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6/17/97

MATH 152 { Section C.1


Homework 4
Sections 8.1, 10.1
SOLUTIONS

x8.1 #18. Find an equation of the curve that passes through the point (1 1) and whose slope at ;

(x; y ) is 2
y =x
3.

Solution. We simply want to solve the initial value problem:


2
dy

dx
= y

x
3 y (1) = 1
First, we solve the part with the di erential equation.
2
dy

dx
= y

x3
dy

y2
= dx

x
3
Z Z
y
,2 dy = x
,3 dx

, y
,1= , 12 ,2 + x C

1 = 1 ,
y 22 x
C

= 1
y
1
2x2 , C

= 1,2 2x2
Cx 2
Then, we plug in (1 1). ;

1 = 1 , 22  1  12 = 1 ,22
2
C C

1,2 = 2
C

= , 21
C

So, plugging C back into the equation,


2
y = 1 2+ 2 x

x
:

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1
6/17/97
Homework 4
x8.1 #30. A tank contains 1000 L of pure water. Brine that contains 0.05 kg of salt per liter of
water enters the tank at a rate of 5 L/min. Brine that contains 0.04 kg of salt per liter of water
enters the tank at a rate of 10 L/min. The solution is kept thoroughly mixed and drains from the
tank at a rate of 15 L/min. How much salt is in the tank (a) after minutes and (b) after one t

hour?

Solution. (a) We have the usual equation:


dS

dt
= (rate in) , (rate out) ;

where ( ) is the amount of salt in the tank at time . The rate in is given as
S t t

rate in = (0 05 kg/L)(5 L/min) + (0 04 kg/L)(10 L/min) = 13


: :
20 kg/min :

But, the rate out depends on the amount of salt already in the tank. Note that the total amount
of water owing in and owing out is the same. Thus, there will always be 1000 L of water in the
tank. So,  
rate out = 1000kgL (15L/min) = 200
S 3 kg/min S
:

We also have that at the initial time (0) = 0 because pure water contains no salt. Therefore, we
S

need to solve the initial value problem:


dS , 3 (0) = 0
= 130200 S
S
dt

First, we solve the part with the di erential equation.


dS,3
= 130200 S

dt

130 , 3 = 200 Z
dS dt

S
Z
(130 , 3 ),1 S
1
= 200
dS dt

, 13 ln j130 , 3 j = 200
1 +
S t C

S
3 ,
ln j130 , 3 j = , 200 t C

j130 , 3 j = ,C ,3t=200
S e e (1)
Since the right hand side of Equation(1) is positive, then 130 , 3 can never be 0. This is because
S

if 130 , 3 = 0 then there is some for which ,C ,3t = 0, which is impossible.


S t e e

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2
6/17/97
Homework 4
Since the right hand side of Equation (1) is continuous, then the left hand side is continuous
and so, if 130 , 3 is not the same sign for all , then it must be 0 for some which is impossible
S t t

by the argument above. Therefore, 130 , 3 is always the same sign. Since 130 , 3 (0) = 130 0,
S S >

130 , 3 is always positive and so, 130 , 3 = j130 , 3 j. Thus, we take Equation (1) and
S S S

j130 , 3 j = ,C ,3t=200
S e e

130 , 3 = ,C ,3t=200
S e e

3 = 130 , ,C ,3t=200
S e e
,C
S= 130 3 , 3
,3t=200 e
e (2)
We substitute = 0 and = 0 into Equation (2) and obtain:
S t

,C
0 = 1303 , 3
,30=200 e
e

130 = ,C e

3 3
130 = C , e :

We do not need to solve for itself, solving for ,C is just ne. Therefore, we have
C e

S = 130
3 , 3
130 ,3t=200 e


= 130
3 1 , ,3t=200 e (3)
 
,3t=200 kg of salt is in the tank.
So, after minutes, 130
t
3 1, e

(b) One hour is 60 minutes, so we plug in = 60 and get


t
 
(60) = 130
S
3 1 , ,180=200  25 72 kg
e :

x10.1 #30. Determine whether the sequence converges or diverges. If it converges, nd the limit.

ln(2 + n )  e

3 n

We just look at the function ln(23+ ) and apply L'Hopital's rule.


x e
Solution.
x

lim ln(2 + x ) L=0 H lim (2 + x ),1 x


e e e

x!1 3
x x!1 3

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3
6/17/97
Homework 4

lim ln(2 + x ) = 1 lim x e e

x!1 3 3 x!1 x + 2
x e
:

We can proceed two ways here. A second application of L'Hopital's rule gives that
x x
lim
x!1 e
x + 2 = xlim
e

!1
e

ex
= xlim
!1 1 = 1 :

We could also observe that


lim e
x
= lim 1 =1
x!1 ex +2 x !1 1 + 2 ,x e
:

In any case,
lim ln(2 + x ) = 1 e

x!1 3 3 x
:

By Theorem 2 on page 580, the sequence is convergent and


lim ln(2 + n ) = 1 e

n!1 3 3 n
:

x10.1 #46. Use a graph of the sequence to decide whether the sequence is convergent or divergent.
If the sequence is convergent, guess the value of the limit from the graph and then prove your guess.
(See the margin note on page 583 for advice on graphing sequences.)
pn n n
n = 3 +5
a

Solution.

8
7.5
7
6.5
6
5.5
5
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

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6/17/97
Homework 4
We observe that s 
pn
3n + 5n = 5 n 35
n
+1 :

 x 1=x  x
Now, we consider the function 35 + 1 . Observe limx!1 35 = 0 (because ,1 35 1) < <

and limx!1 x1 = 0. We can use the fact that if ( ) and ( ) have nite limits at in nity, then
f x g x

limx!1 ( )g(x) = [limx!1 ( )]limx!1 g(x). This gives


f x f x

 x
3 + 11=x =  lim  3 x + 1limx!1 1=x = 10 = 1
lim
x!15 x!1 5
:

But, this is not proven in this text which necessitates the work below.1 By Theorem 2 on page 580,
pn  n 1=n
lim = nlim 3
!1 3 + 5 = nlim
!1 5 +1 =5
n n
n!1 n
a
5 :

1
So, to work this out formally, we de ne f (x) as follows:
 3 x 1=x
( ) def
f x = 5  +1 
ln f (x) = x1 ln 35 + 1
x

 1   lim ln  3 x + 1 :
lim
x!1
ln f (x) = lim
x!1 x x!1 5
Note that ln x is a continuous function, therefore we can exchange the natural log and the limit. So,
 1  ln  lim  3 x + 1
lim
x!1
ln f (x) = lim
x!1 x x!1 5
= 0  ln(1) = 0:
Once again, we use the fact that natural log is continuous and obtain
 
ln xlim
!1 f (x) = 0
lim f (x) = e0 = 1
x!1

So, we have that  3 x 1=x


lim 5
x!1 5 +1 = 5: