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08) Pacific Rehouse Corp. vs. Court of Appeals, et. al. piercing the veil of its corporate fiction.

e veil of its corporate fiction. Hence, the court must

G.R. No. 199687 // 201537 first and foremost acquire jurisdiction over the parties; and only then
March 24, 2014 would the parties be allowed to present evidence for and/or against
Digested By: Alfonso Lopez piercing the veil of corporate fiction
2. As EIB was neither served with summons, nor has it voluntarily
TOPIC: Separate Personality/Piercing the Veil appeared before the court, the judgment sought to be enforced
against E-Securities cannot be made against its parent company,
1. A complaint was instituted by Pacific Rehouse Corp. et. al. against 3. [DOCTRINE] More importantly, the Alter Ego Doctrine is not
EIB Securities Inc. (E-Securities) for unauthorized sale of 32 million applicable. Where one corporation is so organized and controlled
DMCI shares of Pacific Rehouse Corp. et. al. SC ruled in favor of and its affairs are conducted so that it is, in fact, a mere
Pacific Rehouse and ordered E-Securities to return the DMCI shares, instrumentality or adjunct of the other, the fiction of the corporate
and for Pacific Rehouse to reimburse E-Securities. entity of the "instrumentality" may be disregarded. The control
2. When execution was unsatisfied, Pacific Rehouse moved for an alias necessary to invoke the rule is not majority or even complete stock
writ of execution to hold Export and Industry Bank, Inc. (EIB) liable control but such domination of finances, policies and practices that
for the judgment obligation as E-Securities was allegedly a mere the controlled corporation has, so to speak, no separate mind, will or
alter ego and business conduit of EIB. existence of its own, and is but a conduit for its principal.
3. RTC granted and alias writ and garnished EIB and E-Securities’ 4. The Court has laid down a three-pronged control test to establish
assets. EIB questioned the alias writ since it was not impleaded as a when the alter ego doctrine should be operative:
party to the case, but RTC ruled that service of summons upon E- a. Control, not mere majority or complete stock control, but
Securities also bestowed jurisdiction over the parent company. complete domination, not only of finances but of policy and
4. EIB prayed for a TRO with the CA, citing several rulings that upheld business practice in respect to the transaction attacked so
the separate and distinct personality of a corporation, which the CA that the corporate entity as to this transaction had at the time
granted. Pacific Rehous commented that the cited rulings does not no separate mind, will or existence of its own;
apply to this cae as 499,995 out of 500,000 shares of stock of E- b. Such control must have been used by the defendant to
Securities were owned by EIB, and that both companies had the commit fraud or wrong, to perpetuate the violation of a
same lawyers. statutory or other positive legal duty, or dishonest and unjust
5. CA granted the preliminary injunction. Hence, these petitions by act in contravention of plaintiff’s legal right; and
Pacific Rehouse Corporation, Paccific Concorde Corporation, Mizpah c. The aforesaid control and breach of duty must [have]
Holdings, Inc., Forum Holdings Corporation and East Asia Oil proximately caused the injury or unjust loss complained of.
Company, Inc. 5. The RTC pierced the corporate veil based on the factors raised by
Pacific Rehouse, et. al.. Among others, the RTC emphasized that the
ISSUE: W/N the corporate veil should be pierced and EIB should be held offices of both companies were in the same building; that they share
liable for the judgment obligation common key Directors and corporate officers; that E-Securities were
deemed a “controlled subsidiary” by EIB and their financial
HELD: No. statements were consolidated and audited by the same auditing firm;
1. The principle of piercing the veil of corporate fiction, and the resulting and that they had the same handling lawyers.
treatment of two related corporations as one and the same juridical 6. However, the RTC is incorrect. Control, by itself, does not mean that
person with respect to a given transaction, is basically applied only to the controlled corporation is a mere instrumentality or a business
determine established liability; it is not available to confer on the conduit of the mother company. There must be a perpetuation of
court a jurisdiction it has not acquired, in the first place, over a party fraud behind the control or at least a fraudulent or illegal purpose
not impleaded in a case. Elsewise put, a corporation not behind the control in order to justify piercing the veil of corporate
impleaded in a suit cannot be subject to the court’s process of fiction. Such fraudulent intent is lacking in this case.
7. Moreover, there was nothing on record demonstrative of EIB’s
wrongful intent in setting up a subsidiary, E-Securities. If used to
perform legitimate functions, a subsidiary’s separate existence shall
be respected, and the liability of the parent corporation as well as the
subsidiary will be confined to those arising in their respective
8. Also, ownership by EIB of a great majority or all of stocks of E-
Securities and the existence of interlocking directorates may serve
as badges of control, but ownership, per se, without proof of actuality
of the other conditions are insufficient to establish an alter ego
relationship or connection, which will justify the setting aside of the
cover of corporate fiction.

WHEREFORE, the petition in G.R. No. 199687 is hereby

DISMISSED for having been rendered moot and academic. The
petition in G.R. No. 201537, meanwhile, is hereby DENIED for lack
of merit.