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A Proposal Presented to

Faculty and staff




In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Course











Students have been making many excuses for them not to attend their class.

Some have valid reasons and some don't have. Many students don't attend their class

due to sickness and calamities and these kinds of reasons are excused for these

matters are unavoidable. Some students are just making reasons even if it is not true,

they don't attend their classes due to laziness or for the treason that they are not

interested to learn or they don't want their teacher, some students also don't attend

classes due to its difficulties.

In some observations parents doesn't even know that their children are not

attending their class for their children wears their school uniforms as they leave their

houses but they don't know that their friends are waiting for them. Some students

involved in fraternity that causes them not to attend their classes, some just want to

play or do the things they want to do all day. Being absent will surely affect their

grades or academic performances.

Previous researchers have argued that lecture attendance is a significant

facilitator of academic success Moore, et al (2008) that is there are disadvantages of

absenteeism; students who infrequently attend class are more likely to have poor

academic performance compared to ones who attend on a regular basis.

According to the university policies there are two types of absences which are

excused and unexcused absences. Excused absences are when the university gives

permission to a student for a certain period of time to be absent due to illness,

grievance and under compassionate grounds whereas unexcused absences are when

students intentionally absent themselves without valid reason and without permission

from the university. Researchers have tackled the question why students attend classes

and why they do. On their recent study on three South African Universities

Wadesango and Machingambi (2011) discovered that attendance is rampant among

students due to reasons such as; unfavorable learning conditions, uninteresting or

boring lectures, poor teaching strategies by lecturers (lecturer reads through slides-

they do not want to attend read aloud sessions), students think they can do self-study,

too much socializations, they had to catch up or there was a big test and assignment

coming up, part-time jobs to augment meagre bursaries granted by various sponsors

and poor relations why the lecturer and some absent themselves due to factors

beyond their control such as illness. Clearly some of these reasons are completely

valid and occur as a consequence of life circumstances, life events and the changing

profile of the student. However, a number of the reasons for absenteeism offered by

students appear to be quite trivial in nature and give rise to the question of how much

students actually value educational activities such as lectures and tutorials.


This study aims to know the factors that makes the students do not attend their

classes especially the grade 10 students from the chosen schools in Cordon, Isabela

School Year 2018-2019.

The following questions aims to support this topic:

1. What are the reasons why students are not attending their classes in terms


a. Problems

b. Laziness

c. Sickness

d. Weather Conditions

e. Not interested

f. Addiction to Gadgets

g. Difficulties in the Subject

h. Other reasons

2. What are the consequences from not attending classes?

3. How many subjects are not being attended in a day?

4. How often they are being absent on those subjects?


The importance of this study is focus to understand the collected

information on the main reason why students not attend their classes. Moreover, the

result of the study will be beneficial to the following:

STUDENT. The student would be able to go to school on time. They would

become more responsible. At the end of this study students would finally know why

absenteeism have been a major problem in the society.

TEACHERS. The teachers would be able to understand on why some students

skip classes and later on, help them. They could help each other in implementing

plans in helping students to go to school early.

THE RESEARCHERS. Through this study, the researchers would be able to

know the effects of tardiness and absenteeism of the students in different schools.

FUTURE RESEARCHERS. This study will benefit and help the future

researcher as their guide. They would be able to use these data to get the ideas and

references if they are planning to conduct the same study.


This study is focused on the factors affecting Grade 10 students from the

different schools in Cordon, Isabela for not attending their classes. Respondents for

this study is composed of a total of 75 randomly selected Grade 10 students, 25

students from each school and we will be using questionnaires/surveys as our tool in

gatheing our datas. The results of this study is applicable only to the respondents of

the study. The researchers considered working on this study to find out the factors that

makes students not to attend their classes.


Absent. not present or not attending or missing in a place.

Academic Performance. is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution

has achieved their short or long term education goals

Attendance. is the state or fact of existing, occurring or being present in a place

or thing.

Class. a group of students who are taught together.

Drop out. a person who has abandoned a course of study.

Grade. is a number representing the average value of the accumulated final

grades earned in courses over time.

Reasons. are causes, explanations for an action.

School. a place for educating children.

Student. is a person who is studying at a school.

Teachers. a person who teaches, especially in school.


