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SURFACE CHEMISTRY

A. ADSORPTION
The accumulation of molecular species at the surface of a solid or liquid is termed as adsorption.
The molecular species or substance, which concentrates or accumulates at the surface is termed adsorbate
and the material on the surface of which the adsorption takes place is called adsorbent.

EXAMPLES OF ADSORPTION:

(i) If a gas like O2, H2, CO, Cl2, NH3 or SO2 is taken in a closed vessel containing powdered charcoal, the
pressure of the gas in the enclosed vessel decreases. The gas molecules are adsorbed at the surface of the
charcoal.
(ii) In a solution of an organic dye when animal charcoal is added the filtrate turns colourless. The molecules
of the dye are adsorbed on the surface of charcoal.

TYPES OF ADSORPTION:

PHYSICAL ADSORPTION OR PHYSISORPTION:

If adsorption occurs because of weak van der Waals’ forces, the adsorption is termed as physical adsorption
or physisorption.

CHEMICAL ADSORPTION OR CHEMISORPTION:

When the gas molecules or atoms are held to the solid surface by chemical bonds, the adsorption is termed
chemical adsorption or chemisorption.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHYSICAL ANS CHEMICAL ADSORPTION:

S.N. PHYSICAL ADSORPTION CHEMICAL ADSORPTION

1. It arises because of van der Waals’ forces. It is caused by chemical bond formation.

2. It is not specific in nature. It is highly specific in nature.

3. It is reversible in nature. It is irreversible.

4. It depends on the nature of gas. More easily It also depends on the nature of gas. Gases which can
liquefiable gases are adsorbed readily. react with the adsorbent show chemisorption.

5. Enthalpy of adsorption is low (20-40 kJ mol–1). Enthalpy of adsorption is high (80-240 kJ mol–1).

6. Low temperature is favourable for adsorption. It High temperature is favourable for adsorption. It
decreases with increase of temperature. increases with the increase of temperature.

7. No appreciable activation energy is needed. High activation energy is sometimes needed.

8. It increases with an increase of surface area. It too increases with an increase of surface area.
Therefore, a catalyst in powdered form is
much more effective than in crystalline form.

9. It results into multimolecular layers on It results into unimolecularlayer.


adsorbent surface under high pressure.
ADSORPTION ISOTHERM:
The graph, which shows variation in the amount of gas adsorbed by the adsorbent with pressure at constant
temperature, are termed as adsorption isotherm.

FREUNDLICH ADSORPTION ISOTHERM:

Freundlich gave an empirical relationship between the quantity of gas adsorbed by unit mass of solid
adsorbent and pressure at a particular temperature.

If we draw a graph between log x/m and log P it should be a straight line for verification. Since it is a straight
line therefore, this empirical relationship is verified.

ADSORPTION FROM SOLUTION PHASE:

In the case of adsorption from solution phase The extent of adsorption depends on the concentration of the
solute in solution according to the following relationship:

(C is the equilibrium concentration, i.e., when adsorption is complete).

APPLICATIONS OF ADSORPTION:
(i) Production of high vacuum
(ii) Gas masks
(iii) Control of humidity
(iv) Removal of colouring matter from solutions
(v) Heterogeneous catalysis
(vi) Separation of inert gases
(vii) In curing diseases
(viii) Froth floatation process
(ix) Adsorption indicators
(x) Chromatographic analysis

B. CATALYSIS:
Substances, which alter the rate of a chemical reaction without taking part in thereaction, are known as
catalysts, and the phenomenon is known ascatalysis.

PROMOTERS: The substances which can increase the activity of catalyst.

In this reaction iron is catalyst and Mo is promoter.

POISONS: The substances which can decrease the activity of catalyst. e.g. in Lindlar’s catalyst quinolone or
sulphur compounds act as poison.

(a) HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS:


When the reactants and the catalyst are in the same physical state it is called homogeneous catalysis.

(B) HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS:

When the reactants and products are in different physical state it is called heterogeneous catalysis.

ADSORPTION THEORY OF HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS:

The mechanism involves five steps:


(i) Diffusion of reactants to the surface of the catalyst.
(ii) Adsorption of reactant molecules on the surface of the catalyst.
(iii) Occurrence of chemical reaction on the catalyst’s surface through formation of an intermediate.
(iv) Desorption of reaction products from the catalyst surface, and thereby, making the surface available
again for more reaction to occur.
(A) ACTIVITY:
The activity of a catalyst depends upon the strength of chemisorptions to a large extent. It is ability to
increase rate of a chemical reaction.

