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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Philippine basic education has been undergoing series of changes, modifications and
improvement in the curriculum areas. Changes within the educational system have been
constantly implemented by the Department of Education to adopt the Philippine educational
system to the needs and demands of globalization. These were experienced by the elementary
and secondary teachers, especially of public schools. Some of these changes were manifested
in curriculum programs and activities, which include the use of different approaches and
teaching strategies such as the Cooperative Learning strategy, the Four Pronged Approach,
UBD in the secondary level and the change of the time allotment in the teaching of different
subject areas, and lately the inclusions of the use of both English and the Mother Tongue as
the medium of instruction, of which was included the Double Exposure in Mathematics. This
program was included in the implementation of the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual
Education (MTB-MLE). And most recently, the implementation of K to 12 initiated in the
school year 2012-2013 was considered the most astounding among the series of changes in
the Philippine educational system.

From these experiences, it seems that there is an endless change in the educational
system until the desired goal of attaining quality education is reached. It doesn’t mean
however, that the implementation of changes should remain unaccounted. Rather, they
should be evaluated in terms of the outcomes manifested in the performance of the students
to determine their effectiveness and those of the teachers. Measurement of educational
outcomes, as one of the areas of research, should be reported to the district or school division
for appropriate actions aimed at improving to further extent the programs implemented.
Ideally, these outcomes could be more reliable after a considerable period of time has lapsed.
Three to five years after implementation, the program should be evaluated to gather reliable
data on its extent of effectiveness. For the meantime, the only research that could be
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conducted currently about this K to 12 Program is its implementation and the reactions of
people toward the same.

Along the cited changes are challenges associated with, and attributable to, the
transition period wherein issues, concerns and reactions ranging from positive to negative
were met by both school heads and teachers from stakeholders which include students,
parents and community folks. The foregoing situations necessitate urgent solutions and
actions to erase negative implications on the minds of the masses.

Background of the Study

K-12 Education Plan was published on October 5, 2010, DepEd Discussion Paper
(2010). This is part of President Benigno “Noy Noy Aquino III’s Educational Reform
Program. The Aquino Administration believes that adding more years to basic education in
the Philippines could help solve the problem of unemployment, keep up global standards,
and help Filipino students to have more time to choose the career that best suits their skills.
In Jones, Isabela, particularly in the schools where the study was conducted, there
were issues encountered and concerns to be attended by teachers and school heads along the
implementation of K to 12 Program. As a teacher in one of these schools, the researcher
himself felt the need to reconcile both positive and negative issues hurled at most by the
students, the parents and even by other teachers. This situation prompted the researcher to
conduct a study relative to these issues and concerns on the implementation of K to 12 which
is now a law signed by the former President Aquino.

Objectives of the study

This study was conducted with the alignment of the following objectives
specifically for the implementation of the K to 12 Curriculum:

a. determine the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender,


academic rank, educational attainment, civil service eligibility, and no of years in
service;
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b. determine the extent of implementation of K to 12 curriculum to the administrators


and teachers;
c. determine and analyse the effect of K to 12 curriculum in terms of management and
classroom set up;
d. determine and analyse how the group of respondents differ in their perception
regarding the extent of implementation of K to 12 curriculum;
e. determine the benefits due to the K to 12 curriculum as perceived by the
Administrators and Teachers; and
f. determine the problems met and recommendation policy options to improve the
implementation of K to 12 curriculum; and
g. determine the significant difference between the assessment of the public school
teachers and the principals in the implementation of K to 12 curriculum.

Statement of the problem

This study aimed to determine the educators’ perspectives on the implementation of


the K to 12 in selected public schools in Jones, Isabela. More specifically, it sought to
answers to the following questions:

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender, academic
rank, educational attainment, civil service eligibility, and no of years in service?
2. What is the extent of implementation of K to 12 Curriculum to the Administrators
and teachers?
3. What are effect of K to 12 Curriculum in terms of management and classroom set
up?
4. How the group of respondents differ in their perception regarding the extent of
implementation of K to 12 Curriculum?
5. What are the benefits due to the K to 12 Curriculum as perceived by the
Administrators and Teachers?
6. What are the problems met and recommendation policy options to improve the
implementation of K to 12 Curriculum?
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7. Is there a significant difference between the assessment of the public school teachers
and the administrators in the implementation of K to 12 program?

Hypotheses or Assumption of the Study

The following null hypothesis was tested in this study: There is no significant
difference between the assessment of the public school teachers’ and the school heads in the
implementation of the K to 12 curriculum.

Conceptual Framework

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT


Respondents’ Profile Methods Identify if there is
or there is no significant
 Age  Floating of difference between the
questionnaires assessment of the public
 Gender
 T-test school teachers and the
 Educational Attainment  Descriptive School heads in the
method implementation of K to
 Academic Rank 12 Curriculum.
 Civil Service Eligibility
 No of years in Service

Feedback

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The topics of this study include only the perception of the respondent in the

implementation of K to 12 Program in selected public schools in Jones, Isabela. .


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The respondents of the study were public teachers and school heads. On the other

hand, the time frame covered the school year 2018-2019.

Importance of the Study

This study is relevant because it will generally produce valuable and reliable data

and information to the following.

To the Parents. This study will voice out their concerns on the additional expenses

they would incur in educating their children.

To the Schools. The information they may get from this study may be used as basis

on the implementation of K to 12, along with the issues and concerns the school heads and

the teachers encountered on such implementation.

To the School Administrators. This study may also illustrate the same issues and

concerns they encounter along the implementation of K to 12 from which they may gather

ideas on how to synchronize the difficulties of the parents and their position as the

implementers of the new program.

To the Students. Their difficulties may be revealed in this study so that concerned

authorities may become aware.

Teachers. This study teaches them to demonstrate innovativeness by seeking further

professional growth and development that would enhance to further extent their

competencies deemed essential in coping with the new trends in the educational setting.
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To the future researcher. To provide a basis in conducting further research on the

similar studies.

Definition of Terms

To facilitate the readers’ understanding of the contents of this study, the researcher

included the operational and conceptual definition of the following terms:

Administrators. They are the principal who supported the implementation of the K
-12 program.

Curriculum refers to the overall content, taught in an educational system or a


course.

K to 12 Curriculim. As defined by Cruz (2010), refers to the most recently


implemented basic education curriculum signed into a law by the incumbent President
Benigno Aquino III through Republic Act 10533. The Filipino students are required to
undergo one year in Kindergarten, six years in primary school, four years in junior high
school and two years in senior high school.

Perception. It refers to the point of view of the respondents.

Questionnaire. A set of questions given to the respondents.

Research. It refers to the study conducted on the implementation of K -12 program.

Teachers. The educators who implement the K -12 program.

Trainings. The seminars that was conducted for the preparation of the
implementation of the K-12 program.

T-test. It is the statistical tool used to determine the significance between two groups.
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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter deals with the similarly conducted studies and literature cited for the
basis of the study.

1. Foreign Literature
Tan (2011) in his writings, pointed out important details about K to 12 . He
enumerated the four phases of the K to 12 Program as follows: Phase I refers to Laying the
Foundations, the goal of which is to finally implement the universal kindergarten (offered
since on S.Y. 2011—2012), and the "development of the (entire) program"; Phase II is that
of Modeling and Migration aimed to promote the enactment of the basic education law, to
finally start of the phased implementation of the new curriculum for Grades 1 to 4 and 7 to
10, and for the modeling of the senior high school; Phase III is Complete Migration, the goal
of which is to finally implement the Grades 11 and 12 or the senior high school, and to signal
the end of migration to the new educational system; and Phase IV is that of Completion of
the Reform aimed to complete the implementation of K to 12 education system. However,
during the new educational cycle, from 2016 to 2018, college enrolment could slow down
because of the entrance of the lower-year students to the new educational.

Harris (2008) averred that the school heads’ awareness of and sensitivity to the
contexts in which they employ their own value systems and authenticity as professional
educators and their approaches to supporting the professional development of staff, are
unquestionably the cornerstones of teacher professional learning in each school. Who
coordinates and resources whole-school professional development, and how, are insights
into the culture of the school. Collegial cultures opt for cooperative planning teams as a basis
for distributed forms of leadership. While decisions taken here result in a formal and
resourced program of professional development, the essence of true professional learning
resides more in the interrelationships and social networks that form among teachers within
and beyond the school.
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Sullivan (2011) conceptualized a new theory of enhancing teaching through using


research-informed strategies. This theory asserts that the enhancement procedure starts from
a review of assessment results which include both the previous student learning outcomes
and the test items in which they excelled, fared moderately or failed. From a review of test
results at different levels (national down to school or even classroom level) is manifested the
range of student responses to different test items which will serve as basis for curriculum
modifications. Sullivan pointed out the need to develop students’ abilities to work adaptively
– that is, enabling them to apply previous learning to current and relevant situations.

Turner (2010) cited the importance of strategic competence in guiding students to


effectively recognize, formulate and solve problems. This skill is characterized as selecting
or devising a plan or strategy to use mathematics to solve problems arising from a task or
context, as well as guiding its implementation.

Mazur (2009) suggested that a modification of traditional lectures is one way to


incorporate active learning in the classroom. An example is that of allowing students to
consolidate their notes by pausing three times for two minutes each during a 60-minute
lecture. This technique aims to provide the students time to reflect on what they have written
so that they will learn much more information.

Hughes (2009) asserted, “That the use of interactive assessment strategies along with
interactive instructional strategies in order to enhance student learning makes good
educational sense”. In fact, the two are inextricably linked to one another. The definition
formative assessment, for example, contains many “actions” that students and teachers can
take independently and collaboratively during the instructional process. The actions of the
students and teachers produce feedback that is used to make adjustments either in teaching,
in learning or in both and thereby, create successful interactive learning environments.

Assessment interactions between students and teachers occur when teachers gather
information about student learning. Such information help students better understand
concepts and principles and apply knowledge, not just learn facts. This type of assessment
interaction referred to as formative assessment is defined as follows: Formative assessment
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is a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust
ongoing teaching and learning to improve students’ achievement of intended instructional
outcomes (Council of Chief School State Officers, 2008). It is clear from this definition that
formative assessment is a process. It is a process that may employ tests or various other types
of assessments, but it may also employ interactive instructional strategies such as classroom
discussions, assignments, homework, quizzes, projects, investigations, electronic response
systems or oral questions to gauge and improve student learning.

Even when teachers employ interactive assessment strategies such as assignments or


examinations to determine what and how much students have learned, care must be taken so
that these strategies are effective in improving student learning. One reason that care must
be taken is because the feedback to students from teachers is often delayed – that is, the
feedback to students does not occur during the instruction. When students respond to
questions on an assignment or examination, they may not get feedback for several days or
weeks. Thus, by the time they receive feedback, they may have moved on to “learning” new
content. If understanding of the new content is dependent on understanding of the old
content, and if there were misunderstandings of the “old” content that were not addressed
immediately when it was presented, then the cumulative effect of misunderstandings coupled
with no corrective feedback could put students at risk of underperformance or even failure.
A second reason is that students generally focus on doing what is necessary to get the highest
grade possible on an assignment. Strategies used by students in this context may result in
very little learning. Should either of the above scenarios exist, the goal of improved student
learning would be compromised (Hughes, 2009).
On monitoring students’ participation, Kelchtermans, Piot & Ballet (2011) suggested
the use of daily drills and frequent diagnostic exercises to determine their strengths and
weaknesses. These activities also serve as a means of evaluating their performance. Further,
an analysis of their performance, specifically on written examinations, may be used as basis
or feedback to decide the need for integrating or modifying teaching strategies that would
help improve future results.
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The concept of school readiness, according to Rafoth, Buchenauer, Crissman and


Halko (2012), typically refers to the child’s attainment of a certain set of emotional,
behavioral, and cognitive skills needed to learn, work, and function successfully in school.
Unfortunately, this common philosophy of “ready for school” places an undue burden on
children by expecting them to meet the expectations of school. A more constructive way to
consider school readiness is to remove the expectations from the child and place those
expectations onto the schools and the families. Young children have wide ranging needs and
require support in preparing them for the high standards of learning they will face in
elementary school.

High (2012) cited that school readiness includes the readiness of the individual child,
the school’s readiness for children, and the ability of the family and community to support
optimal early child development. It is the responsibility of schools to be ready for all children
at all levels of readiness. Children’s readiness should become an outcome measure for
community-based programs, rather than an exclusion criterion at the beginning of the formal
educational experience.

As posited by Griffin (2008), in an attempt to address the difference in the school


readiness of certain groups of children, some policymakers advocate the provision of
kindergarten. Proponents of kindergarten argue that the time in these programs can be used
to increase pupils’ readiness at the first grade and beyond. They also point to studies that
show academic benefits of kindergarten participation through the end of the first grade.

2. Foreign Studies
In a case study on Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL), Sears & Hersh (2008)
found out that contextual teaching enables learning in which students employ their academic
understandings and abilities in a variety of in- and out-of-school contexts to solve simulated
or real world problems, both alone and with others. Activities in which teachers use
contextual teaching strategies help students make connections with their roles and
responsibilities as family members, citizens, students, and workers. Learning through and in
these kinds of activities is commonly characterized as problem based, self-regulated,
occurring in a variety of contexts including the community and work sites, involving teams
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or learning groups, and responsive to a host of diverse learners’ needs and interests. Further,
contextual teaching and learning emphasizes higher-level thinking, knowledge transfer, and
the collection, analysis, and synthesis of information from multiple sources and viewpoints.
CTL includes authentic assessment, which is derived from multiple sources, ongoing, and
blended with instruction.

McCulla (2011) points to the absolute primacy to teachers’ professional growth


through social networks in education and the informal mentoring relationships that often
result. This is of particular importance in succession from one career stage to the next. It is
through gaining access to these professional networks that informal mentoring relationships
are formed, which is just as important as the content of professional development programs.
Some of the conditions that can be seen to enable teacher professional growth and career
path progression might be summarized as follows: to be identified by school leaders as
having leadership potential, to be “nudged‟ forward to experience aspects of leadership
roles, to be given opportunities to lead both within the school and beyond, to be supported
in gaining access to professional networks locally and beyond the school, to be supported
and mentored in adopting leadership responsibilities, and to experience aspects of formal
leadership roles as the basis of capacity.

The educational research of Alzoubi and Rahman (2011) supports the foregoing . In
this study, they concluded that teachers training programs are necessary in order to upgrade
the teachers’ skills, knowledge and performance. Likewise, it is to enable them to be more
effective and innovative.

3. Local Literature
The Philippine Online Chronicles (2011) cited in one of its articles that K to 12 has
been met with criticism from youth and student groups, teachers, parents and the academic
community. The DepEd, for its part, appears determined to enact the program with its
proposed budget catering mostly to preparing the grounds for its eventual implementation.
The article also stressed that it is arguably one of the most drastic and controversial programs
of the Aquino administration. In the same article, the DepEd argues that the K-12 program
will be the solution to yearly basic education woes and the deteriorating quality of education.
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Critics, however, counteract that the education crisis needs to be addressed more
fundamentally and adding more school years would only exacerbate the situation. Further,
the following counter-arguments were presented in the same article:

First, K to 12 will solve the annual growing number of out-of-school youth.


Students and parents, however complain that it would be an added burden to poor families.
While public education is free, a political youth group estimates that a student would still
need an average of P20, 000 per school year to cover transportation, food, school supplies
and other schooling expenses. Also, based on the latest Family Income and Expenditure
Survey, families prioritize spending for food and other basic needs over their children’s
school needs. Two more years for basic education would inevitably translate to higher
dropout rate.

Second, the K-12 will address low achievement scores and poor academic
performance of elementary and high school students. DepEd says that the poor quality of
basic education is reflected in the low achievement scores of students. Results of the TIMSS
(Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study), however, negate the connection
of the number of years to the performance of students. According to results of the TIMSS,
the length of schooling does not necessarily mean better scores. In fact, some countries with
the same or shorter school cycle garnered the highest scores while those implementing the
K-12 model or more years of schooling got lower scores.

