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REPUBLIC ACT 9514

Revised Fire Code of the Philippines


DISCLAIMER:
Always double-check the values given in this document with
the actual laws. For corrections or clarifications, email
arch.pedrosantosjr@gmail.com.
Repealing clause
• RA 9514 repeals PD 1185 (the old Fire Code).
Outline of RA 9514
1. Interpretation
2. Coverage
3. Definition of terms
4. Authority of the BFP
5. Reorganization of the BFP
6. Fire brigades, safety practitioners
7. Assistance to the BFP
Outline of RA 9514
8. Fire safety enforcers
9. Enforcement and administration
10. Fire safety measures
11. Prohibited acts
12. Fire code taxes
13. Administrative courses of action
14. Miscellaneous provisions
Focus on three rules only
• Rule 3: Definition of terms
• Rule 9: Enforcement/admin, because:
– Inspections and evaluations
– FALAR
– FSIC
• Rule 10: Fire safety measures, because:
– Various design requirements
RULE 3
Definition of terms
Abatement
Any act that would remove or neutralize a fire hazard
Automatic fire
suppression system
An integrated piping system connected to a source
of extinguishing agent which suppressed fires when
actuated by its automatic detecting device
Fire marshall
The head of the City or the Municipal Fire Station
Standpipe system
A system of vertical pipes in a building to which fire
hoses can be attached on each floor
Fire alarm
Any visual or audible signal produced by a device or
system to warn a building’s occupants of the
presence of fire
Fire alerting system
A fire alarm system activated by the the presence of
fire where the signal is transmitted to designated
locations instead of sounding a general alarm
Fire wall
A wall designed to prevent the spread of fire, having a
fire resistance rating of not less than 4 hours with
sufficient structural stability to remain standing even
if construction on either side collapses under fire
conditions
Flame retardant
Any compound which when applied improves the
resistivity or fire resistance quality of a material
High-rise building
Buildings 15 meters or more in height
Means of egress
A continuous and unobstructed route of exit from
one point in a building to a public way
Occupancy
The purpose for which a building or space is used
Occupant load
The maximum number of persons that may be
allowed to occupy a particular building or space
Sprinkler system
A piping system integrated in a building with outlets
arranged in a systematic pattern which automatically
discharges water when activated by heat or fire
combustion products
Fire hazard
Any condition or act which increases the probability
of the occurrence of fire, or which may hinder or
interfere with fire-fighting operations
Fire trap
A building unsafe in case of fire because it will burn
easily or because it lacks adequate exits
Fire lane
The portion of a roadway that should be kept
unobstructed at all times for the expedient
operations of fire-fighting units
RULE 9
Enforcement of fire safety
measures
General enforcement
General enforcement
• Inspection of all buildings shall be done by
the Fire Marshall
• Fire Safety Inspection Cetrtificate (FSIC)
shall be a prerequisite for permits/licenses,
including:
– Occupancy permit
– Business permit
General enforcement
• The Fire Marshall and the Building Official
shall review designs/drawings and issue the
Fire Safety Evaluation Clearance (FSEC) if
the design is determined to be in accordance
with the Fire Code
Evaluation and
inspection
Building plan review
• Six sets of plans are sent from the Building
Official to the Fire Marshall for review
• A plan evaluator review the drawings
• Based on findings, the FSEC will either be
released or denied
• Note: FALAR 1 is required before plan review
Construction inspection
• The Fire Marshall shall conduct inspections
during construction to ensure that plans are
being followed
Inspection after completion
• The Fire Marshall needs to conduct another
inspection before the Building Official can
issue an occupancy permit
• When the Building Official receives an
application for occupancy permit, the Fire
Marshall shall be notified
Inspection after completion
• Fire Marshall conducts inspection
• If OK, the Fire Marshall issues the FSIC and
notifies the Building Official
• Note: FALAR 2 is required for issuance of
FSIC
Routine inspection
• Routine inspection
FALAR
What is the FALAR?
