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PEMP

AEL2501

Transmission Control

Lecture delivered by:


Prof. Ashok C.Meti
MSRSAS--Bangalore
MSRSAS

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PEMP
AEL2501

Session Objectives
• On completion of this session, the delegate will
understand and be able to appriciate:
– R
Role
l off electronic
l i transmission
i i controll system
– Transmission control System components and
configuration
– Shift control strategies

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AEL2501

Topics
• Introduction
• AT Configuration with TCU
• Basic functions of TCU
• Hardware and software components
• Operation of TCU

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AEL2501

Introduction
• Automatic transmissions(ATs)were popular in America
and Japan(80-90%) and in Europe (about 15-20%).
• In earlyy 1980s,, the electronic transmission control units
(TCU) were introduced by Renault and BMW.
• The market for ATs is divided into-
– Stepped transmissions
– Continuously variable transmission (CVTs)
• In stepped transmission, smooth shifts can be optimized by
reduction of engine torque during gear shift,
shift combined
with
ith the
th correctt matched
t h d oil
il pressure for
f the
th friction
f i ti
elements (clutches, brake bands).
• The reduction of shift shocks to a very low or even to an
unnoticeable level has allowed to design of 5 speed gear
boxes.
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AEL2501

• In today’s standard systems, the driver can choose between


sport and economic drive programme by means of a
selector switch.
switch
• In sophisticated systems, the self-
self-adoption of shift
strategies is common.
• This leads to –
– Better driveability
– Significant reduction in the fuel consumption
• Different shift characteristics are easy to implement in
software, and much adoption can be achieved by data
software
change, leaving the transmission hardware and TCU intact.

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PEMP
AEL2501

• In CVTs, power loss from the transmission’s oil


pump is a potential problem leading to increased
f l consumption.
fuel ti
• ECU can achieve optimum yield by matching the
oil mass-stream and oil pressure for pulleys to the
actual working conditions.

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AEL2501

AT Configuration
System Components:
• Transmission which is adapted for electronic control
requirements
q
• Electronic control unit with corresponding inputs and
outputs and attached sensor elements.
Transmission:
• A four speed or a five speed gear box with a torque
converter lockup clutch controlled by the control unit.
• Mechanical and hydraulic
y components
p in the system
y are
being replaced with electro hydraulic or electromechanical
components.
• An electronic shift point control unit detects and controls
the relevant components.
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PEMP
AEL2501

• In this type of systems, the shift points are determined by


TCU, resulting in a wide range of freely selectable driving
behaviors regarding the shift points.
• It is also possible to use different shift maps according to
switch or sensor signals.
• The shift smoothness is controlled through an interface to
the EMS.
EMS
• The hydraulic pressure is maintained by an electronically
controlled hydraulic solenoid.
• This
hi may use PWM solenoidl id or a pressure regulator.
l
• Present day designs use analog pressure control solenoid
that provides proper shift comfort during the entire life of
transmission at all temperatures and varying oil quality.

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AEL2501

• In some cases, the shift quality is further increased using


electronically controllable brake elements(brake bands) for
some specific gearings.
• Present electronically controlled ATs usually use
electronically controlled torque converter clutch which can
lock-up the torque converter between the engine output
and the transmission input.
• This clutch can be fitted with a solenoid which is activated
by the signal from the TCU
TCU.
• This locking up the torque converter eliminates the slip of
the converter and efficiency of the transmission system is
increased resulting in reduction of the fuel consumption.

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AEL2501

Electronic Control Unit:


• The ECU for transmission control can be divide into hardware and
related software.
• The hardware consists of the electronic devices arranged in a suitable
enclosure which can be located inside the car or in side the engine
compartment.
• It also consists of specially designed devices in output stages for
actuators of pressure regulation and torque converter clutch control.
• On the functional side, the hardware configuration an be divided into -
– Power supply
pp y
– Input signal circuits
– Output stages
– Microcontroller
– Peripherals components, monitoring and safety circuits
RF interference, EMC

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AEL2501

• The microcontrollers are 8 bit or 16bit with real-time and


directly addressable capabilities
• CAN is commonly used in microcontrollers to
communicate with systems such as EMS.
• The EPROMs stores the data and programmes (128 – 256
Kb).
• The NVRAMs are increasingly used to store the diagnostic
and adaptive data.
• Watch-dog
h d circuits
i i are usedd for
f safety
f andd monitoring.
i i
• Special output stages are used for driving the solenoids
which are inductive loads.