(B) SELECTIVITY:
The selectivity of a catalyst is its ability to direct a reaction to yielda particular product.

SHAPE-SELECTIVE CATALYSIS:

The catalytic reaction that depends upon the pore structure of the catalyst and the size of the reactant and
product molecules is called shape-selective catalysis.

Zeolites are shape selective catalysts.


Zeolites are being very widely used as catalysts in petrochemical industries for cracking of hydrocarbons and
isomerisation.
e.g. ZSM-5. It converts alcohols directly into gasoline (petrol) by dehydrating them to give a mixture of
hydrocarbons.

ENZYME CATALYSIS:

The phenomenon, in which enzymes are the catalyst for a reaction, is called enzyme catalysis.
Enzymes are protein molecules of high molecular mass and catalyse numerous reactions that occur in the
bodies of animals and plants.
The enzymes are, thus, termed as biochemical catalysts and the phenomenon is known as biochemical
catalysis.

SPECIFIC ENZYMES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS:

S.N. ENZYME FUNCTION


1. Invertase Sucrose → Glucose and fructose
2. Zymase Glucose →Ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide
3. Diastase Starch →Maltose
4. Urease Urea →Ammonia and carbon dioxide
5. Maltase Maltose →Glucose
6. Pepsin Proteins →Amino acids
MECHANISM OF ENZYME CATALYSIS:
It is also called key - lock theory.

The enzyme-catalysed reactions proceed in two steps.

Step 1: Binding of enzyme to substrate to form an activated complex.


E + S →ES*

Step 2: Decomposition of the activated complex to form product.


ES*→ E + P

CHARACTERISTICS OF ENZYME CATALYSIS:

(i) Most highly efficient: One molecule of an enzyme may transform one million molecules of the reactant
per minute.
(ii) Highly specific nature: One catalyst cannot catalyse more than one reaction. For example, the enzyme
urease catalyses the hydrolysis of urea only.
(iii) Highly active under optimum temperature: At optimum temperature (310 K) enzyme activity is
highest.
(iv) Highly active under optimum pH: optimum pH is between pH values 5-7.
(v) Increasing activity in presence of activators and co-enzymes: A small non-protein (vitamin) present
along with an enzyme is called co-enzyme which increases its activity.Activators are generally metal ions
such as Na, Mn+, Co+2, Cu +2.
(vi) Influence of inhibitors and poisons: The inhibitors or poisons interact with the active functional groups
on the enzyme surface and reduce or completely destroy the catalytic activity of the enzymes.

CATALYSTS IN INDUSTRY:

S.N. PROCESS CATALYST


1. Haber’s process for the manufacture of ammonia Finely divided iron, molybdenum as
Promoter

2. Ostwald’s process for the manufacture of nitric Platinised asbestos


acid.

3. Contact process for the manufacture of sulphuric Platinised asbestos or vanadium


acid. pentoxide (V2O5)
C. COLLOIDS
The solutions in which diameter range of particles is between 1 and 1000 nm(10–9 to 10–6 m)

CLASSIFICATION OF COLLOIDS:

A. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON TYPE OF PARTICLES OF THE DISPERSED PHASE:

(I) MULTIMOLECULAR COLLOIDS:


The colloidal solution in which a large number of atomsor smaller molecules of a substance aggregate together
to form species having size in the colloidal range it is called multimolecular colloid.

For example, a gold sol may contain particles of various sizes having many atoms.
Sulphur sol consists of particles containing a thousand or more of S8 sulphur molecules.

(II) MACROMOLECULAR COLLOIDS:


The solutions in which the size of the macromolecules may be in the colloidal range. Such systems are called
macromolecular colloids.
Examples are starch, cellulose, proteins and enzymes; and those of man-made macromolecules are polythene,
nylon, polystyrene, synthetic rubber, etc.

(III) ASSOCIATED COLLOIDS (MICELLES): There are some substances whichat low concentrations behave as
normal strong electrolytes, but athigher concentrations exhibit colloidal behaviour due to theformation of
aggregates.
The aggregated particles thus formed arecalled micelles. These are also known as associated colloids.