Third, the DepEd has enough resources to implement the K-12. Interestingly,
countries whose students got high scores in the TIMSS were the ones whose governments
allotted high public spending for education. Despite nominal increases in the total education
budget, the government has been spending less per capita on education. The real spending
per capita per day dropped to P6.85 in 2009. From 2001 to 2009, education’s portion in the
national budget has steadily decreased. This pales in comparison to neighboring countries –
Malaysia, 7.4 percent and Thailand, 4 percent. It is also lower than the four percent average
for all countries that were included in the World Education Indicators in 2006. The country
is also lagging behind its Asian counterparts in public expenditure on education as a
percentage of total public spending.
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Anakbayan spokesperson Charisse Banez, stated that “Even if you combine the
DepEd and SUCs (state college and universities) budgets, it will only equal to three percent
of the GDP, a far cry from the six percent GDFP-amount advocated by the United Nations.”
Former Education secretary Mona Valisno stated in a separated study that DepEd needs at
least P100 billion to fully address the shortage of 93,599 classrooms and 134,400 seats and
P63 million for textbooks and scholarships.

Anakbayan national chairperson Vencer Crisostomo,, said the newly signed law will
bring additional burden to parents and students who do not have funds for school expenses,
which may further lead to higher drop-out rates. “The K-12, unlike what Aquino is
promising, is not a solution to education and employment woes. Instead, it will further
worsen and deepen the problems,” He likewise said that the K to 12 program will also mean
the government's "abandonment of tertiary education," since students who finish the program
may already choose to work instead of going to college. “The K-12 aims to create cheaper,
more ‘exploitable’ labor. The program is to make sure more ‘semi-skilled’ youths enter the
labor force as early as 18 years old, which will make the unemployment problem worse,”(
Press Release, May 3, 2013).

Former Secretary Bro. Armin Luistro, for his part, said the K to 12 program will not
bring additional costs to Filipino parents and students, since the government will fund public
schools for the two more years in basic education. He added that his agency is currently
coordinating with the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) to discuss the possibility
of shortening college education in the country once the K to 12 program goes on full
implementation in 2016. Luistro also said that the K to 12 program will not discourage
students from pursuing tertiary education (Press Release, May 3, 2013).

The Philippine Star, October 14, 2010, Isagani Cruz summarized the pros and cons
on the K + 12 debate. The PROS included the following: enhancing the quality of basic
education in the Philippines is urgent and critical; the poor quality of basic education is
reflected in the low achievement scores of Filipino students, one reason of which is
inadequate instructional time; international test results consistently show Filipino students
lagging way behind practically everybody else in the world; the congested curriculum partly
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explains the present state of education since 12 years of education were crammed into 10
years; this quality of education is reflected in the inadequate preparation of high school
graduates for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education; most high school
graduates are too young to enter the labor force; the current (now previous) system also
reinforces the misperception that basic education is just a preparatory step for higher
education; the short duration of the basic education program also puts the millions of OFW’s,
especially the professionals, and those who intend to study abroad, at a disadvantage; and
the short basic education program affects the human development of the Filipino children.

On the other hand, the CONS are as follow: parents have to shell out more money
for the education of their children; the government does not have the money to pay for two
more years of free education, since it does not even have the money to fully support 10 years
in terms of classrooms, furniture and equipment, qualified teachers and error-free textbooks;
we can do in 10 years what everyone else in the world takes 12 years to do, as sustained by
the acceptance of Filipinos in prestigious graduate schools even with only ten years basic
education; as far as the curriculum is concerned, DepEd should fix the current (now
previous) subjects instead of adding new ones since the problem is the content and not the
length of basic education reflecting the concept that we need better instead of more
education; a high school diploma will not get anybody anywhere, because business firms
will not hire fresh high school graduates; every family dreams of having a child graduate
from college; while students are stuck in Grades 11 and 12, colleges and universities will
have no freshmen for two years thus a financial disaster for many private higher education
institutions; and the drop-out rate will increase because of the two extra years
(http://www.philstar.com retrieved April 2013).

