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CHAPTER 1

The Problem and Its Background

Introduction

Education plays a vital role in shaping successful people. It gives us the

opportunity to become a productive member of a civilized society by acquiring all

the necessary skills, learn how to meet challenges and overcome obstacles,

learn how to become an integrated personality and maintain the perpetuation of

our culture. People learn basic norms, rules, regulations, and values of society

through education. Moreover, high quality education enables us to lead a

successful life, enhances our intelligence, skills, knowledge, and brings positive

changes in our life. The level of education is often paramount to future success.

Completing increasingly advanced levels of education shows that you have a

drive and commitment to learn and apply information, ideas, theories, and

formulas to achieve a variety of tasks and goals. One of the basic advantages

of education is that it protects against unemployment. In essence, the

higher your level of education, the more likely you are to find work.

This tracer study for LSPU criminology graduates from academic year

2018 provides feedback to the schools as to the employment status of their

graduates particularly in various field of law enforcement such as the Philippine

National Police, Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, Bureau of the Fire
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Protection, Bureau of Correction, National Bureau of Investigation, Industrial

Security and in the private sectors.

Tracer study help find out what has happened to the graduates after

completing their studies, whether or not they are employed, how long did it take

them to land a job, or whether they are still hunting for a job, whether their job is

in line with the knowledge and skills they learned during their studies, how well

they are doing in their job and whether or not they have found a niche in their

career. In addition, the tracer study could inquire what conceptual and technical

knowledge learned during education and training proved most relevant in their

respective work settings, what components in the content and delivery of

services are effective and ineffective. Tracer studies could also

draw recommendations from the perspective of the respondents.

Background of the Study

In today's ever-changing economy and highly competitive labor market, the

Laguna State Polytechnic University system is challenged to produce appropriately

educated college graduates necessary to ensure continuity in the country’s

development.

The Laguna State Polytechnic University Losbaños Campus is an

institutional with a good equality education. The university is composed of 4

(four) campuses wherein Bachelor of Science in Criminolgy under the College

Of Criminal Justice Education offered in all LSPU systems; Sta. Cruz, Siniloan,

and San Pablo City Campuses


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Criminal Justice Education is a 4-year college degree program intended

for individuals who wish to have a career in the fields of law enforcement,

criminal justice administration, crime detection and investigation, juvenile justice

administration, application of forensic science to law enforcement and

correctional administration. It aims to foster the values of leadership, integrity,

accountability and responsibility while serving fellowmen, community and the

country. The course is comprised of CHED mandated general education

subjects, profession-related courses and practicum. Students will learn various

theories, policies, practices and laws associated with criminal behavior and the

methods applied to manage such deviant activities.

Alumni Tracer Study for maintaining curriculum relevancy and usefulness.

The alumni tracer study in LSPU has objectives to build strong bonds between

the institution and its graduates, because the alumni are the excellent source of

advice for improvements of institution and to measure the extent of professional

and academic careers pursued by the graduates after gaining knowledge and

skills through academic institutions. The alumni tracer study consists of many

aspects. Some of them are impact study that seeks to determine graduates

satisfaction with the institution especially with curriculum relevancy and

usefulness. Another one is professional development study to determine the

extent to which the curriculum has developed them qualified in their career.

With the result of this research, the school could formulate a more better

solutions to correct disciplinary of the school educational system. It is deemed

pertinent to the above cited literatures in a sense that they both reflect the
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significant role of school in generating quality graduates and status of the

graduates in term of employment, the relevance of the program that the students

had from the institution to the previous and present job of the graduates.

The aim of this study is to locate the graduates of Bachelor of Science in

Criminology at the year 2014 in order to know their employment history, to know

if their degree helped on their current career, and to help the department identify

the improvement needed on their programs and curriculum. By this study it help

to find out what has happened to the graduates after completing their studies.

This tracer study for LSPU criminology graduates from academic year 2014

provides feedback to the schools as to the employment status of their graduates

particularly in various field of law enforcement

Statement of the Problem

The study aimed to trace the employability of BS Criminology graduates of

Laguna State Polytechnic University Los Baños from AY 2014

Specifically, the study sought answer to the following questions.

1.What is the profile of the graduates on terms of :

1.1 sex;

1.2 age;

1.3 civil status;

1.4 region of origin; and;

1.5 location of residence?

2. What is the educational profile of the graduates along the following?

2.1 Educational Attainment


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2.1.1 Licensure Eligibility/Examination

2.1.2 Reasons for Taking the Course

2.2 Training(s)/Advance studies

2.2.1 Pursuing Training(s)/ Advance Study

3. What is the employment status of the respondent in terms of:

3.1 employment Data;

3.1.1 reason why not employed; and

3.1.2 present employment status?

3.2 occupation Information;

3.2.1 waiting time for the first job;

3.2.2number of jobs since graduation;

3.2.3employability status;

3.2.4present occupation;

3.2.5 gross monthly income;

3.2.6 present employer;

3.2.7 nature of work;

3.2.8 place of work;

3.2.9 Position/designation in each job, and

3.2.10 Source of information for the; job ?

3.3 job relevancy to the Course; and

3.4 Competencies Learned in College?

4. What is the implication findings of the Study to the Graduate Tracer Study of

Laguna State Polytechnic University ?


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Conceptual Framework

A tracer study of graduates from education institutions, takes place the

after graduation or the end of the training. The concept of employability

presented in a holistic framework, it integrates different issues in an indicated

context related to typologies of competencies, job requirements, labor market

segmentation, or determinants of graduates career’s generally and the function

of education systems providing skills for the labor market.

In the IPO model, a process is viewed as a series of boxes

(processing element) Input-Process-Output (IPO) Model will be used as the

conceptual Framework for this study connected by Inputs and outputs.

Information of material objects flow through a series tasks or activities based on

a set of rules or decision points. Flow charts and process diagrams are often

used to represent the process. What goes in is the Input, what causes the

change is the process; what comes out is the output. In this cases, the input is

the statement of the problem (SOP); the process is the questionnaires/survey;

and output, the recommendations

However, the main purpose of this research is to trace the employment

status of the criminology graduates particularly of the graduates of Laguna State

Polytechnic University-Los Baños Campus and determine what percentage had

acquired first job after they graduated. The concepts that the researchers had to

indulge in were to look on the graduates important profiles and to assess whether

or not these profiles had satisfied their expectations so that whatever results they
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INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Profile of the
respondents
 Sex
 Age
 Civil status
 region of
origin; and
 location of The implication
residence of findings may
The educational be suggested to
profile of the Question Data
further improve
graduates Analysis
the B.S.
 educational Criminology
attainment curriculum of
 training(s)/a Laguna State
dvance Polytechnic
studies
The employment University
status of the
respondent
 Employment
Data;
 Occupation
Information;
 job
relevancy to
the Course;
 Competenci
es Learned
in College?

FEEDBACK

Figure 1
Research Paradigm of the Study
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could account for would be a good venue of curriculum enhancement as well as


institutional development.
Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study aimed to trace the employability of BS Criminology graduates

of Laguna State Polytechnic University Los Baños from AY 2015. Specifically,

the study determined the profile of the graduates in terms of sex, age, civil status,

region of origin, and location of residence. Likewise, to determine the educational

profile of the respondent in terms of educational attainment and

training(s)/advance studies. In addition, it search for the employment status in

terms of employment data, occupation information, and job relevancy to the

course. Finally, it was determine the courses of action may be suggested to

further improve the B.S. Criminology curriculum of Laguna State Polytechnic

University will be stipulated.

This study was limited to the assessment of the twenty eight (28) B.S.

Criminology Graduates of Laguna State Polytechnic University Los Baños

Campus from SY: 2014-2015 who served as the respondents. The researcher

excluded the other batch of BS Criminology Graduates that were not mentioned

to the study.

Furthermore, descriptive method of research was use in this study. The

respondent’s profile and their perceptions on the graduate tracer study of were

based on the adapted questionnaire by past study which focused only on the

variables stated. The following statistical measures were used to analyze and

interpret the data and results in the order from which it appeared in the statement
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of the problem by a frequency count that determined the number belonging to a

group, the other one are the percentage that was used to determine the

magnitude of a portion of a variable to the whole and lastly are ranking that was

used to arrange the category of responses depending on the amount of the

variable.

Definition of Terms

The following have been used as follows:

Criminology Graduates. Refers to a survey that attempts to trace the

information and activities of the graduates of an educational institution. “Graduate

Survey”, “Alumni Survey” or “Follow-up Study” are other term for it.

Curriculum. This refers to the formal and informal content and process by

which learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills and attitude,

appreciation and values. As generally accepted, a standardized curriculum

consists of what is taught, and also considers the teacher's materials, the

student’s materials, and school experiences.

Employment. Refers to the state of having a job for which one receives

money or other compensation.

Employment Status. Refers to whether an employee is holding a

permanent, temporary, provisional, contractual or casual position.

Job Relevancy. Refers to the extent to which the graduates are able to

obtain professional positions in industry, organization and agencies in the public

or private sectors along the lines of professional criminology education and

expertise as attained in the BS Criminology Program.


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Tracer Study. It refers to the type of descriptive research that investigates

graduates who had left the institution after completing the course or field of

specialization. It is concerned with what has happened to them and what has

been the impact upon that institution and its program.


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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter deals with the cited literature and studies of other institutions

and authors to substantiate the development and findings of the present

research.

Related Literature

Belzer and Kim (2018) Educational attainment nurtures people's social

outcomes and promotes active participation in society and stability. However, it is

unclear to what extent other types of human capital also correlate with social

outcomes. Hence, we explored the opportunity offered by the PIAAC survey

through its provision of information on educational attainment, observed

individual key skills proficiency, and participation in adult education and training

(adult lifelong learning) therefore studied the association between these human

capital variables and social outcomes, and more specifically interpersonal trust

and participation in volunteering activities. Results revealed that these social

outcomes were affected not only by the formal qualification obtained, determined

by the education variable, but also throughout the life‐cycle. Indeed, education

and training when undertaken during adult life have a significant impact,

especially on volunteering. The fact that the skill proficiency also plays a

significant role is extremely relevant, as skills are more likely to change over the

life‐cycle, either in a positive or negative way. Whilst the formal education

received is constant after exiting the educational system, skills reflect


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competences more accurately: first, because those with the same level of

education may have different skill levels because of differences in the quality of

education or ability; second, because skills can vary over time. For example, they

may increase with work experience or informal education, or decrease as a result

of depreciation and ageing. These findings suggest that social outcomes are

prone to be affected by many factors other than formal education, suggesting

that policy makers can implement recommendations even after formal education

has been committed.

According to De Guzman and De Castro (2008) that graduate need to

develop a personal skills, qualities and experiences that enable to them to

compete in the labor market. The author wants these graduate create an

empirical portrait that describes the aspects of employment of graduates of an

excellence university in the Philippines to identify policy into imperatives for a

greater relevance of higher education curricula to industry needs and

expectations.

The Philippines may go beyond the standing of employment in the

country, rights and importance should be understood. As specified in the book of

Labor Economics by Cristobal M.Pagoso, it stated that in view of low literacy

rates in rising unemployment in developing countries become imperative that

greater educational opportunities should be provided for the great proportion of

adult population as well as the large number of youth outside the formal school

system to help them acquire further knowledge and skill thereby improve their

livelihood and strengthen the country.


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Lowe and Schellenberg (2001) pointed out that industries and other

business institutions depend so much on the huge contributions of learning

institutions in providing human machineries shaped in conjunction with their

needs. They firmly believed that successes would primarily depend on the output

of these institutions. Universities’ failure to provide the needed learning arid skills

among the graduates may result to disequilibrating force in the county’s

economy. They further mentioned that, individuals invest time and money in

order to become ‘more skilled. Firms and societies typically invest in human

capital for the development of their employees and citizens in hopes of a future

return on these investments.

Ross (2000) mentioned that industries complain that new recruits from

schools sometimes do not have the basic tools that are required. The skills

mostly in demand by the employers, as measured by the wide range of skills

asked of future employees, are typically the least in supply, as measured by the

skills, abilities and competencies that university graduates bring to the job. He

emphasized that the goal of education is to equip children to the best of their

ability, for a lively, constructive place in society, and also to fit them to do a job

for work reallocate current education resources. The broader community must

join forces with the education system. Some attempts to implement educational

change the strategy have been carried out under the banner “career education”.

It is difficult but not an impossible task. It can enliven the classroom, given good

models of curricular design and teaching strategies and style. Faculty members

may well choose to adopt the career education concept as a mean; of improving
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instruction. If students perceive liberal arts as extraneous to their own momentary

materialistic objectives, teachers may become aware that conscious and

thoughtful attention to the relationship between education and work can be

woven into their subject matter and that subject matter will be no less worthy and

scholarly.

According to Sumanasiri (2018) employability graduates there is

increasing pressure from governments, funding organizations, students and

parents on universities around the world since graduate employability has been

clearly recognized as one of the main objectives of university education.

Accreditation bodies also appear to measure quality of education through the

contributions made towards employability. In such a context one would assume

that employability of university graduates to be clearly understood and

extensively researched area. However, the real situation appears to be one

requires the urgent attention of all stakeholders of university education. A review

on graduate employability is a clear need today and current paper achieves this

by summarizing the major articles on university graduate employability

theoretical frameworks and empirical studies. Despite the large number of

studies, graduate employability appears to be suffering from the problems of lack

of theoretical control and politicization which appear to have become major

obstacles for future developments of the concept.

As Santos (2000) puts it, there is, therefore a compelling need for

education leaders to face the challenge of “adaptive change” or be left behind by

nations, which are trailing us today.


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Speaking before the General Assembly of the Philippine Accrediting

Associations of Schools, Colleges and Universities (PAAECU), Gloria said that it

is the quality graduates that measure the quality of schools. He encouraged the

used of mechanism of voluntary accreditation, likewise the benefit of the

accreditation now granted to school by way of liberalizing administrative and

academic regulations, as well as grants of subsidies and other financial

incentives. He also emphasized to the delegates the role of voluntary

accreditation in improving the quality of higher education in the country.

According to Arroyo (2010) the role of academic community during the

CHED’s 16th Anniversary, particularly the Commission on Higher Education

(CHED) in strengthening the economy and education must be the center of any

government platform. She pointed out the importance of working towards

achieving a main education highway towards a knowledge-based economy that

will result in a seamless education from preschool to tertiary level. She further

recommends that there must be consultation between academe and industry and

business leaders to determine new skills needs for present and future manpower.

Thus, the objective of such consultation is to make the skills of our college

graduates more relevant to the jobs with high demand, therefore closing the job-

skills gap and improving the employability of the graduates. She further stated

“We want a seamless education highway toward a knowledge-based economy

because we are in the knowledge century and I desire to see a brighter future for

the hardworking men and women of his nation. I have an abiding interest in

seeing your clients and mine, in other words, the students of higher education,
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come into their own, and seized the value of modernity and education and use

these tools to advance themselves and the nation.”

According to a study of Asian Development Bank (2008) labor mismatch

slows Philippines economic growth. Schools in the Philippines are producing the

wrong kind of skills for its labor market needs, which is hurting economic growth

There are too many educated .people chasing too few jobs. In the study made by

ADB Hyun H. Son, he found the per capita labor productivity plummeted between

1997 to 2003 as “those with higher education have crowded out the less

educated in terms of job opportunities”. He also added that with higher education

being an “important determinant of employment” in the Philippine market “by

productivity jobs are taken over by the more educated labor force,” which in turn,

has lowered the price for skilled labor over the period.” Further, Son findings

show “that current education sector does not supply the right kind of skills that

are demanded by labor market.” Accelerating growth would require government

action in addressing the labor mismatch. From policy perspective, going beyond

universal coverage in education is imperative because what is required is an

expansion of the supply of the right kind of skills.

According to Bersin (2013) Students have weak understanding of the skills

and degrees that will best help them find a job. There is another gap in the

system. The study points out that most students are not sure what educational

program will help them find a good job. Even when colleges and universities

have great job-related programs, students are not coached on what these

programs will mean for their career.


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There are many lessons here, some of which apply directly to you as a

learning leader. Educational institutions need and want closer relationships with

business to drive their own transformation, as an employer, should meet with

local universities and schools, and help them understand your workforce needs.

Massive open online courses will transform education as a corporate learning

leader, can access these courses at little to no cost. We can’t wait for schools

and universities to build the skills we need. Learning investments are more

important than ever, and this means a strong focus on talent-driven learning

programs, talent management, assessment and developing a total corporate

learning culture. Skill development expertise is the new arsenal for business

success. If that can’t take the time, spend the money or learn how to build

world-class development programs, will not be able to compete. There is no real

war for talent; there is a war for skills, and there’s no better way to win the war

than to build the arsenal internally

Sharma (2013) The attention of education policy-makers and the

international education community is moving away from raising literacy levels

and increasing access to secondary and higher education, towards skills required

by the workforce to promote economic growth. This became increasingly evident

during the past year in the richest countries. Recognition of the issue is also

growing in emerging economies and middle-income countries, and is likely to be

a major debate in developing nations as discussion on what should succeed the

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) takes center stage in the next two

years.
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Higher education experts say that universities are coming under increasing

pressure to ensure that their graduates are ‘employable’, although preparation for

‘employability’ is still only rarely incorporated in university courses, and the skills

that could make a difference in finding employment and ways to deliver those

skills are still not evident

Jimeno (2016) “Unemployment its causes stated that The Philippine

Institute for Development Studies said that in the Philippines, unemployment is a

time bomb. Between 2005 and 2030, the labor force will increase from 32 million

to about 52 million.

Studies reveal that 22 percent of the unemployed have attended college

while 19 percent have graduated from college. That there is a serious disconnect

between what schools teach and the demand of the jobs market. Students are

not acquiring the skills they need to fill up available jobs when they graduate.

Schools still offer, and students still enroll in, traditional courses without so much

as examining the demand of industries.

The quality of graduates has also steadily declined such that professions

requiring qualifying examinations such as medicine, accountancy, library science,

and others suffer high failing rates. In nursing, for example, the passing rate in

1998 was 55.8 percent. In 2006, it went down to 45 percent and in 2010; it was a

low of 39 percent. Thus, those who desperately need jobs but do not qualify in

their desired professions settle for work as domestic helpers or nannies and blue-

collar workers, either here or abroad. Still, there is a greater number of the
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unemployed who are unable to take on available jobs because they are not

connected with what they learned.

Nidjon (2012) Key to career advancement and development is education

and on the job trainings and, employment also greatly contributes to this

development. Education in general should model children through kindergarten

to higher education with all its associated benefits including employment. In other

words, one will need to continue to learn and grow in order to succeed through

working.

Graduates are making sacrifices including a significant investment of time

and money as well as a dramatic lifestyle change to achieve success throughout

their life. They are building their analytical, creative, and practical intelligence

which they need to cope with a world that is changing in many ways. We all know

as a fact that education opens doors to brilliant career opportunities; it creates

better prospects in career and growth “financially, emotionally, socially and

intellectually. It enables the progress of a nation and enriches society and family;

it facilitates advanced pragmatic thinking So, education becomes an eligibility

criterion for employment.

Related Studies

Ramirez, Cruz & Alcantara (2014) argue that it is no longer sufficient for

new graduates to have knowledge because most industries today need

applicants who are capable to perform the job. Companies need highly skilled
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graduates in order to be competent. This implies that universities must shift their

instructional competence to train students who are outcomes-based, so that they

can survive in the world of work relative on the respective careers they have

chosen

The Graduate Tracer Study of the University of Pangasinan reveals that

new graduates are challenged by the lack of job opportunities, which reasonably

takes them a longer time to wait because of lack of experience (Rocaberte,

2016). This is supported by Verona (2011) that government needs to reckon on

issues regarding labor mismatch – a situation where the aggregate supply of

labor skills is insufficient to address the decline in productive labor, more

especially in urban or semi-urban area.

Schomberg (2000), made a study which started from autumn 1998 to

spring 2000. About 3000 graduates each from nine countries in European region

(Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and

United Kingdom), one EFTA country (Norway), another from the Central and

Eastern European countries in transition (The Czech Republic) and one

economically advance country outside Europe (Japan) provided information

through a written questionnaire on the relationship between higher education and

employment, four years after graduation. Totally, more than 40,000 from

institutions of higher education answered questions on their socio-biographic

background, study paths, transition from higher education to employment, their

job satisfaction and their retrospective view on higher education. The European

Graduate Survey provides the highest comparative information on graduate


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employment and work and the links between higher education and graduate

employment and work ever provided. Selected results of the European Graduate

Survey were compared with results of ten graduate surveys (about 6000

graduates Involved) conducted in six African countries using a questionnaire

quite similar to the European one. Different indicators of professional were

presented: duration of job, search income, employment conditions,

appropriateness of position, and content of work, use of knowledge and skills,

and job satisfaction. The comparison provides a unique opportunity in examining

the extent to which the relationship between higher education and the world of

work are similar or different among the Western European and the African

countries.

Chorvy (2008), on her Tracer Study of Institute of Statistics and Applied

Economics graduates working in Kampala City-Uganda for the period of 1990 to

1995 concluded the following: most graduates were employed either in public

sector or private sector; graduates use the knowledge and skills acquired to a

high extent, more males are satisfied than females at work; and there are

significant associations between sex vs. employment, performance at work vs.

class degree, and satisfaction at jobs vs. job titles. Furthermore, she identified

limitations on time to carry out the study and financial constraint.

According to Mendoza (2003), the tracer study of Technical Education and

Skills Development Authority (TESDA) specifically aims to: estimate the

employment, absorption and skill utilization rate of Technical Vocational


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Education and Training (IVET) graduates of TESDA Training Centers,

administered schools and TVET providers; establish the income levels of the

employed graduates; estimate average length of job search; provide indications

on courses for which graduates have better chance of employment, analyses the

type of employment of TVET graduates, compare the performance of

competency assessment passers vs. non-passers in terms of employment;

Identify reasons for unemployment and identify reasons for not joining the labor

force.

In the survey conducted by Personnel Management Association of the

Philippines (PMAP) (as cited by Mr and Ms Magazine, 2001) it presented three

(3) main findings. First, first jobbers have a low level of competence especially in

handling and in the use of the state-of-the-art technology such as computer

software and new instruments. Ii this regard, there is a mismatch between the

educational preparedness of the graduates and the demands of employment in

this respect. Second, the graduates’ analytical skills are not sharp enough,

particularly in problem-solving and decision-making. Third, the first jobbers have

underdeveloped work values. They lack enthusiasm, innovativeness and self-

confidence.

It is quite clear from these findings and recommendations by the PMAP

that the fresh graduates have a lot of thing to excel as first jobbers. Salalila, et.al.

(2007) conducted a tracer study on the employability of Bachelor of Secondary

Education and Bachelor of Science in Industrial


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Schomburg (2003) noted that graduate survey is popular for ‘analysis of

the relationship between higher education and work:” They provide quantitative

structural data on employment and career, the character of work and related

competencies, and information on the professional orientation 3nd experiences

of their graduates. Furthermore, he enumerated the following objectives of tracer

studies; (1) To get valuable information for the development of the university; (2)

To evaluate the relevance of higher education; (3) To contribute to the

accreditation process and (4) To inform parents, students, administrator’s and

lecturers. Graduate survey provides rich experience about the whereabouts of

graduates, which might broaden perspectives among administrators, scholars

and students. Such information like the income, economic sector, job titles,

working time, duration of search for the first job, methods of job search are

relevant for higher education institutions to note.

Rodriguez (2001) analyzed the school and soda-psychological

determinants of the employability of the graduates of the technical vocational

education program of two institutes of higher learning in region 1, and revealed

that there was no significant relationship found that exist between employability

and school characteristics. Positive and significant findings were established

between employability and social characteristics.

Romero (2016) estimated the impact of unemployment and

underemployment on the employment prospects of recent college graduates.

They find no statistical evidence linking unemployment spells of different

durations to employment opportunities. By contrast, college graduates who are


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underemployed have callback rates that were 30% percent lower than those of

applicants who are adequately employed. The null effects associated with

unemployment and the adverse effects associated with underemployment are

robust across cities with relatively tight and loose labor-market conditions.

Internship experience obtained while completing one’s degree substantially

reduces the negative effects of underemployment. The data support the

proposition that employers view underemployment as a strong signal of lower

expected productivity.

According to Schomburg (2003), graduate and employer surveys

constitute one form of empirical study which can provide valuable information for

evaluating the results of the education and training of a specific institution of

higher education. This information may be used for further development of the

institution in the context of quality assurance. In addition it was cited that a tracer

study sometimes also called as “alumni survey” or “follow up survey” should

enable the institution of higher education to get information to indicate possible

deficits in a given educational programmed and to serve as a basis for future

planning activities. Information on the professional success (career, status,

income) of the graduates are needed as well as information on the relevance of

knowledge and skills (relationship between knowledge and skills and work

requirements, area of employment, professional position). More so,

consequences of university expansion can be determined with respect to the

relationship between higher education and work through tracer study


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Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the description of the method used, the data

gathering instrument and procedures, the respondents of the study and the

statistical treatments applied to the data gathered in the study.

Research Design

This study aimed to determine the BS Criminology graduates 2014 in

Laguna State Polytechnic University Los baños Campus using adopted

questionnaire. The researcher utilized the descriptive method of the study that

could describe data and characteristics about the population or the phenomenon

being studied. In addition, the researcher believed that this method of research is

the most appropriate method to determine the respondents’ educational

background and employment status. The researcher used a adopted

questionnaire as data gathering instrument to secure information needed for the

study.

According to Posinasetti (2015), A descriptive study is one in which

information is collected without changing the environment (i.e., nothing is

manipulated). It is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the

phenomena to describe "what exists" with respect to variables or conditions in a

situation. The methods involved range from the survey which describes the

status quo, the correlation study which investigates the relationship between

variables, to developmental studies which seek to determine changes over time.


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Research Instrument

The questionnaire was used in this study consisted of two parts. The first

part dealt with the profile of respondents in terms of civil status, sex, age, region

of origin and location of residence, educational background in terms of year

graduated, professional examination passed, reason for taking the course, and

training/advance studies.

The second part of the questionnaire determined the employment status

of the respondents particularly on the employment data as to the reasons why

not employed and present occupation, present employment status in terms of

place of work, reasons for staying on the job, relatedness of the course to the

job, reasons for accepting the job, length of stay in the first job, how the present

job was found, and length of waiting to the first job. Further, the respondents’ job

level position, relevance of the curriculum, and competencies learned in college

will be also determine. The data was gathered through the adoption of the survey

questionnaire of Niem, CL.R. (2015) entitled “Tracer Study of BS Criminology

Graduates from 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 in Batangas State

University, JPLPC, Malvar Campus”.

Data Gathering Procedures

Prior to the distribution of questionnaires, the letter included the most

respectful request to allow the researcher and ask for the respondents’ support

and cooperation in answering the questionnaire. The questionnaire was utilized

as the research instrument.


27

The researcher explained clearly the instructions to the respondents

before answering the checklist. They allowed enough time to answer the entire

question in order to have accurate responses. They were given an assurance

that their answers were treated with strictest confidentiality. Right after, the

researcher conducted a verbal interview for further clarification and better

understanding of the respondent’s responses. However, the responses of some

of the respondents were forwarded through online such Facebook, Messenger,

Gmail and Yahoo mail.

After the administration of the questionnaire, it were immediately retrieved

to ensure high percentage of retrieval. The data gathered will be tallied, tabulated

and analyzed using the statistical tools and the assistance of the professional

statistician.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The following statistical measures were used to analyze and interpret the

data and results in the order from which it appeared in the statement of the

problem.

Frequency Count. This determined the number belonging to a group.

Percentage. This was used to determine the magnitude of a portion of a

variable to the whole.

Ranking. This was used to arrange the category of responses depending

on the amount of the variable.


28

CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the data gathered with the corresponding analysis

and interpretation. The findings obtained on the profile of the respondents, the

educational background, employment status and the suggestions gathered to

improve the curriculum. The data are presented on tabular form based on the

successive manner following the order of the specific problems at the beginning

of the study.

1. Profile of the Respondents

1.1 Sex

Sex refers to a set of characteristics distinguishing between male and

female. These characteristics of maleness and femaleness were assumed to

have some influence in the way the respondents perceive the subject of the

study.

Table 2 shows the profile of the respondents in terms of sex.

Table 2
Profile of the Respondents in terms of Sex

Sex Frequency Percentage

Male 22 82
Female 5 18

Total 27 100

As gleaned from the table, it is obvious that it is dominated by males, with

a frequency of 22 or 82 percent and with only 5 or 18 percent as female


29

respondents. This implies that the BS Criminology program is a male dominated

degree. Furthermore, it can be concluded that even though female are

extensively accepted still the number of the male are dominant in the said

course. It was due to the fact that many female like to involved in much feminine

courses that suit their personality. While on the other hand, males are dominated

by their nature as to be a risk taker, adventurer, and strong to take a masculine

course like BS Criminology.

1.2 Age

Age refers to the numbers of years of the respondents of the study has

live or existed. This determines the level of maturity and rational ability of a

person.

Table 3 shows the profile of the respondents in terms of age.

Table 3
Profile of the Respondents In terms of Age

Age Frequency Percentage


21-25 9 32
26-30 17 63
31-35 1 5
Total 27 100

As shown in table 3, out of 27 respondents there were seventeen or 63

percent or most of them were at the age of 26-30. It was followed by 21-25 years

of age with nine or 32 percent. And lastly while there were 31-35 years of age of

graduates with one or 5 percent.


30

Probably, most of them entered college at a very young age, which was

exactly right for a student to finish his/her study. It could also be due to financial

support why some of them reached the age of 24 before they graduate.

1.3 Civil Status

Civil status and marital status are terms used in forms, vital records, and

other documents to ask or indicate whether a person is married or single. Table 4

shows the civil status of the respondents in terms of status.

Table 4

Profile of the Respondents In Terms of Civil Status

Civil Status Frequency Percentage

Single 4 15
Married 23 85
Total 27 100

As shown in Table 4, the greater number of the respondents was

represented by married people who got the highest frequency of 23 or 85

percent. Those respondents whose civil status was single got a frequency of 4 or

15 percent of the sample population. Fresh graduates are too young to be

engaged in marriage life. Most of them focus on their career preference.

1.4 Region of Origin

Region of Origin refers to a concept which includes a part of land or a

country with specific characteristics of customs and culture, or often, because it

is known for a specific geographical feature.

Table 5 shows the profile of the respondents in terms of region of origin.


31

Table 5

Profile of the Respondents In Terms of Region of Origin

Region Frequency Percentage

Region 4A 27 100
Other Region 0 0
Total 27 100

As presented in Table 5, majority or 100 percent of the respondents are

from Region 4 which implies that students who enroll in a school nearest to their

place. Proximity is of prime consideration to lessen academic expenses.

1.5 Residence

Residence is where one lives, especially the official house of dignitary or a

dwelling house. This portion served as the basis of location where the

respondents residing.

Table 6 shows the profile of the respondents in terms of Residence.


Table 6
Profile of the Respondents In Terms of Residence

Residence Frequency Percentage


City 9 33
Municipality 18 67
Total 27 100

Table 6 depicts the distribution according to the Calamba City and

Municipality of Los Baños where respondents reside. It can be seen that nearly

half reside in Calamba City hence with a frequency of 9 or 33 percentage

followed by Los Banos with a frequency of 18 or 67 percent. The City and

municipality were they lived were located at the Province of Laguna. Los baños
32

and Calamba City were the cities where the respondents resided. It can be

concluded that the reason is due to irts proximity to the university to those above

mentioned city and municipality

2. Educational Background of the Graduates

The succeeding tables present the educational background of the graduates.

2.1 Educational Attainment

Educational attainment refers to the highest level of schooling that a

per has reached. Table 7 presents the educational attainment of the

respondents.

2.1.1 Licensure/Eligibility Examinations

In this study the professional licensure revealed the rates of the

board passers that the BS Criminology has in Laguna State Polytechnic

University- Los Baños Campus. This is a proof of being eligible in the field that

the graduates attained.

Table 7
Educational Attainment in terms of Licensure/Eligibility Examination

Licensure / Eligibility Frequency Percentage

NAPOLCOM 2 7
Board Exam 9 32
Criminology Failed into Examination 8 29
No licensure/eligibility Examination taken 8 29
Total 27 100

Table 7 poses that of the 27 respondent a number of professional


licensure/eligibility examinations. Of these, with a frequency of 9 or 32 percent
passed the Board Exam only; with a frequency of 2 or 7 percent passed to the
33

NAPOLCOM Entrance Examination; and for Criminology Failed into Examination


with a frequency of 8 or 29 percent ; and for No licensure/eligibility Examination
taken with a frequency of 8 or 29 percent.

Majority have passed the Criminologist Licensure Examination being

administered by the Professional Regulation Commission. This implies that most

of the graduates have undergone the examination in order to become a licensed

criminologist.

In the study of Agas (2008), it was revealed that criminology students shall

pass all the General Education and Professional subjects and undergo

Comprehensive Review to be more capable of passing the Licensure

Examination and be eligible of pursuing their chosen profession.

2.1.2 Reason for Taking the Course

To gain a lot of knowledge in the field of criminology that is for students

who have an active interest in a multitude of fields, and seek to develop a critical

and focused mind. It requires an interdisciplinary and integrative approach to

questions of individual and societal behavior.

In table 8, good grades in the subject area ranked as the number

one (1) reason as to why respondents took up B.S. Criminology with a frequency

of two. Ranked 2nd was influence of parents/relatives with a frequency of four;

followed by inspired by a role model with frequencies each of second; then,

strong passion for the profession sharing frequencies of fifth; followed by status

or prestige of the profession and prospect of attractive compensation ranking the

same with frequencies each at first; and availability of course offering in chosen

institution with a frequency of third; and the most highest frequency prospect of
34

career advancement with a frequency of 9 lastly, Affordable for the family at a

frequency of 2.

Table 8
Educational Background in terms of Reason for Taking the Course

Reason(s) for taking the course Frequency Ranking


Good grades in the subject area 2 5th
Influence of parents/relatives 9 1st
Inspired by a role model 2 5th
Strong passion for the profession 5 2nd
Status or prestige of the profession 1 6th
Availability of course offering in chosen institution 3 4th
Prospect of career advancement 4 3rd
Affordable for the family 2 5th
Prospect of attractive compensation 1 6th

Total 29

Among 27 respondents, the highest number of respondents or 9 of them

stated that influence of parents or relatives is the main reason for taking the

course. The common people would always have high respect to them since their

task is to serve and protect the people. The graduates said even when they were

still young ones they look up with the police officers in their respective community

with high dignity and respect. This motivated them to take BS Criminology

program because they dreamed that someday somehow they can be one of the

police officers.

2.2 Training/Advance Studies

Training/ Advance Studies a rapid and intense course of training or

research reading program. A program designed to teach literacy skills, degree


35

program, a course of study leading to an academic degree.

Table 9 shows the educational attainment of the graduates in terms of the

training/advance studies

Table 9
Educational Attainment in terms of Training/Advance Studies

Training/Advance studies Frequency Percentage

No 28 100

Total 100

As presented in Table 9, majority or 100 percent of the respondents had

never taken any educational advance training after the graduation. Majority in

BScriminoogy Graduates Batch 2014 not undergo in any training/advance

studies after their graduation.

There were not pursue to take an any advance studies because there

have not enough money to enroll any kind of master degree. And some of

graduates are focus to have a job immediately there have no time to take any

kind of advance training or studies. On the other hand, maybe they don’t know

what kind of benefits if there taken any advance studies.

An anonymous writer (2007) stated that further studies and getting an

advanced degree from an accredited university, can make a person be

marketable in the competitive business world. This will make it possible for them

to be able to smoothly advance in their career and be a great asset to the

company.
36

3. Employment Status of the Respondents

3.1 Employment Data

The employment data is a state of what a person has been

experience or experiencing towards work. In this study it provides information on

the rates of the graduates’ employment background. This will shows whether the

respondents are presently employed, not employed or never been employed with

corresponding reasons and their present employment status.

Table 10 shows the employment status of the respondents in terms of

employment data.

Table 10
Employment Status of the respondents in terms of Employment Data

Employment Data Frequency Percentage


Employed 19 70
Unemployed 8 30

Total 27 100

Table 10 indicates with a frequency of 19 or 70 percent are presently

employed while with a frequency of 8 or 30 percent are not presently employed.

It pertains to the justification of BS Criminology graduates of the reason for

being not yet employed and no job opportunity, such as health related.

According to Jon (2018) Many factors affect how college graduates find

jobs. First is the reputation of the college. Others include college’s geographic

position, and the assistance offered by the college career center. The higher the

reputation of the college the higher is the possibility of a graduate finding a job.
37

The process for such graduates is both easier and speedier because, the

employers regard them as employees with greater potentials. The geographic

position also plays an important role in the job search. The graduates from

metropolitan areas have many more opportunities to participate in job fairs to

network and develop connections. According to the theory of job search in labor

economics, one of characteristics of labor market is information asymmetry,

namely, the employers do not know about the potential employees and the job

searchers do not know who is recruiting. The advantages of living in big cities are

that graduates have more chances to search for jobs through job fairs. These

advantages overcome the disadvantage of information asymmetry of the labor

market. Moreover, big firms need many new recruits when they expand through

subsidiaries in big cities. Therefore, the graduates may have more opportunities

than their counterparts from the hinterland. The third and final factor is college’s

career center. The career centers in the countryside may not be as efficient in

helping students as the ones in big cities. Good career consulting includes

résumé tips, interview tips, salary negotiation, internship, and so on. Such

services are far more efficient in big urban centers.

3.1.1 Reason Why Not Employed

Reason Why Not Employed as people who do not have a job, have

actively looked for work in the past four weeks, and are currently available for

work. Also, people who were temporarily laid off and were waiting to be called

back to that job are included in the unemployment


38

Table 11 shows the employment data of the respondents in terms of the

reason why not employed.

Table 11
Employment Data of the Respondents in terms of Reason
Why Not Employed

Reason Why Not Employed Frequency Percentage

No job opportunity 7 87.5

Health Related 1 12.5

Total 8 100

Table 11 indicates that those not presently employed, 8 respondents

provided the following reasons: with a percentage of 87.5 of 7 respondents no

job opportunity; and lastly with a percentage of 12.5 of 1 respondent health

related. They have no opportunity to find job because they can’t seem to find out

if they have a position available that may be right for their course taken.

Bersin (2013) Students have weak understanding of the skills and degrees

that will best help them find a job. There is another gap in the system. The study

points out that most students are not sure what educational program will help

them find a good job. Even when colleges and universities have great job-related

programs, students are not coached on what these programs will mean for their

career.

Note that the survey respondents were allowed to choose as many

reasons as are applicable to them. Hence, the total number of frequencies may

not be equivalent to the total number of respondents.


39

3.2.1 Respondents’ Waiting Time of their First Job

It pertains to the length of waiting time to land at their first job of the 28

respondents after graduation.

Table 12 shows the how long did it take for the graduates to land at their

first job.

Table 12
Respondents’ Waiting Time of their First Job

How long did it take to land at Frequency Ranking


their first job
Less than 1 month 9 1st
2-5 months 3 3rd
6-12 months 1 4th
More than 1 year 5 2nd

Total 19

Table 12 indicates with a frequency of respondents waiting time for their

job in ranked as the number 1 less than 1 month with a rank of 9; followed by 2-5

months with a rank of 3; and 6-12 months with a rank of 1 lastly is more than 1

year with a rank of 5.

Apparently, graduates took a long period of time before they could land on

a job with only a few who were able to land on a job as early as from 6 months to

1 year. It can be inferred that the period when the respondents graduated, there

were no vacancies and need of criminology graduates.

Jimeno (2016) “Unemployment its causes stated that the Philippine

Institute for Development Studies said that in the Philippines, unemployment is a


40

time bomb. Between 2005 and 2030, the labor force will increase from 32 million

to about 52 million.

Studies reveal that 22 percent of the unemployed have attended college

while 19 percent have graduated from college. What does this indicate? That

there is a serious disconnect between what schools teach and the demand of the

jobs market. Students are not acquiring the skills they need to fill up available

jobs when they graduate.

3.2.2 Number of Jobs after Graduation

Number of jobs is the unique record numbering every job experience.

Table 13 shows the number of jobs that the graduates had after

graduation.

Table 13
Number of Jobs After Graduation

Number of Jobs had After Graduates Frequency Percentage

1 14 52
2 7 26
3 6 22
Total 27 100

Table 13 indicates with a frequency of respondents and percentage of the

graduates that finding a jobs after their graduation and most of them the number

of job their taken with a frequency of 14 or 52 percent ; and with a number of jobs

got a 2 with a frequency of 7 or 26 percent lastly with a frequency of 6 or 22

percent.
41

To help in suppressing criminality and maintain peace and order were the

utmost aspirations of the criminology students. Thus, as graduates of the said

field they all dreamed to be part of the various bureaus such as the PNP, BFP

and BJMP. In contrast, some were working as company personnel, office staff,

and government employee and self-employed probably because it is easier to

engage in the economic and industrial job than the former bureaus.

Yurchenco (2018) the unemployment of graduates are devastating

phenomena in their lives. Aggravating factor for unemployment are the rapidly

increasing quantity of international graduates competing for an inadequate

number of suitable jobs, schools not keeping their curriculum relevant to the job

market, the growing pressure on schools to increase access to education (which

usually requires a reduction in education quantity), and students being constantly

told that an academic degree is the only route to a secure future.

3.2.3 Present Employment Status

Present employment status is individual has current employment status if

the individual is actively working as an employee.

Table 14 details that of the 19 respondents has a permanent employed

with a frequency of 12 or 44 percentage; 7 or 37 percent are temporary; and, 3 or

16 percent are self-employed .Note that neither of the two (3) self-employed

indicated any skills learned in college that they can apply. Hence, no table is

presented for such.


42

Table 14
Employment Data of the Respondents in terms of Present
Employment Status

Present Employment Status Frequency Percentage


Permanent 12 44

Temporary 7 37
Self- Employed 3 16

Total 19 100

Those who passed the board examination and who are employed as law

enforcers are permanent while the rest who were not able to pass the board

exam are hired on a contractual status. It should be noted however that 1 board

passer is among those who are still on a contractual status due to lack of

available position to be filled in the agency where he is employed.

3.2 .4 Present Occupation

Present occupation is the kind of working field the respondents

have. This also dealt with the place of work and the whereabouts of their first job

experience.

It can be gleaned in table 15 above, that most of the graduates with

9 or 48 percent were working as police officers. However, there were 3 or 16

percent Company personnel, 1 or 5 percent office staff likewise to the OFW

,Government and College instructor lastly self-employed having the least

number with 3 or 16 percen


43

Table 15
Employment Status in terms of Present occupation

Employment History Frequency Percentage


College Instructor 1 5
Company Personnel 3 16
Government staff 1 5
Office Staff 1 5
OFW 1 5
Police Officer 9 48
Self-employed 3 16

Total 19 100

Note that as to their place of work (whether local or abroad), all

respondents indicated that they are all employed locally. Hence, no table

depicting the distribution thereof is necessary

3.2.5 Gross Monthly Income

Gross monthly income pertains to the salary of the respondents in good of

one month.

Table 16 shows the gross monthly income of the graduate,

Table 16
Gross Monthly Income

Monthly Income Frequency Percentage

10,000-20,000 8 42
21,000-30,000 10 53
31,000-40,000 1 5
Total 19 100
44

Table 17 shows that of those currently employed, eight or 42 percent earn

P10,000 to less than P20,000 per month; ten or 53 percent at P21,000 to less

than P30,000; and, one or 5 percent at P31,000 to less than P40,000.

3.2.6 Present of Employer

Employer pertains to the name of owner, agency, company or

establishment that the respondent engaged with it.

Table 17 shows the present employer of the graduates

Table 17
Present of Employer

Employer Frequency Percentage

Philippine National Police 10 53


Company 3 16
University 1 5
Government staff 1 5
Office staff 1 5
Self Employed 3 16

Total 19 100

Table 17 indicates the employer status of respondents in Philippine

National Police with a frequency of a 10 or 53 percent; 3 or 16 percent on

company ;1 or 5 percent for college university of LSPU; 1 or 5 percent in the

sector of government staff; 1 or 5 percent for office staff; and, lastly with a

frequency of a 3 or 16 percent for those self-employed.

Thomas (2016) The criminology profession became the major of the

Philippine National Police. The focus of the criminology graduates then is


45

employment in the police service. From the big cities to the country side, nine

out of ten students in criminology school anchored their dreams for employment

in the police service.

3.2.7 Nature of Work

Nature of work defined as the type of work that he does. This can

refer to the basic daily tasks carried out as part of a job and can refer to other

non-routine tasks that may be required.

Table 18 shows the nature of work of the graduates

Table 18
Nature of Work

Nature of Work Frequency Percentage

Government 10 53
Private 9 47
Total 19 100

Table 18 present the total number of 28 BS Criminology graduates,

most of them 10 or 53 percent are employed in the government sector while 9

or 47 percent are employed in the private sector.

Chorvy (2008), on her Tracer Study of Institute of Statistics and Applied

Economics graduates working in Kampala City-Uganda for the period of 1990 to

1995 concluded the following: most graduates are employed either in public

sector or private sector; graduates use the knowledge and skills acquired to a

high extent, more males are satisfied than females at work; and there are

significant associations between sex vs. employment, performance at work vs.


46

class degree, and satisfaction at jobs vs. job titles. Furthermore, she identified

limitations on time to carry out the study and financial constraint.

3.2.8 Place of Work

It is an area or location where the respondent’s current job of the

respondents is located and assigned.

Table 19 shows present place of work of the present occupation.

Table 19
Place of Work of the Present Occupation

Place of work Frequency Percentage


Laguna 18 95
Abroad (Taiwan) 1 5
Total 19 100

Table 19 shows the frequency and percentage of present occupation of

the respondents in local with a frequency of 18 or 95 percent and in abroad with

a frequency of 1 or 5 percent.

Note that as to their place of work (whether local or abroad), all

respondents indicated that they are all employed locally. Hence, no table

depicting the distribution thereof is necessary.

Most of the employed graduates opted to work locally because they want

to serve their own country. They said that the very reason why they choose

Criminology over the many programs offered by the university was that they

aspired to be public servant. They further elaborated that how can they serve the

Filipino people if they will work abroad. More so, the employed graduates
47

exclaimed that the status and prestige that they hoped even when they were

young ones will only come true if they will serve the nation.

3.2.9 Length of service present job

Length of service present job the first job that a new trainee or graduate

takes upon completion of a training or degree program. Entry level in this sense

refers to the entry point into a specific chosen profession.

Table 20 shows the respondents’ length of service present job.

Table 20
Length of Service Present Job

Length of service Frequency Ranking

1-6 months 11 1st


7-12 months 2 2nd

13-18 months 2 2nd

19-24 months 2 2nd

25 months and above 2 2nd

Total 19

As shown in Table 20, eleven or the most highest of the ranked of the

graduates stay for at least one to six months. While seven to twelve months,

thirteen to eighteen months, nineteen to twenty four months and lastly twenty-five

months of them stay at their first job got a same frequency of two and likewised

in ranked of two. Probably, most of them ended their contract with their

companies when they reached 6 months. Although lots of companies give their

employees 6 months contract, there are some instances that they could extend it.
48

Some of them stay for more than 6 months depending on their employer and job

satisfaction.

Nowadays, it really took a lot of time and patient to find job. Due to the

employers set requirements that other applicant could not meet. It could also be

because of the person’s decision not to look for a job and took it in a long period

of time. Others would reason that they would like to take rest before graduation

rather than hunt for a job.

3.2.3 Position/Designation for the Present Job

Position/designation for the present job the general tasks, or other

related duties, and responsibilities of a position.

Table 21 shows the employment status in terms in job level position

Table 21
Position/ Designation for the present job

Designation Frequency Ranking


Rank or Clerical 9 1st
Professional, Technical 3 3rd
Managerial 4 2nd
Self Employed 3 3rd
Total 19

As presented at the table above, most of the respondents are working

having the job level position of rank or clerical with a frequency of 9 in first

ranked, next is the professional, technical with a frequency of 3 and get 2nd

ranked and lastly managerial and self-employed respondent with 3 or 2with a

ranked of 3rd . This is due to the kind of job they got involved especially those

whose job is in the field of law enforcement. It is given that their job level position
49

would be by rank. The job description of rank refers to a position in relation to

others higher or lower, showing the importance or authority of the person having

it. Hence, some of the respondents stated that they have different job level

position in their first and current job.

3.2.10 Source of Information for the Job

Sources include a current employee, newspaper posting, company

website, job board, commercial, flier and social media.

Table 22 shows the source of information for the job.

Table 22
Source of information for the job

Source of information Frequency Ranking


Walk in Applicant 12 1st
Recommendation 1 3rd
Internet 3 2nd
Job Fair 3 2nd
Total 19

Table 22 shows the distribution of how the respondents’ first job was

found. Walk-in ranks first with a frequency of twelve, followed by

recommendation with frequencies of one . Internet follows with a frequency of

three. Then, job fair at a frequency of three .Note that the survey respondents

were allowed to choose as many of the options as are applicable to them. Hence,

the total number of frequencies may not be equivalent to the total number of

respondents. The data implies that the graduates resorted to the most possible

means by which they could find a job.


50

A walk in applicant is a way to easily find a job as answered by the most of

the respondents. When the employers look at the applicant personally, they can

easily decide if this person is suited or not suited in the job.

Ramirez, Cruz and Alcantara (2014) argue that it is no longer sufficient for

new graduates to have knowledge because most industries today need

applicants who are capable to perform the job. Companies need highly skilled

graduates in order to be competent. This implies that universities must shift their

instructional competence to train students who are outcomes-based, so that they

can survive in the world of work relative on the respective careers they have

chosen.

3.2 Relatedness to the Course

This presents the respondent’s first job in terms of its relatedness to

the course they took up in college.

Table 23 shows the respondents’ first job and its relatedness to the

course

Table 23

Present Occupation in terms of its Relatedness to the Course

Related to the course Frequency Percentage


Yes 11 56
No 8 44
Total 19 100

Table 23 shows that 11 or 56 percent of the respondents had their first job

relevant to their curriculum while there are 8 or 4 percent of them who took their
51

first job irrelevant to the curriculum they had. They who work as police officers,

fire officer and criminology instructor got their job relevant to the curriculum. The

aforementioned jobs are part of the field which is applicable in the job

prescription for the graduates of B.S Criminology. However, working in a

company or other industrial works is irrelevant due to its non-relativeness in

suppressing, controlling and maintaining peace and order in the community.

Most of the graduates in batch 2014 their taken job are related to their

course anchored their dreams for employment in the police service. On the other

hand for the not undergo to related course some of them are not pass to the

eligibility examination in the field of service.

3.2.1Competencies Learned in College

The competencies learned in college are what the students acquired

when they already have their first job.

Table 24 shows the educational background of the graduates in terms

of the competencies learned in college;

Table 24
The Competencies learned in College

Competencies Learned in Frequency Ranking


College
Communication Skills 8 1st
Human Relations Skills 3 3rd
Information Technology Skill 1 4th
Problem – Learning Skills 1 4th
Critical Thinking Skills 4 2nd

TOTAL 17 100
52

Note that the survey respondents were allowed to choose as many of the

options as are applicable to them. Hence, the total number of frequencies may

not be equivalent to the total number of respondents.

It can be gleaned from the table that majority of the respondents acquired

the communication skills with a frequency of eight get a highest ranked , followed

by critical thinking skill with a frequency of four got a 2nd ranked , human relation

skill with a frequency of three in the ranked of 3 rd , and lastly for the lowest

ranked with a frequency of one in problem-learning skill likewise in critical

thinking skill . Acquiring the communication skills let them stand and remain to

their works for it helps them convey information to another effectively and

efficiently.

Graduates of the BS Criminology Degree are trained to be equipped of

several skills as their weapon to compete in the global market for employment. It

was further claimed, that they easily adjusted themselves in their respective jobs

because of the skills possessed.

Sharma (2013) Higher education experts say that universities are coming

under increasing pressure to ensure that their graduates are ‘employable’,

although preparation for ‘employability’ is still only rarely incorporated in

university courses, and the skills that could make a difference in finding

employment and ways to deliver those skills are still not evident
53

4. Implication of the Findings of the Study to the Graduate Tracer Study of

Laguna State Polytechnic University.

A tracer study is a comprehensive, objective, and evaluative study that

traces the current employment status of their graduates and assesses their

qualitative competencies with the job at hand.

Based on the findings most of graduates are already employed in

different sector. Of those who are not yet employed, they cite lack of eligibilities as

the reason, while those were previously employed who have already left their first

job cite salaries and benefits as their reason for leaving. Majority of the graduates

not pursue to take any advance training/ education and not half of the graduates

their job not related to their course taken.


54

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECCOMMENDATIONS

This chapter initially focuses its presentation of the summary of findings,

the conclusions and the recommendations given by the researchers.

1. Profile of the Respondents

1.1 Sex

It was revealed that majority of the respondents according to gender. As

gleaned from the table, it is obvious that it is dominated by males, with a

frequency of 22 or 78 percent and with only 5 or 18 percent as female

respondents and 1 respondent that already ceased.

1.2 Age

Out of 27 respondents there were seventeen or 63 percent or most of

them were at the age of 26-30. It was followed by 21-25 years of age with nine or

32 percent. And lastly while there were 31-35 years of age of graduates with one

or 5 percent.

1.3 Civil Status

The greater number of the respondents was represented by married

people which got the highest frequency of 23 or 85 percent. Those respondents

whose civil status was single got a frequency of 4 or 15 percent of the sample

population..

1.4 Region of Origin

It was revealed that majority of the respondents 100 percent of the

respondents are from Region 4 which implies that students who enroll in a school
55

nearest to their place. Proximity is of prime consideration to lessen academic

expenses.

1.5 Residence

It was revealed that majority of the respondents according to the Calamba

City and Municipality of Los Baños where respondents reside. It can be seen that

nearly half reside in Calamba City hence with a frequency of 9 or 33 percentage ;

followed by Los Baños with a frequency of 18 or 67 percent.

2. The Educational Background of the Graduates

2.1 Educational Attainment

2.1.1 Licensure/Eligibility Examinations

The 27 respondent a number of professional licensure/eligibility

examinations. Of these, with a frequency of 9 or 32 percent passed the Board

Exam only; with a frequency of 2 or 7 percent passed to the NAPOLCOM

Entrance Examination; and for Criminology Failed into Examination with a

frequency of 8 or 29 percent ; and for No licensure/eligibility Examination taken

with a frequency of 8 or 29 percent.

2.1.2 Reason for taking the Course

As presented in the table, among 27 respondents, the highest

number of respondents or 9 of them stated that influence of parents or relatives

is the main reason for taking the course. The common people would always

have high respect to them since their task is to serve and protect the people. The

graduates said even when they were still young ones they look up with the police

officers in their respective community with high dignity and respect. This
56

motivated them to take BS Criminology program because they dreamed that

someday somehow they can be one of the police officers.

2.2 Training/Advance Studies

It was revealed that majority of the respondents 100 percent of the

respondents had never taken any educational advance training after the

graduation. Majority in BSCriminology Graduates Batch 2014 not undergo in any

training/advance studies after their graduation.

3. Employment Status of the Respondents

3.1 Employment Data

It was revealed that majority of the respondents indicates with a frequency

of 19 or 70 percent are presently employed while with a frequency of 8 or 30

percent are not presently employed.

3.1.1 Reason Why Not Employed

It was revealed that majority of the respondents indicates that those

not presently employed, 8 respondents provided the following reasons: with a

percentage of 87.5 of 7 respondents no job opportunity; and lastly with a

percentage of 12.5 of 1 respondent health related. They have no opportunity to

find job because they can’t seem to find out if they have a position available that

may be right for their course taken..

3.2.1 Respondents’ Waiting Time of their First Job

It was revealed that majority of the respondents indicates with a frequency

of respondents waiting time for their job in ranked as the number 1 less than 1
57

month with a rank of 9; followed by 2-5 months with a rank of 3; and 6-12 months

with a rank of 1 lastly is more than 1 year with a rank of 5.

3.2.2 Number of jobs after graduation

It was revealed that majority of the respondents indicates with a frequency

of respondents and percentage of the graduates that finding a jobs after their

graduation and most of them the number of job their taken with a frequency of 14

or 52 percent ; and with a number of jobs got a 2 with a frequency of 7 or 26

percent lastly with a frequency of 6 or 22 percent.

3.2.3 Present Employment Status

The respondent agreed that has a permanent employed with a frequency

of 12 or 44 percentage; 7 or 37 percent are temporary; and, 3 or 16 percent are

self-employed .Note that neither of the two (3) self-employed indicated any skills

learned in college that they can apply.

3.2.4 Present Occupation

It was revealed that majority that most of the graduates with 9 or 48

percent were working as police officers. However, there were 3 or 16 percent

Company personnel, 1 or 5 percent office staff likewise to the OFW ,Government

and College instructor lastly self-employed having the least number with 3 or 16

percent.

3.2.5 Gross Monthly Income

They revealed those currently employed, 8 or 42 percent earn P10,000 to

less than P20,000 per month; 10 or 53 percent at P21,000 to less than P30,000;

and, 1 or 5 percent at P31,000 to less than P40,000.


58

3.2.6 Present of Employer

3.2.7 Nature of Work

The respondent agreed Of the total number of 28 BS Criminology

graduates, most of them 10 or 53 percent are employed in the government

sector while 9 or 47 percent are employed in the private sector. Eight graduates

were not lucky enough to land on a job after graduation..

3.2.8 Place of Work

The respondent agreed present occupation of the respondents in local

with a frequency of 18 or 95 percent and in abroad with a frequency of 1 or 5

percent.

3.2.9 Length of Service Present Job

It was revealed that majority of the respondents the length of service of

the graduates, ranking the first rank with a frequency of 22 had a length of 1-6

months; followed with a same frequency and rank are those had a length of 7-12

months, 13-18 months, 19-24 months, lastly 25 months and above.

3.2.10 Position/Designation for the Present Job

It was revealed that majority of the respondents are working having

the job level position of rank or clerical with a frequency of 9 in first ranked, next

is the professional, technical with a frequency of 3 and get 2 nd ranked and lastly

managerial and self-employed respondent with 3 or 2with a ranked of 3 rd .


59

4. Implication of the Findings of the Study to the Graduate Tracer Study of

Laguna State Polytechnic University.

A tracer study is a comprehensive, objective, and evaluative study that

traces the current employment status of their graduates and assesses their

qualitative competencies with the job at hand.

Based on the findings most of graduates are already employed in

different sector. Of those who are not yet employed, they cite lack of eligibilities as

the reason, while those were previously employed who have already left their first

job cite salaries and benefits as their reason for leaving. Majority of the graduates

not pursue to take any advance training/ education and not half of the graduates

their job not related to their course taken.

Conclusions

Based from the findings of the study, the following conclusions were

drawn.

1.Most of the respondents were married, male, aged of 26-30 years old,

originated from Region 4A and residing in city.

2.All of the graduates were BS Criminology graduates, board passers, took the

course for the reason of status and prestige of the profession then most of them

to undergoes advance trainings/studies for professional development and

promotion.

3.Majority of the graduate were presently employed, working as Police Officers,

having the job level position of rank and clerical. Most of them had their job
60

relevant to their curriculum and as to their competencies learned in college they

acquired communication skills.

4.The university must improve their facilities. To offer once again the driving

lesson for their students, conduct more seminars that will further boost the

knowledge of the students towards the various field and maintained the high

standard of hiring faculty members who where a specialist in their respective

areas of specialization.

Recommendations

From the findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are

hereby presented:

1.Laguna State Polytechnic University must conduct a periodic Graduate

Tracer Study on its alumni in order to continually measure its effectiveness for

the development of the Institution and ensuring the success of graduates on their

criminology-related careers. As well, to ascertain the career progression trends

among its graduates

2. Yearly update of the employment status of the graduates must be made

to determine their status.

3. As it pertains to Criminological Research and Statistics students – every

effort must be considered in learning as much from the GTS thesis as possible

since it provides a good basis in helping them map their steps towards career

progression.

4. The university must furnish more advance and practical training for their

students to enhance its curriculum. Thus, it could bring intrinsic satisfactions that
61

embed into their student’s psychological self-trust in oneself that build up

confidence and better future.

5. Persist in accomplishing the needs in the crime laboratory. It is

essential for the university to provide the latter to augment the quality of

education and service they offer.

6. The administration may appoint highly qualified faculty members who

are specialist as in their respective areas of specialization. Through them they

can built trust and confidence in their clientele because of the personality they

exude due to their earned experience.

7. For the parents, they must support their children’s activities in relation

with their curriculum. This will help in boosting the student’s skills and knowledge.

8. Future criminology students must pass the requirements set by the

university. Through this the quality education that the university provide for their

students will be maintained.


62

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67

APPENDICES
68

Appendix – A
LETTER OF COMMUNICATION
69

Appendix – B
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
70

Appendix – C
PHOTO DOCUMENTATION
71

The researchers on their consultation and validation the research


instrument to Ms.
72

The researchers at Los banos City outdoors station while doing actual
research survey
73

The researchers while doing the tally of the data gathered


74

CURRICULUM VITAE
75

Ana Marie M. Baysa


Brgy. Turbina, Calamba city, Laguna
Mobile No.: 0916-600-0376
Email Address: anabaysa24@gmail.com

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

Tertiary
Laguna State Polytechnic University- LB Campus
Losbaños Laguna
Bachelor of Science in Criminology
2019

Secondary
Makiling National High School
Calamba City Laguna
2014-2015

Primary
Real Elementary School
Brgy. Real Calamba City, Laguna
2010-2011

PERSONAL PROFILE

Gender : Female
Birthday : March 24, 1999
Birth Place : Mauban, Quezon
Height : 5’4
Weight : 50 lbs
Name of Father : Dionie L. Baysa
Occupation : n/a
Name of Mother : Rosemarie M. Baysa
Occupation : Businesswoman
Status : Single
Citizenship : Filipino
Religion : Roman Catholic

I hereby certify that the above information is true and correct to the best of my knowledge
and belief.

Ana Marie M. Baysa