CLASSIFICATION BASED ON PHYSICAL STATE OF DISPERSEDPHASE AND DISPERSION MEDIUM:


CLASSIFICATION BASED ON NATURE OF INTERACTION BETWEEN DISPERSED PHASE ANDDISPERSION
MEDIUM:

(I) LYOPHILIC COLLOIDS:

Colloidal sols directly formed by mixing substances like gum, gelatine, starch, rubber, etc., with a suitable
liquid (the dispersion medium) are called lyophilic sols.
These sols arealso called reversible sols.

(II) LYOPHOBIC COLLOIDS:These cannot be formed by simple mixing with the dispersion medium. Their
colloidal sols can be prepared only by special methods. Such sols are called lyophobic sols.
These sols are readilyprecipitated (or coagulated) and hence, are not stable. To make them stable some
chemicals are used called stabilizer.
These solsare also called irreversible sols.

MECHANISM OF MICELLE FORMATION:


Soap is sodium or potassiumsalt of a higher fatty acid. and may be represented as RCOO–Na+.
When dissolved in water, it dissociates into RCOO–and Na+ ions.
The RCOO– ions consist of two parts —
(i) A longhydrocarbon chain R (also called non-polar ‘tail’) which is hydrophobic.
(ii) A polar group COO– (also called polar-ionic ‘head’),which is hydrophilic.

(a) The RCOO– ions are, therefore,present on the surface with their COO–groups in water and the
hydrocarbonchains R staying away from it andremain at the surface.

(b) At critical micelle concentration, (CMC)the anions arepulled into the bulk of the solution andaggregate
to form a spherical shapewith their hydrocarbon chains pointingtowards the centre of the sphere withCOO–
part remaining outward on thesurface of the sphere. This is known as ‘ionicmicelle’.
PREPARATIONOF COLLOIDS:

(A) CHEMICAL METHODS:

(B) ELECTRICAL DISINTEGRATION OR BREDIG’S ARC METHOD:

This process involves dispersion as well as condensation. In this method, electric arc is struck between
electrodes of the metal immersed in the dispersion medium The intense heat produced vapourises the metal,
which then condenses to form particles of colloidal size.
Colloidalsols of metals such as gold, silver, platinum, etc., can be prepared by this method.

(C) PEPTIZATION:
Peptization may be defined as the process of converting a freshly prepared precipitate into colloidal sol
by adding a small amount of electrolyte.
The electrolyte used for this purpose is called peptizing agent.

PURIFICATION OF COLLOIDAL SOLUTIONS:


The process used for reducing the amount of impurities to a requisite minimum is known as purification of
colloidal solution.
(I) DIALYSIS:

It is a process of removing a dissolved substance from a colloidal solution by means of diffusion through a
suitable membrane.

(II) ELECTRO-DIALYSIS:

The process of dialysis can be made faster by applying an electric field if the dissolved substance in the impure colloidal
solution is only an electrolyte. The process is then named electrodialysis.

(III) ULTRAFILTRATION:
Ultrafiltration is the process of separating thecolloidal particles from the solvent and soluble solutes present
inthe colloidal solution by ultra filter papers whichhave small pore size andpermeable to all substances
except the colloidal particles.

An ultra-filter paper may be prepared by soaking the filter paper in a colloidion solution,hardening by
formaldehyde and then finally drying it.

The usual colloidion is a 4% solution of nitrocellulose in a mixture of alcohol and ether.

PROPERTIESOF COLLOIDALSOLUTIONS:

(I) COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES:


The values of colligative properties are of small order as compared to values shown by true solutions at
same concentrations.

(II) TYNDALL EFFECT:


Scattering of light due to colloidal particle which makes the path of light visible is called Tyndall effect.

Tyndall effect is observed only when the following twoconditions are satisfied.
(i) The diameter of the dispersed particles is not much smaller thanthe wavelength of the light used.
(ii) The refractive indices of the dispersed phase and the dispersionmedium differ greatly in magnitude.
(III) COLOUR:

*The colour of colloidal solution depends on the wavelength of light scattered by the dispersed particles.
*The wavelength of light further depends on the size and nature of the particles.
*Finest gold sol is red (longer wavelength) in colour as the size of particles increases, it appears purple, then
blue (shorter wavelength) and finally golden.
*The colour of colloidal solution also changes with the manner in which the observer receives the light. For
example, a mixture of milk and water appears blue when viewed by the reflected light and red when viewed
by the transmitted light.