An excerpt from (http://cianeko.hubpages.com retrieved April 2013) stated the


following: The implementation of the K- 12 education plan in the Philippine Basic Education
Curriculum is the key to our nation’s development. Though the government will face many
problems in the long run of the implementation of the program, there really is a need to
implement it because the enhancement of the quality of our education is very urgent and
critical. Implementation of K to 12 enables students to get sufficient instructional time to do
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subject- related tasks which makes them more prepared and well- trained on that subject
area. With the new curriculum, senior high school students can choose a field that they are
good at and that they are interested in. As a result, they will be equipped with the skills
needed for a specific job even without a college degree. At the age of 18, the age when they
graduate from high school, they will be employable and competitive already. Finally, with
K- 12, Filipino graduates will be automatically recognized as professionals abroad because
we are following the international education standard as practiced by all nations. There will
be no need to study again and spend more money in order to qualify to their standards. With
this, Filipino professionals who aspire to work abroad will not find a hard time in getting
jobs in line with their chosen field and will be able to help their families more in the
Philippines as well as the country’s economy with their remittances, property buying, and
creation of businesses.

The government’s K-12 program is a much-needed change for the country’s


education system. Through this program, people may expect better-trained citizens who
could be competitive with the knowledge and skills of people trained abroad (De los Santos,
2012).
Cabrera (2011) stated that school principals are the primary shapers of school culture
because they connect on a daily basis with other teachers, their students, and with parents.
The diverse perspectives on instructional practices gained from students and parents provide
teachers with rich, ongoing feedback. No school can improve unless it has a culture that
supports improvement, collaboration, and a shared vision for what it wants to achieve. An
evaluation system that focuses on collaboration among teachers and principals, reflective
practices among teachers, and students’ learning will have a positive effect upon a school’s
culture.

4. Local Studies
In his study, Tullao (2007) indicated that there is a need to upgrade human resources
through various forms of investment in human capital in order to reap the benefits of an
expanded global trade in services,. This upgrading process is intended not only to protect
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Filipino professionals from foreign competition but more importantly to build a strong
human resource infrastructure in the light of a globalized trading environment. Specifically,
the readiness to compete internationally should be viewed in terms of the ability of local
professionals to meet the standards and human resource requirements of foreign as well as
domestic companies.

Magno (2013) cited that teachers are one of the key elements in any school and
effective teaching is one of the key propellers for school improvement. This review is
concerned with how to define a teacher’s effectiveness and what makes an effective teacher.
It draws out implications for policymakers in education and for improving classroom
practice.

Dejarme (2008) suggested that in order for schools and universities to cope with new
innovations, they should keep at pace with the tempo of societal changes and technological
progress. The schools of today should participate in the educational and social revolution.
Thus, the curriculum in Philippine schools today has to be geared to the rapid societal
changes and the new responsibilities for the new breed of Filipinos. The three most important
sectors of society that give direct input to the improvement of the curriculum are the academe
(institutions), the government, and the industries (both public and private companies).

