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DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE TESTING OF TWO ROW

PADDY TRANSPLANTER
A Thesis submitted to

DR. BALASAHEB SAWANT KONKAN KRISHI VIDYAPEETH


DAPOLI - 415 712
Maharashtra State (India)

In the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree


of
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
(AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING)
in
Farm Machinery and Power
by
Ms. Kirti S. Desai
B.Tech. (Agril. Engg.)

DEPARTMENT OF FARM MACHINERY AND POWER


COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
DR. BALASAHEB SAWANT KONKAN KRISHI VIDYAPEETH
DAPOLI- 415 712, DIST. RATNAGIRI, M. S. (INDIA)
2012
DEDICATION

THIS RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT

AFFECTIONALY DEDICATED

TO MY

PARENTS

WHO HAVE GUIDED ME THROUGH THE CORRECT PATH AND THEY

CULTIVATE GOOD VIRTUE IN MY HEART. THEIR GOOD VIRTUE IS

MY ENDLESS WEALTH. THEIR TEACHING IS A COMPASS THAT

DIRECTS MY LIFE AND DESTINY


CANDIDATE‟S DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this thesis or part thereof has not been submitted

by me or any other person to any other

University or Institute

for a Degree or

Diploma.

Place: CAET, Dapoli


Dated: / /2012 (Desai Kirti Suresh)
Dr. P. U. Shahare
Professor and Head,
Department of Farm Machinery and Power,
College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology,
Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth,
Dapoli- 415 712, Dist. Ratnagiri,
Maharashtra, India.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled “Development and performance testing of two
row paddy transplanter” submitted to the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Dr. Balasaheb
Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri (Maharashtra State) in the partial
fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Technology
(Agricultural Engineering) in Farm Machinery and Power, embodies the results of bonafied
research work carried out by Ms. Kirti Suresh Desai under my guidance and supervision. No
part of the thesis has been submitted for any other degree, diploma or publication in any other
form.
The assistance and help received during the course of this investigation and source of the
literature have been duly acknowledged.

Place: CAET, Dapoli (P. U. Shahare)


Date: / /2012
Prof. dilip MAHALE
M. Tech. (SWCE),
Associate Dean,
College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology,
Dr. Balsaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth,
Dapoli 415 712, Dist. Ratnagiri,
Maharashtra, India.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled “Development and performance testing of two
row paddy transplanter” submitted to the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Dr. Balasaheb
Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli, Dist. Ratnagiri (Maharashtra State) in the partial
fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Technology
(Agricultural Engineering) in Farm Machinery and Power , embodies the results of bonafied
research work carried out by Ms. Kirti Suresh Desai under guidance and supervision of Dr.
P.U. Shahare, Head of Farm Power and Machinery, College of Agricultural Engineering and
Technology, Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli.
No part of the thesis has been submitted for any other degree, diploma or publication in
any other form.

Place: CAET, Dapoli


Date: / /2012. (Prof. dilip MAHALE)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I expresses my heartiest gratitude and deep sense of indebtedness to my research guide,


Dr. P. U. Shahare , Professor and Head, Department of Farm Machinery and Power
Engineering, College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Dr. B.S.K.K.V., Dapoli for
his wholehearted involvement, inspiring guidance, encouragement and help throughout the
project work and completion of this manuscript.

I wish to express my heartiest reverence to Prof. K.G.Dhande, Associate Professor,


Department of Farm Machinery and Power Engineering for his valuable suggestions and
guidance for research work.
I am extremely grateful to Dr. V. V. Aware, Associate Professor, Department of Farm
Machinery and Power Engineering for his valuable and timely co-operation.
I am also thankful to Prof.S.V.Pathak, Associate Professor, Department of Farm
Machinery and Power Engineering for his valuable inspiration in this project work.
I am extremely grateful to Prof. D. M. MAHALE, Associate Dean, College of
Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Dr. BSKKV, Dapoli for encouragement and for
making available all the necessary facilities for prosecuting the study.
No words can adequately express our indebtedness to workshop members, Mr.
Ghemavanakar N.S., Mahadik S.V., Ruke V.S., who have been a source of immense help to me
during the course of this project. Our heartily thanks to all those who have contributed in one or
other way for successful completion of study.

I express my heartiest thanks to Prof. Mahadik, Botany department for allowing me to


carry out the experiment in botany field.

I will always recall with pride the department of Farm Machinery and Power with all the
staff members for their helpful attitude and assistance during the entire course of study.

I fall short of words in expressing my thanks to my dear friends Audumbar, Jayant,


Suchita, Swapnali and all my M.Tech. Friends for their constant encouragement and timely help
during this project work.
I am extremely obliged to acknowledge the love and affection of my beloved parents and
my younger brother. No words are enough to describe their efforts in building up my educational
career and my all-round development. I express my sincere thanks to those who directly and
indirectly extended help during the research work.

(Kirti S. Desai)

Place : CAET, Dapoli


Date : / / 2012
CONTENT

Chapter Title Page No.


Candidate declaration i
Certificates ii-iii
Acknowledgement iv-v
Table of content vi-vii
List of Tables viii
List of figures ix
List of Symbols and abbreviations x
Abstract xi-xii
I INTRODUCTION 1-4
II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 5-24
2.1 Puddling requirement 6
2.2 Planting methods 7-8
2.3 Raising of mat type seedlings 8-11
2.4 Development and performance of rice transplanter 11-24

III THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS 25-32


3.1 Prime movers for transplanting mechanism 26
3.2 Size of machine 27
3.3 Plant population 27
3.4 Drive wheels of two row transplanter 28
3.5 Forward speed of machine 28
3.6 Power requirement of machine 28
3.7 Design of drive wheel 27
3.8 Nursery raising 30
3.9 Soil condition 30
3.10 Measurement of parameters 31
IV MATERIAL AND METHODS 33-53
4.1 Design considerations 33
4.2 Rice transplanter 35
4.3 Development of new two row paddy transplanter 35-44
4.4 Fabrication and assembling of components 44-48
4.5 Working of two row paddy transplanter 48
4.6 Method of raising nursery 48
4.7 Methodology for measurement of performance 49-52
parameters
4.8 Performance testing of newly developed prototype 52-53
V RESULT AND DISCUSSION 54-63
5.1 Data on target crop 54
5.2 Laboratory test 54
5.3 Studies on sinkage 57
5.4 Studies on puddling index 58
5.5 Functional field trial 59
VI SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 64-68
VII BIBLIOGRAPHY 69-77
VIII APPENDICES 78-81
I Cost estimation of newly developed transplanter 78-80
II Cost of operation of transplanting 81
List of Tables

Table
Title Page No.
No.
4.1 Suitable conditions of the field and the seedlings 34

5.1 Details of plant parameters during nursery raising 54


5.2 Detailed specification of transplanter 55
5.3 Laboratory test results of transplanter 56
5.4 Sinkage readings as per sedimentation period 58
5.5 Regression coefficient for linear relationship of 58
sinkage and soil settlement period
5.6 Puddling index of the soil at different soil 59
sedimentation period.
5.7 Regression coefficient for linear relationship of 59
puddling index and soil settlement period
5.8 Condition of seedlings during field trial 60
5.9 Conditions of field under test 60
5.10 Observations during functional field trial 61
5.11 Operating parameters of the two row transplanter 62
5.12 Time required for different operations and field 62
capacity.
LIST OF FIGURES

Plate 4.1
Figure Schematic representation of power flow of paddy
Title 37-38
Page no.
transplanter.
Fig. 4.1 Eight row riding type rice transplanter. 36
Plate 4.2 Honda engine (GHX 50) used for power 45-46
Fig. 4.2 Four row riding type rice transplanter. 36
transmission.
Fig. 4.3 Power transmission from engine to ground wheel 38
Plate 4.3 Gear box mountedmechanism.
on the transplanter for speed 45-46
and transplanting
Fig. 4.4 reduction 43
Indexing mechanism of transplanter for movement
Plate 4.4 Transplanting
of tray. mechanism of paddy transplanter 46-47
Plate 4.5
Fig. 4.5 Transplanting
Design of drivefork of oftransplanting
wheel transplanter.mechanism 46-47
44
Fig.4.6
Plate 4.6 Detail specifications of newly developed two row 48-49
46-47
Indexing mechanism
paddy transplanter.
Plate 4.7
Fig. 4.7 Tray of developed
Overall dimensionstwoof row paddy
newly transplanter.
developed two row 47-48
48-49
Plate 4.8 Float of developed
paddy transplanter. two row paddy transplanter 47-48
Fig. 5.1 Effect of settlement period on sinkage 59-60
Fig. 5.2 Effect of soil settlement period on puddling index. 59-60

LIST OF PLATES
Plate 4.9 Developed drive wheels for forward motion of 47-48
transplanter.
Plate 4.10 Newly developed two row paddy transplanter 47-48
Plate 4.11 Filling the mixture of soil, compost and silt in the 49-50
frame.
Plate 4.12 Spreading seeds on nursery bed. 49-50
Plate 4.13 Covering seeds with straw on nursery bed. 49-50
Plate 4.14 Raised seedlings in nursery bed after 21 day. 49-50

Plate 4.15 Sinkage measurement using apparatus in field 51-52


Plate 4.16 Laboratory testing 52-53 LI
Plate 4.17 Developed transplanter working into the field 52-53
Plate 4.18 Paddy seedlings after transplanting by developed 52-53 ST
two row transplanter
OF
ABBREVATIONS

Abbreviation Description

cm Centimeter

Dr.B.S.K.K.V Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Kokan Krishi Vidyapeeth

eg. Example

et al and others

etc. et cetra, and other things

Fig. Figure

gm Gram

ha Hectare

hp Horse power

hr hour

i.e. That is

kg Kilogram

l/h Liters per hour


m Metre

min. Minute

mm Millimetre

No. Number

ABSTRACT

DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE TESTING OF TWO ROW


PADDY TRANSPLANTER

by
Kirti Suresh Desai.
College of agricultural engineering and technology,
Dr. Balasaheb Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli-415712,
Dist. Ratnagiri, (Maharashtra)
2012.

Research Guide: Dr. P.U. Shahare


Department: Farm Machinery and Power

Rice is the most important cereal food crop of India. It occupies about 23.3 per cent of
gross cropped area of the country. India has largest area under rice (44.6 million ha) and with the
production of about 142.5 million tonnes it ranks second only to China. In Maharashtra rice is
the second important crop of the people, which is grown over an area of 14.99 lakh hectares with
an annual rough rice production of 32.37 lakh tones. The highest productivity was observed in
Konkan region i.e. 2.56 t/ha (3.65 t/ha for rough rice). Rice transplanting can be done either by
direct seeding or transplanting. Transplanting seedlings in puddle soil with standing water is
widest spread technique used throughout the Asian countries. Traditional paddy cultivation is
laborious, expensive and time consuming. The cost of puddling and transplanting shares 50 % of
total production cost. The man days required for transplanting ranges from 40 to 50 man-days/ha.
Hence, there is a great need to mechanize the transplanting operation. In many parts of the
country 8 row self propelled transplanter (model – Yanji - Shakti) has been tried and it is found
useful. More weight, bigger size, transportation problem on fragmented land and hilly terrain of
Konkan restrict to adapt this machine. Hence, it is decided to develop two row paddy
transplanter using mat type seedling.

The newly developed transplanter consists of main frame, engine, gearbox, picking –
cum - transplanting mechanism, indexing mechanism and drive wheels. For designing, power
requirement was calculated for the machine. The total power required for removal of seedlings
and their placement and forward motion of machine was found to be 1.96 hp. The main frame
consists of mast, transplanting mechanism support and U-frame for tray support. Rollers were
mounted on the U-frame to restrict the movement of tray to horizontal plane. Based on the power
requirement the commercially available Honda-GXH- 50 was selected. The gear box having
speed reduction ratio 12.5: 1 is selected from the commercial market. Actuating type of
commercially available transplanting mechanism is used on the machine. It consists of one
transplanting arm, two fingers, two rocker arm and two needles. For the proper traction and
forward motion in field, it was decided to design a drive wheel of the transplanter. Simple clutch
system has been provided on the drive wheel for easy turning of the transplanter.
The newly developed machine was operated in field for filler trial. The result reveals that
the plant to plant spacing for newly developed transplanter was 16 cm. The planting depth of the
transplanter was observed to be 3 cm. The seedlings per hill were observed to be 5 and missing
hill were 3.33/ m2 respectively. The total numbers of hill/m2 area were obtained as 20. The
sinkage of the machine was observed to be 2 cm. Fuel consumption for the newly developed
transplanter was 0.89 l/ha. The operating speed of the transplanter was observed to be 1.58 km/h.
The field efficiency of the transplanter was 75.4%. Total time of operation was observed to be
21.01 h/ha. Time required for transplanting, turning, feeding the nursery was found to be 17.98,
0.93, 2.1 h/ha respectively. The field capacity of the transplanter was 0.0569 ha/h. The operating
cost of newly developed transplanter was Rs. 223.58 /h and Rs.1788 /ha. In general, the newly
developed transplanter worked satisfactorily in the field.
I. INTRODUCTION

Rice is known as the grain of life, and is synonymous with food for Asians. It is the staple
food of more than 60 percent of the world population. Rice is mainly produced and consumed in
the Asian region. India has the largest area under paddy in the world and ranks second in the
production after China. The rice plant belongs to the genus Oryza of Gramineae family. Sativa
rice varieties of the world are commonly grouped into three sub-species -viz. indica, japonica
and javanica. Rice grown in India belongs to the indica. Rice occupies 23.3 per cent of gross
cropped area of the country. Rice contributes 43 per cent of total food grain production and 46
per cent of total cereal production. Asia accounts for 90 per cent and 92 per cent of world's rice
area and production respectively. Thus, rice production, consumption and trade are concentrated
in Asia. Paddy is a primary food grain crop of India and occupies about 37 percent of the area
under food grains and contributed more than 40 percent of food grains production in the country
during 2000-01. (Anonymous, 2001.)

The total area under rice in India was 30.81 million hectares and production was 20.58
million tonnes during 1950-51. With the increase in population demand of rice have been
increased in the country. Thereafter various efforts with improved package of practices were
made to increase the production and productivity. Production has been increased considerably
and the country is self sufficient in rice so far. Maharashtra state is the third largest state in India.
The population of the state is 80 million which is 9.47 % of the country‟s total population. In
Maharashtra, rice is the second important crop of the people, which is grown over an area of
14.99 lakh hectares with an annual rough rice production of 32.37 lakh tones. The average
productivity of the state is 2.01 t/ha. Maharashtra ranks 13th place in rice production in country.
The area (7.32 lakh ha) of rice crop is more in Vidarbha region. The highest productivity was
observed in Konkan region i.e. 2.56 t/ha (Anonymous, 2009). National share of Maharashtra in
rice cultivation is about 5.3 per cent in area and 4 per cent in production.
There are two common seasons for rice growing in different parts of the country kharif
and rabi. Konkan area under rice cultivation is 4.14 million ha with production of 1.42 million
tonnes and productivity of 3448 kg/ha. The traditional rice farming system in India broadly
includes wetland (lowland) and dry land (upland) system. Cultural practices developed for varied
forms of these systems depend upon the soil type, season, rainfall pattern, irrigation source and
other growing conditions. Dry cultivation system is mainly confined to tracts which depend on
rains and do not have supplementary irrigation facilities. The fields are ploughed and harrowed
in summer for achieving the required tilth. The seed is sown directly with the onset of the
monsoon showers either by broadcasting the seed and sowing the seed behind the plough or
drilling. Wet cultivation system is prevalent in areas where adequate water supply is assured
either through rainfall or irrigation or both. Rice is generally grown by transplanting seedling in
flooded field conditions or direct sowing depending upon the availability of water.
Konkan region is basically a narrow strip of 40 km wide and running 750 km of length
from north to south, and is a hilly terrain lying between Sahyadri ranges in the east and Arabian
Sea in west. Here terrace farming is followed for paddy crop and the field size is small. In
Konkan region, wet land cultivation system is followed. The land is ploughed thoroughly and
puddled in 3-5 cm standing water. The puddling is largely done by bullock drawn country plough
and wooden planks in the region. In some of the pockets, the power tiller is used for puddling,
but the extent is very low.

Mechanization in agriculture has released millions of agricultural workers in the


industrial sectors, which reduces level of manpower and increase the burdens on the worker. All
current methods of producing rice depend largely on availability of manual labour. In traditional
methods, 250-300 man hours are required per hectare for rice production. Many operations in
agriculture need to be performed by machines. This will reduce the labour requirement which is
the principal motivating force in mechanization. In Konkan, mechanization has progressed very
slowly, though India is the second largest producers of rice in world. In Ratnagiri district of
Konkan region the status of mechanization is very low. There are only 1752 mould board
ploughs, 2118 bullock carts, 1025 oil pumps, and 3727 electric pumps. The numbers of
agricultural tractors are reported to be only 30. (Anonymous, 2009).
Transplanters are particularly advantageous because it can minimize peak labour demand
during transplanting operation. Also, transplanting is having benefits like good levelling of land,
reduced weed problem, uniform plant population, and better availability of most of the plant
nutrients. Seedlings transplanted in the puddle soil are able to establish themselves faster and
start early tillering and growth. The transplanters are either semi - automatic or automatic. In
semi - automatic machines, the plants are fed by hand into the mat tray. Usually automatic
transplanters use preloaded mat stacked on the planter which mechanically convey the plant and
place it in the ground. In automatic transplanters, the labour is partially reduced as compared to
semi-automatic machines.

Transplanting of rice seedlings requires more labours (40-50 man days /ha) and is time
consuming and drudgerious. Presently various types of transplanters are available for the
transplanting viz., manual transplanters, tractor mounted transplanters and self propelled
transplanters. The Yanji Shakti 8 row rice transplanter has been tried in various parts of the
country and its performance was encouraging. Its adoption is restricted due to small and
fragmented plots of Konkan region. Problems arose while shifting the machine from one plot to
the neighbouring plot because of bunds and terracing. Complete coverage of some of the plots
was not possible due to the irregular shape and bigger size of the transplanter. Proper levelling of
field is imperative for successful operation of the machine.

One of the Chinese model of transplanter was tried in Konkan region. The transplanter
was not robust in construction hence breaking of parts occurred when load increased. The
operator had to pull the transplanter which was drudgerious. The same was modified by
providing power for forward movement. With this, plant geometry was obtained as 30 cm × 7
cm. Absence of clutch resulted into turning problem. The optimum plant geometry could not be
received by the developed transplanter (Bhat, 2010).

Traditional method of transplanting requires huge man power. In spite of this, plant to
plant and row to row spacings are not achieved and hence mechanical weeding is not possible.
Optimizing plant density and timeliness of operation in paddy is considered essential for
optimizing paddy yield which may be possible if dependence on hired labour is minimized
(Chaudhary et. al., 2005). The available transplanter couldn‟t meet the requirement of Konkan
region due to their bigger size, transportation problem and different crop geometry, clutch
problem and weaker construction in some cases. Due to acute shortage of labours for field
operation, it is felt necessary to develop small, light weight transplanter which will be easily
transportable, easily turned and giving required plant geometry (i.e. 20-25 cm × 15 cm). It is high
time for mechanizing the transplanting operation. In view of the above, the present study was
undertaken on Development and performance testing of two row paddy transplanter. The
objectives of the study are,

i) To develop a two row paddy transplanter.

ii) To test field performance of the two row paddy transplanter.


II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Asian agriculture is rapidly increasing with the rise in farm mechanization support. Most
developing countries in the region are now in transition from labour intensive to control intensive
agriculture. Precision agriculture and automation is the current trend in agricultural
mechanization, (FFTC Annual Report, 2005). More than 50 per cent of country‟s population
depends fully or partially on rice as it constitutes the main cereal food crop of the diet. Paddy is
grown by transplanting under wetland conditions or direct sowing depending upon the
availability of water. The main difference between these two methods is that in direct seedling
method, the seeds are sown directly in wet or dry field; whereas in transplanting method
,seedling are first raised in seedbed in the nursery and uprooted for transplanting manually or
mechanically. Paddy transplanting remains the most common method in India. The transplanting
has number of advantage over direct sowing, as listed below:

1) The time that a crop occupies the land is reduced by 3-4 weeks.

2) Helps the plant a better start over the weeds.

3) Permits optimum plant spacing which is critical for higher yield.

4) Ensures uniform ripening of the crop.

5) Less seed requirement.

6) Better weeding and intercultural operations.

This chapter has cited the review related to transplanting technology which is divided into
various sections on the topic under study. The chapter has cited the review under following
heading.

2.1 Puddling requirement.


2.2 Planting methods.
2.3 Raising of mat type seedlings.
2.4 Development and performance testing of rice transplanter.

2.1 Puddling Requirement


Behera et al. (1991) studied on optimization of puddle soil characteristics for self
propelled rice transplanter. Studies were undertaken in silty clay loam soil to identify optimum
puddle soil condition. The experiment was conducted with three type of puddler. Transplanting
was done using a Chinese made self propelled transplanter (model: 2ZT-238-8) at sedimentation
period of 24, 48 and 72 h. The result indicated that the depth of puddling and hardpan was in the
range of 10-15 cm and 19-22 cm, respectively. The sinkage of the traction wheel was well into
the hardpan thereby providing sufficient traction to propel the transplanter and hence no mobility
problem was observed, buried and floating hill percentage was considerably high after 24 hours
of sedimentation period leading to high mortality. Buried hill, floating hill and hill mortality
decreased with increase in sedimentation time. At 48 hour of sedimentation period, buried and
floating hill percentage was within 2-3 percent and the hill mortality was within 4 percent in case
of P2, C2 and C3. This indicates an ideal condition for transplanting. For treatments (R2, R3, and
P3) ideal condition was obtained after 72 hours of puddling.
Chaudhary et al. (2003) carried out performance evaluation of self propelled rice
transplanter under different puddle field conditions and sedimentation period. A field experiment
was conducted using two puddling equipments, viz. rotary blade puddler and peg type puddler
with two levels of puddling (one and two passes) under three sedimentation periods 12,18 and 24
hour. Based on the findings in above study, another experiment was undertaken in a well
prepared field using a peg type puddler (one or two passes), rotary blade puddler (one pass) and a
treatment with no puddling with a view to minimize the sedimentation period with respect to
three sedimentation period of 0, 6 and 12 hour. In general, it was observed that the depth of
transplanting, traction wheel slippage, hill spacing, deviation in row spacing, buried and floating
hills increased with the level of puddling and decreased with increasing sedimentation period for
all treatments. But it was more pronounced in case of rotary blade puddler since, there was no
significant difference in grain yield with reduced level of puddling. Therefore, rotary and peg
type puddler may be used with one pass so as to minimize the sedimentation period for
transplanting operation.
2.2 Plating methods
Singh et al. (1975) studied the effect of different methods of planting on the yield of rice.
M1: Broadcasting sprouted in puddled field manually, M2: Drilling sprouted seed by row seeders
in solid rows 20 cm apart, M3: Transplanting by a transplanter at 15×30 cm. M4: Manual
transplanting at 15×30 cm. M5: Drilling unsprouted seeds in dry field by seed drill with rows 20
cm apart. M6: Planting unsprouted seed in dry field by a maize planter at 15×30 cm. The testing
results revealed that the method M1 and M2 gave approximately equal yields to M4. M1 and M2
were superior for yields than M3, M5 and M6. The crops by broadcasting (M1), drilling (M2) of
sprouted seed matured one week earlier than M4, M5, M6 and two weeks earlier than
transplanted crop by mechanical method (M3). Weeks in M1, M2, M5 and M6 were more as
compared to M3 and M4, In M3 and M4 one hand weeding was sufficient whereas in M1 and
M2 two hand weedings and in m5 and M6 three hand weedings were needed. Methods M3, M4
required minimum number of irrigations. Uniform distribution by manual broadcasting is
problem and can be improved by mechanical broadcasters.
The effect of various rice cultural practices on shoot and root growth and grain yield was
examined by Naklang et al. (1998) using four contrasting cultivars in each of three years at
Surin, Northeast Thailand. Under upland conditions, no yield was obtained under severe drought
in two of the three years and yield was less than half that under lowland conditions. Under
lowland conditions, direct sown crops yielded more than transplanted crops in one year, slightly
less in another when establishment was a problem in direct sowing, and similar between the two
methods in the other. Direct sowing, particularly broadcasting, produced more total dry matter
than transplanting. Root dry matter growth was small after panicle initiation under all conditions,
and was greater in direct sowing than transplanting in lowland conditions. Root growth occurred
mostly in the top 10 or 15 cm soil layer in both upland and lowland crops. Although shoot
growth was also similar among cultivars, there were often significant cultivar differences in grain
yield. The highest yield was produced by IR57514-PMI-5-B-1-2, a semi dwarf cultivar that
produced a large number of panicles in most experiments.
Singh et al. (2002) have carried out field experiment in Uttar Pradesh during the 2000
kharif season to compare the effect of different methods of transplanting of rice on rice yield.
The effective field capacity of the transplanter was 0.125 ha/h. The cost of transplanting was Rs.
1152/ha and energy requirement was 230 MJ/ha. The maximum grain yield was observed in
mechanical transplanting followed by manual transplanting, direct dry sowing and direct
sprouted sowing. Mechanical transplanting significantly increased grain yield by 23%, 37% and
63%; straw yield by 17%, 14% and 22%; and biological yield by 20%, 24% and 39% over
manual transplanting, direct dry sowing and direct sowing of sprouted rice in puddled conditions,
respectively.
Suseela and Susan (2003) have carried out study on the transplanting methods in Kerala.
According to them, the acute shortage and increased cost of labourers (Rs. 180/day) forced the
farmers of Kerala to adopt machines for transplanting. Farmers of Kerala have started using
different types of transplanters like manual IRRI five row, six rows and power tiller operated
eight row transplanters since 1982 but these transplanters were not successful for various
reasons. The imported eight row self propelled Chinese transplanter (Yanji Shakthi) was
successfully demonstrated first time in Kerala during 1996. Thereafter, hundreds of hectares of
land were put under mechanized transplanting. The washed root type conventional nursery was
not successful for machine transplanting. It was suitable for transplanting mat type rice
seedlings in puddled soil. It was observed that seeding mat of size 500 mm×210 mm×25 mm
with 18-22 day old seedlings was found to be appropriate.
Singh et al. (2005) studied the response of rice to different planting methods. They
reported that in India, rice cultivation is becoming increasingly expensive as seedling are raised
in nurseries and transplanted manually. Rice transplanters are yet to be popularized. Manual
transplanting alone accounts for nearly 20 % of the total cultivation cost. In most cases, the
required plant population is not maintained because labourers are not properly supervised as
transplanting is done on a contractual basis. Manual transplanting takes longer period to
complete transplanting operation. Therefore, major constraints are the high cost of manual
transplanting and uneven plant population.
2.3. Raising of mat type seedlings
Single frame method was used to raise mat type seedlings at Coimbatore (Have, 1972).
Mixture of soil and farm yard manure in the ratio of 1:1 was found to be suitable. Comparative
evaluation of different methods of raising mat type seedlings also revealed that 10 mat frame
involved minimum investment with no appreciable difference in the quality of seedling mats.
Double frame method using puddle soil was adopted for growing mat type seedlings at
IRRI. The frames were kept in the field until the seedlings were uprooted. The method used in
Japan and IRRI for raising mat type seedlings were reported to involve very high initial
investments for adoption in Indian situations (Have, 1972 ).
Mat type seedling required a different method of seedling preparation than root washed
seedlings. For preparing mat type of seedlings, seedling trays or seedling frames were required.
In this type of nursery, the roots adhering to thin layer of soil forms a rectangular mat which fits
exactly to seedling tray of the transplanter. In Japan, plastic trays with perforations were used for
raising mat type seedlings. The method for raising mat type seedling was completely mechanized
to achieve uniform plant density (Anonymous, 1979).
Development of simple method for raising mat type nursery was reported at Ludhiana
(Garg and Sharma, 1984). This method used a single frame with 10 partitions and polythene
sheet at the base. The quality of seedling mats raised by this method was not inferior to the
seedling mats raised by other methods as reported above, in any appreciable manner. Soil mixed
with farm yard manure was found to be suitable for raising the mats.
Garg et al. (1989) evaluated three different methods of raising mat- type paddy seedlings.
The total cost of nursery sowing and uprooting with 10 – mat frame method was most
economical in comparison with the other methods.
Swain and Maity (1989) used pure sand (0.5 to 0.25 mm diameter) and sandy loam soil
(clay 15%, sand 65% and slit 20%) as the media for the growing two different types of seedling
mats. Recommended doses of FYM and fertilizer were applied. Pre- germinated seeds (250 gm)
of Masuri rice variety were used for each tray of 11 cm × 20 cm size for obtaining a plant density
of 7 plants/cm2. The mat thickness was 2 cm. The seedlings between the age of 20 to 35 days at
mat moisture range of 10 to 30 % (db) were used. The desired mat moisture was obtained by
saturating the mats with water followed by sun drying.
Studies relating to mat type nursery recommended a seed rate of 50-60 g/mat of 20 cm ×
40 cm size for achieving 2-3 seedlings/ hill with minimum chance of hill missing (Bhangoo et al.
1990). Nitrogen fertilizer at the rate of 320 g/200 mats applied in 3 splits was found to be better
for the growth of the seedling mats. The study also found that polythene sheet, gunny bags lined
with polythene sheet and newspapers can be used successfully for raising mat type seedlings.
However under conditions of moisture stress, use of newspaper in 2-3 layers was found to be
satisfactory.
A special nursery bed was prepared on a flat piece of land using polythene sheets (Farooq
et al., 2001). For planting one acre of rice, the following was required; about 10 kilogram rice
seed, a 10‟ × 5‟ polythene sheet, one 10‟ × 5‟ wooden /iron frame with the sides 3 – 4 inches
high, and very fine pebbles free soil with sufficient organic matter for covering the volume of
10„ × 5‟ × 4‟. First the pebbles free fine soil was prepared by using large size sieve and fine farm
yard manure was mixed with it. This soil was evenly spread on the frame on polythene sheets
and rice seed was evenly broadcasted on this bed. The seed was covered with a very thin layer of
fine soil. Then water was sprinkled on this bed till it was sufficiently soaked. Regular sprinkling
of water was required twice a day for at least 25 days. After 25 days when the nursery was ready
for transplantation, it should be cut into sheets/patches according to the size of the trays of the
machine.
Sahay et al. (2002) reported that for raising mat type nursery, the frames of m. s. flats of
the size 12× 28 cm were fabricated in such a way that frame consists of 18 such rectangles.
Black soil, cow dung and sand were mixed thoroughly in the ratio of 3.3:1 and filled up to the
height of 2 cm in the frame. The frame was kept on cemented floor thus there was no chance of
roots going deeper. Healthy seeds of paddy variety (RCPL1-82) were taken and seed rate for
nursery was kept 1.6 kg/m2. The seeds were uniformly spread over the bed. The seedbed was
mulched heavily for protection from the birds. It was given irrigation daily for good germination.
After twenty one days of sowing (DAS), the seedlings came to 4-5 leaf stage and were ready for
transplantation.
Rajendran et al. (2004) developed a modified rice mat nursery at the Soil and Water
Management Research Institute (SWMRI), Thanjavur, India. It produced robust seedling in 15
days after sowing (DAS) that were similar in size as that of 25 to 30 days old seedling produced
in traditional nursery. Seedling mats could be easily transported and easily separated. The
modified rice mat nursery could save the cost on seed, water and labour and thereby an overall
saving of cost by about 50% was achieved. Soil+ pressmud mixture (1:1 w/w) produced the most
vigorous seedling in 15 days, recording the maximum seedling height of 20.8 cm, root length of
9.9 cm, leaves/seedling (4.2) and seedling- vigour index (8.2). Soil alone or 90% soil + 10% rice
husk mixture also produced healthy seedlings. Other organic manures can be used for mat
nursery provided it is fully decomposed and well mixed with soil. Seedling of 15 days age when
planted gave 16-20% higher yield than the rice crop planted with 25 days old seedlings of
traditional wet nursery.
Shiratsuchi et al. (2008) reported that conventional seedling mats in Japan are heavy to
carry, and much labour is required to carry, wash and store the nursery boxes. In addition
seedling time overlaps with hardened rice seeds moulded on to rice-hull mat with a cover of soil
glued on. Seed hardening was done by soaking the seeds in water at 15 degree Celsius for 5 days
followed by drying and heating of seeds at 50 degree Celsius for 5 -7 days, this reduces the time
of germination by 50 %. In dormant seeds, the heating before hardening enhanced the effect of
hardening. Now a layer of soil was sprayed on to the mat. The seed mats can be prepared in
winter and can be stored up to seedling raising season in spring.
Haytham et al. (2010) studied the preparation of mat – type seedlings for mechanical
paddy transplanter. A plastic box (58 cm × 28 cm × 3 cm) called a nursery box, was used for
raising rice seedlings. This conventional soil seedbed (CSS) system had been a major problem
for the following reasons: (1) a nursery box filled with soil weighs about 6 kg; (2) high cost of
the nursery boxes; and (3) heavy and hard work. The seedling mat (120 cm × 28 cm × 3 cm) was
established in a layer of treated rice straw arranged on a firm surface and has been developed in
the Rice Research and Training Center, Egypt, to save the operation cost. This study showed the
potential of SM technology to stimulate agriculture in the region and consequently led to
increased productivity.
2.4 Development and performance of rice transplanter
2.4.1. Manual transplanters
In around 1950, a hand transplanting aid was developed in Taiwan. It consisted of iron
rod with a fork forged on one end. The rod was fitted to a wooden handle. The overall length of
the tool was about 45 cm. During operation, the fork picked up two to four seedlings which were
pushed into puddled soil. It required considerable skill, but with experience the rate of planting
could be increased by about 20% as compared to manual transplanting. The device also reduced
stooping. One of the disadvantages of the transplanting aid was that the operator could not feel
the depth of the planting. Its improved form had small plate at right angles to the rod to help the
operator to determine the planting depth.
Use of mechanical device for paddy transplanting dates back to 1955, when gravity type
hand operating transplanter was developed and tested in Taiwan. In China, the first manually
operated six row transplanter was tested in 1956. Though the output of these machines was
nearly double of hand transplanting, these machines failed due to uneven planting and high
labour requirement (Anonymous, 1979).
During seventies, a manual rice transplanter was developed and tried in India. The trade
name of the machine was Annapurna. It had 10 rows and root washed pruned seedlings were
used. The major component of the machine were body handle, finger set-handle, finger opening
lever, seedling tray, marker, base (float), fingers and finger guide channel. When the finger
opening lever was pressed, all the fingers opened for gripping the seedling. The seedling were
pressed into the puddled soil and released. The machine was pushed back to repeat the operation.
Seedling were planted 2-4 cm deep into the soil. Before operation of the machine, the field was
properly puddled and levelled. The machine could cover about 0.16 ha/day. (Mahapatra, 1973)
The first rice transplanter‟s patent was obtained in Japan, but it was in recent years that
the rice transplanters found practical applications. Hand push type rice transplanters appeared in
the market of Japan during 1960 -65 and about 50 thousand units were introduced. It was single
row machine with a float, seedling platform, ground drive wheel and handles, weighing 25-28
kg. Soil bearing band seedlings of 12-15 cm height were used with the machine. The machine
could cover one hectare area in 25-30 h. however; gradually Japan shifted to power operated
machines due to acute shortage of farm labourers (Biswas, 2004).
The first manual rice transplanter was developed and used in China in the fifties. The
machine had 6 rows with total working width of 96 cm having average field capacity of 0.3
ha/day. It weighted 24 kg and needed 3 persons to operate it. Another model of Chinese design
was demonstrated at World Agriculture Fair in New Delhi in 1960 and subsequently evaluated at
several places in India. This model had 6-10 picker- clamps and was simple in design. Washed
and pruned seedling were used which were picked by the picker clamps and released in the
puddled soil (Singh, 1985).
A three row manual transplanting aid was designed and developed at IIT Delhi but did
not save the labour requirement. A four row manual rice transplanter was developed in 1964 at
National Institute of Agricultural Engineering, UK. This machine was tested in1996 at Tractor
Training and Testing Station, Budni. The transplanter was operated by one man covering up to
0.05 ha/h under optimum conditions. Adaptation of this machine under Indian conditions was
limited since the machine needed ideal field conditions and considerable amount of man-hours
were needed for washing and arranging the seedling in the tray. (Anonymous, 1995)
2.4.2. Animal drawn transplanter
China had worked on development of animal drawn rice transplanter. A 6 row model was
exhibited at the World Agriculture Fair held at New Delhi in 1960. This was subsequently tested
at TNAU, Coimbatore. It required root washed seedlings. Major components of the machine
were, a float over which all other mechanism were fitted, a long sloppy tray, a wire comb fixed
longitudinally on the tray, a rotor shaft on which 6 discs were fitted with number of clamps and a
ground wheel. The tray moved to and fro when the machine was operated. The rotating clamps
picked up seedlings from the seedling tray and planted them into the puddled soil. At the time of
planting, the planting mechanism got an upward kick which released plants into the soil. Field
tests revealed that the draft was high for a pair of average animals, the seedlings planted were
lying flat on the soil and there were frequent clogging of planting forks resulting in non-uniforms
planting. Based on the Chinese design, Rice Research Institute (Pakistan) worked to develop a
similar unit of transplanter with 7 rows to be operated by pair of animals at the Kala Shah Kaku,
Punjab (Pakistan) (Kurup, 1979).
2.4.3. Self propelled transplanter
At present 15 manufacturers in Japan produce about 45 different models of rice
transplanters having 2, 4, 6 and 8 working rows. Out of these, mat seedling transplanters have
become more popular. Amongst that soil bearing seedlings type rice transplanters have become
very popular in Japan. The use of pincer type picking mechanism is quite accomplished and the
designers realised that use of non- grasping fingers moving continuously to draw out seedlings
from the tray was simpler and required less power. This concept has been widely used in present
day machines of Japan. This had also resulted in a new technology of rice seedling culture in
Japan. Young seedlings are grown in mat to suit the non-grasping pickers of the present day
machines. These seedlings are grown on wooden or plastic trays filled with soil about 3 cm deep.
The seedlings are allowed to grow until they are 15-25 days old having leaves. The root systems
entangle to form a mat ( Anonymous, 1977).
A self propelled paddy transplanter was developed in 1970 by Acharya N.G. Ranga
Agricultural University. The machine used 25-30 days seedlings for transplanting. The
settlement period required for soil was 48 hr. The field capacity was 0.08 ha/hr with 20 cm row
spacing and plant to plant spacing varied from 8 to 14 cm with a forward speed of 1-1.2 km/h.
The cost of operation was Rs. 1500 /ha. 8 % of missing in hill was observed. 26 hill/m 2 was
observed during field trials (Singh, 1979).
Early in 1978, Japanese manufacturers started to market bigger riding type machines
having a minimum of 8 rows but these did not become popular. Transplanter development in
People‟s republic of China shifted from manual to 12-14 row riding type self propelled machines
having three wheels and small gasoline engine that drives the front traction wheel through a
chain and sprocket transmission system. These machines have small seedling tray and side rakes
for storage of seedlings making it necessary to employ two men, in addition to the driver, to