(IV) BROWNIAN MOVEMENT:

The continuous zig-zag motion of colloidal particles is called Brownian movement. It is due to the unequal
bombardment of the colloidal particles by the particles of dispersion medium. The Brownian movement does
not permit the particles to settle and thus, is responsible for the stability of sols.

(V) CHARGE ON COLLOIDAL PARTICLES:

Colloidal particles always carry an electric charge. The nature of this charge is the same on allthe particles
The charge on the sol particles is due to preferential adsorption of ions from solution and/or dueto
formulation of electrical double layer.

When silver nitrate solution is added to potassium iodide solution, the precipitated silver iodide
adsorbs I-ions from the dispersion medium and negatively charged colloidal solution results.
However, when KI solution is added to AgNO3 solution, positively charged sol results due to
adsorption of Ag+ ions from dispersion medium.

If FeCl3 is added to excess of hot water, a positively charged sol of hydrated ferric oxide is formed due
to adsorption of Fe3+ ions. However, when ferric chloride is added to NaOH a negatively charged sol is
obtained with adsorption of OH- ions.

ZETA POTENTIAL:

The potential difference between the fixed layer and the diffused layer of opposite charges is called the
electro kinetic potential or zeta potential.

(VI) ELECTROPHORESIS:

The movement of colloidal particles under an applied electric potential is called electrophoresis.
Prolonged electrophoresis leads to coagulation.
When electrophoresis, i.e., movement of particles is prevented by some suitable means, it is observed that the
dispersion medium begins to move in an electric field. This phenomenon is termed electro-osmosis.

(VII) COAGULATION OR PRECIPITATION:

The process of settling of colloidal particles is called coagulation or precipitation of the sol.

(I) BY ELECTROPHORESIS:
The colloidal particles move towards oppositely charged electrodes, get discharged and precipitated.

(II) BY MIXING TWO OPPOSITELY CHARGED SOLS:


Oppositely charged sols when mixed in almost equal proportions, neutralise their charges and get partially or
completely precipitated.
For example Mixing of hydrated ferric oxide (+ve sol) and arsenious sulphide (–ve sol).

(III) BY BOILING:

When a sol is boiled, the adsorbed layer of charge is disturbed due to increased collisions with the molecules
of dispersion medium and coagulation takes place.

(IV) BY PERSISTENT DIALYSIS:

On prolonged dialysis, traces of the electrolyte present in the sol are removed almost completely and the
colloids coagulate.

(V) BY ADDITION OF ELECTROLYTES:

When excess of an electrolyte is added, the colloidal particles are precipitated because of neutralisation of
charge.

HARDY-SCHULZE RULE:

The greater the valence of the flocculating ion added, the greater is its power to cause precipitation.

For example:
In the coagulation of a negative sol, the flocculating power is in the order:
Al3+>Ba2+>Na+
Similarly, in the coagulation of a positive sol, the flocculating power is in the order:
[Fe(CN)6]4–> PO43–> SO42–> Cl–

The minimum concentration of an electrolyte in millimoles required to cause precipitation of one


liter sol is called coagulating value.
PROTECTION OF COLLOIDS:
Lyophilic sols are more stable than lyophobic sols because lyophilic colloids are extensively solvated, i.e.,
colloidal particles are covered by a sheath of the liquid in which they are dispersed.

When a lyophilic sol is added to the lyophobic sol, the lyophilic particles form a layer around lyophobic
particles and thus protect the lyophobic sol from electrolytes. Lyophilic colloids used for this purpose are
called protective colloids.

EMULSIONS:
Colloidal solution in which dispersion medium and dispersed phase both are liquid is known as emulsion.

There are two types of emulsions.


(I) OIL DISPERSED IN WATER (O/W TYPE):

The emulsion in which water acts as dispersion medium and oil acts as dispersed phase.
Examples: Milk and vanishing cream.

(II) WATER DISPERSED IN OIL (W/O TYPE):

The emulsion in which oil acts as dispersion medium and water acts as dispersed phase.
Examples: butter and cream.

EMULSIFYING AGENT:

A substance which is used for stabilisation of an emulsion is called emulsifying agent. The emulsifying
agent forms an interfacial film between suspended particles and the medium.

