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# Gr 7 GISD Modified Advice for Instruction |Agile Mind Topic 5.

## Grade 7 Unit 1-Agile Mind Topic 5 Prepare Instruction

Unit Goals and objectives
TEKS
7.2A Extend previous knowledge of sets and subsets using a visual representation to describe
relationships between sets of rational numbers.
7.3A Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers fluently.
7.3B Apply and extend previous understandings of operations to solve problems using addition,
subtraction, multiplication, and division of rational numbers.
7.4A Represent constant rates of change in mathematical and real‐world problems given pictorial,
tabular, verbal, numeric, graphical, and algebraic representations, including d = rt
7.4B Calculate unit rates from rates in mathematical and real‐world problems
7.4D Solve problems involving ratios, rates, and percents, including multi‐step problems involving
percent increase and percent decrease, and financial literacy problems
7.4E Convert between measurement systems, including the use of proportions and the use of unit rates.
*7.13A Calculate the sales tax for a given purchase and calculate income tax for earned wages
*7.13C Create and organize a financial assets and liabilities record and construct a net worth statement
(* need to supplement Agile Mind lesson)

## After completing Rational numbers, students will be able to

 use positive and negative rational numbers to represent real‐life situations;
 use positive and negative rational numbers to solve real‐life problems;
 use positive and negative rational numbers to convert measures across measurement systems;
 apply the order of operations in a variety of problem situations.

Topic at a glance
This topic builds on students’ prior work with applying properties of operations to solve problems with positive
fractions and decimals, and with integers. Students have not yet investigated solving problems involving both positive
and negative fractions and decimals. Students will solve real‐world and mathematical problems involving the four
operations with positive and negative rational numbers including negative fractions and decimals.

The intent of this topic is to work towards fluency with addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of rational
numbers. You may choose to let students use a calculator in some cases to check the computations in order to keep
the focus on how to use rational numbers to solve problems.

Six 45‐minute instructional blocks are recommended for this topic to allow time for instruction and formative
assessment.

## Day Description Resources Suggested assignment

Day 1 is a review of rational numbers and covers notes
on three different Student Activity Sheets.
The lesson:
 provides students the opportunity to review and
process the technical vocabulary they should use to Overview- SAS 1 More practice
describe different types of numbers, including natural Probs 1‐14
Exploring "Operations with
numbers, whole numbers, integers, and rational
1 positive rational numbers" SAS 1 Questions 12a‐d and
numbers.
(p 1‐10) 13a‐c
 develops students' skills in applying rational
numbers to real‐life scenarios and scaling up SAS 2 and SAS 3 SAS 3 Questions 5‐9
ratios. Students multiply and divide fractions.
 engages students in the practice of scaling down
instead of up.
TEKS 7.2A, 7.3A
Day Description Resources Suggested assignment

## Day 2 Notes are from two Student Activity sheets.

The lesson:
Begin Exploring
 uses animated graphical representations that help "Understanding rational More practice problems
students apply a vertical model for understanding 15‐18
2 number operations"
operations with positive and negative fractions. P 1‐7
 supports students’ continued exploration of solving SAS 5 Questions10‐15
SAS 4 and SAS 5
problems involving positive and negative fractions.
TEKS 7.3A and 7.3B
Finish Exploring
Day 3 finishes the Exploring section started on Day 2. The More practice problems
lesson introduces tools and processes for converting across "Understanding rational 19‐22
3 measurement systems. number operations" p8‐
12 SAS 6 Questions 7a‐g
TEKS 7.4A, 7.4B, 7.4D, 7,4E
SAS 6
Begin Exploring "Applying
Day 4 begins the second Exploring section in Topic 5. The More practice problems
rational number
lesson gives students the opportunity to work on fluency operations" 23‐27
4
with all operations with rational numbers. P 1‐8
TEKS 7.4A, 7.4D Constructed response 1
SAS 7
Day 5 finishes the Exploring section started on Day 4 and Finish Exploring "Applying rational
Guided practice
the Summary. The lesson engages students in a real‐ number operations" p9‐12
world scenario wherestudents apply negative rational More practice
Summary
5 operations and theorder of operations to an expression Problems 28‐30
involving negative rational numbers and complex SAS 8
fractions. SAS 8 Q6
TEKS 7.3A, 7.3B, 7.4A
Day 6 provides time for a topic‐level assessment to make sure
6 that students understand the connections among all the Automatically scored
Assessment, with teacher None
representations of rational numbers. added items.

Prerequisite skills
To be successful with the material in this topic, students should already be able to:
Perform basic operations with fractions and decimals
Perform basic operations with integers
Apply the order of operations to simplify expressions
Carry out monetary conversions between cents and dollars
Resources
 Computer with projection device  Measuring cups (optional)
 Sample recipe
 Algebra tiles or two‐color counters

##  Sticky notes (optional)

RELATED RESOURCES
 Agile Mind Glossary  Region 6 lessons for Unit 1

Language support
Although most words were introduced to students in previous topics or courses, all students will continue to build
proficiency with using the core vocabulary of whole number, integer, quotient, rational number, reciprocal,
order of operations, decimal, numerator, and denominator. Non‐native speakers may also struggle with
collateral vocabulary such as dollars, cents, percents, units, cups, ounces, pint, batch, serving, left, right,
increasing, decreasing, elevation, climbing, descending, and model.
Gr 7 GISD Modified Advice for Instruction |Agile Mind Topic 5. Rational numbers for Unit 1 | Day 1 of 6 Days

Day 1--Deliver instruction Note: These terms and operations are review and the
lesson should move quickly. Fifteen pages of animations (Overview and Exploring
Operations) and Student Activity Sheets 1, 2, and 3 are meant to be reviewed in
this lesson.
TEKS
7.2A Extend previous knowledge of sets and subsets using a visual representation to describe relationships
between sets of rational numbers.
7.3A Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers fluently.
7.3B Apply and extend previous understandings of operations to solve problems using
addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of rational numbers.

## Agile Mind materials

Topic 5 Rational numbers:
 Overview pages 1 - 5
 Exploring "Operations with positive rational numbers" , pages 1 - 10
 Student Activity Sheets : SAS1, SAS2, SAS3

## Opening the lesson

How many of you have helped plan a school field trip?

Framing questions
What types of things need to be considered when planning such a trip?
What math skills might be needed to plan a successful trip?

Lesson activities
Overview
Page 1
Set up the scenario of the hiking trip using the framing questions.
Have students turn to a neighbor and tell them what they think a rational number is before moving on to
next page.

Pages 2‐3
Review the different types of numbers: natural, whole, integer, and rational. Pause throughout the
animation so students can record their ideas on the activity sheet. [SAS, questions 1‐10]
Classroom strategy. Ask students to share their own versions of each definition, correcting any
misconceptions as needed. Encourage students to not only record the definition given on the Agile Mind
page, but their own definition as well. This activity will increase understanding and retention of terms.
Use the language note on page 3 to introduce students to the vocabulary strategy of looking for meaning
through root words, tying it to the same strategy they use in language arts class. Have students highlight
the root word on their activity sheet.
Have students give non examples of each type of number as well as examples.

Page 4
Use the animation to show how the different numbers relate to one another and to make connections
among different representations: terminology, numbers, and the graphical representations of the number
line and the Venn diagram. Ask students to watch, listen, and respond without writing at first. Then replay
the animation, pausing after each example, so students can record the information. [SAS, question 11]
Classroom strategy. With panel 1, whole numbers are shown in red on the number line and with panel 2
integers are shown with orange. As you play panel 2, students should notice that all of the red points turn
to orange. Likewise, panel 3 shows points representing rational numbers in yellow and then turns all orange
points to yellow. Help students make connections among the colors, the types of numbers and the Venn
diagram. Promote the mathematical practice of looking for and making use of structure by asking:
Why do each of the points representing whole numbers turn to orange?
What are some other integers?
What are some other integers that are also whole numbers?
What are some numbers that are whole numbers but not integers? (impossible)
Why do each of the points representing integers turn to yellow?
What are some other rational numbers?
What are some numbers that are rational numbers but not integers?
What are some other numbers that are rational and integer and whole?
What are some numbers that are rational and integer but not whole?
What are some numbers that are integers but not rational numbers? (impossible)
Have you ever seen or studied numbers that would not belong in this Venn diagram?