This chapter contains related literature and studies from both foreign and local

sources that supports our study.


Absenteeism isn't just an epidemic odd to the universities, however to all public

and non-public schools in the developed and developing nations. A central supposition

in the learning process is that an individual students performance in an educational

environment is an essential for the students to grain from that condition


Absenteeism is rises because of lack of appropriate assets, deficiency of

educational staff, and tools in theoretical areas exercise in hospitals, in adequate

numbers of labs and shortage of clients to learners. Learner may also absent due to

some reasons like sickness, immediate death in the family, court directive, spiritual

observation, and school official work or action, hazardous climate surrounding, public

disaster, nonexistence of official conveyance, and interruption. (Joubert & De Villiers,


A research was led in the Minia University this investigation discovered that

affecting variables of truancy among the considered nursing students demonstrated

that the most remarkable mean scores were related with social factors, trailed by
assessment factor where implies (18.3=4.5, and 17.1=5.6, individually). Likewise, the

most minimal detailed was related with social(mean=8.9=3.2). This examination

assumed that the most widely recognized related factors in understudy nonappearance

were identified with showing factors including a deficiency of staff in the clinical

place, and absence of comprehension of the address content. (Abdelrahman &


The research was conducted by Baloyi between nursing at students at college of

nursing in Limpopo. The after effects of the investigation demonstrated thar nursing

understudies missing themselves from class because of parts of understudy focused

variables, for example when they need to get ready for examination (53.1% n=111);

and home-related components, most nursing understudies declared that they are truant

from class when there is passing of a relative (63.2%;n=132). With respect to related

components and understudy’s truancy. (Baloyi,2014).

In Tanzania, the consideration directed at Mblu nursing schools demonstrated

that the deficiency of clinical nursing staff may add to non-appearance of student

medical care takers within their instructions and learning. The clinical director and the

acting lady agreed that the lack of doctors' facility staff is trying for clinical educating,

which is the reason they requested that the coaches go to the healing center with the

understudies to help them. (Government of nursing schools in Tanzania, 2010).

A research was directed in University of Maidarugi, Nigeria to evaluate the

factors affecting absenteeism among nursing understudies. As per this investigation

many students do missing themselves from address and clinical postings. Sick

wellbeing, nursing a child, interest in different parts other than educational exercise

and transportation troubles are critical commuters to non- appearance (Chukwu et


At Hawassa University, Ethiopia an analysis was directed among theraputic

understudy and Health Science undergraduate student. The study was led to decide the

pervasiveness and reasons for absence among these understudy. The significant

reasons revealed by the investigation members for missing addresses were getting

ready for another examination, badly designed class plan, absence of interest for the

topic, dislike of showing style and the simplicity of understanding the topic without

direction (Desalegn et. al, 2014).

An inspection was furthermore held among medical understudy to survey the

reason of absenteeism. As per this consideration the principle reason adding to non-

appearance, for example, absence of topic premium, poor showing systems, ominous

learning condition, over the top socialization among understudies, low maintenance

occupations, sick wellbeing, restlessness and poor relations with speakers. What's

more, openness of address content as only slides, recordings and sound has their own

commitment to non- appearance (Sharmin, Azim, Choudhury and Kamrun, 2017).

It has been reported by Abdelrahman that the most communal related aspects in

student absenteeism will be associated to the teaching aspects including an shortage of

staff, and absences of thoughtful of the lecture contented (Abdelrahman and

Abdelkader, 2017). Desalegn identified that yhe primary causes revealed for

disappeared lectures was coming up with the another examination, inadequacy of

attention, moderator's teaching style and accessibility of lecture assessable of lecture

assessable (Desalegn et.al, 2014).

Chronic absenteeism and absence frequently start early. These become expected

and can be defined as unexcused absenteeism from school by a minor that outstrip the

number of deficiencies allowed by applicable school or college. Each school has its

own attending laws which postulate the age at which child must initiate school the

number of unexcused absences that establish absenteeism under the law (Thobakgale,


It was accounted for that few students may likewise have family commitments

which put extra requests on their opportunity. A few understudies have kids that

require childcare or have maturing guardians with medical issues. What's more, other

logical hazard factors have been connected to absenteeism. These elements

incorporate numerous detailed clasher at home and family petition, separate, kid self-

mind, tricky neighborhoods and abuse (Shellenbarger and Hoffman, 2016).

