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BITS Pilani K K Birla Goa Campus 4.

In a nuclear reaction, the observed cross-sections


nd are due to elastic & inelastic scattering (σe & σie
II SEMESTER 2016-17 (24/03/2017)
QUIZ III SOLUTION MM:15 PHY F343 respectively), the fission (σf ) and capture (σc ).
The total absorption cross-section is then (σa ) =
Instructions: Fill in your answer option. Questions . 1 mark
(1-11) are of 1 marks each and Q(12-13) are of 2 marks
SOLN:
each
σa = σf + σc (4)
h
USE: h̄c = 198 M eV f m; h̄ = =

6.6 × 10−22 M eV seconds; h = 6.6 × 10 Js, −34
5. A γ−decay process involves change in parity
M eV = 103 GeV, 1eV = 1.6 × 10−19 J, (∆π) and ∆L = 2, the type of decay is a
1M eV = 106 eV , me = 0.5M eV , R = 1.2 × A1/3 f m
Mass in amu: (E2/M2). 1 mark
mp = 1.007277, mn = 1.008665, me = 0.0005486, SOLN:
amu = 931.5 M eV
M2 (5)
NAME:
6. The moderation of fast neutrons in a reactor
ID: will be much more effective when we use a
(light/heavy) material. 1
1. Given that one Uranium atom has a mass of mark
235.04393 amu, the binding energy of 235
92 U will be SOLN: Light nuclei are good moderators.
MeV. 1 mark
7. The Fermi Transition (FT) in β−decay is charac-
SOLN:
terized by the net spin (0/1) carried
∆m = [Z(mp + me ) + (A − Z)mn ] − m235 U(1)
by the outgoing (e/ν/both) particle. 1
= 1.9151 amu = 1784 M eV
mark
SOLN: 0, both
2. The binding energy of the K−shell electron in a
nucleus is 50 keV. If the emitted γ− ray of 2.5 MeV
8. In β−decay transitions having higher log10 (f t)
interacts with the electron, the conversion electron
will be emitted from the atom with kinetic energy values are (favored/ unfa-
= MeV. 1 mark
vored) and (allowed/ for-
SOLN:
bidden). 1 mark
KE = Eγ − BEK−Shell (2) SOLN: Unfavored and forbidden
= 2.45 M eV 9. Parity is violated in β−decay because the
spin and momenta of (e/ν) are
3. The half-life of 16 N is approx. 7 seconds. The corre-
sponding decay constant will be (s−1 ). (parallel/ anti-parallel). 1 mark
1 mark SOLN: Neutrinos are left handed, i.e., the spin and
SOLN: momenta are antiparallel.[ν, antiparallel]

λ = ln 2/t1/2 (3) 10. If the mean life time of an excited nuclear state be
= 0.099 S −1 10−12 s, the uncertainty in the energy level will be

1
MeV. 1 mark Where

SOLN: λ235 = 1/τ235 (13)


h̄ λ238 = 1/τ238
∆E = (6)
∆t ⇒ t = 5.26 × 109 yrs.
= 6.6 × 10−10 M eV

11. Fusion reaction happens at high tem-


perature because ..................................
........................................................................
........................................................................
............................................................... 1 mark
SOLN: To overcome coulomb repulsion barrier.

12. The activity of a nuclei is known to decrease by 4%


per hour. The mean life time of the radio-nuclide
will be hr. 2 mark
SOLN: Activity is dN/dt = λN . For N1 particles
and subsequent number of atoms/ nuclei created
N2

dN1 /dt = λN1 (7)


dN2 /dt = λN2 = λN1 e−λ t

The fractional decrease will be then

[λN1 − λN1 e−λ t ]/(λN1 ) = 4/100 (8)


1 − e−λ t = 4/100
1 25
 
λ = ln
t 24
= 0.0408, f or t = 1hr (9)
⇒ τ = 1/λ = 24.5 hr (10)

13. Natural Uranium contains 7% 235 U and rest is 238 U .


Assuming that their numbers were the same when
they were formed, the age of the earth is then es-
timated to be yrs. (Given
the mean life time of 235 & 238 are 1.02 × 109 and
6.5 × 109 yrs respectively.) 2 mark
SOLN: Let the number of nuclei for both the iso-
tope of natural Uranium be N0 . Therefore, their
ratios will be
[N0 exp(−λ235 t)]
N235 /N238 = (11)
[N0 exp(−λ238 t)]
= 0.7/100 (12)
= exp − [(λ235 − λ238 ) t],