 50 (1978), 54 (1982), 55 (1983).
Kolneder, W.: Bach Lexikon. Bergisch Gladbach, 1982.
Lidke, W.: Das Musikleben in Weimar von 1683 bis 1735. Weimar, 1954.
Jung, H. R.: Johann Sebastian Bach in Weimar 1708 bis 1717. Tradition
und Gegenwart. Weimarer Schriften, Heft 16. Weimar, 1985.

6.WORKS
GENERAL
Butler, G. G.: ,,J.S. Bach and the Schemelli Gesangbuch Revisited." In:
Studi Musicali 13 (1984), 241-257.
Diirr, A.: Review of Studien tiber J. S. Bachs Sonaten fur ein
Melodieinstrument und obligates Cembalo, by Hans Eppstcin. In:
Die Musikforschung 21 (1968), 332-340.
158 ltl/'d I 1 111 \'II'• 1111\V I (l l'LAY i&zcb--
Kurth, E.: Gruntllagen dt >s liiw.ir n Kontrapunkts: Einfiihrung in Stil
und Technik von 8.:tchs m •lotlis her Polyphonie. Bern, 1917 (1946).
Lenz, Chr.: Studicn zur Satzlechnik Bachs. Untersuchung einiger vom
Erscheinungsbild der Vokalpolyphonie gepragter Kompositionen.
PhD Dissertation. Heidelberg, 1970.
Neumann, F.: Ornamentation in Baroque and Post-Baroque Music: With
Special Emphasis on J. S. Bach. Princeton, 1978.
Neumann, F.: Essays in Performance Practice. Ann Arbor, Michigan,
1982.
Newman, A.: Bach and the Baroque: A Performing Guide to Baroque
Music with Special Emphasis on the Music of J.S. Bach. New York,
1985.
Niedt, F. E.: Musicalische Handleitung zur Variation des Generalbasses.
Hamburg, 1721. (Facsimile reprint: Buren, 1976).
Platen, E.: ,,Eine Pergolesi-Bearbeitung Bachs." In: Bach-Jahrbuch (1961),
35-51.
Schulze, H.-J.: ,,Wer intavolierte Johann Sebastian Bachs
Lautenkompositionen?" In: Die Musikforschung 19 (1966), 32-39.
Schulze, H.-J.: ,,Der franzosische Einfluss im Instrumentalwerk J.S.
Bachs." In: Studien zur Auffiihrungspraxis und Interpretation von
Instrumentalmusik des 18. Jahrhunderts, vol. 16 (1981), 57-63 (as: ,,The
French Influence in Bach's Instrumental Music." In: Early Music 13
(1985), 180-184).
Seiffert, M.: Praktische Bearbeitungen Bachscher Kompositionen."
In: Bach-Jahrbuch 1904.
Siegele, U.: ,,Die musiktheoretische Lehre einer Bachsen Gigue."
In: Archiv fiir Musikforschung 17 (1960), 152-167.
Siegele, U.: Kompositionsweise und Bearbeitungstechnik in der
Instrumentalmusik Johann Sebastian Bachs. Neuhausen-Stuttgart,
1975. (PhD dissertation Tiibingen 1957).
Siegele, U.: ,,Erfahrungcn bei der Analyse Bachscher Musik." In: R.
Brinkmann, Ed., Bachforschung und Bachinterpretation heute.
\Alissenschaftler und Praktiker in Dialog. Bericht iiber das Bachfest­
Symposium 1978 dcr Philipps-Universitat Marburg. Kassel etc., 1981,
137-145.
J 2.111111 l(H,1(/\l'IIY 159