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AEL2501

Overview of hardware parts

Ignition
Internal Supply
Vbat Voltage

Actuator
Digital signal output
Digital inputs Actuators
interface
Micro stage
controller
EMS Interface
Pulse signal
Speed Signal interface

Analog signal ECU Interface


TATF
interface Low signals
g
output
EPROM stage
Serial interface for RAM
Diagnostics
diagnostics
Ext Watchdog

(Automatic transmission Fluid) 12


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AEL2501

Software:
• The software component of the Electronic Transmission
unit is the most important
p one as its functionalities are
increasing.
• The software consists of two parts-
– Application programme
– Data
– The programme structure is defined by the functions
• The data are specific for the relevant programme parts and
h
have t be
to b fixed
fi d during
d i calibration
lib ti stage.
t
• The most difficult software requirement results from the
real-time conditions
• This is also a criterion for microcontroller selection.

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AEL2501

Software Structure overview

Initialization of microcontroller
and control unit

Input signal
preparation

Safety
Functions
Function calculation
Data

Di
Diagnostics
i

Output signal
translation

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PEMP
AEL2501

• Support for standardized communication protocol such as


ISO 9141.[The ISO-9141 specification is one of several protocols used in
the OBDII system implemented in 1996 and newer cars and light trucks.]
• Communication with other control unit through protocols
such as CAN or J1850.
• The Data can be divided into two types:
– Fixed data – related to fixed attributes of the system e.g the
number of actuators
– Calibration data – data adapted to changing parameters of the
system
y such as engine,
g , vehicle and transmission characteristics.
• The rising software complexity with simultaneously
increasing quality requirements causes higher demands for
software quality control.

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AEL2501

Actuators:
• Electro hydraulic actuators are important
components of electronic transmission control
systems.
• Continuously operating actuators are used to
modulate pressure.
• Switching actuators are used as supply or
discharge valves for shift –point control.

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AEL2501

• Qualities of actuators for ATs:


– Low hydraulic resistance to achieve high flow rates
– Operation temperature range –40 to 150 degree centigrade.
– Small power loss
– Minimized heat dissipation at output stage of the ECU
– Small size and low weight
– Highest reliability in a harsh environment
– Maximum accuracy and repeatability over lifetime
– Short reaction times
– Pressure range
g up p to 2000kPa
– Maximum vibration and acceleration of 300m/s2
– High number of switch operations
• The hardware and software of the ECU must be developed
taking into account the electrical specification of the
solenoid to obtain an optimized complete system.
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AEL2501

Example of a Gear-Solenoid combination for a four Speed Transmission

Solenoid -1 Solenoid-2 Solenoid-3

1st Gear On On On
2nd Gear On On Off
3rd Fear On Off Off
4th Gear Off Off Off

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AEL2501

Basic functions of TCU


– Shift point control
– Lockup control
– E i torque
Engine t control
t l during
d i shifting
hifti
– Safety function and diagnostic functions

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AEL2501

Structure of basic transmission electronic control unit

Ignition Power
Internal Supply
Supply
Vbat Voltage
Solenoid

Position switch
Digital signal
interface Solenoid Shifting solenoids
KD Micro
driver
controller
EMS Interface
stages
Pulse signal
Speed Signal interface
Turbine Speed
Analog signal Limp home
TATF Digital
interface
signals
i l
output
EPROM
stage Engine torque
K-Line
Serial interface for RAM reduction
diagnostics
Ext Watchdog
L-Line

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PEMP
AEL2501

Shift point control:


• Basic shift point control uses shift maps.
• The
Th data
d maps are selectable
l bl over a wide
id range
• Shift point limitations based on –
– Highest admissible speed of the engine for each
applications
– Lowest speed of the engine that is practical for driving
comfort and noise emission
– The inputs of the shift points determination-
• Throttle position
• Accelerator pedal position
• Vehicle speed

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PEMP
AEL2501

• To prevent too frequent shift between the two


gears, a hysteresis between the upshift and the
d
downshift
hift characteristic
h t i ti is
i incorporated.
i t d
• The hysteresis is determined by the desired
shifting habit of transmission and , alternatively,
the car behavior.