Page 5
Review the different types of numbers represented in the Venn diagram. Be sure to review not only the
formal definitions, but also the student versions, making connections between mathematical and common
language for clarity.
Further questions
What are some other ways you see different kinds of rational numbers being used every day?
How can you compare the different representations of rational numbers (fractions, decimals, percents) so
they can be properly ordered on the number line?

## Exploring "Operations with positive rational numbers"

Language strategy. This Exploring incorporates many different units for measuring. Cups, pints, dollars,
cents, as well as working with conversions are presented throughout the topic and included in the
Constructed response. It may be a good idea to use actual objects to present the new terms prior to this
Exploring, to ensure that language learners can make the appropriate connections between different units.
Items that are used in this way are referred to as realia. For example, borrow some measuring cups from a
colleague; show students how many cups of soda are contained in one can. You may also need to review
different types of U.S. coins and have a discussion about exchange rates.

Pages 1‐2
Give students time to discuss and respond to the framing questions.
Use the puzzles to review key terms that were introduced in the Overview. [SAS, questions 1 and 2]
Classroom strategy. Use think‐pair‐share techniques in conjunction with the activity sheets as a way to
engage all students in this review. After students have had an opportunity to record their answers
individually, have them pair with a partner to compare and discuss solutions. Call on pairs to match tiles
online.

Page 3
Use the diagram from panel 1 of the animation to reinforce the placement of the integers in the set of
rational numbers. Relate the diagram to the definitions, both formal and student‐created, discussed in the
previous lesson.
Show the animation to review how whole numbers, integers, and rational numbers are related. Use activity
sheet questions to guide conversation. [SAS, questions 3‐5]
Classroom strategy. Students may ask about decimals that don’t terminate or repeat. You can let students
know that such numbers exist and that they called “irrational” numbers, and include pi. Irrational numbers
and other number sets will be studied in future courses.
Pages 4‐5
Use page 4 to introduce the new problem situation. Use the animation on page 5 to show Gina's approach.
Ask students to predict the values on each line of the table before advancing the animation to show them
filled in. Make sure students understand the difference between a serving and a batch. [SAS, question 6]
What does Gina know at this point about the amount of raisins she will need?
What is a batch?
Will 36 servings of trail mix be enough?

Page 6
After the class agrees that 36 servings will be sufficient for the 32 members, give them time to work in
groups to complete the puzzle on page 6. [SAS, question 7] Then explain that, because of cost, the club
sponsor wants Gina to make exactly the number of servings of people who go on the hike, which will be 32
people at most.
What does Gina need to know in order to make 32 servings?
How can she figure this out?
Classroom strategy. Emphasize understanding of reasonableness and operation selection. When students
complete a computation, ask them to focus on the reasonableness of the answer to justify their operation
selection and computation.

Further questions
 How many cups of each ingredient would we need to make enough servings for our class?

Pages 7‐9
Have students actually double and halve the recipe from the Opening.
Discuss the teacher’s concerns on page 7. How could they address them?
Once students realize they can use division to find the amount of each ingredient needed for 1 serving,
play the animation on page 8 to demonstrate. Have students predict each entry before advancing the
animation. Students may relate this method to finding unit rates. [SAS, question 1]
Classroom strategy. Promote the mathematical practice of looking for and making use of structure, as the
students work through the animation on page 8, by asking students to explain why dividing by a fraction
yields the same answer as multiplying by its reciprocal. Students who understand this structure become
more flexible in their approaches to proportional reasoning with unit rates.
Use page 9 to summarize the process Gina used and to extend the process to find the amount of raisins for
32 servings. [SAS, questions 2‐3]

Page 10
Have students use the process discussed on page 9 to find the amount in cups needed for 32 servings of
each ingredient. [SAS, question 4]
Technology tip. When using rational numbers, emphasize the selection of appropriate representations and
operations. Practice with operations is critical to build automaticity. However, allowing the use of a
calculator if needed for timely computation may be necessary in some places in this exploring. Always ask
students to consider whether an answer is reasonable for a given problem situation. Relating the symbols
for division (÷ and /), may be noteworthy for students, as well as understanding how to properly enter a
fraction in the calculator. Additionally, this may be a good opportunity to use the fraction/decimal feature
that is built into the calculator to help relate equivalencies among decimals, fractions, and percents.

Suggested assignment
More practice, problems 1‐14
 SAS 1 Questions 12a‐d and 13a‐c
 SAS 3 Questions 5‐9
Gr 7 GISD Modified Advice for Instruction |Agile Mind Topic 5. Rational numbers for Unit 1 | Day 2 of 6 Days

## Day 2--Deliver instruction Note: Seven pages of animations (Exploring: Understanding

Rational Number Operations, ;pages 1 - 7) and Student Activity Sheets 4 and 5 are meant
to be used in this lesson.
TEKS
7.3A Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers fluently.
7.3B Apply and extend previous understandings of operations to solve problems using addition,
subtraction, multiplication, and division of rational numbers.
Agile Mind materials
Topic 5 Rational numbers:
Exploring "Understanding rational number operations" pages 1 – 7
Student Activity Sheet : SAS 4

## Opening the lesson

How many of you have ever been hiking or on a trail with distance and elevation markers?

Framing questions
What is elevation and how is it measured?
How is "sea level" like zero on a number line?
How can numbers below sea level be represented?

Lesson activities
Exploring "Understanding rational number operations"

Page 1
Revisit the hiking trip scenario, making sure that students understand how the number line relates to the
mountain trail. [SAS, questions 1‐3]
Use these questions to help students relate the context to the number line:
Where are the telescopes located in relation to sea level?
Where is the picnic area in relation to sea level?
Where is the water fountain in relation to sea level?

Page 2
Play the animation, asking students to give the changes in elevation for each scenario before advancing the
animation to show the related calculation. [SAS, questions 4‐8]
Classroom strategy. Instead of referring to rules for integer operations, link student questions to a real‐
world context or concrete model, such as a thermometer or number line, to allow them to "act out" the
problem in a meaningful way. This strategy engages the students in making sense of the problem versus
remembering rules they may not yet fully understand. This is the first time in the course when students
have to compute with negative rational numbers. This may be confusing for students, so go through each
panel carefully. Throughout this block of instruction, promote the mathematical practice of reasoning
abstractly and computationally by encouraging students to relate the values in their number sentences to
the scenario, particularly how those values represent the elevation or change in elevation.
Classroom strategy. Since this is students’ first time representing situations using negative fractions, they
may need to proceed slowly through this first scenario. Use the remaining class time to engage students
with the questions in the suggested assignment. You can share and discuss the questions as a whole class or
take students to the computer lab to answer the questions individually or with a partner. Use the Further
questions to connect the ideas in this b lock to students’ prior understanding of modeling situations with
integers.
Further questions
How have we used positive and negative rational numbers to model the hiking scenario?
What are some additional number sentences that can model a different hike along this route?

Classroom strategy. In this block, have students work together in mixed‐math ability pair/share partnerships to
complete. Give students dry‐erase boards or other types of response cards to share solutions.

Page 3
Give students time to solve the puzzle. [SAS, questions 1‐5] Share solutions, taking time to ask student
pairs how they derived their answers. Be sure to ask if anyone found the same solution in a different way.
Tie solution methods together so students can see multiple ways of viewing the mathematics correctly.

Pages 4‐5
Give students time to solve the puzzle on each page. [SAS, questions 6‐7]. After students pairs work on a
puzzle and share a solution ask:
How does the equation represent what is happening on the vertical number line?
Did anyone see it differently?

Page 6
Give students time to solve the puzzle. [SAS, question 7] After a student pair has shared its solution, ask:
How does the equation represent what is happening on the vertical number line?
Did anyone see it differently?
Give students time to solve the puzzle on page 6. [SAS, question 8] After student pairs have shared
solutions, ask the class to compare the three problems they just solved. Use these questions to guide the
discussion:
What pattern did you discover when finding changes in elevation for locations above sea level? How
is that pattern expressed when writing a mathematical sentence that represents this type of
situation?
What pattern did you discover when finding changes in elevation for locations below sea level? How
is that pattern expressed when writing a mathematical sentence that represents this type of
situation? Compare and contrast this pattern to those created by locations above sea level.
What pattern did you discover when finding changes in elevation for locations both above and
below sea level? How is that pattern expressed when writing a mathematical sentence that
represents this type of situation? Compare and contrast that pattern to those where both locations
are on the same side of sea level.
While in groups ask pairs to write their own “puzzles” that classmates can solve. You could direct puzzles
to include only hikes below sea level, only hikes above sea level, and then a mix, to help see the patterns
you want to generalize in the conversations that summarize the online puzzles.

Page 7
Give students time to respond to the question on page 7. This is the first time we have discussed rates in
this exploring, so take a moment to relate this to previous experiences with rates. Remind students of the
formula distance = (rate)(time). Discuss what this would mean if the answer were negative, as in a negative
rate. [SAS, question 9] After students have shared their solutions, probe further with these questions:
Which problem situation you've previously explored is this scenario most like?
Compare and contrast the math sentences you wrote for each. How are they alike? How are they
different?
How would you write a general description of each of the patterns that could apply to any rational
number situation?
Language strategy. Listen for students who may be having trouble with the integer operations when
working collaboratively on the puzzles. This is a great opportunity to informally assess the students'
problem solving skills. Ensure that the students are comfortable with the conceptual understanding of the
terms in each of the puzzles. Encourage them read and apply the key vocabulary associated with the
scenario by directing them to practice incorporating the language associated with the activities into their
discussions, e.g. using the phrase, "The change in elevation..."
Classroom strategy. As with the previous block, take time for students to practice operating with positive
and negative rational numbers. The activity sheet provides opportunities to build fluency, while the Guided
practice provides additional work in apply these operations in contexts. It will be important for students to
discuss their ideas and strategies with their classmates and to correct and learn from common errors.

Further questions
How is operating (adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing) with positive and negative rational
numbers similar to operating with integers? How is it different?

Suggested assignment

How is moving up and down a football field similar to moving up and down the mountain trail? How is it
different?
How is moving up and down a thermometer similar to moving up and down the mountain trail?
How can budgeting be related to the mountain trail?

Suggested assignment

## More practice, pages 15‐18

 SAS 5 questions 10 - 15
Gr 7 GISD Modified Advice for Instruction |Agile Mind Topic 5. Rational numbers for Unit 1 | Day 3 of 6 Days

Day 3--Deliver instruction Important teaching note: This lesson uses the idea of a unit rate
(page 9, animations 2 – 4) to use as a scale factor to calculate conversions. Introduce the phrase
“constant rate of change” to describe the unit rate. It is a constant rate that can be used to find
multiple conversions. For instance, since 1 ft = 0.3048 meters, then there are 0.0348 meters per ft (or
0.3048 m
). We can find the number of meters in 5 feet or 7 feet or any number of feet by multiplying
1ft
0.3048 m
the number of feet by the constant . This unit rate is a “constant rate” to determine the
1ft
number of meters, which changes depending on how many feet are used.
TEKS
7.4A represent constant rates of change in mathematical and real‐world problems given pictorial,
tabular, verbal, numeric, graphical, and algebraic representations, including d = rt
7.4B Calculate unit rates from rates in mathematical and real‐world problems
7.4D Solve problems involving ratios, rates, and percents, including multi‐step problems involving
percent increase and percent decrease, and financial literacy problems
7.4E Convert between measurement systems, including the use of proportions and the use of unit rates.

## Agile Mind materials -Topic 5 Rational numbers:

Exploring "Understanding rational number operations" start at page 8 – 12
Student Activity Sheet: SAS 6

## Opening the lesson

Engage students in a brief discussion of the measurement systems they are familiar with in the United States
or elsewhere.