Wolff, Chr.: Der stile antico in d 'r MusikJohann Sebastian Bachs: Studien
zu Bachs Spatwerk. Wiesbaden, 1968.
Heinichen, J. D.: Der General-Bass in der Composition. Dresden, 1728.
Leavis, R.: ,,J. S. Bach's Violone Parts." Galpin Society Journal 30 (1977),
155-156.
Zacher, G.: Bach gegen seine Interpreten verteidigt: Aufsaetze 1987-1992.
Mtinchen, 1993.
Emery, W.: Bachs Ornaments. London, 1953.
HARPSICHORD AND ORGAN WORKS
Aldrich, P.: Ornamentation inJ. S. Bach's Organ Works. New York, 1951.
Bodky, E.: The Interpretation of Bach's Keyboard Works. Cambridge,
Mass., 1960.
Breig, W.: ,,Bachs Goldberg-Variationen als zyklisches Werk." In: Archiv
fur Musikwissenschaft 32 (1975),
Damman, R.: Johann Sebastian Bachs ,,Goldberg-Variationen". Mainz,
1986.
Eichberg, H.: ,,Unechtes unter Johann Sebastian Bachs Klavierwerken."
In: Bach-Jahrbuch (1975), 7-49.
Ernst, F.: Bach und das Pianoforte. Frankfurt a. M., 1964.
Goldberg, L.: The Well Tempered Clavier of J.S. Bach- A Handbook for
Keyboard Teachers and Performers. Berkeley, 1995.
Klotz, H.: Die Ornamentik der Klavier- und Orgelwerke von Johann
Sebastian Bach: Bedeutung der Zeichen. Kassel, 1984.
Niemtiller, H. H.: ,,Polonaise und Quodlibet. Der innere Kosmos der
Golberg-Variationen." In: H.K. Metzger and R. Riehn, Eds., Johann
Sebastian Bachs Golberg Variationen. In: Musik-Konzepte, March
1985, 3-28.
Schmiedel, P.: ,,Zurn Gebrauch des Cembalos und des Klaviers bei der
heutigen Interpretation Bachser Werke." In: Bach-Jahrbuch (1972), 95.
Tiircke, B.: ,,Das unendliche Rezitativ." In: H.K. Metzger and R. Riehn,
Eds., Johann Sebastian Bachs Golberg Variationen. In: Musik­
Konzepte, Munich, March 1985, 93-104.
Wolff, Chr.: Johann Sebastian Bachs Klaviertibung: Komnwnlar zur
Faksimile- Ausgabe. Leipzig, 1984.
160 J11/ 11 1111 II I 1111\V Ill l'I /\Y ad-
Traub, I\ )llh.11111 ',1'1,.1•.ti.111 11.tch. Coldberg-Variationen BWV 988.
Mun1d1, 11JH\
Seiffert, M.: Cl•sd11d1ll' dt•r k.l,wicrmusik. Leipzig, 1899.
Schulenberg, D.: The K 'yboard Music of J.S. Bach. New York, 1992.

OTHER INSTRUMENTAL WORKS


Ahnsehl, P., Heller, K., and Schulze, H.-J., Eds., ,,Beitrage zum
Konzertschaffen J. S. Bachs." In: Bach-Studien 6 (1981).
Badura-Skoda, P.: Bach-Interpretation. Die Klavierwerke Johann
Sebastian Bachs. Laaber, 1990.
Eppstein, H.: ,,Chronologieprobleme in Johann Sebastian Bachs Suiten
filr Soloinstrument." In: Bach-Jahrbuch (1976), 35-57.
Leonhardt, G.: The Art of Fugue: Bach's Last Harpsichord Work. An
Argument. The Hague, 1952.
Oberborbeck, F. ,,Die Kunst der Fuge in unserer Zeit." In: Neue
Zeitschrift filr Musik 111 (1950), 71-80.
Orel, A. ,,Johann Sebastian Bachs ,,Musikalisches Opfer"." In: Die Musik
30, 83££.
Siegele, U .: Kompositionsweise und Bearbeitungstechnik in der
Instrumentalmusik Johann Sebastian Bachs. Neuhausen-Stuttgart,
1975.
Vogt, H.: Johann Sebastian Bachs Kammermusik. Voraussetzungen,
Analysen, Einzelwerke. Stuttgart, 1981.
de la Motte, D.: ,,Johann Sebastian Bach, Die Kunst der Fuge BWV 1080,
Contrapunctus I." In: D. de la Motte, Musikalische Analyse, Vol. I,
Kassel, 1978, 23-30.

7. BIBLIOGRAPY OF THE BAROCK MUSIC


INTERPRETATION
Adam, Louis (Johann Ludwig; J 758-1848), Methode de Piano-Forte du
Conservaloirc rcdig '<.' par L. /\dam. Membre du Conservatoire.
Adoplee Pour servi r ,1 I',•11sl'ig1w111 •nl dans cet etablissement I"' Partie
0