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PEMP
AEL2501

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AEL2501

Engine torque control during shifting:


• It requires an interface to an electronic engine management
system [EMS]
[EMS].
• The purpose is to -
– Reduce the torque during the shifting
– Support synchronization of the transmission
– Prevent shift shocks.
• In conventional applications, the engine torque reduction is
through an ignition angle control.
control
• The timing and absolute value of the ignition control
depends on the operating conditions concerning actual
engine torque and shifting type.
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AEL2501

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AEL2501

Upshift:
• Occurs without an interruption of the tractive power.
power
• The
Th enginei torque
t reduction
d ti may be b activated
ti t d if the
th clutch
l t h
of the target gear stays with the translation of torque.
• The beginning of the engine torque reduction is determined
by the course of engine or transmission input speed
speed.
• There it is important to detect a decreasing speed
speed. The start
of the torque is characterized by a specific difference.
• The end of the torque reduction is activated at an
applicable speed lead before reaching the synchronous
speed of the new gear.

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PEMP
AEL2501

Downshift:
• Downshift under driving conditions results in a short
interruption of the tractive power
power.
• At the synchronous point, the tractive power is in
operation.
• The higher revolving energy, on the other hand, results in
undesired vibrations of the power train.
• To prevent such vibrations, it is necessary to reduce the
engine
i output torque before
b f reaching
hi the
h synchronous
h
point of the new gear.

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AEL2501

• When the transmission input speed reaches the


synchronous speed of the new gear, the engine
t
torque has
h tot increase
i to
t the
th nominal
i l value.
l
• The increase is usually applied as a torque ramp.
• The values and timing of the engine torque
reduction are generally part of the special
calibration data for each combination of vehicle,
engine,
i andd transmission.
t i i

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PEMP
AEL2501

Lockup Control/Torque Converter Clutch:


• The torque converter clutch connects both functional
components of the hydraulic converter,
converter the pump and the
turbine.
• The lockup of the clutch reduces the power losses due to
torque converter slip.
slip
• The shift points of lockup are determined in the same way
as the determination of the shift point in the gear shift point
control
control.
• Normally there is one separate characteristic curve for the
lockup for each gear.

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AEL2501

• To prevent power train vibrations,


vibrations it is advisable to open
the lockup during coasting to use the damping effect of the
torque converter.
• In some applications, the lockup is opened during shifting
for improved shift comfort.
• After shifting, the lockup can be closed again.
• When driving in first gear , the lock is usually open
open,
because
– th
the time
ti spentt in
i the
th first
fi t gear is
i smallll [High
[Hi h ffrequency off llockup]
k ]
st
– Improved acceleration of the car in 1 gear when using the
converter gain for wheel torque.

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PEMP
AEL2501

Pressure Control
• The shift comfort is also dependent on the timing
and absolute values of the pressure, which is
responsible for the torque translation of the
friction elements.
• The TCU offers a large number of possibilities for
better function than a conventional hydraulic
system.
t
• Different algorithms are used to calculate the
pressure values during and outside shifting.