Framing questions
The United States customary unit systems include feet, miles, ounces, and gallons. What other measurement
systems are you familiar with?
Who has travelled to another country and what measurement systems did you encounter?
What would you do if you needed to translate from one system to another? For example, how many liters do you
think you can fit in a gallon?

Lesson activities
Exploring "Understanding rational number operations"

Page 8
Use the opening and the framing questions to set the stage for today’s lesson. Show page 8 to introduce the
scenario. Assess students' prior knowledge of the units by asking questions such as:
Approximately how tall is 233 meters? Approximately how tall is 1 meter? How can we get an
estimate?
What do you know about the differences between Celsius and Fahrenheit?
Approximately how warm or cold are these temperatures in Fahrenheit? How can we get an
estimate?
Use the “Did you know” button to alert students to the uniqueness of U.S. systems of measurement.

Page 9 See note at the beginning of Day 3 about “constant rate of change”
Show panel 1 of the animation and orient students to the slider and the image of the slider on their Student
Activity Sheets. Ask students to describe the relationship that is modeled by this panel. Have a few students
take turns sliding the slider to a location that interests them. Ask them to record a few measures that interest
them and discuss what they notice. [SAS, question 1] Ask students to consider if the relationship is
proportional by asking questions such as:
How can we determine if this relationship is proportional?
If I double the number of feet, does the number of meters double?
What if I triple the number of feet?
After gathering some initial information about the relationship between feet and meters, ask student to
work in pairs to determine the number of feet in 6 meters. [SAS, question 2]
Classroom strategy. An idea for increasing engagement without diminishing the challenge of the task is to
allow a handful of students to select a slider location without saying why it interests them. Suggest that
other students may want to record those values on the image on their Student Activity Sheets in case that
information is helpful. You might also collect those ratios in a table. At this point, do not suggest methods
or have students share their ideas publically.
Classroom strategy. As students arrive at solutions, ask them consider other ways they could have solved
the problem. Identify a small number of pairs with different approaches to solving the problem. Debrief
this first conversion by asking pairs to share how they reasoned about the situation. Encourage them to
describe how they used the sliders, if appropriate.
Use panels 2‐4 of the animation to clarify the unit rates involved and to model strategies for solving the
problem using unit rates and proportions. For each of these methods, engage students in the processes
modeled with questions such as:
What is a reasonable estimate for the answer?
How can we use the given information to write a proportion?
What process can we apply to solve the proportion?
Once we have written this equation, what process can we apply to solve it?
How can we verify that our answer makes sense in the situation?
Use panel 5 of the animation to explore the relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit. Have students record
several measures that interest them [SAS, question 3] Ask students to consider if the relationship is proportional
by asking questions such as:
How can we determine if this relationship is proportional?
If I double the number of degrees Celsius, does the number of degrees Fahrenheit double? What if I triple
the number of degrees Celsius?
Help students use benchmark values to help them reason about the situation. They can use the sliders to answer
the question, or some students may suggest that they have used a formula before. Ask them to consider if they can
solve it with proportional reasoning and disprove this approach.
Use panel 6 of the animation to introduce the formulas and model the use of one of them. [SAS, question 4]

Page 10
Use page 10 to check for understanding with using the conversion rates. Allow students to think on their
own for 1‐2 minutes, then compare and discuss with a partner. Encourage students to apply both processes
to answer these questions, before debriefing as a whole class to discuss the answer and the benefits of
using each solution method. [SAS, question 5]

Pages 11‐12
Use page 11 to check for understanding. As before, allow individual “think time” before working with a
partner. [SAS, question 6]
Use page 12 to wrap up this Exploring.

Further questions
What are US customary and metric units for length? For weight/mass? For volume?