/ Pianoforl,•sch1il1• d1•s Co11s1•rv,1loriums der Musik in Paris -1798


& 1802
I:.!, l\1111 1111,H/\l'IIY 161

Aldrich, Putnam (1904 -1975 ), Tlw l'rincipal agrements of the 17th and
18th Centuries. A Study in Musirill Ornamentation, Philasophische
Dissertation, Harvard Univ •rsily 1942.
Beyschlag, Adolf (1845-1914), Di Ornamcntik der Musik, B & H 1908,
21953.
Bovicelli, Giovanni Battista, Regole, Passaggi di Musica, Madnigali,
e Motetti passeggiati, Venedig 1594; Facsimilet. Edited: Nanie
Bnidgman, 1957.
Dadelsen, Georg von (*1918), Artikel > Verzierungen in: MGG 13, 1966.
Dandrieu, Jean-Frarn;ois (1682-1738), Livre de Pieces de Clavecin,
Paris 1724
D'Anglebert, Jean-Henri (1628-1691), Pieces de Clavecin, Paris 1689 -
Edited: Marguerite Roesgen-Champion, Paris 1934.
Demus, Jorg (*1928), Bach am Klavier, in: Osterreichische Musikzeitschrift
9, 1954, S. 7-17.
Die Verzierungen in den Werken von Johann Sebastian Bach, 1909
Du Mage, Pierre (1674-1751), Livre d'Orgue, Paris [1708].
Eggebrecht, Hans Heinrich ( * 1919 ), Uber Bachs geschichtlichen Ort, in:
Deutsche Vierteljahresschrift fur Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesge­
schichte 31, 1957
Emery, Walter (1909-1974), Bach's Ornaments, London 1953. Finck,
Hermann (1527-1558), Practica Musica, Wittenberg 1556.
Gerstenberg, Walter (*1904), Musikerhandschriften van Palestrina bis
Beethoven, Zilrich 1960.
Barich-Schneider, Eta (*1897), Die Kunst des Cembalo-Spiels, BVK 1939,
41979 (enthalt einen Abschnitt »Ornamentik«, S. 53-102).
Hotteterre, Jacques(-Martin) (1674-1763), Principes de la flute traversiere,
Paris 1707, Amsterdam [1728]; Faes. und deutsche Ubertragung v.
Hans Joachim Hellwig nach der franzosischen Ausgabe Amsterdam
[1728], BVK 1941, 51977.
Kilian, Dietrich (*1928), Uber einige neue Aspekte zur
Quellenilberlieferung van Klavier- und Orgelwerken Johann
Sebastian Bachs, in: BJ 1978, S. 6172. >Kritischer Berichl< zu NBA,
Serie IV, Bd. 5 und 6, Teilband 1, 1978, Teilbande 2 und 3, 1979.
162 J0/•,1 I I II I \'II•,: 111 >W 111 l'I /I Y J2lzc.&-.
Kirkpatrick, Ralph (* 1911 ), Ornc1mcnlalion, in: Johann Sebastian Bach,
The »Goldberg« Variations, edited for the harpsichord, or piano by
R. Kirkpatrick, S. X-XlX, New York 1938.
Klotz, Hans (*1900), >Kritischer Bericht- zu NBA, Serie IV, Bd. 2, 1957.
ders., >Kritischer Bericht- zu NBA, Serie IV, Bd. 3, 1962.
Klotz, Hans (*1900), Die Ornamentik der Klavier- und Orgelwerke von
Johann Sebastian Bach Barenreiter Vlg., 1984
Kochevitsky, George A. (*1902), Performing Bach's Keyboard
Music - Embellishments, in: BACH, The quarterly Journal of the
Riemenschneider Bach Institute V f, Berea (Ohio) 1974 f.
Kroll, Franz (1820-1877), »Vorwort« zu BG XIV, Klavierwerke Bd. 3,
s Das wohltemperierte Klavier -, Lpz. 1866.
Neumann, Frederick (*1907), Ornamentation in Baroque and Post­
Baroque Music. With special emphasis on J. S. Bach, Princeton (New
Jersey) 1978.
Scheibe, Johann Adolph (1708-1776), Der critische Musikus, 2 Bde., Hbg.
1738 und 1740.
Schmitz, Hans-Peter (*1916), Die Tontechnik des Pere Engrammelle, BVK
1953.
Schott, Howard (*1923), Playing the Harpsichord, London 1971
Simpson, Christopher {um 1605-1669), The Division-Violist ... divided
into two parts, London 1659, Edited: Nathalie Dolmetsch, BVK 1955.
Starke, Friedrich (1774-1835), Wiener Pianoforte-Schule in 2 Abteilungen
op. 108, Wien 1819/20; Abtcilung 3 1821.
Suavioris harmoniae instrumentalis hyporchematicae Florilegium
secundum, Passau 1698 new edited in 1895.
Tartini, Giuseppe {1692-1770), Traite des Agrements de la Musique,
Paris [ 1771 ) / Regole per arrivare a saper ben suonar il Violino,
hs. zwischen 1752 und 1756; Edited:Erwin R. Jacobi, Celle und New
York 1961.
Muffat, Georg (i653-1704), Apparatus Musico-Organisticus, Salzburg
.... 1690 Faes. Edited: Karl Friedrich Wagner, Innsbruck 1979.
Le Begue, Nicolas-Antoine (1630/31-1702), Les Pieces de Clavessin, Paris
1677
I '.l., 111111 IIH,R/\l'IIY I(, I