Katigbak (2011) concluded that the use of teaching methods is generally effective in
teaching, but its effectiveness depends much on the nature of the learners, the difficulty of
the lesson, the availability and adequacy of instructional materials, the teacher’s professional
qualities and the classroom climate. While instructional materials facilitate, accelerate and
make learning experiences more concrete, meaningful and enjoyable, thestudents’ level of
performance is still affected by the effectiveness of the teacher and the teaching methods. It
is measured through varied teacher-made tests.
Cabrera (2011) dwelt on the importance of training for teacher’s professional growth
and development, which in turn, enhances instruction. More specifically, her study found
out that school based training conducted by the DepEd contributed much in the teachers’
development of further competencies which they may use in their performance of
instructional functions.
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In terms of training for teacher’s professional development, the same researcher cited
the following tips designed to make training sessions more successful: Experienced,
enthusiastic mentors make excellent trainers. Consider bringing experienced mentors
together in a “mentor panel” to share their experiences with the trainees and stimulate
discussion. To keep the program interesting, trainers should not lecture at length but should
use a variety of learning techniques such as role playing, slides and films, and training
manuals. The training sessions should help the new mentors enhance their skills, as well as
learn new ones. During the practice sessions, new mentors should receive feedback on how
they are doing. The training site should be pleasant, conducive to learning, and centrally
located; refreshments should be provided. At the end of the sessions, the mentors should
complete a course evaluation form. This will help the program evaluate the training process
and determine ways in which it could be improved.
According to a study released by former Deputy Education Minister Abraham I.
Felipe and Fund for Assistance to Private Education (FAPE) Executive Director Carolina C.
Porio, as cited in Philippine Online Chronicles (2011), the DepEd’s arguments relative to K
to 12 are “impressionistic and erroneous” because there is no clear correlation between the
length of schooling and students’ performance. The said study shows that fourth graders
from Australia had respectable TIMSS scores despite having only one year of pre-schooling,
while Morocco (two years of pre-school), Norway (three years) and Armenia and Slovenia
(both four years) had lower scores than Australia. South Korea, which has the same length
of basic education cycle as the Philippines, was among the top performers in the TIMSS,
while those with longer pre-schooling (Ghana, Morocco, Botswana and Saudi Arabia, three
years) had lower test scores. In the high school level, Singapore which also has a four-year
high school cycle, got the highest score. Ironically, the Philippines got a lower score together
with countries that have longer high school cycles like South Africa, Chile, Palestine,
Morocco and Saudi Arabia.
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Chapter 3

Methods and Procedures

This chapter presents the method and procedures used in the study namely: (1)
research method (2) respondents of the study (3) data-gathering tools (4) data-gathering
procedures and (5) statistical treatment of the data gathered.

Research Method Used

This researcher used the descriptive method of research because it aims to describe
the educator’s perspective on the implementation of the K to 12 Curriculum.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents were the Teachers and the Administrator of the different schools of
the Municipality of Jones. The exact number was taken using simple frequency count and
percentage distribution.

Data-Gathering Tools

To gather the needed data in this study the researcher used questionnaires. These
consist of the profile of the respondents such as the age, civil status, academic rank,
educational qualifications, monthly salary, civil service eligibility, and no of years in
teaching. The second part was the perception of the respondents on the implementation of
the K to 12 Curriculum.

Data-Gathering Procedures

The researcher followed these steps in gathering the needed data in this study.
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1. A formal request letter was sought from the Principals from the different schools
of the Municipality of Jones to allow the researcher to conduct the study.
2. When the request letter was approved, the researcher went from one classroom
to another as well as the office of the Principal to float the questionnaires. They
made the respondents understand the instruction well upon giving the
questionnaires.
3. After accomplishing the questionnaires, the same were immediately collected by
the researcher which was retrieved 100%.
4. The researcher tabulated the results for a better understanding of the data.

Statistical treatment of Data

For an easy interpretation of the data, the researcher used the following statistical
tool.

1. Simple frequency count and percentage were used for nominal data, such as those in
the profile of the respondents.
2. To determine if there is or there is no a significant difference on the perception of the
teachers and administrators on the implantation of the K to 12 curriculum T test was
used with the following formula.
t Test. This method was used to test the null hypothesis of no significant
difference between the assessment of the public school and the schools heads on the
implementation of K to 12 curriculum.

X1 – X2

t= Sp² (1/N1 + 1/N2)

Where: T = Computed T Value

X1 = Greater Mean

X2 = Smaller Mean
20

N1 = Number of Cases in Variable 1

N2 = Number of Cases in Variable 2

To interpret the computed T value, the researchers will set the level of
significance at 0.01 and/or 0.05 level of significance for two-tailed or non-directional
test, with N1 + N2 – 2 degrees of freedom.
The conditions set in decision-making are as follow:
1. Accept Ho if computed T is less than tabular T; and,
2. Reject Ho if computed T is equal to or greater than tabular T.