manually feed the seedlings. Power for feeding and planting is transmitted through a propeller
shaft from the transmission power take-off. A wooden platform is provided as a float. These
machines made use of 20-30 cm root washed and pruned seedlings. Row spacing could be
adjusted to 10, 13.3, 16.7 and 20 cm and planting depth from 3.5 to 7.0 cm.
Garg (1984) designed PAU riding type engine operated paddy transplanter using mat type
seedlings. A six – row riding type paddy transplanter operated by a diesel engine of 4.8 hp has
been developed at PAU. It was designed to utilize mat type seedlings. Uniform row spacing can
be varied. Machine transplanted 0.116 ha/h at a working speed of 1.01 km/h and 0.15 ha/h at a
working speed of 1.26 km/h. Average hill population was 25/m2 when planted at plant spacing of
14 cm and 20/m2 when planted at plant spacing of 19 cm. Missing were 16.67 per cent in low
gear and 13 per cent in high gear when average plant per hill were 4. Net labour and financial
saving over the traditional system were 144.92 man-h and Rs.154.32 /ha respectively.
Garg and Sharma, (1986) developed a six row riding type paddy transplanter operated by
diesel engine of 4.8 hp at PAU, Ludhiana. It was designed to utilize mat type seedlings. It has
uniform row spacing of 22.5 cm. Plant to plant spacing could be varied. Machine transplanted
110 ha/h at a working speed of 1.01 km/hr and 0.150 ha/h at a working speed of 1.26 km/h.
Average hill population was 25/m2 when planted at plant to plant spacing of 14.0 cm and 20/m2
when planted at plant spacing of 19.30 cm. Missing were 16.67%. Net labour and financial
savings over the traditional system were 145 man-h/ha and Rs. 154.32/ha respectively.
At present, Japanese machines employs a four –bar link mechanisms in planting unit, a
small gasoline engine as a power unit, two steel wheels for propulsion and plastic float for
support over puddled soil and water. The transport wheels can be hydraulically adjusted for
height to suit varied field conditions. The seedlings are placed on an inclined aluminium tray and
gravity fed to the planting fork mechanically and cause it to slide down. A screw mechanism
gradually moves the tray from side to side to ensure a uniform quantity of seedling to be picked
up by the fingers. The operator walks behind the machine and depending on his skill, a two –
row machine may cover one hectare land in 10 to 15 hours. Riding type rice transplanter of 4 to 8
rows are also being manufactured and are being popular among the farmers (Saxena, 1997 ).
Peng et al. (1993) developed an automated pneumatic rice transplanter to facilitate
seedling management and transplanting. A computer controls all operations for accurate
positioning of tray cells with air-pruned rice seedlings over suction drop tubes, and the impulse
vacuum system removes the rice seedlings from the tray cells and transplants them into the
paddy field. With the commercial version (4 x 5 matrix formations) with 20 suction tubes,
approximately 1600 seedlings per minute could be automatically transplanted with 30 cm row
spacing and 15 cm plant spacing. A simulation analysis of rice seedling dynamics was carried
out to obtain maximum transplanting efficiency.
An automatic travel control system was developed by Nonami et al. (1995) to improve
straight line holding of a riding type rice transplanter. An acceleration sensor and an angular
velocity sensor were used and their field performance was discussed. On flat fields, the
acceleration sensor detected forward velocity with high accuracy, but on puddled fields errors
occurred due to the effect of longitudinal inclination of the machine. Even on puddled fields,
angular ranges obtained from the angular velocity sensor agreed with the actual fluctuating
velocities in the direction of travel through use of a suitable amplifier and band pass filter.
Konoshi et al. (1999) have developed two types of zigzag (i.e. planting in a zigzag
pattern) rice transplanter. The first had four planting mechanisms of spacing 45 cm. A test field
transplanted by the prototype yielded the same as that for a conventional transplanter with more
planting mechanisms. The second prototype had a mechanism spacing of 36 cm which was
suitable for high density transplanting (30 hills/m2). Results from field tests showed that high
density zigzag transplanting was possible. Studies on manually planted field indicated that the
yield of high density zigzag planted rice was 10% higher than usual.
In order to develop a new type of high efficiency rice transplanter, the three important
characteristics of planetary eccentric gear mechanisms were analysed by Ying Yi Bin (2000). A
kinematics model of the transplanting mechanism of a rice transplanter with planetary eccentric
gears was developed by analytic methods and the effects of parameters on the relative motion
velocity and absolute motion locus of the seeding claw were analysed. The results provide a
theoretical basis for designing a highly efficient rice transplanter.
Chaudhary et al. (2005) studied that self- propelled rice transplanter is better alternative
than the manual transplanting. Rice transplanting by self propelled transplanter ensures timely
operation, saving in cost and minimum human drudgery. A detailed economics of both manual
and machine transplanting was worked out on the study done at the G.B. Pant University of
Agriculture and Technology, Pantanagar during 2000. The self propelled rice transplanter gave
net profit of Rs.1319/hectare when annual use of machine was 300 h (one season) and 500 h (two
seasons), respectively, over the manual transplanting. The break-even area of coverage by the
transplanter should be more than 13.14 hectares per year to make the machine profitable in
comparison to the manual method of transplanting.
Tatugade et al. (2006) developed 2- row paddy transplanter considering the limitations in
operation of 8 –row paddy transplanter in Konkan region. Transplanter worked satisfactory with
respect to spacing and uniformity. But due to rigid linkage, sinkage of transplanter was high due
to which desired plant to plant spacing was not observed in field trial. Forward speed of
transplanter was observed as 1.8 km/h.
In order to improve the working efficiency and quality of the rice transplanter, the
kinematics analysis of transplanting mechanism with the new non-circular planetary gears has
been performed by He Li et al. (2007). The kinematics model of the transplanting mechanism
was established by using the mathematical analysis method. The displacement and velocity of
the mechanism were analyzed. The effects of the structural parameters on the path and relative
velocity of the seedling claw were obtained. The analysis results were of theoretical significance
to the design of the high speed transplanter.
Nagasaka et al. (2008) developed an automated rice transplanter by modifying a
commercial six row transplanter. Steering, transmission, and the transplanting implement were
controlled through a Controller Area Network (CAN). A network Real-Time Kinematics (RTK),
Geographical Positioning System (GPS) receiver was used for locating position and an inertial
measurement unit was used for measuring the vehicle posture. The transplanter made nine back
and forth traverses planting long mat type hydroponic seedlings. The deviation from the desired
straight path had a root mean square of 0.052 m during operation.
Zhen Young et al. (1997) studied the theory and measured wave proofing of high speed
rice transplanter. A theoretical analysis and experimental study on high speed rice transplanting
boats was performed to prevent waves which cause damage to seedlings. Comparative field test
