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Jan 17, 2019

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Prof Ashok Jain - Estimation of Dynamic Wind Loads

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Ashok K Jain

Retd. Professor of Civil Engineering

IIT Roorkee

Indirapuram, Ghaziabad

<ashokjain_iitr@yahoo.co.in>

LOADS

IS 875-3-2015

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 1

WIND FORCE VS. SEISMIC FORCE

Frequencies of structures

excited by

wind and earthquake forces.

DESIGN LOAD COMBINATIONS

In IS 456-1978 the following combinations were used:

1.5DL + 1.5LL ; 1.5DL+/-1.5EQ; 1.2DL+1.2LL+/-1.2EQ

These combinations were based on CP110-1971 British Code.

Later BS8110-1985 revised these combinations as follows:

1.4DL + 1.6LL; 1.4DL+/- 1.4WIND; 1.2DL+1.2LL+/-1.2EQ

IS456-2000 chose not to reduce and align the load factors with

BS8110-1-1997.

DESIGN LOAD COMBINATIONS

In India, with the revision of IS1893-1-2000 code, wind

force has virtually become a secondary force. In my EARTHQUAKE IS

experience, in most cases in zone IV, the following load AN OVERSOLD

combination governs the design: COMMODITY IN

INDIA

1.5 DL + /- 1.5 EQ

In many cases, the designers simply do not care to compute

the wind load any more. This is not a desirable situation.

The load combinations in our codes need a serious review.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 4

DESIGN LOAD COMBINATIONS

ASCE 7 and Eurocode 0 have moved forward in terms of partial load factors

and load combinations. The partial load factor for seismic load combination is

a major change.

Moreover, our codes do not cater to the very long industrial structures from the

temperature point of view.

Our codes need a serious relook at the load combinations and various partial

load factors for both serviceability and ultimate limit states.

HOW TO UNDERSTAND WIND CHARACTERISTICS?

and fluid dynamics

BUT I WILL SKIP

THESE ASPECTS

WIND FORCE

Wind force acts from a high pressure region to a low pressure region.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 7

WIND SPEED PLOT

Gust

TYPICAL WIND

RECORDS

Different countries/

codes use different

averaging interval to

obtain digitized mean

wind speed

and gust

TYPICAL WIND RECORDS

COLLAPSE OF 149 M TALL AIR TOWER AT

KINGSWAY CAMP, DELHI, MAY 30, 2014

149 m AIR Tower during the storm

75 m AIR Towers

Electric Poles

No Casualty

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 11

Kingsway Camp, Delhi

May 30, 2014

collapsed within 3 years Design vetted by IIT

A CASE OF

POOR DESIGN

COLLAPSE OF 75 M TOWERS AT KINGSWAY CAMP

VERY OLD

TOWERS

COLLAPSE OF ELECTRIC POLES, DELHI

BUDDHA SMRITI PARK, PATNA 2010

BUDDHA SMRITI PARK, PATNA 2010

Marvelous

complex

BUDDHA SMRITI PARK, PATNA 2010

There are three interesting aspects about this beautiful complex:

(1) It is a very beautiful and serene complex to relax and meditate. There are

relics of Lord Buddha brought over from many south Asian countries and

displayed in gold bowels.

(2) Its shikhar got tilted due to high winds at that height and extreme political

pressure to complete the job before the very stringent time line.

(3) The designer chose to provide a number of local radial beams in the

dome just below the shikhar to carry its dead load. However, these beams

were discontinued after a very short distance from the crown.

BUDDHA SMRITI PARK, PATNA 2010

Its shikhar was 40 ft high above the top of the dome and had

octagonal bands. Its overall height was over 150 ft above the

GL. Usually, such stupas have circular bands and not octagonal

bands. However, due to pressure to meet the dead line of

inauguration by HH Dalai Lama, there were compromises with

the workmanship.

On the day of inauguration, it was noticed that the shikhar was

tilted and it became more prominent due to rectangular bands.

The tilt was attributed to high wind speed during construction

and finishing stages.

Buddha Smriti Park, Patna 2010 Stupa got

tilted due to

high winds

were thick radial

beams in the

shikhar zone only;

did not continue till

the ring beam

LET US UNDERSTAND WIND PROFILE, TERRAIN,

AND TOPOGRAPHY

Gradient height

Gradient height –

The height after

HEIGHT

which the wind WIND PROFILE -

speed becomes f(terrain and topography)

constant

SPEED

21

TERRAIN CATEGORY

sea

22

WIND PROFILE WITH TERRAIN

Shows

variation

of wind

velocity

with height

23

WIND PROFILE

24

TOPOGRAPHY

25

WIND PRESSURE

Wind speed

Dynamic wind pressure having a 50 year

Along wind response return period

Across wind response

Static wind pressure makes use of peak gust velocity averaged over 3 sec;

Dynamic wind speed makes use of hourly mean wind speed magnified by gust factor.

STATIC WIND PRESSURE – IS875-3-1987

Vz = Vb k1 k2 k3

Return period = 1/probability of exceedence

The design wind pressure pz in N/m2 at any height above mean ground level is

given by the relation:

pz = 0.6 V2z

STATIC WIND PRESSURE – IS875-3-2015

𝑉𝑧 = 𝑉𝑏 𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3 𝑘4

NEW CODE

k2 = f(terrain, height) pz = 0.6 V2z

Where

Kd = wind directionality factor

Ka = area averaging factor based on tributary area

Kc = combination factor

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 28

DYNAMIC WIND CHARACTERISTICS

Wind is a very complex phenomenon because of

the flow situations arising from the interaction of

wind with structures. The wind induced dynamic

force on a tall structure can be resolved in the

following three components:

Along-wind dynamic force parallel to the direction

of incident mean wind velocity

Cross-wind dynamic force normal to the direction of

incident mean wind velocity

Torsional dynamic response about a vertical axis of

the structure passing through the center of rigidity.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 29

DYNAMIC WIND CHARACTERISTICS

ALONG WIND RESPONSE

Wind is composed of eddies of varying sizes and rotational characteristics

carried along in a general stream of air. These eddies give wind its gusty or

turbulent character. Due to turbulence, the dynamic loading on a structure

depends on the size of the eddies.

Large eddies, whose dimensions are comparable with the structure, give rise to

well correlated pressures as they envelop the structure.

On the other hand, small eddies result in pressures on various parts of a

structure that become practically uncorrelated with distance of separation.

Eddies generated around a typical structure are shown in Figure.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 30

REMEMBER THE TERMS

B&R

Loading due to larger gusts/eddies gives rise

to Background response

Loading due to smaller eddies gives rise to

resonant response near the first frequency of

the structure

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 31

DYNAMIC WIND

ത

𝑉(𝑧, 𝑡) = 𝑉(𝑧) + 𝑉𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 (𝑧, 𝑡)

Gust factor G = Dynamic magnification factor

𝐺=

𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘 𝑔𝑢𝑠𝑡 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑎 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑑

𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑

𝑉𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 = maximum wind speed fluctuation

𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔

𝐺= ഥ

=1 + ഥ

𝑉 𝑉

𝑉ത = mean wind speed

𝑉𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 𝑔 𝜎𝑣 g = peak factor

𝜎𝑣 v = standard deviation of the wind speed

∴𝐺 = 1+𝑔 ഥ

𝑉 fluctuation

DYNAMIC WIND

or, 𝐺 = 1 + 𝐼ℎ 𝑓(𝐵, 𝑅)

Ih = turbulence intensity

B = background response

R = resonant response at the first natural frequency

This gives the relation between the gust factor and peak wind speed factor. The period of

the gust may be specified, say, 3 sec or 10 minutes. The mean load component is

evaluated from the mean wind speed using pressure and load coefficients. The fluctuating

load component is determined separately by a method which makes an allowance for the

intensity of turbulence at the site, size reduction effects and dynamic amplification.

The gust factor may be applied to the loading, or to the response of the structure, or to

the wind speed itself.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 33

DYNAMIC WIND CHARACTERISTICS

CROSS-WIND RESPONSE

One should be aware of the following forms of wind induced motion which are

characterized by increasing amplitude of oscillation with the increase of wind speed:

Vortex Shedding Flutter

Galloping Ovalling

Under certain conditions for slender exposed buildings, the cross-wind loads can

greatly exceed the along-wind loads.

For such buildings, detailed wind tunnel tests must be carried out.

Formation of vortex shedding – alternate high

and low pressure vortices

susceptible to vibrations induced by vortex shedding.

VORTEX SHEDDING

DYNAMIC WIND PRESSURE – IS875-3-2015

Dynamic Pressure

calculations in 2015

are quite different than

Any building or structure which satisfies either of the following those in 1987 code.

two criteria should be examined for dynamic effects of wind:

Buildings and closed structures with a height to minimum lateral dimension

ratio of more than about 5.0 (h/bmin > 5).

Buildings and closed structures whose natural frequency in the first mode is

less than 1 Hz or fundamental period is more than 1 sec (T > 1).

The dynamic wind pressure at any height z is given by the following equation:

2

The hourly mean wind speed at height z for different terrains can be obtained

as follows:

𝑉ത𝑧,𝑑 = 𝑘1 𝑘ത 2,𝑖 𝑘3 𝑘4 𝑉𝑏

𝑘ത2,𝑖 = hourly mean wind speed factor for terrain category i

𝑧 0.0706

𝑘ത2,𝑖 = 0.1423 𝑙𝑛 𝑧0,𝑖

𝑧0,𝑖

The along-wind force on the structure is calculated as follows:

𝐹 = 𝐺𝐶𝑓 𝐴𝑒 𝑝𝑧ҧ

Where,

G = gust factor = peak load effect/mean load effect

For calculation of action effects (bending moments, shear forces, member forces) at a

height s on the structure (Figure a and b), the wind pressures on the structure at a

height z shall be multiplied by a dynamic response factor or gust factor G.

This factor is dependent on both z and s, and s < z < h.

It means you need to calculate G at each desired height z for the same structure.

acceleration at the top of the structure, a single value of G shall

be used with s taken as zero. For the calculation of the factor G, the

value of 𝑉തℎ,𝑑 is calculated at the reference height h.

IMP

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 39

GUST FACTOR G IN 2015 CODE

Based on the

𝐻𝑠 𝑔𝑅2 𝑆𝐸 Australian Wind

𝐺 = 1 + 2𝐼ℎ,𝑖 𝑔𝑣2 𝐵𝑠 (1 + 𝜙)2 +

𝜉 Code 1989

Where, 2015 are quite different than

those in 1987 code.

Ih,i = turbulence intensity at height h in terrain category i

h = mean height of the structure

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 40

2 Ih,i = roughness factor

The turbulence intensity variations with height for different terrains can be obtained

using the following relations:

Terrain category 1:

𝑧

𝐼𝑧,1 = 0.3507 − 0.0535 𝑙𝑜𝑔10

𝑧0,1

Terrain category 4:

𝑧

𝐼𝑧,4 = 0.466 − 0.1358 𝑙𝑜𝑔10

𝑧0,4

Terrain category 2:

1

𝐼𝑧,2 = 𝐼𝑧,1 + 𝐼𝑧,4 − 𝐼𝑧,1

7

Terrain category 3:

3

𝐼𝑧,3 = 𝐼𝑧,1 + 𝐼𝑧,4 − 𝐼𝑧,1

7

The peak factor g is a measure of degree of randomness of the fluctuating component. The

peak factors for the background response and resonant response are identified separately as

gv and gR, respectively.

𝑔𝑣 = 3 for terrain category # 1 and 2

= 4 for terrain category # 3 and 4

The background factor B is used to measure the background component of the fluctuating

response caused by the lower frequency wind speed variation. It is primarily a function of the

dimension of the structure.

Bs = background factor

1

𝐵𝑠 =

2

0.26(ℎ − 𝑠)2 + 0.46𝑏𝑠ℎ

1+

𝐿ℎ

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 42

(a) Influence line diagrams for bending

moment and shear at level s

s = level at which action effects are calculated, such as bending moment and shear

bsh = average breadth of the building/structure between heights s and h as shown in Fig.

0.25

ℎ

𝐿ℎ = 85 For category 1, 2 and 3

10

0.25

ℎ

𝐿ℎ = 70 For category 4

10

= factor to account for second order turbulence intensity

𝑔𝑣 𝐼ℎ,𝑖 𝐵𝑠

𝜙=

2

Hs = height factor for the resonant response

𝑠 2

𝐻𝑠 = 1 +

ℎ

structure and it is related to the first natural frequency, the design hourly mean wind

speed at height h and dimensions of the structure.

S = size reduction factor

1

𝑆=

3.5 𝑓𝑎 ℎ 4𝑓𝑎 𝑏0ℎ

1+ 1 +

𝑉തℎ,𝑑 𝑉തℎ,𝑑

fa = first mode natural frequency of the building/structure in along-wind direction

𝑉തℎ,𝑑 = design hourly mean wind speed at height h, m/s

𝑏0ℎ = average breadth of the building / structure between 0 and h

𝜋𝑁

𝐸=

1 + 70.8 𝑁 2 5Τ6

𝑓𝑎 𝐿ℎ

𝑁=

𝑉തℎ,𝑑

gR = peak factor for resonant response, one hour period (60 x 60 = 3600 sec)

𝑔𝑅 = 2 ln 3600 𝑓𝑎

The damping ratio includes both structural damping and aerodynamic damping.

= damping coefficient of the building/structure

= welded steel structure = 0.010 (1%)

= RCC or bolted steel structure = 0.020 (2%)

= prestressed concrete structure = 0.016 (1.6%)

purposes at serviceability load levels.

EXAMPLE - 1

A 61 storey building is situated near Chennai. Its

length is 46 m, width is 30 m, and height is 185 m

as shown in Fig. 1. The factors k1, k3 and k4 are

1.0 each. The basic wind speed is 50 m/s.

Estimate the static and dynamic wind pressures on

its longer face along the height of the building, if

it is situated in

(a) terrain category 2, and

(b) terrain category 4. 46 m

EXAMPLE - 1

External pressure coefficients on wall - wind normal to 46 m face

For h/w = 185/30 = 6.16 ; l/w = 46/30 = 1.533; Table 5 of the Code

gives,

Cpe = 0.95 for windward wall; Cpe = 1.85 for leeward wall

Internal Pressure Coefficient on wall, Cpi = + 0.5 or – 0.5 for medium

openings up to 20% of the wall area

Gust factor G = 1.97 for

terrain 2

Basic wind speed = 50 m/s given

Gust factor G = 2.97 for

terrain 4

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 49

200 200.

180 180.

Static Wind

160 Pressure N/m2 160. Static Wind

Dynamic Wind Pressure N/m2

140 140.

Pressure N/m2 Dynamic Wind

120 120. Pressure N/m2

Height m

Height m

100 100.

80 80.

60 60.

40 40.

20 20.

0 0.

0 1000 2000 3000 0. 500. 1000. 1500. 2000.

Wind Pressure N/m2 Wind Pressure N/m2

TERRAIN 2 TERRAIN 4

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 50

EXAMPLE - 2

A 35 storey building is situated in Trivendrum.

Its length is 45 m, width is 30 m, and height is

105 m. The factors k1, k3 and k4 are 1.0 each.

Sea

The basic wind speed is 39 m/s. Estimate the

static and dynamic wind pressures on its longer

face along the height of the building, if it is

situated in terrain category 3 while at 250 m

upwind distance from the building the terrain

changes to category 1 as shown in Figure. Terrain 3 Terrain 1

CHANGE OF TERRAIN

CATEGORY PLAN OF BUILDING

RULES FOR CHANGE OF TERRAIN

Please refer Appendix B of the Code.

(1) Wind blowing from low (open) to high terrain category (very dense)

(2) Wind blowing from high (very dense) to low terrain category (open)

(3) More than one terrain category

Wind from

low to high

Wind from

high to low

EXAMPLE - 2

For a fetch length of 250 m, the developed height is 38 m as per Table 3 of the Code.

Fetch length Terrain 3

THERE IS AN 8

km m

PAGE ERRATA

0.2 35

0.5 55*

Thus, up to 38 m height, it is terrain 3; above 38 m, it is terrain 1.

Let us compute the various parameters as if the building is situated exclusively in

category 1, and also exclusively in category 3.

120

100

Dynamic Wind

Pressure N/m2

Height of building m 80 Static Wind

Pressure N/m2

At 38 m, there is a

60 change in the profile

due to change in terrain

40

category @ 250 m from

20

the building.

0

0 500 1000 1500

Wind Pressure N/m2

EXAMPLE 3

A 150 m TV is located in Cuttack, Orrisa in terrain category 2. The factors k1, k3

and k4 are 1.08, 1.0 and 1.0, respectively. The basic wind speed is 50 m/s. Estimate

the gust factors in order to compute the member forces at the base at s=0, at s= 40

m and s = 104 m. Its width at different heights is shown below.

Height 0 40 75 104 125 130 150

above

base, m

Width , m 30 14.5 6.25 2.5 2.5 1.2 1.2

At s = 40 m, Gust factor = 1.7897

At s = 104 m, Gust factor = 1.8866

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 57

ACROSS WIND RESPONSE

The code gives a method to determine equivalent static wind load and base

overturning moment in the across wind direction for

(a) Tall enclosed building

(b) Towers of rectangular cross-section

The factor Cs needs to

Across wind design peak base bending moment, Mc

be estimated from a

𝜋𝐶𝑠

graph rather than an

𝑀𝑐 = 0.5 𝑔ℎ 𝑝ℎҧ 𝑏ℎ2 (1.06 − 0.06𝑘) equation.

𝛽

Not understood??

how to use these

curves for 6:1:1 to

9:1:1

of 1989.

This code has been revised in

2011.

Not Understood??

Why the code committee chose

to ignore AS 2011 code?

AS/NZ 1170.2-2011WIND CODE

This code gives equations for these curves.

It is not understood as to why the Indian code committee chose not to give

these equations.

ACROSS WIND RESPONSE

Knowing the base overturning moment, the static wind loads at various levels

can be determined using the following linear distribution:

3𝑀𝑐 𝑧

𝐹𝑧,𝑐 =

ℎ2 ℎ

Fz,c = across wind load per unit height at height z

applied simultaneously on the structure.

PEAK ACCELERATIONS AT TOP OF BUILDING

The code gives expressions to determine peak accelerations at top of the

building in the two directions:

(a) Along wind direction

(b) Across wind direction

These should be within the permissible limits.

PEAK ACCELERATIONS AT TOP OF BUILDING

Along wind - Peak acceleration at top of building is given by:

𝑆𝐸

𝑥ሷ = 2π𝑓𝑎 2 𝑥𝑔

ҧ 𝑅𝑟

𝛽

where 𝑥ҧ = mean deflection at the position where acceleration is required.

In order to compute this deflection, you must use a mean hourly wind

speed having a 5 year return period. ANOTHER

Not understood?? PRINTING

Is it 5 year or 50 year? If it is 5 year, then there is no clause in ERROR ?

IS:875-3-2015 on how to estimate it?

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 63

PEAK ACCELERATIONS AT TOP OF BUILDING

In AS 1170.2-2012, it is 5 year return period.

This Code gives a table for wind speeds of different return periods in different zones

of Australia.

64

PEAK ACCELERATIONS AT TOP OF BUILDING

Across wind - Peak acceleration at top of building is given by:

𝑔ℎ 𝑝ҧℎ 𝑏 𝜋𝐶𝑠

𝑦ሷ = 1.5 0.76 + 0.24𝑘

𝑚0 𝛽

These equations are based on the Australian Code but modified as usual.

Copy – paste – edit technology prevalent in most of our Codes now a days

A WORD OF CAUTION

Please be aware!!

REFERENCE

My book on

DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURES WITH MATLAB

APPLICATIONS

Pearson Education India – 2016

BASED ON

875-3-1987

THANK YOU

TIME FOR

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