• Fire and Life Safety Assessment Report
• Three kinds:
– FALAR 1
– FALAR 2
– FALAR 3
The three FALARs
• FALAR 1: Documentation on safety features
of the facility
• FALAR 2: Documentation submitted by
contractor/CM certifying that construction
was in accordance with FALAR 1
• FALAR 3: Documentation of periodic
maintenance
FALAR applicability
• For all buildings:
– FALAR 1
– FALAR 2
• For buildings with occupant load of at least 50:
– FALAR 3 (annually)
FALAR 1
• Documentation on fire and life safety
features of the facility
• A written report prepared by the Architect
and his Fire Protection Consultant
• A compilation of plans and specs and design
analysis
FALAR 2
• Documentation submitted by
contractor/CM certifying that construction
was in accordance with FALAR 1
• A compilation report of all approved
submittals, test forms, acceptance forms
• Shall be included in the as-built documents
given by contractor to owner
FALAR 3
• Documentation of required periodic
maintenance and upkeep of facility
• Written report prepared by the building
owner, his fire safety officer
• A compilation of the maintenance and
testing records
FSEC
FSEC
• Fire Safety Evaluation Clearance
• Released once building plans and specs are
found to be in accordance with the Fire Code
• Required for building permits
FSIC
FSIC
• Fire Safety Inspection Certificate
• Certifies that the building was inspected and
was found to be OK
• Required for occupancy permits, business
permits, permits to operate, PHILHEALTH
accreditation for hospitals, DOH License to
Operate
Making sense of
everything
Scenario 1: Building permit
• You need a building permit, so you need an
FSEC.
• You need an FSEC, so you need a building
plan review.
• You need a building plan review so you
prepare FALAR 1 along with other
requirements (6 sets of drawings, etc.).
Scenario 2: Occupancy permit
• You’re done with construction so you need
an occupancy permit.
• You need an occupancy permit so you need
an FSIC.
• You need an FSIC so you need an inspection.
• You want them to release FSIC after
inspection so you prepare FALAR 2.
Scenario 3: Business permit
• You need to get/renew a business permit so
you need an FSIC.
• You need an FSIC so you need an inspection.
• You want them to release the FSIC after
inspection, so you prepare FALAR 3.
RULE 10
Fire safety measures
Means of egress
Means of egress
• A continuous, unobstructed route of exit
from any point in the building to a public
way
• Shall be integral or permanently affixed to a
building
• Minimum width: 915mm
Number of exits
• For any storey, mezzanine, balcony, etc:
– 0-499 occupant load: 2 exits
– 500-1000 occupant load: 3 exits
– 1000 or more: 4 exits
Travel distance to exits
• Depends on occupancy
• For individual rooms with max. O.L of 6:
– 15 meters from any point in the room
Discharge from exits
• Exits should terminate directly at a public
way or an exit discharge
– Exit discharge: Yards, courts, open spaces, etc.
• Exits that continue beyond the floor of
discharge: provide an interruption
Headroom
• Minimum of 2.00m
Doors
• Provide a self-closing mechanism for exit
doors
• Clear opening: 710mm-1220mm
• Maximum threshold height: 13mm
Panic hardware
• A mechanical device which when pushed
from the inside will cause the door to open
• Maximum required force: 7kg-f
• 2/3 the width of the door
• 760-112mm above the floor
Stairs
• All stairways designated as a means of
egress should be continuous from the
uppermost floor level to the ground floor
• Two sets of requirements
– New stairs
– Existing stairs
Handrails
• 760mm-865mm from upper surface of tread
Ramps
Fire escape stairs
• Allowed as means of egress only in existing
buildings
• Should not constitute more than 50% of
required exit capacity
Ladders
• Not allowed as fire escape or means of
egress
Exit marking
• Label all exits as “EXIT”
• Provide directional signs for locations where
the direction of travel to exit is not obvious
• The word “EXIT” should be in letters at least
15cm high with strokes of letters at least
19mm wide
Emergency evacuation plan
• Minimum dimension: letter size
• Posted in strategic and conspicuous
locations
• Photoluminescent background
Features of fire
protection
Protection of vertical openings
• Stairways, elevator shafts, chutes and other
vertical openings shall be enclosed or
protected to prevent the spread of fire,
except if protected by automatic fire
suppression systems
Fire alarms
• Notifies occupants of the building and, when
required, emergency forces
• Automatic fire department notification is
required for:
– High rise buildings
– Hospitals
– -Schools, hotels, apartments 4 storeys or taller
– Malls
Wet standpipes
• Wet standpipes required for the following:
– Assembly occupancies with at least 1,000 occupant load
– Schools, hospitals, businesses, hotels, etc. 4 storeys or
taller
– Hazardous occupancies exceeding 1,860 sqm per floor
• Exceptions:
– Buildings with an approved sprinkler system
Wet standpipes
• All portions of the building must be within 6
meters of a nozzle attached to a 22.00m long
hose
• Minimum of 64mm diameter
Places of assembly
Occupant load
• Concentrated use without fixed seats, such
as auditoriums, places of worship, dance
floors: 0.65 sqm/person
• Less concentrated use such as conference
rooms, dining rooms, gyms: 1.40sqm/person
• Standing rooms/waiting space:
0.28sqm/person
Mininum corridor width
• If serving 50 or more persons: 1120mm
Travel distance to exits
• 46 meters if with sprinkler system
• 61 meters if without sprinkler system
Seating
• Rows of seats back to back: 830mm
• At least 300mm from back of one seat to
front of the next seat
• Seats between aisles: 14 maximum
• Seats between wall and aisle: 7
• Seats without arms: Allot 600mm/person
Minimum width of aisles
• If 60 seats or less, 760mm
• If more than 60 seats:
– Single-loaded aisle: 915mm
– Double-loaded isle: 1220mm
• Measured farthest from exit
• Widens 25mm for each meter towards exit
Educational
occupancies
Occupant loads
• Classroom: 1.80sqm/person
• Shops, laboratories: 4.60sqm/person
• Dry nurseries with sleeping facilities:
3.30sqm/person
• Rooms with greater than 50 occupants
shall be treated as a place of assembly
Number of exits
• At least two exits from any room with
capacity of 50 or more persons, or area
of more than 93 sqm.