Suggested assignment
More practice, pages 19‐22
Student Activity Sheet 6, question 7a‐g
Gr 7 GISD Modified Advice for Instruction |Agile Mind Topic 5. Rational numbers for Unit 1 | 6 Days
Gr 7 GISD Modified Advice for Instruction |Agile Mind Topic 5. Rational numbers for Unit 1 | Day 4 of 6 Days

Day 4--Deliver instruction Note: This lessons uses unit rates and unit costs as scale
factors. Continue using “constant rate of change” to describe a unit rate or unit cost. Sixth
grade TEKS include independent and dependent variables. In this scenario, the total amount
of any ingredient “depends” on how many servings are needed. The same is true for the cost
of any ingredient—the cost “depends” on the number of servings. The unit cost is a “constant
rate” for a cost that changes, depending on how many servings are needed.

TEKS
7.4A represent constant rates of change in mathematical and real‐world problems given pictorial,
tabular, verbal, numeric, graphical, and algebraic representations, including d = rt
7.4D Solve problems involving ratios, rates, and percents, including multi‐step problems involving
percent increase and percent decrease, and financial literacy problems

## Agile Mind materials-- Topic 5 Rational numbers:

Exploring "Applying rational number operations" p 1 - 8
Constructed response 1
Student Activity Sheet: SAS 7

## Opening the lesson

Think of a time you went to a grocery store. Did you notice how items were being sold? Give some examples
of items that are sold by weight, volume, piece.

Framing questions
Why do you think some things are sold by weight and some by volume?
What units are potato chips usually sold in? Why?

Lesson activities
Exploring "Applying rational number operations"
Page 1
Be sure to give students enough time to discuss the approach Gina is taking. Also discuss what it means forsomething to
be sold by the pint. Although it is more common for pints to be used as a liquid measure, deli items and bulk items are
often sold in pints or ½ pints. Spend some time discussing liquid vs. dry measurements. Tell students that this store
sells dry ingredients in pint sized containers. If possible, bring one in to show. Discuss the conversion to cups.

Page 2
Discuss the method of finding the cost for one serving. [SAS, question 1]

Page 3
Students apply their understanding of unit rate to write number sentences that they can use to determinethe amount
of peanuts and sunflower seeds that are needed for 1 serving. Give students time to develop their own number
sentences, then share them. Illuminate that students could write a multiplication or a division number sentence to
represent this scenario, reiterating that dividing by a fraction is equivalent to multiplying by the reciprocal of that
fraction. Use the Check buttons as needed. [SAS, questions 2‐3]
Page 4
Students continue to apply their understanding of unit rate as they determine the cost per serving for thepeanuts
and sunflower seeds. Have students work individually, then compare their answers with a partner before using
the Check buttons. [SAS, question 4]
Page 5
Use this page to engage students in a process for applying the cost per serving to determine the cost for 32
servings of those same ingredients. Encourage students to use the information they have found (amount per
serving and cost per serving) to write and solve equations for each cell in the table. Students can work in
pairs. Then, play the animation and ask students to compare their number sentences and solutions. [SAS,
question 5]

Page 6
This page engages students in a slightly different process for thinking about the total cost for 32 servings of the
trail mix by applying the cost per cup rather than the cost per serving. Have students work with a partner to
complete the table, then use the Check buttons as needed. [SAS, question 6]
Classroom strategy. Use this page to promote the mathematical practice of attending to precision.
Students will be working with fractions, mixed numbers and decimals in the same scenario. Working with
recipes and purchasing ingredients is a common situation in which fractions and decimals are used
together. Allow students to grapple with this issue with their partners, rather than suggesting a particular
strategy. Some students may choose to convert the fractions to decimals, while other may prefer to
convert the decimals to fractions. Depending on which method they choose and how and when they decide
to round, students may get slightly different answers. Monitor students’ progress and identify different
processes and answers to highlight as you debrief this page. These variations in process provide an
opportunity for rich discussion about how and when to round and the implications for those decisions in
terms of the degree of precision that is appropriate when estimating costs.

Page 7
Before showing this page bring in a container and some bags. Fill a few and have students guess how many
it will take to empty the container. Then show the page. [SAS, questions 7‐8] Ask:

What is your prediction for the number of 2/3 ‐cup bags that can be filled?

## Will it be more than 12 or less than? How do you know?

Play the animation and discuss the results.
Discuss the two different approaches to simplifying the fraction. Could they think of other ways?

