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Dr.

Ashok K Jain
Retd. Professor of Civil Engineering
IIT Roorkee
Indirapuram, Ghaziabad
<ashokjain_iitr@yahoo.co.in>

ESTIMATION OF DYNAMIC WIND


LOADS
IS 875-3-2015
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 1
WIND FORCE VS. SEISMIC FORCE

Frequencies of structures
excited by
wind and earthquake forces.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 2


DESIGN LOAD COMBINATIONS
In IS 456-1978 the following combinations were used:
1.5DL + 1.5LL ; 1.5DL+/-1.5EQ; 1.2DL+1.2LL+/-1.2EQ
These combinations were based on CP110-1971 British Code.
Later BS8110-1985 revised these combinations as follows:
1.4DL + 1.6LL; 1.4DL+/- 1.4WIND; 1.2DL+1.2LL+/-1.2EQ
IS456-2000 chose not to reduce and align the load factors with
BS8110-1-1997.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 3


DESIGN LOAD COMBINATIONS
In India, with the revision of IS1893-1-2000 code, wind
force has virtually become a secondary force. In my EARTHQUAKE IS
experience, in most cases in zone IV, the following load AN OVERSOLD
combination governs the design: COMMODITY IN
INDIA
1.5 DL + /- 1.5 EQ
In many cases, the designers simply do not care to compute
the wind load any more. This is not a desirable situation.
The load combinations in our codes need a serious review.
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 4
DESIGN LOAD COMBINATIONS
ASCE 7 and Eurocode 0 have moved forward in terms of partial load factors
and load combinations. The partial load factor for seismic load combination is
a major change.
Moreover, our codes do not cater to the very long industrial structures from the
temperature point of view.
Our codes need a serious relook at the load combinations and various partial
load factors for both serviceability and ultimate limit states.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 5


HOW TO UNDERSTAND WIND CHARACTERISTICS?

You need to learn fluid mechanics


and fluid dynamics
BUT I WILL SKIP
THESE ASPECTS

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 6


WIND FORCE

Wind force acts from a high pressure region to a low pressure region.
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 7
WIND SPEED PLOT

Gust

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 8


TYPICAL WIND
RECORDS

Different countries/
codes use different
averaging interval to
obtain digitized mean
wind speed
and gust

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 9


TYPICAL WIND RECORDS

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 10


COLLAPSE OF 149 M TALL AIR TOWER AT
KINGSWAY CAMP, DELHI, MAY 30, 2014

Wind speed 90 kmph –


149 m AIR Tower during the storm
75 m AIR Towers
Electric Poles

No Casualty
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 11
Kingsway Camp, Delhi
May 30, 2014

Design life 100 years,


collapsed within 3 years Design vetted by IIT

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 12


A CASE OF
POOR DESIGN

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 13


COLLAPSE OF 75 M TOWERS AT KINGSWAY CAMP

VERY OLD
TOWERS

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 14


COLLAPSE OF ELECTRIC POLES, DELHI

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 15


BUDDHA SMRITI PARK, PATNA 2010

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 16


BUDDHA SMRITI PARK, PATNA 2010

Marvelous
complex

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 17


BUDDHA SMRITI PARK, PATNA 2010
There are three interesting aspects about this beautiful complex:
(1) It is a very beautiful and serene complex to relax and meditate. There are
relics of Lord Buddha brought over from many south Asian countries and
displayed in gold bowels.
(2) Its shikhar got tilted due to high winds at that height and extreme political
pressure to complete the job before the very stringent time line.
(3) The designer chose to provide a number of local radial beams in the
dome just below the shikhar to carry its dead load. However, these beams
were discontinued after a very short distance from the crown.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 18


BUDDHA SMRITI PARK, PATNA 2010
Its shikhar was 40 ft high above the top of the dome and had
octagonal bands. Its overall height was over 150 ft above the
GL. Usually, such stupas have circular bands and not octagonal
bands. However, due to pressure to meet the dead line of
inauguration by HH Dalai Lama, there were compromises with
the workmanship.
On the day of inauguration, it was noticed that the shikhar was
tilted and it became more prominent due to rectangular bands.
The tilt was attributed to high wind speed during construction
and finishing stages.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 19


Buddha Smriti Park, Patna 2010 Stupa got
tilted due to
high winds

In the dome, there


were thick radial
beams in the
shikhar zone only;
did not continue till
the ring beam

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 20


LET US UNDERSTAND WIND PROFILE, TERRAIN,
AND TOPOGRAPHY
Gradient height

Gradient height –
The height after

HEIGHT
which the wind WIND PROFILE -
speed becomes f(terrain and topography)
constant

SPEED

21
TERRAIN CATEGORY

sea

22
WIND PROFILE WITH TERRAIN

Shows
variation
of wind
velocity
with height

23
WIND PROFILE

24
TOPOGRAPHY

25
WIND PRESSURE

Static wind pressure


Wind speed
Dynamic wind pressure having a 50 year
 Along wind response return period
 Across wind response

Static wind pressure makes use of peak gust velocity averaged over 3 sec;
Dynamic wind speed makes use of hourly mean wind speed magnified by gust factor.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 26


STATIC WIND PRESSURE – IS875-3-1987
Vz = Vb k1 k2 k3

Vb = regional basic wind speed having a mean return period of 50 years


Return period = 1/probability of exceedence
The design wind pressure pz in N/m2 at any height above mean ground level is
given by the relation:
pz = 0.6 V2z

k2 = f(size, terrain, height)

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 27


STATIC WIND PRESSURE – IS875-3-2015
𝑉𝑧 = 𝑉𝑏 𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3 𝑘4
NEW CODE
k2 = f(terrain, height) pz = 0.6 V2z

Design wind pressure 𝑝𝑑 = 𝐾𝑑 𝐾𝑎 𝐾𝑐 𝑝𝑧

Where
Kd = wind directionality factor
Ka = area averaging factor based on tributary area
Kc = combination factor
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 28
DYNAMIC WIND CHARACTERISTICS
Wind is a very complex phenomenon because of
the flow situations arising from the interaction of
wind with structures. The wind induced dynamic
force on a tall structure can be resolved in the
following three components:
Along-wind dynamic force parallel to the direction
of incident mean wind velocity
Cross-wind dynamic force normal to the direction of
incident mean wind velocity
Torsional dynamic response about a vertical axis of
the structure passing through the center of rigidity.
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 29
DYNAMIC WIND CHARACTERISTICS
ALONG WIND RESPONSE
Wind is composed of eddies of varying sizes and rotational characteristics
carried along in a general stream of air. These eddies give wind its gusty or
turbulent character. Due to turbulence, the dynamic loading on a structure
depends on the size of the eddies.
Large eddies, whose dimensions are comparable with the structure, give rise to
well correlated pressures as they envelop the structure.
On the other hand, small eddies result in pressures on various parts of a
structure that become practically uncorrelated with distance of separation.
Eddies generated around a typical structure are shown in Figure.
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 30
REMEMBER THE TERMS
B&R

Generation of eddies: (a) Elevation (b) Plan


Loading due to larger gusts/eddies gives rise
to Background response
Loading due to smaller eddies gives rise to
resonant response near the first frequency of
the structure
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 31
DYNAMIC WIND

𝑉(𝑧, 𝑡) = 𝑉(𝑧) + 𝑉𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 (𝑧, 𝑡)
Gust factor G = Dynamic magnification factor
𝐺=
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘 𝑔𝑢𝑠𝑡 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑎 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑑
𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑤𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑
𝑉𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 = maximum wind speed fluctuation
𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔
𝐺= ഥ
=1 + ഥ
𝑉 𝑉
𝑉ത = mean wind speed
𝑉𝑓𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 𝑔 𝜎𝑣 g = peak factor
𝜎𝑣 v = standard deviation of the wind speed
∴𝐺 = 1+𝑔 ഥ
𝑉 fluctuation

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 32


DYNAMIC WIND
or, 𝐺 = 1 + 𝐼ℎ 𝑓(𝐵, 𝑅)
Ih = turbulence intensity
B = background response
R = resonant response at the first natural frequency
This gives the relation between the gust factor and peak wind speed factor. The period of
the gust may be specified, say, 3 sec or 10 minutes. The mean load component is
evaluated from the mean wind speed using pressure and load coefficients. The fluctuating
load component is determined separately by a method which makes an allowance for the
intensity of turbulence at the site, size reduction effects and dynamic amplification.
The gust factor may be applied to the loading, or to the response of the structure, or to
the wind speed itself.
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 33
DYNAMIC WIND CHARACTERISTICS
CROSS-WIND RESPONSE
One should be aware of the following forms of wind induced motion which are
characterized by increasing amplitude of oscillation with the increase of wind speed:
 Vortex Shedding Flutter
 Galloping Ovalling
Under certain conditions for slender exposed buildings, the cross-wind loads can
greatly exceed the along-wind loads.
For such buildings, detailed wind tunnel tests must be carried out.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 34


Formation of vortex shedding – alternate high
and low pressure vortices

Masts, towers and steel chimneys are highly


susceptible to vibrations induced by vortex shedding.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 35


VORTEX SHEDDING

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 36


DYNAMIC WIND PRESSURE – IS875-3-2015
Dynamic Pressure
calculations in 2015
are quite different than
Any building or structure which satisfies either of the following those in 1987 code.
two criteria should be examined for dynamic effects of wind:
Buildings and closed structures with a height to minimum lateral dimension
ratio of more than about 5.0 (h/bmin > 5).
Buildings and closed structures whose natural frequency in the first mode is
less than 1 Hz or fundamental period is more than 1 sec (T > 1).
The dynamic wind pressure at any height z is given by the following equation:

𝑝𝑧ҧ = 0.6 𝑉ത𝑧,𝑑


2

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 37


The hourly mean wind speed at height z for different terrains can be obtained
as follows:
𝑉ത𝑧,𝑑 = 𝑘1 𝑘ത 2,𝑖 𝑘3 𝑘4 𝑉𝑏
𝑘ത2,𝑖 = hourly mean wind speed factor for terrain category i
𝑧 0.0706
𝑘ത2,𝑖 = 0.1423 𝑙𝑛 𝑧0,𝑖
𝑧0,𝑖

z0,i = equivalent roughness length in terrain i


The along-wind force on the structure is calculated as follows:

𝐹 = 𝐺𝐶𝑓 𝐴𝑒 𝑝𝑧ҧ
Where,
G = gust factor = peak load effect/mean load effect

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 38


For calculation of action effects (bending moments, shear forces, member forces) at a
height s on the structure (Figure a and b), the wind pressures on the structure at a
height z shall be multiplied by a dynamic response factor or gust factor G.
This factor is dependent on both z and s, and s < z < h.

It means you need to calculate G at each desired height z for the same structure.

For the calculation of base bending moments, and deflections and


acceleration at the top of the structure, a single value of G shall
be used with s taken as zero. For the calculation of the factor G, the
value of 𝑉തℎ,𝑑 is calculated at the reference height h.

IMP
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 39
GUST FACTOR G IN 2015 CODE

Based on the
𝐻𝑠 𝑔𝑅2 𝑆𝐸 Australian Wind
𝐺 = 1 + 2𝐼ℎ,𝑖 𝑔𝑣2 𝐵𝑠 (1 + 𝜙)2 +
𝜉 Code 1989

Gust factor calculations in


Where, 2015 are quite different than
those in 1987 code.
Ih,i = turbulence intensity at height h in terrain category i
h = mean height of the structure
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 40
2 Ih,i = roughness factor
The turbulence intensity variations with height for different terrains can be obtained
using the following relations:
Terrain category 1:
𝑧
𝐼𝑧,1 = 0.3507 − 0.0535 𝑙𝑜𝑔10
𝑧0,1

Terrain category 4:
𝑧
𝐼𝑧,4 = 0.466 − 0.1358 𝑙𝑜𝑔10
𝑧0,4

Terrain category 2:
1
𝐼𝑧,2 = 𝐼𝑧,1 + 𝐼𝑧,4 − 𝐼𝑧,1
7
Terrain category 3:
3
𝐼𝑧,3 = 𝐼𝑧,1 + 𝐼𝑧,4 − 𝐼𝑧,1
7

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 41


The peak factor g is a measure of degree of randomness of the fluctuating component. The
peak factors for the background response and resonant response are identified separately as
gv and gR, respectively.

gv = peak factor for upwind velocity fluctuation


𝑔𝑣 = 3 for terrain category # 1 and 2
= 4 for terrain category # 3 and 4
The background factor B is used to measure the background component of the fluctuating
response caused by the lower frequency wind speed variation. It is primarily a function of the
dimension of the structure.
Bs = background factor
1
𝐵𝑠 =
2
0.26(ℎ − 𝑠)2 + 0.46𝑏𝑠ℎ
1+
𝐿ℎ
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 42
(a) Influence line diagrams for bending
moment and shear at level s

(b) Definition of notations for height

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 43


s = level at which action effects are calculated, such as bending moment and shear

bsh = average breadth of the building/structure between heights s and h as shown in Fig.

Lh = measure of effective turbulence length scale at height h in m

0.25

𝐿ℎ = 85 For category 1, 2 and 3
10

0.25

𝐿ℎ = 70 For category 4
10

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 44


 = factor to account for second order turbulence intensity
𝑔𝑣 𝐼ℎ,𝑖 𝐵𝑠
𝜙=
2
Hs = height factor for the resonant response
𝑠 2
𝐻𝑠 = 1 +

The parameter S is a size factor to consider the correlation of pressures over a


structure and it is related to the first natural frequency, the design hourly mean wind
speed at height h and dimensions of the structure.
S = size reduction factor
1
𝑆=
3.5 𝑓𝑎 ℎ 4𝑓𝑎 𝑏0ℎ
1+ 1 +
𝑉തℎ,𝑑 𝑉തℎ,𝑑

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 45


fa = first mode natural frequency of the building/structure in along-wind direction
𝑉തℎ,𝑑 = design hourly mean wind speed at height h, m/s
𝑏0ℎ = average breadth of the building / structure between 0 and h

E = spectrum of turbulence in the approaching wind stream


𝜋𝑁
𝐸=
1 + 70.8 𝑁 2 5Τ6

N = effective reduced frequency


𝑓𝑎 𝐿ℎ
𝑁=
𝑉തℎ,𝑑

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 46


gR = peak factor for resonant response, one hour period (60 x 60 = 3600 sec)
𝑔𝑅 = 2 ln 3600 𝑓𝑎

The damping ratio includes both structural damping and aerodynamic damping.
 = damping coefficient of the building/structure
= welded steel structure = 0.010 (1%)
= RCC or bolted steel structure = 0.020 (2%)
= prestressed concrete structure = 0.016 (1.6%)

These values are generally accepted as reasonable figures for design


purposes at serviceability load levels.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 47


EXAMPLE - 1
A 61 storey building is situated near Chennai. Its
length is 46 m, width is 30 m, and height is 185 m
as shown in Fig. 1. The factors k1, k3 and k4 are
1.0 each. The basic wind speed is 50 m/s.
Estimate the static and dynamic wind pressures on
its longer face along the height of the building, if
it is situated in
(a) terrain category 2, and
(b) terrain category 4. 46 m

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 48


EXAMPLE - 1
External pressure coefficients on wall - wind normal to 46 m face
For h/w = 185/30 = 6.16 ; l/w = 46/30 = 1.533; Table 5 of the Code
gives,
Cpe = 0.95 for windward wall; Cpe =  1.85 for leeward wall
Internal Pressure Coefficient on wall, Cpi = + 0.5 or – 0.5 for medium
openings up to 20% of the wall area
Gust factor G = 1.97 for
terrain 2
Basic wind speed = 50 m/s given
Gust factor G = 2.97 for
terrain 4
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 49
200 200.

180 180.
Static Wind
160 Pressure N/m2 160. Static Wind
Dynamic Wind Pressure N/m2
140 140.
Pressure N/m2 Dynamic Wind
120 120. Pressure N/m2
Height m

Height m
100 100.
80 80.
60 60.
40 40.
20 20.
0 0.
0 1000 2000 3000 0. 500. 1000. 1500. 2000.
Wind Pressure N/m2 Wind Pressure N/m2

TERRAIN 2 TERRAIN 4
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 50
EXAMPLE - 2
A 35 storey building is situated in Trivendrum.
Its length is 45 m, width is 30 m, and height is
105 m. The factors k1, k3 and k4 are 1.0 each.
Sea
The basic wind speed is 39 m/s. Estimate the
static and dynamic wind pressures on its longer
face along the height of the building, if it is
situated in terrain category 3 while at 250 m
upwind distance from the building the terrain
changes to category 1 as shown in Figure. Terrain 3 Terrain 1

CHANGE OF TERRAIN
CATEGORY PLAN OF BUILDING

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 51


RULES FOR CHANGE OF TERRAIN
Please refer Appendix B of the Code.
(1) Wind blowing from low (open) to high terrain category (very dense)
(2) Wind blowing from high (very dense) to low terrain category (open)
(3) More than one terrain category

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 52


Wind from
low to high

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 53


Wind from
high to low

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 54


EXAMPLE - 2
For a fetch length of 250 m, the developed height is 38 m as per Table 3 of the Code.
Fetch length Terrain 3
THERE IS AN 8
km m
PAGE ERRATA
0.2 35
0.5 55*

* In the Code this value is 35 m which appears to be a printing error. It is taken as 55 m.


Thus, up to 38 m height, it is terrain 3; above 38 m, it is terrain 1.
Let us compute the various parameters as if the building is situated exclusively in
category 1, and also exclusively in category 3.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 55


120

100
Dynamic Wind
Pressure N/m2
Height of building m 80 Static Wind
Pressure N/m2
At 38 m, there is a
60 change in the profile
due to change in terrain
40
category @ 250 m from
20
the building.

0
0 500 1000 1500
Wind Pressure N/m2

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 56


EXAMPLE 3
A 150 m TV is located in Cuttack, Orrisa in terrain category 2. The factors k1, k3
and k4 are 1.08, 1.0 and 1.0, respectively. The basic wind speed is 50 m/s. Estimate
the gust factors in order to compute the member forces at the base at s=0, at s= 40
m and s = 104 m. Its width at different heights is shown below.
Height 0 40 75 104 125 130 150
above
base, m
Width , m 30 14.5 6.25 2.5 2.5 1.2 1.2

At s = 0, Gust factor = 1.7557


At s = 40 m, Gust factor = 1.7897
At s = 104 m, Gust factor = 1.8866
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 57
ACROSS WIND RESPONSE
The code gives a method to determine equivalent static wind load and base
overturning moment in the across wind direction for
(a) Tall enclosed building
(b) Towers of rectangular cross-section
The factor Cs needs to
Across wind design peak base bending moment, Mc
be estimated from a
𝜋𝐶𝑠
graph rather than an
𝑀𝑐 = 0.5 𝑔ℎ 𝑝ℎҧ 𝑏ℎ2 (1.06 − 0.06𝑘) equation.
𝛽

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 58


Not understood??
how to use these
curves for 6:1:1 to
9:1:1

Based on the old Australian code


of 1989.
This code has been revised in
2011.
Not Understood??
Why the code committee chose
to ignore AS 2011 code?

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 59


AS/NZ 1170.2-2011WIND CODE

In the 2011 AS code, there is no 9:1:1 legend.


This code gives equations for these curves.
It is not understood as to why the Indian code committee chose not to give
these equations.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 60


ACROSS WIND RESPONSE
Knowing the base overturning moment, the static wind loads at various levels
can be determined using the following linear distribution:

3𝑀𝑐 𝑧
𝐹𝑧,𝑐 =
ℎ2 ℎ
Fz,c = across wind load per unit height at height z

The along wind and across wind loads have to be


applied simultaneously on the structure.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 61


PEAK ACCELERATIONS AT TOP OF BUILDING
The code gives expressions to determine peak accelerations at top of the
building in the two directions:
(a) Along wind direction
(b) Across wind direction
These should be within the permissible limits.

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 62


PEAK ACCELERATIONS AT TOP OF BUILDING
Along wind - Peak acceleration at top of building is given by:
𝑆𝐸
𝑥෠ሷ = 2π𝑓𝑎 2 𝑥𝑔
ҧ 𝑅𝑟
𝛽
where 𝑥ҧ = mean deflection at the position where acceleration is required.
In order to compute this deflection, you must use a mean hourly wind
speed having a 5 year return period. ANOTHER
Not understood?? PRINTING
Is it 5 year or 50 year? If it is 5 year, then there is no clause in ERROR ?
IS:875-3-2015 on how to estimate it?
Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 63
PEAK ACCELERATIONS AT TOP OF BUILDING
In AS 1170.2-2012, it is 5 year return period.
This Code gives a table for wind speeds of different return periods in different zones
of Australia.

64
PEAK ACCELERATIONS AT TOP OF BUILDING
Across wind - Peak acceleration at top of building is given by:

𝑔ℎ 𝑝ҧℎ 𝑏 𝜋𝐶𝑠
𝑦෠ሷ = 1.5 0.76 + 0.24𝑘
𝑚0 𝛽

These equations are based on the Australian Code but modified as usual.
Copy – paste – edit technology prevalent in most of our Codes now a days

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 65


A WORD OF CAUTION

There are still a large number of printing errors in IS:875.


Please be aware!!

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 66


REFERENCE

My book on
DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURES WITH MATLAB
APPLICATIONS
Pearson Education India – 2016

BASED ON
875-3-1987

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 67


THANK YOU

TIME FOR
Q AND A

Dr Ashok K Jain, Technical Lecture, IASE, Nov 23, 2017 68