Rognoni Taeggio, Francesco (-1626), Selva de varu passaggi secondo


l'uso modemo per canlarc cl suonare, Mailand 1620.
Locke, Matthew (1621/22-1677), Melothesia ... with a choice collection
of lessons for the harpsichord and organ of all sorts, London 1673
Corrette, Michel (1709-1795), Le parfait maitre a chanter, Paris 1758.
La belle Vielleuse, methode pour tipprendre facilement a jouer de la
vielle, Paris [1783 ] .
Dupre, Marcel (1886-1971), Les omements dans J. S. Bach, in: Methode
d'Orgue, Paris 1927, S. 69 ££.
Mattheson, Johann (1681-1764), Der Vollkommene Capellmeister, Hbg.
Faes. Edited: Margarete Reimann, BVK 1954.
Dolmetsch, Arnold (1858-1940), The Interpretation of the Music of the
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, London [1915], 21944.
Donington, Robert (*1907), The Interpretation of Early Music, London
1963, revidiert 31974.
Rameau, Jean-Philippe (1683-1764), Premier Livre de Pieces de Clavecin,
Paris 1706
Georg, Walter (1887-1967), Die Verzierungen in der Musik. Theorie und
Praxis, Zurich & Freiburg im Breisgau 1957.
Landowska, Wanda (1879-1959), Bach und die franzosische Klaviermusik,
in: BJ 1910, S. 33-44.
Ehrlich, Heinrich (1822-1899), Die Ornamentik in J. S. Bachs
Klavierwerken, Lpz. 1896.
Marpurg, Friedrich Wilhelm (1718-1795), Pieces de Clavecin, Paris 1741.
ders., Des critischen Musicus an der Spree erster Band, Bln. 1749/50
Quantz, Johaim Joachim (1697-1773), Versuch einer Anweisung die Flote
traversiere zu spielen, Bin. 1752 u. o.; NA Edited:Arnold Schering,
Lpz. 1906; Faes. mit einem Vorwort von Hans-Peter Schmitz, mit
einem Nachwort, Bemerkungen, Erganzungen und Register von
Horst Augsbach, BVK 1983.
Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel (1714-1788), Versuch Uber die wahre Art
das Clavier zu spielen, Bin. 1753, 21759, 31780, 41787; Zweyter Theil,
Bln.1762;
Faes. des 1. (1753) und 2. Teils Edited:Lothar Hoffmann-Erbrcrhl,
Lpz. 1957.
164 111/-11 Jttl\11 , 1111\V Ill 1'1/\Y .acb--.
Gerber, "111�1 I 11dw1g (17·1h IH19), llislorisch-Biographisches Lexicon
dcr To11h.011stl1•r, 2 Hd1•, Hin. 1791 und 1792; 2. Auflage, 4 Bde., Bln.
1812· 1814.
Janowka, Thomas Ballhasar (1669-1741), Clavis ad Thesaurum Magnae
Artis Musicac, Prag 1701, Prag 1715, Buren 1973.
Monteclair, Michel Pignolet de (1667-1737), Nouvelle methode pour
tipprendre la musique, Paris 1709.
Hammerschlag, Janos (1885-1954), Probleme der musikalischen
Ornamentik I und II, in: Zenei Szemle 13, 1929.
Kinsky, Georg (1882-1951), Die Originalausgaben der Werke Johann
Sebastian Bachs, Wien 1937; Nachdr. Buren 1968.
Chambonnieres, Jacques Champion de (after 1601-between 1670 - 1672)
Les Pieces de Clavessin, Paris 1670
Oeuvres tompletes de Chambonnieres, Edited: Paul Brunold & Andre
Tessier, Paris 1925
Mozart, Leopold (1719-1787), Versuch einer grundlichen Violinschule,
Augsburg 1756
Faes. Edited: Bernhard Paumgartner, Wien 1922; Faes. edited:
Hans Joachim Moser, Lpz. 1956.
Landshoff, Ludwig (1874-1941), Ausgabe der Inventionen und Sinfonien
v. J. S. Bach, Peters 1934.
Bach, Johann Sebastian (1685-1750), Explication unterschiedlicher
Zeichen, so gewiBe manienen artig zu spielen, andeuten, in: Clavier­
Buchlein von Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, hs. 1720; NBA, Serie V, Bd.
5, Edited:Wolfgang Plath, BVK 1962, Faes. Edited:Ralph Kirkpatrick,
New Haveri 1959. ders., Abschrift deri OT v. D' Anglebert (1689),
Stadt- und Universitatsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main, Signatur: Mus.
Hs. 1538.
Cooperin, Fran<;ois (1668-1733), Pieces de Clavecin, !er livre, Paris 1713 2e
livre,1717; 3e livre, 1722; 4e livre, 1730. L' Art de toucher le Clavecin,
Paris 1716, 21717
Walther, Johann Gottfried (1684-1748), Praecepta der Musicalischen
CO,lnposition, hs. 1708; Abschrift davon in Weimar, Thtiringische
Landesbibliothck, Signatur: Hs. - 341
Edited: Peter B 'nary, 8 & 111955.
12.111111 mt,RAPHY 165

Bach, Johann Christoph Friedrich (1732-1795), Musikalische


Nebenstunden- Rinteln 1787
Marchand, Louis (1669-1732), Premier Livre de Pieces de Clavecin, Paris
1702; Second Livre de Pieces de Clavecin, Paris 1703; Pieces choisies
pour I'Orgue, Paris o. J. (posthum); GA der Orgelwerke AMO 1901
and 1904.
Playford, Jolm (1623-1686), A Breefe Introduction to the Skill of Musick,
London 1654, 1662, 1664 & 1667
Turk, Daniel Gottiob (1750-1813), Klavierschule, oder Anweisung zum
Klavierspielen filr Lehrer und Lernende, Lpz. und Halle 1789; Faes.
Edited: Erwin R. Jacobi, BVK 1962.
Bodky, Erwin (1896-1958), The Interpretation of Bach's Keyboard Works,
Cambridge (Massachusetts) 1960
Kreutz, Allred (1898-1960), Die Ornamentik in J. S. Bachs Klavierwerken,
Peters 1950; engl. als Ornamentation in J. S. Bachs's Keyboard Works,
in: Himichsen's Musical Yearbook VII, 1952
Kuhnau, Johann (1660-1722), Neuer Clavier Ubung Erster Theil, Lpz.
1689, 1901
Dannreuther, Edward George (1844-1905), Musical ornamentation, I:
From Diruta to J. S. Bach, London & New York 1893, II: From C. Ph.
E. Bach to the present, 1895.
Schunemann, Georg (1884-1945), J. G. Walther und H. Bokemeyer.
Eine Musikerfreundschaft um Sebastian Bach, in: BJ 1933, S. 86-118.
Schweitzer, Albert {1875-1965), J. S. Bach, Lpz. 1908
Hummel, Johann Nepomuk (1778-1837), Ausfilhrlich theoretisch­
practische Anweisung zum Pianoforte-Spiel, Wien 1828.
Diruta [Mancim], Girolamo (um 1554-nach 1610), 11 Transilvano. Dialogo
sopra ii vero modo di sonar Organi, & lstromenti da penna, Venedig
1593- Seconda parte de] Transilvano. Dialogo diviso in quattro libri,
Venedig 1609, Bologna 1969, 1978.
Uihlein, Georg Simon (1725-1781), Clavier-Schule, oder kurzc und
grundliche Anweisung zur Melodie und Harmonie, Lpz. & Zi.illich.iu
1765
166 111/ I I I, 11 11 1111\V 111 l'I AY J:i?i_c4-..

Agricola, Jolt,\l\ll l•rn•d11d1 (17 0 1774), Anleitung zur Singkunst.


Aus dcm I l,111.irll',l lw11 dl·s I ll•rrn l't•Lcr Franz Tosi, Berlin 1757; Faes.
Zusamm 'n 111. dt•m Ongindl v. Pier Francesco Tosi, Opinioni de'
tantori anti hi t' moucrni, Bologna 1723, Edited: Erwin R. Jacobi,
Celle 1966, 1969.
Rellstab, Johann Carl Friedrich(1759-1813), Anleitung fur Clavierspieler,
den Gebrauch der Bachschen Fingersetzung, die Manieren und den
Vortrag betreffend op. 62(op. IV des Autors), Bln. o. J. [ 1789]
L'Affilard, Michel (um 1656-1708), Principes tres-faciles pour bien
apprendre la musique, Paris 1694, Gen£ 1971.
Praetorius, Michael(um 1570-1621), Syntagmatis Musici tomus tertius,
Wolfenbiittel 1619 Faes. Edited:Wilibald Gurlitt, BVK 1968, 31978.
Heinichen, Johann David (1683-1729), Der General-Bass in der
Composition, Dresden 1728.
Bischoff, Hans(1852-1889), Kritische Ausgabe der Klavierwenke von J.
S. Bach in 7 Banden., Leipzig. 1880-1888, Hildesheim 1974.
Purcell, Henry (1659-1695), A Choice Collection of Lessons for the
Harpsichord or Spinnet, London 1696, Hugh McLean, London 1957.
Kuhn, Max, Die Verzierungskunst in der Gesangs-Musik des 16.-17.
Jahrhunderts(1535-1650), Lpz. 1902, B & H 1969.
Beer, R., Ornaments in old Keyboard Music, in: The Music Review 13,
1952
Bach-Dokumente, Bd. 3, hrsg. vom Bach-Archiv Lpz. unter Leitung v.
Werner Neumann, Dokumente vom Nachwirken Johann Sebastian
Bachs 1750-1800, vorgelegt und erlautert v. Hans Joachim Schulze,
Kassel und Lpz. 1972.
Musicalisches Lexicon oder Musicalische Bibliothec, Lpz. 1732; Faes.
Edited: Richard Schaal, BVK 1953.
Dieupart, Charles(£ um 1740), Six Suittes de Clavessin, Amsterdam o.
J. - Faes. Monaco 1979.
Abhandlung von den Manieren, hs. 1754, in DStB, Mus. ms. theor. 553.
Clementi, Muzio(1752-1 $32), Einleitu ng in die Kunst das Pianoforte zu
.... spielen, Wien 1802.
I} il111110(,l!Al'IIY I h7

Ornamentation in J. S. Bach's Organ Works, New York 1950. Bachs


Verzierungen, insbesondcrc in, cinen Orgelwerken, in: Musik und
Kirche 26, 1956
The Interpretation of Bach's Trills, in: The Musical Quarterly 49,1963
Fries, Werner J., Bachs Doppelschlag, in: BJ 1971, S. 98-105. Gagliano,
Marco da (1582-1643), La Dafne, Florenz 1608.