Page 8
Use this page to engage students in the process of determining how much to charge for the bags of trail
mix. With panels 1 and 2, make sure students understand the meaning of the entries in the ledger.
With panel 3, allow students time to determine how much the hiking club should charge per bag in order to
break even. [SAS, question 9a]
With panel 4, allow students time to consider the snack fund balance if the club charges \$1 per bag. Then
ask a student to use the class computer to enter his or her answers. Discuss and resolve any disagreements
before clicking the Check button. [SAS, question 9b]

Further questions
If each bag held ½ cup, would they be able to fill more of the bags or fewer? How many more or fewer?

Suggested assignment
More practice, pages 23‐27
Constructed response 1
Gr 7 GISD Modified Advice for Instruction |Agile Mind Topic 5. Rational numbers for Unit 1 | Day 5 of 6 Days

Day 5--Deliver instruction Note:The divers in this scenario create great discussion
about constant rate of change vs a varying rate of change. The divers go down at a
constant rate, butr because of the dangers ascending too fast, divers come partially up,
stop for a while, and change their speed.Use tables, verbal descriprions, and graphs to
describe the situations.
This day is also used to practice operations using order of operations with rational numbers. It
would be a good day to introduce some personal finance problems to match TEKS 7.13 A and 7.13C
as a way to practice operations with rational numbers.

## 7.3A Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers fluently.

7.3B Apply and extend previous understandings of operations to solve problems using addition,
subtraction, multiplication, and division of rational numbers.
7.4A Represent constant rates of change in mathematical and real‐world problems given pictorial,
tabular, verbal, numeric, graphical, and algebraic representations, including d = rt
Optional
*7.13A Calculate the sales tax for a given purchase and calculate income tax for earned wages
*7.13C Create and organize a financial assets and liabilities record and construct a net worth statement

## Agile Mind materials - Topic 5 Rational numbers:

Exploring "Applying rational number operations" p 9 - 12
Summary
Student Activity Sheet: SAS 8

Framing questions
How many different operations are needed in order to simplify this expression?
Which of these operations make sense to complete first?

Lesson activities
Exploring "Applying rational number operations"

Pages 9‐11
Use these pages to give students another opportunity to apply and extend their understandings of operations to
solve a series of scuba diving problems that require work with positive and negative rational numbers.
On page 9, students use a table to build their solution for the divers’ depth as she descends at a certain rate. [SAS,
question 1]
To reinforce students’ understanding of the computations they preformed to fill in the table, Ask:
What number sentence could you have used to find Gina’s depth after 4 minutes and 20 seconds?
[SAS, question 2]
On page 10, students work with a more complex series of operations that involves various rates. To help students
understand the series of operations, have a volunteer come to the board to draw the ascent with labeled depths and
rates. [SAS, question 3]
On page 11, students again work with rational numbers as they consider the speeds of the descent and ascent for
the world‐record holder for the deepest dive. [SAS, question 4]

Page 12
Have students discuss with each other the operations contained in the expression. Have them decide which
would be evaluated first.
Pick volunteers to come up and click the mouse on the operation. Before they click, have students simplify
that portion of the expression, then click to check. [SAS, question 5]
Summary
Use pages 1‐3 to summarize the big ideas of the topic.

Further questions
Consider the expression. 5 – 2  8 + 72
What is the value of the expression?
Where would you insert grouping symbols to change the value to 73?
Where would you insert grouping symbols to change the value to −445?
Where would you insert grouping symbols to change the value to −524?
Can you use grouping symbols to make a different value than the ones already given?

Suggested assignment

## Student Activity Sheet 8, question 6

Guided practice
More practice, pages 28‐30

Gr 7 GISD Modified Advice for Instruction |Agile Mind Topic 5. Rational numbers for Unit 1 | Day 6 of 6 Days

## Day 6 --Deliver instruction

Agile Mind materials: Topic 5 Rational numbers:
Automatically scored
Constructed response 2

Lesson activities

This block is intended for a topic level assessment. The Automatically scored questions or Constructed response 2
can be used as such an assessment.

Suggested assignment