Examples:
Emulsifying agents for O/W emulsions are proteins, gums, natural and synthetic soaps, etc., and for W/O,
heavy metal salts of fatty acids, long chain alcohols, lampblack, etc.

Emulsions can be broken into constituent liquids by heating, freezing, centrifuging, etc.

COLLOIDS AROUND US:

(I) BLUE COLOUR OF THE SKY:


Dust particles along with water suspended in air scatter blue light which reaches our eyes and the sky looks
blue to us.

(II) FOG, MIST AND RAIN:


The moisture from the air condenses on the surfaces of dust particles forming fine droplets.
These droplets being colloidal in nature continue to float in air in the form of mist or fog.
When the colloidal droplets of water grow bigger and bigger in size, till they come down in the form of rain.

Artificial rain can be caused by throwing electrified sand or spraying a sol carrying charge opposite to
the one on clouds from an aeroplane.

(III) FOOD ARTICLES:


Milk, butter, halwa, ice creams, fruit juices, etc., are all colloids.

(IV) BLOOD:
It is a colloidal solution of an albuminoid substance.
Ferric chloride and alum are used to stop bleeding because Fe3+ and Al3+ ions are effective to
coagulate negative sol i.e. blood.
(V) SOILS:
Fertile soils are colloidal in nature in which humus acts as a protective colloid. Because of colloidal nature,
soils adsorb moisture and nourishing materials.

(VI) FORMATION OF DELTA:


River water is a colloidal solution of clay. When river water meets the Sea water, the electrolytes present in
sea water coagulate the colloidal particles of clay resulting in its deposition to form delta.

APPLICATIONS OF COLLOIDS:

(I) ELECTRICAL PRECIPITATION OF SMOKE (COTTRELL SMOKE PRECIPITATOR):


Smoke contains solid particles such as carbon, arsenic compounds, dust, etc., in air. The smoke is passed
through Cottrell smoke precipitator fitted at the chimney containing plates having a charge opposite to the
charge of smoke particles. The particles on coming in contact with these plates lose their charge and get
precipitated.

(II) PURIFICATION OF DRINKING WATER:


The water obtained from natural sources contains suspended impurities. Alum is added to such water to
coagulate the suspended impurities and make water fit for drinking purposes.

(III) MEDICINES:
Colloidal medicines are more effective because they have large surface area and are therefore easily
assimilated.
For example, argyrol is a silver sol used as an eye lotion. Colloidal antimony is used in curing kalaazar.
Colloidal Gold is used for intramuscular injection. Milk of Magnesia is used for stomach disorders.

(IV) TANNING: Animal hides are colloidal in nature and have positively charged particles. When it is soaked
in tannin, containing negatively charged colloidal particles, mutual coagulation takes Place. This results in the
hardening of leather. This process is termed as tanning.
Chromium salts are also used in place of tannin.

(VI) PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATES AND FILMS:


Photographic plates or films are prepared by coating an emulsion of the light sensitive silver bromide
in gelatin over glass plates or celluloid films.

(VII) RUBBER INDUSTRY: latex is a colloidal solution of negatively charged rubber particles. Rubber is
obtained by coagulation of latex.

(VIII) INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS: Paints, inks, synthetic plastics, rubber, graphite lubricants, cement, etc., are
all colloidal solutions.

SURFACTANTS:
These are surface active agents which lower the surface tension of water. Examples: soaps and detergents.
BOARD QUESTIONS

SURFACE CHEMISTRY

1. Write the differences between physisorption and chemisorption with respect to


the following: (i) Specificity (ii) Temperature dependence (iii) Reversibility and
(iv) Enthalpy change

2. Write the dispersed phase and dispersion medium of the following colloidal
systems: (i) Smoke (ii) Milk

3. What are lyophilic and lyophobic colloids? Which of these sols can be easily
coagulated on the addition of small amounts of electrolytes?

4. What happens when a freshly precipitated Fe(OH)3 is shaken with water


containing a small quantity of FeCl3?

5. Why is a finely divided substance more effective as an adsorbent?

6. Write two differences between lyophobic and lyophilic sols. Give one example of
each type of sol.

7. In reference to Freundlich adsorption isotherm write the expression for


adsorption of gases on solids in the form of an equation.

8. Write an important characteristic of lyophilic sols.

9. Based on type of particles of dispersed phase, give one example each of associated
colloid and multimolecular colloid.