A study was directed by Blandul who expressed that fatigue in the learning

condition and insufficient learning atmosphere are key reasons why numerous

understudies miss university and in the end drop out. Poor learning atmosphere might

be connected to cruel and unbendable disciplinary practices, inflexible controls in

regards to class rehabilitation, school educational module not all around custom fitted

to an understudy’s individual needs or premiums, poor instructing and student-

instructor connection, distractedness to decent variety issues, and insufficient

participation administration practices (Blandul, 2013).

In the literature, there are many definitions within the scope of absenteeism. For

example, Lannegrand-Willerns et.al(2012) defined absenteeism as, "a student being

absent in school with or without an excuse." Robinson (2009) considered absenteeism

by describing behavior and defined it as "not attending the school with or without an

excuse, miss some classes or being late for class." Regardless of the reason for

absence, the fact is that the student who were absent with excuse, such as student

staying away from school for a long time due to health problems, have difficulty in

adapting when they return to school and may develop a habit of absenteeism without

excuse. In other words, when "absenteeism without a legitimate reason" is removed

from the scope of the problem, the disruption in children's learning process and other

problems that may be experienced in the future should not be ignored.


In a study of absenteeism of the students of LPU-Batangas, it disclosed several

reasons on absenteeism such as health reasons, financial concern, transportation

difficulties, peer pressure and no assignments. Students who are from nearby towns

take public transportation in going to school experience difficulties in arriving to their

classes on time, hence became late/tardy (Counseling and Testing Center LPU-

Batangas, 2008).

The study estimates that the national rate of chronic absenteeism is 10%, though

researchers suspect the rate is closer to 15%. That's 5 million to 7.5 million students

who are absent from 18-20 days of the school year.

Many factors affect the student performance in academic areas and one of these

is absenteeism. It takes place when students are already uneasy with the pleasures

coming in from their daily school activities.

When a student misses a day of school he/she must have lost the chance to hear

other, interpret and analyzing the lessons or joins the interaction w/in the class. This

loss is being rooted to two different causes and varying factors under these courses.

The inquiry might be a family situation or an individual problem. Then, under these

courses are the factors that contribute to a child's regular truancy. These may be

finance concerns, disabilities psychotic imbalance, poor school climate, family health,

transportation problems, drug and alcohol use, and differing community attitude

towards education. Attitude is one important building block of a person particularly

the students to achieve their aspirations successfully or sometimes experience

hopelessness and dejection (Balete, Batangas City, Phippines, 2016).



Newman Wadesango and Severino (2011) study was to investigate the extent of

student absenteeism in selected areas. Explore the reasons why student absent

themselves from classes and examine the implications of student absenteeism. The

study adopted the mixed methodology and used a survey research design as the

operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected by self-administered

questionnaires and interviews with the chosen students. The study revealed that

student absenteeism is rampant in the schools under study due to reasons such as: lack

of subject interest, poor teaching strategies by teachers, unfavorable learning

environment, too much socialization, and poor relations with the teachers. The study

also found an inverse relationship between student absenteeism and course

According (DonkaMirthecva, 2009) some studies show that student's attendance

or absenteeism is closely linked with good student’s health thus resulting to higher

academic achievements.

Absenteeism can have pronounced negative impacts on students of poverty

(Ready, 2010) and according (Balfane and Byrnes, 2012) absenteeism can reduce the

like hood of post-secondary enrollment.

High rates of unexcused absences have been linked to "school disengagement"

and lower academic achievement. (Gott tried, 2009) students with high number of

unexcused absences might be less motivated and supported at home then a student

with an equal number of exceed ones: Therefore, the reasons for school institutions

absences are related to the extent to which students learn.

Class attendance is likely to be substantially influenced by contextual factors

(Crede, Roch and Kiesecuyuks 2010) such as attendance norms of university

perceived difficulty of the class, characteristic of the instructors and whether students

can obtain lecture material online.

According (Chang and Romero, 2008, Moonie, Sterling, Figgs and Castro, 2008)

have identified chronic absenteeism as a persistent problem related to poor academic

performances and potential behavioral and development issues. There is general

agreement among researchers that being chronically absent places student at risk of

negative academic consequences.