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AEL2501

• The inputs for a pressure calculations are –


– Engine torque
– Transmission input
– Turbine torque
– Throttle position and so on…the inputs depend on the
special signal availability as well as requirement
concerning shift control.
– Variable ppressure components
p alongg with a constant
pressure value are used to determine required pressure

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PEMP
AEL2501

Pmod  Pconst  kn  Pn  ktor  Ptor  k s  Ps


Where Pmod  pressure
Pconst  constant pressure value
k n  adaptation factor for input speed
Pn  pressure component dependent on the revolution signal
K tor  adaption factor for engine torque
Ptor  pressure component dependent on torque
k s  adaption factor for vehicle speed
Ps  pressure component dependent on vehicle speed

• D
During
i applications,
li ti the
th factors
f t mustt be b defined
d fi d in
i the
th
calibration phase.
• In general, to determine these factors, many vehicle tests
are required.
• Another possibility is use of characteristic maps which
have to be defined during
M.S Ramaiah School ofcalibration
Advanced Studiesphase.
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AEL2501

Safety and diagnostic Functions:


• Diagnostic functions of TCU can be divided into-
– Real safetyy functions to prevent
p critical drivingg conditions
(uncontrollable shifting, especially unintended down shifting)
– Diagnostic functions which affect an an increasing availability of
the car
– A better failure detection for servicing.
• Generally, the monitoring includes the monitoring of the
controller.
• Watchdog (Internal or external) circuits are used monitor
the controllers.
• Incase of actuator malfunction, the limp-home mode is
selected.
• The diagnostic system consists of a failure storage facility
(non-volatile) and communication to the service tester. 34
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Improvement of Shift control:


• In a second development stage, the basic functions can be
revised byy a modification of the software functions and by y
adding new parts to the basic functions.
• This results in significant enhancement of the driving and
shifting comfort.
Shift Point Control:
• The basic function can be improved significantly by
adding a software function, the so-called adaptive shift
control.
l This
hi is
i able
bl to prevent an often-criticized
f i i i d attribute,
ib
the tendency for shift hunting especially when hill
climbing and under heavy load conditions.
• In addition, different shift maps can be implemented into
the data field of the TCU. (E.g. Economy / Power mode)
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AEL2501

• Lockup Control: There are additional functions which can


improve the shift comfort of the lockup.
• Replacing the on/off control of the lockup actuator by a
pulse control during opening and closing
• The on/off solenoid is replaced by a pressure regulator or a
PWM solenoid.it is possible to achieve lockup at low
engine speed and low engine load with good shift comfort
(resulting in low fuel consumption) by implementing
intelligent control strategies and corresponding output
stages in within TCU.

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AEL2501

Engine torque reduction during gear shifting:


• Using PWM signal with related fixed values or a bus
interface to the EMS
EMS, the engine torque reduction can be
directly controlled by TCU.
• Advantages:
– Independent calibration of the TCU data over a wide range without
changing the EMS data.
– Possibility of coordination of the engine torque reduction and
ppressure control within the TCU.

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AEL2501

Pressure Control:
• Adaptive software strategy can be implemented.
• The
Th required
i d inputs
i t for
f the
th adaptive
d ti pressure control t l are
calculated from available signals in the transmission
control.
• The main reasons for the implementation of the adaptive
pressure control are the variations of the attributes of the
transmission components like- clutch surfaces and oil
quality as well as the changing engine output torque over
the lifetime of the car.

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• The principle of adaptive pressure control:


– A comparison of a set value for the shift time with an actual value,
measured byy the transmission input
p speed
p course.
– At a specific difference of the set value to the actual value, the
pressure value is corrected by a certain increment in +ve or –ve
direction.
• The original adaptation time and the pressure value
increment would be fixed during the calibration phase.
• For safety reasons, the total deviation of the pressure value
from a given value is limited, de[pending upon the
particular application.
• NVRAM is used to store the correction values to have
correct values available after power-on of the TCU.
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AEL2501

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AEL2501

Power train optimization:


• Adaptive functions in cooperation with carefully
designed torque converter clutch control , which
allows the clutch to be closed even at low gears,
have improved fuel consumption significantly.
• Based on the driver’s behavior, together with an
adaptive shift strategy , part of the TCU’s adaptive
programme software
ft may select
l t an economy or
even super-economy by optimization of the drive
train.

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AEL2501

Summary
• Need for electronic control for transmission has
been established.
• The system configuration and its working of a
typical automatic transmission control has been
discussed.

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