Travel distance to exits
• 46 meters if with sprinkler system
• 61 meters if without sprinkler system
Mininum corridor width
• 1.83 m
Special provisions for preschools
• Rooms used for preschoolers, first grade and
second grade pupils shall not be located
below or above the floor of exit discharge
Healthcare
Occupant loads
• Sleeping departments: 11.1sqm/person
• In-patient treatment departments:
22.3sqm/perosn
Door widths
• 1120mm: sleeping rooms, diagnostic and
treatment rooms (surgery. X-Ray, PT, etc.)
• 910mm: All other rooms
Detention and
correctional
Occupant load
• 11.1sqm/peron
Travel distance to exits
• Between any room door intended as exit
access and an exit: 30.00m
• Between any point in the room: 46.00m
• Any point in a sleeping room to the door in
that room: 10.00m
Residential
Occupant load
• 18.60sqm/person
• Except for single and two-family dwellings
Hotels
• Minimum corridor width: 1120mm
• Minimum umber of exits: 2 for every floor
• Travel distance to exits:
– From room door to exit: 30.00m
– From guest suite to corridor door: 23.00m (w/o
sprinklers)
– From guest suite to corridor door: 38.00m (w/
sprinklers)
Apartment buildings
• Minimum corridor width
– For less than 50 persons: 910mm
– Fore more than 50 persons: 1120mm
• Travel distance to exits:
– Within any unit to nearest exit: 15.50m, one storey away
max
– From apartment entrance to exit: 31.00m, or 46.50m if with
sprinklers
Single and two-family dwellings
• In dwellings with more than 2 rooms, every
habitable room shall have at least 2 means of
escape, at least one which is a door/stairway
• No habitable room shall be accessible only by
a ladder, folding stairs, or through a trap door
• Every sleeping room = 1 window min.
Single and two-family dwellings
• No exit access from sleeping rooms to outside
shall be less than 900mm wide
• Doors in the path of travel should be 700mm
minimum
Mercantile
Mercantile
• Stores, markets, malls, supermarkets,
department stores, restaurants of less than 50
occupants
– Class A: Gross area of 2,787sqm or more, 3 floors
– Class B: Gross area of 287-2,787sqm, 2 floors
– Class C: Gross area less than 287sqm, street floor only
Occupant load
• Street floor or below street floor: 2.80sqm
• Upper floors: 5.60sqm
• Floors not open to public/offices: 9.30sqm
• Covered malls: 2.8sqm/person
Maximum travel distance
• 30.00m if without sprinklers
• 46.00m if with sprinklers
Business
Business
• Businesses other than mercantile
• Businesses that typically involve services and
not the display and sale of merchandise
• Examples: Doctor/lawyer/dentist’s office,
internet shops, barbershops, general offices
Occupant load
• 9.30sqm/person
Travel distance to exit
• 46.00m if without sprinklers
• 61.00m if with sprinklers
High rise buildings
High rise buildings
• A building in which the distance between the
floor of the topmost storey and the ground
level is 15.00m or more
• Building height shall be measured from the
lowest level of fire department vehicle access,
to the floor of the highest occupiable storey
Sprinkler requirements
• All high rise buildings shall be provided with a
fully electrically supervised sprinkler system
Other occupancies
Industrial
• Occupant load: 9.30sqm/person
• Minimum corridor width: 1120mm
• Travel distance:
– 31.00m if no sprinklers
– 46.00m if with sprinklers