FRANK-PETER DIETRICH

................................. il) .................................


MARKUSDIETRICH
Solistengitarren I Romantische Gitarren
Renaissancelauten I Barocklauten
Mittelalterlauten I Theorben
Mandolinen I Barockmandolinen
Cistern I Renaissance- und
Barockgamben
Eubabrunner StraBe 50
[}()8265 Ertbach/Vogtland
Telefon: +49(0)37422/6141
dietrich@gitarre-laute.de
www.gitarre-laute.de
168 J11Z•d I I 111 \'11',, 1 lt>W I! l 1'1 A Y J:8zcf;._

Guitar Musk Shop


Music recordings from J6zsefEotvos
in the online music store
World Premier Recordings

J. S. Bach:
The Goldberg Variations

J. S. Bach:
The Art of Fugue

J. S. Bach: The Lute Works

www.eotvos.net
12. HI 111 lll(,RA PIIY 1,, 1 1

Publications edited by J6zsef Eotvos


Complete Lute Works
BWV 995-999, 1000, 1006a
Editor: Eotvos, J6zsef
Original and innovative guitar
transcriptions of Bach's Jute suites
and related works, optional versions
included. Revised edition including
the sources in Facsimile
144 pages
ECH 110

Goldberg Variations BWV 988


Editor: Eotvos, J6zsef
This first transcription ever of
Bach's Goldberg Variations for solo
guitar has been hailed as 'The guitar
transcription of the 20th Century'.
80 pages
ECH 101

al'C1ilable from your music supplier


or i11 case of difficulty
direct from the publisher:

Edition Chanterelle im Allegra Musikverlag


Am Dornbusch 24-26 · D - 64390 Erzhausen · Germany
Tel: 06150 867750 · info@musikverlag-zimmennann.de
I would like to thank everybody who has financially supported
this worthwile project and the completion of this amazing book:

Peter Buru Jurgen Htibscher YoshiroShikata


Alvaro Company Christine Kirchengast MiroSimic
Stefan Drees Dariusz Kupinski Sabina Laetitia
Marcin Dylla Salvo Marcuccio deWaal
Oliver Fartach-Naini Johannes Manno HeinzWallisch
Jan Hanford Stein-Erik Olsen Frederic Zigante
I would also like to thank the subscribers and my friends, for their help
and support:

Sasha Ahuja Roberto Gaudenzi Flavio Sala


Bruce Ammons Roger Gehrig Bj0rn Schille
Luigi Attademo Giulia Giardini Felix Seuntjens
Denis Azabagic David Grossman Tino van der Sman
Ahmed Noor Baluch Ken Hedgecock Per Dybro Soerensen
Andre Bigelbach Christine Kirchengast Pekka Staven
Nora Buschmann Frank Koonce Andreas Stockreiter
Gabor Csoma Uwe Kropinski Otto Tolonen
Frank-Peter Dietrich Wolfgang Lendle Tomislav Tomaskovic
Mateus Dela Fonte Peter Laning Valentin Valchev
Jose Manuel Dapena MAXIMA Lingua Kft. George Vassilev
Zoran Dukie Matt Morgan Anne West
Roland Dyens Thomas Offermann Brigitte Zaczek
Armin Egger John Oster Piotr Zaleski
Vilmos Enri Jorgos Panetsos Stanley Yates
Noriyuki Furuyashiki Judicael Perroy
Ricardo Franco Carlos Perez
Manuscripts
1(1 II I 11\' 1 IIIIIV Ill l'IAYaa-..

v :.:t
/'''''
I.. - /( ,/,{'

_,r;.c. ... t:.,


=:::1;1111=1e
1

ta::c=:;;w!.'�;

�!1� ,� �=-w•:!:1
k f

..
t';1i:t1::1s1,;m1
=="1•r-,•k 1-:,;:l£
1/'
176 I•• .11 l111V1i'o lll>W 10 l'LAYa a,_
MIINtlS( RIPTS 177

::::::::=...-===--·-==--===-=:.:_.- --�·��¥ --- -


� ;.,. . . ----------·------ ---- --· --

i==== .., .
+
. - - · :
- .. ---·. -- ·. --
. .. . . --- ..