10. Give one example each of lyophobic sol and lyophilic sol. Which one of these two
types of sols is easily coagulated and why?

11. Why is adsorption always exothermic?

12. What is the effect of temperature on chemisorption?

13. What are the dispersed phase and dispersion medium in milk? What types of
forces are responsible for the occurrence of physisorption?

14. Based on the type of dispersed phase, what type of colloid are micelles?

15. Name the temperature above which the formation of micelles takes place.
16. Write the expression for the Freundlich adsorption isotherm for the adsorption of
gases on solids, in the form of an equation.

17. What are the dispersed phase and dispersion medium of butter?

18. A delta is formed at the meeting place of sea and river water. Why?

19. What are emulsions? What are their different types? Give one example of each
type.

20. Give one example each of ‘oil in water’ and ‘water in oil’ emulsion.

21. Write the dispersed phase and dispersion medium of the following colloids:
(i) Cheese (ii) Fog

22. Of physisorption or chemisorption, which has a higher enthalpy of adsorption?

23. What are the characteristics of the following colloids? Give one example of each:
(i) Multimolecular colloids (ii) Lyophobic sols (iii) Emulsions

24. Define the following terms giving an example of each: (i) Associated colloids (ii)
Lyophilic sol (iii) Adsorption

25. What is especially observed when a beam of light is passed through a colloidal
solution?

26. Define the following terms with an example in each case: (i) Macromolecular sol
(ii) Peptisation (iii) Emulsion

27. What is the difference between multimolecular and macromolecular colloids?


Give one example of each.

28. What is the difference between oil/water (O/W) type and water/oil (W/O) type
emulsions? Give an example of each type.

29. Present a classification of colloids where dispersion medium is water. State the
characteristics and one example of each of these classes.

30. Differentiate among a homogeneous solution, a suspension and a colloidal


solution, giving a suitable example of each.

31. What is meant by ‘shape selective catalysis’?


32. Define the following terms giving one suitable example for each:

(i) Electrophoresis (ii) Micelles (iii) Peptization

33. What causes Brownian movement in a colloidal solution?

34. What is observed when:

(i) an electrolyte, KCl, is added to a hydrated ferric oxide sol.


(ii) an electric current is passed through a colloidal solution.
(iii) a beam of strong light is passed through a colloidal solution.

35. How are the following colloids different from each other in respect of their
dispersion medium and dispersed phase? Give one example of each.
(i) Aerosol (ii) Emulsion
(iii) Hydrosol

36. Classify colloids where the dispersion medium is water. State their characteristics
and write an example of each of these classes.

37. Which aerosol depletes ozone layer?

38. Why is finely divided substance more effective as an adsorbent?

39. Explain how the phenomenon of adsorption finds application in each of the
following processes:
(i) Production of vacuum
(ii) Heterogeneous catalysis
(iii) Froth floatation process

40. Define each of the following terms:


(i) Micelles
(ii) Peptization
(iii) Desorption

41. Explain how to phenomenon of adsorption finds application in the following


processes:
(i) Production of vacuum (ii) Heterogeneous catalysis

42. Define the following terms:


(i) Aerosol
(ii) Coagulation of colloids
(iii) Tyndall effect
(iv) dialysis
(v) electrophoresis

43. example of each group with the chemical equation involved.


44. What is meant by coagulation of a colloidal solution? Describe briefly any three
methods by which coagulation of lyophobic sols can be carried out.

45. What is the difference between oil/water (O/W) type and water/oil (W/O) type
emulsions? Give an example of each type.

46. Write cleansing action of soap. Why do soap do not work in hard water?

47. Which aerosol depletes ozone layer?

48. What is the effect of temperature on chemisorption?

49. Name the temperature above which the formation of micelles takes place.

50. Based on the type of dispersed phase, what type of colloid are micelles?

51. Write the main reason for the stability of colloid.

52. Define the following terms giving an example of each:


(i) Associated colloids (ii) Lyophilic sol
(iii) Adsorption

53. What are the characteristics of the following colloids? Give one example of each:
(i) Multimolecular colloids
(ii) Lyophobic sols
(iii) Emulsions

54. Explain what is observed when

(a) an electric current is passed through a sol.


(b) a beam of light is passed through a sol.
(c) an electrolyte (say NaCl) is added to ferric hydroxide sol.