Daniel RMarburger indicates that student performance is inversely correlated

with absenteeism. The author investigates the impact of enforcing an attendance

policy on absenteeism and student performance. The evidence suggests that an

enforced mandatory attendance policy significantly reduces absenteeism and

improves exam performances.


In a study entitled 'A Qualitative Research Study on School Absenteeism Among

College Students, Clores (2009) stated that absenteeism is an alarming problem for

administrators, teachers, parents, and the society, in general, as well as for the

students, in particular. It may indicate low performance of teachers, student's

dissatisfaction of the school service, or lack of or poor academic and non-academic

structures or policies that address the problems or factors influencing or reinforcing

this behavior. Parents financially burdened for having their children to stay longer in

the school, having to re-enroll them in subjects where they fail due to excessive


Another local study about truancy is a study entitled 'Addressing Truancy' (2012)

stated that regular attendance at school is important to the progress and success of

student. It is an important component in reaching the full benefit of studying for it

directly affects academic grades of the students. It is assumed that a student attending

classes regularly and on a consistent basis reaps education benefits such as

participating in class instruction, discussion and other related learning experiences. It

is also supposed to foster positive attitude, and exposes students to group interactions

with fellow students and teachers. It also stated that absenteeism on the other hand,

has long been identified as an educational, social and juvenile-issue worthy of public

and private attention. It has been linked to many problem behaviors in adolescence,

school failure, school dropout and juvenile delinquency among others. This is also an

indicator of other problems occurring for the youth including poverty, lack of family
cohesion, child abuse or neglect, community violence and behavioral and physical

health problems.


This part contains the relationship of the research from the previous literature

review and studies.

Absenteeism isn't just an epidemic odd to the universities, however to all public

and non-public schools in the developed and developing nations (Coelho, Fischer,

McKnight, Matteson and Schwartz, 2015). Learners may also absent due to some

reasons like sickness, immediate death in the family, court directive, spiritual

observation and school official work or action, hazardous climate surroundings,

public disaster, nonexistence of official conveyance and interruption (Joubert and De

Villiers, 2015). In Tanzania, the consideration directed at Mbulu Nursing School

demonstrated that deficiency of clinical nursing staff may add to non-appearance of

student medical caretakers within their instructions and learning.

According to (DonkaMirthecva, 2009) some studies show that student's

attendance or absenteeism is closely linked with good student’s health thus resulting

to higher academic achievements. Absenteeism can have pronounced negative

impacts on student’s poverty (Ready, 2010).



Student's Absenteeism




Weather Condition


This part explains the relationship between the dependent and independent

variables. It explains how the demographic profile, the interest, the weather conditions

and sickness became the independent variable and the student’s absenteeism became

the dependent variable.

The student's absenteeism became dependent to the student's demographic

profile, student's interest, weather condition and sickness because those are factors

that can cause absenteeism.


 There is a significant relationship between tardiness and absenteeism.

 The student's interest affect student's absenteeism.
 There is a significant relationship between weather condition and

 Sickness greatly affect absenteeism.



This study will use descriptive method. This is to assess demographic profile

such as age, sex and overall average. Descriptive research is a purposive process of

data gathering, analyzing and clarifying data about prevailing conditions, practices,

beliefs, process and cause-effect of such data.


Respondents of this study os composed of a total of 75 randomly selected Grade

10 students from 3 different chosen schools in Cordon Isabela which includes Diadi

Region High School (DRHS), Cagasat National High School- Annex (CNHS-Annex),

and Cagasat National High School.


The researchers have prepared questionnaires/survey papers for the respondents.

This questionnaire help us in gathering information about our topic. This can help us

in answering the questions we have in mind about the factors affecting the students

for not attending classes.


The material and instrument the researchers will use in gathering datas are

questionnaires. Questionnaires will be distributed to the target respondents but before

answering it, these will be a clear instruction from the researchers for better



This research entitled 'Factors Affecting Students for not Attending Classes' used

frequency and percentage to determine each student's demographic profile and their

reasons why they are not attending their classes which includes weather conditions,

sickness, problems, peer pressure, and etc. The formula is illustrated below:

% = (f/n) 100


% - is percentage

f - is frequency

n - is the total sample/respondents