�- �=:::=
---- · ����:8��=
178 Ji' 11 11 I \11•, ll!>W Ill l'I i\Y ad-
MANllSCHIPTS 179

_Lz_. -·--·-· -- _----==--J;.:=-�-- ----·------=


�-- ��
180 I' 11 1111\11':1111\\ll!ll'l,AYa,:4_
MANUSCRIPTS 181
182 Ill 11 11 1i 111•11 111 1'1 AY a.Cb--

.I .,.... . .A1 - .
-
I !"\

-..
._ I L�
- ..:;

""'/' � '1!1,,/
, , - I r 1"'
.., r ri\....- 6iii'�, .
J 1 .. \����
tvl ,IN ll',< RI PTS 183

5=:�ill:1:n:::::11::
1
;;;;;;;.;;1:111 1

11111:1111�1,,
184 I I 11 I 11\ \'II 1111\V Ill !'I.AV .t&z,:4._

��-@�;tc;e=::
l }

9:;:mm:1;;:
r ,

;:··i;at:;;JDtlaS.l·s
�tR1:;ars:�tpit1�11:•;
;·�e\1c,*1t: '::t!:&e
1

;;eewua=,;z:��;g, . "'
t-.1ANIJ',<'RIPTS 185

c�\WB# tti: ;:f=ifrtf;::-;:; I�


�lilUr�1 Pii/:t1,::t tl�1 ��
1

'r" l2,f?4 :1?2�·r,:!:�1;;- =:


I'
rf

;t:Jif'l�D,•·ti�;:¥:w� ti �
1 !

;:-��;n:::::@i� �T;1f=;1;1y
� � '

!!41:t,C:/lf�a;
186
----
I' 111,1111t!lltHVJOl'LAY�c4-

�i==i�J1-;:e;1.;;:tt;;{
1
· ·;:�::::r4:;rH:e;;n:::·;:
Si err:• :p:;,; r:i.;; Pi fifliiJ:i[�J
�1ZIJiI®fti,f :::i:l iJZ�i:·;:
...
fl.I NII',< l(ll'TS 187

B=�q,.._w,:,
,,::c=aat
�1am,:::.:z;1w1:
�1,Dl�·-1 1,
1nw...
�=;;1:a
=�tr:m,,;:s:::c
;:=t::t!frlli
1
itf.

� c;<C-
:,�-
188 Jtl ,II 1111111•: 1111\V 10 l'IAYaa-

=::·=======;=
=:e::=::eet::
.,=====1 �•r
==�=r1:: ::=
1:sr:::1ra::,::-:
1
arse ::· e ::1
r:1r,1:Sl 1
1=1; ::
MANUSCRIPTS 189

1
1:1 1e==e::::::�:
: 1:;:: r
e r:: :;
1!:
1 1

=trs1 rJ:r?t:1=�-
1
1 r====I====
1 I
=====\�:r::::r::
-- __....--··-·
--·�··· . __ �-
-··--·--····--
-- .
_:,.,,:,;:t:,.1�
.. ...
. ..
.. �- ' ........ ._••• ,I ,..,.. .... -

I!!;:: . :
190 ii 11 1111�11•! 1111\V l\l l'IAY�

GIi::. ·=;,.:::zit
f!l·lr5:!J'.::rt:::!t:Z,
' � I, � I ,.L_J.._· '.

1
11:==:"1-=:::. =a
('.' .
MANll�l"RIPTS 191
192 /II' II 1111\111, 1111\V Ill l'li\Ya�
MANUSCRIPTS 193

1c1:1e;a1e,
ta�=1

==:,,::: ; ;
194 111 I ll•l\11,1111\Vllil'I.AY�d-.
MANUSCRIPTS 195
196 I•• II I 11\11'1, 111>\V 10 l'LAYj&.c,G_

em:::tnrm:r�1 :
L � ' t, 1 1 'e- : : � 1r :::
l
_;, i 'ltbi,4 •'"
11,,,it:*:==�- ===
MANUSCRIPTS 197

F.i ksi 111 i k· cks .-\utogrnphs


(jf.d,uk f"" l.. 4ff. ,,' �. M:'221",, Y-.. /b<t<-f.

:s=::,:;::*n::1?:511::1
,;:;i:=r1�;:;�:111
m::aw::;r,;ij;:
,�:;::Y:1;�-l,§i$7.
====-===
•==p:ai
.,,,,_� •

L'nivc-ru.J Ed1t1<>n , �.u e,


198 111 11 1111\'ll'I 1111\V l!l l'I/\Ya�
---
MANUSCRIPTS 199
200 JI t/ 111 1111 \ t 1•1' 1111\V It) l'I.AY acb--
MANUSCRIPTS 201
202 I• Ii 1111V11•, 1111\V llll'IAYaa-

�:J!::,�:?Ilw!?iU'
,••$1llli I. 1
,r!;t;;pf@;x1;!E;ilJ!IJ
-b$f1"1@t«!T¥1i
M,\NUSCRIPTS 203
204 I" II l1ll\'1 11111\' Ill l'li\Y$�

-- r .r .J= .,. _,.. J-" ,!__ .r J:J r;: r .r.}: J-.F' J- . r


�� ·'tVf;,4:;0.5 ,i:·
J-! .r_ , ,t .J:.. .r J:. ;- .)- .J: ;- J- .r-.r= r ;--;:. .}: I

aq. - -
i.
r" a., --�azi.o c,:. o.,
J: J:. .l-n .r _":,. .r- , J; .E .;:: , _.! ;:: .r
'Cl u, - ,q, u
;, ..
.J: .!< , .J:.. .}: .r t.rr ,. .t;.f'_ .r ;!" , .r .r- .r
·o ,,.. �cva a.u.,c,. a:a4:
;:: _,, .t ,.Js. '.,J-;, .. -!:-l-. f .f J J- l' .-!: ;,:-� {� {);,_ .t
- " ,_,,. U/ i

I .r .. }".r f .rt ,t:-� .J;.,. r. }, ,!:J: f! ;;--..t t'f-,. ,r� J-r-r L.

,J-J:.r
, ,!;_ l:.r: .,... )= J'- ;:� J- .r .r.J-
.l .
;- )'- J- .J:J:J-

��1j&�£di,{o�a i�,;i�. I
MANUSCRIPTS 205

.r .r-

I» �l,·"'P.A,·$£i'1;�:�����
�W·w� la:rb··fMf·.,e.£;' �J-
206 Ill II I!• I \'ii 1111\V I \l l'I I\ Y ad-_

111e;}ii11:0,e@:11
lil�ii:111
MANUSCRIPTS 207

�,:airer:=
,:.;;,,�J&:...
:,,,:manses
===,=•.,.;rif
m
1:;W�:j�11�1�1-�:i��tiit�,14
=p;a;.41:15
=•1••�-/
208 Ill 111111\IJ illl\Vllll'LIIYaa--.

=•: :=ere:;;3:;;;rg
=rlrk\ll:lr;;r� ;0;:a !
1

&a;;;,,mi:;;
c.:;4:;�:"ij:.,;
'
MANUSCRIPTS 209

#:�r?;p&1,i1:,1,:�,
1

f·p1��,8=�JP1;I!·lt1f:
t t :'

11s.i11:,,:::�ri
;;::·:::=:::,::!:
J:·2::; �� 11��;,3rr::,l
0 1 l

I: t�:1rs:.,sm:,4
8J

g,:�.,,3.@,:·;::;:
21 Q J11/ ii I 11111'111 ,: 111>\V Ill l'I AY aa-.
MANUSCRIPTS 21 I

J J
scg;:::!:r:,t�� :;: :,,t;
:m%°6:3;1·1::;r;:r:::0:

;;;;;pf�f&'1rf:trf!!;;f!
gf;Jlf', ;#=� ;ijCM
9 SJ1
:r
212 11>/lll llll\1h 1101\/ 10 l'LAYa@-.

� �ir:1�� if§%;. .1£1�)1·�


f]! r- ; t i ;.:@_g..t;;r ..: •-' h : : , ! <, of�
� ••· • � J "' ., '. ..- , I

::==:t: ;;/:i�)::�... i
#

. ,.
MANUSCRIPTS 213

'

G1e:11:;:r:��1�:;,:
'

Cl:1�!\,r!,ir·Qe:C,
aa-

t;;·I:�·�::::::
214 I"/ II t ti I\ t1•, 11< IIV I() l'LA Y

==
.c:�·':� &::::; �=�!;·=
t,,-

c::;un:r;;:¢;;;:ff
:PF:tr�!ri.£atffl::C
:e:a.1:f":r:�::aif:
zn:�nu:I
p:.tk"lf7E:z:::::=:t;;
MANUSCRIPTS 215

:1::n:::rrt:=:;:;.;:
r
a rMm:;::BCS;l
1

:.1:;:;;:tl«I
;:;;:=1:w:;:t: 5�
216 111/•ol I 1111 V<1',. IIOW 10 PLAY J:8zc4-.

.i j
�·.�::1:;£·: :;:� :f?oi:1
1f!Ntb'Jti?l·�l@¢1? ,•.rt01@ .qJ l
fs,·.J.n ·' Ir r .,,.JJ.i .,.Jµn iij.1 _q f
I,, -· • --

Cl1�C:*1i:=:t1J I
MANUSCRIPTS 217

:::e.. ::t:2�
1

::
\
' ...

et1:Ji11:J::==
a:=::,:42:=
::»; � !-m:r�::s:a:
::a;1na:,s,:f!fr
=1:n:;;;s�
1111:maz-11 , �·
::m;J
218 ll'l'II 11111<'1•,: llllW l'OPLAY$ck-.
P,i:eprint & Layout by Malurn Studio
Printed by Academy Print Ltd. Martonvasar, J Iungary
ISBN 978-963-08-7441-0