showed that at a transplanting frequency of 220 seedlings per min, the seedling boat with single
or double wave-proof camber can come up to the requirements for mechanical transplanting with
less than 3 per cent of the plants being pushed down by waves. A wave- proof camber at a
transplanting frequency of 300-310 seedlings per minute producing average half –wave height
was 23.1-25.2 mm. Results showed that the high speed mechanical transplanter can work
satisfactorily.
Konoshi et al. (1998) developed a rotary planting mechanism for a zigzag rice
transplanter. The mechanism is based on the rotary planting mechanism of high speed rice
transplanter. It consists two spatial locus planting mechanism. A set of conical gears and set of
elliptical gears were used inside the rotary case to obtain the spatial locus. These cause a
reciprocal motion in planting finger axle which is not parallel to the case rotating axle. The
planting locus simulator was programmed using the visual design of the spatial loci. Two
different types of planting mechanism were built which indicate the potential development of
zigzag rice transplanter. The first had four planting mechanism of spacing 45 cm. Production of
field transplanted by the prototype was same as that for a conventional transplanter having more
planting mechanism. The second prototype had a mechanism spacing of 36 cm so it was suitable
for high density transplanting, e.g.30 hills /m2. Results from field tests showed that high density
zigzag planted rice was 10 per cent higher than traditional method.
Syedul, M. et al. (2000) conducted the experiment for improvement of the IRRI designed,
6- row manually operated rice transplanter to adapt in rice producing countries. After
modification, a five row prototype was developed and both IRRI and BRRI transplanters were
evaluated compared with hand transplanting. At full load, the weights of IRRI and BRRI
transplanter were 37 and 30 kg respectively. The effective field capacities of the BRRI
transplanter, IRRI transplanter and hand transplanting methods were 0.0191, 0.0155 and 0.0023
ha/h respectively. As a result, a 20 per cent increase in working capacity was achieved with the
BRRI transplanter as compared to the IRRI transplanter. The field efficiencies of BRRI and IRRI
transplanters were 78.90 and 76.83 per cent respectively, but that of hand transplanting method
was 91.40 per cent. The cost of machine transplanting with wooden frame, bamboo frame,
plastic frame, plastic tray and nylon rope and nursery seedlings were 60.96, 54.98, 58.39, 109.76
and 47.56 US$/ha, respectively. The hand transplanting cost with wet-bed nursery seedlings was
US$ 93.18/ha. Therefore, machine transplanting with any of the nursery seedlings methods,
except the plastic tray, was more profitable than hand transplanting.
Behera et al. (1991) have studied ground contact pressure soil sedimentation period
affecting transplanter sinkage and its performance. They have reported that self propelled
transplanter has problem of poor traction and sinkage. It requires ideal soil condition for proper
working. Too soft soil increases the sinkage of float of the transplanter and leads to higher
percentage of buried and floating hills and subsequently increases the hill mortality. A study was
conducted to determine sinkage of device under simulated conditions and later on varied on field
by the transplanter itself. Further the performance of transplanter showed that ideal transplanting
time should be 48 hours after puddling for a silty clay loam soil.
Manually operated six row paddy transplanters, which use mat type rice seedlings, were
fabricated at the Punjab Agricultural University Ludhiana, India. The machines were evaluated
by Garg et al. (1992) in farm fields of area 30 ha and 6 ha were transplanted at the research
farms of the University in 1994. Trials were conducted at 19 different locations in 2 districts of
Punjab. Two people could easily transplant 0.4 ha per day including uprooting and transporting
from the nursery. Hill and tiller population as well as grain yield were higher than for manually
transplanted fields at almost all locations. The number of hills transplanted by the machine
varied from 25.2 to 28.8/m2. The average hill mortality after 15 days of transplanting was 12.1%.
The average grain yield was 250 kg/ha higher than the manually transplanted fields.
Transplanting by machine saved 45 per cent cost and 60 per cent labour as compared to manual
transplanting.
Uttam Kumar et al. (1997) have reported that the performance of eight row self propelled
rice transplanter, marketed by M/s VST Agro Inputs, Bangalore was found satisfactory during its
operation in the University farm as well as farmers field. Field capacity of the machine was
found to be 0.174 ha/h with field efficiency of about 54 per cent at an operating speed of 1.7
km/h. By using this transplanter, the cost of transplanting including nursery raising was
Rs.1200/ha less than the conventional system of rice transplanting. This system requires about 9-
10 times less labour as compared to hand transplanting.
Beena and Jaikumaran (1998) have carried out performance evaluation of an eight row
power operated rice transplanter under varying nursery rice mat densities, which revealed that
the density should be between 0.4 and 0.6 kg/m2 to obtain the optimum seedling rate of 3-4
plants per hill (66-79 percent of hills had 1-5 seedlings, and 51-69 percent had 2-5 seedlings) and
to reduce the number of missing hills to a minimum13 per cent. Each picker on the transplanter
picks up an area of 1.5 cm2 of mat and has a sowing density of 0.41 kg/m2.
Gowda and Rudraradhya, (1998) have modified a six row manually operated rice
transplanter developed by IRRI (Philippines), for Indian conditions at the TNAU Campus,
Bangalore, India. Field trials were conducted at the University of Bangalore and in farmers
fields. The modifications include the use of different materials to strengthen the pickers and main
body of the seeding compartments and the replacement of joint pins with hardened nuts and
bolts. The machine consisting of a wooden float, metallic main body, tray moving mechanism,
mat pusher and handle, when fully loaded, weighs about 25 kg. In well prepared land with good
quality seedlings, 5-6 labourers can transplant 1 ha of land, in comparison to manual
transplanting which would require another 30 workers. The machine can plant 46-47 rice hills/m
2
(compared to 39-40 for manual planting), leading to an increase in grain yield of 0.361 t/ha.
Labour savings amount to Rs. 885/ha, meaning that the initial cost of the transplanter (Rs. 5500)
can be recovered by planting 7-8 ha in 1 or 2 seasons.
Garg et al. (1999) carried out an ergonomic evaluation of manually pulled engine
operated paddy transplanter in slit clay loam soil under puddle conditions. The study revealed
that both heart rate and pulmonary ventilation rate increased with time. The operators expressed
inability to operate the machine beyond 40 minutes in case of slity clay loam and 20 minutes in
case of sandy loam soil continuously because of physical fatigue. The time when the operators
expressed their inability to work indicated very high physiological load.
Tasaka (1999) reported that rice seedlings were grown hydroponically in a long mat, with
a mat size of 600 cm in length and 28 cm in width, designed to save labour during transplanting.
The nursery device used to raise the seedlings consisted of a nursery bed (4 stainless steel
nursery trays), a liquid fertilizer tank and a fertilizer pump. The seedlings were grown for about 2
weeks until the plant length reached 10 to 15 cm. The seedling mat was composed of entangled
plant roots and non-woven cloth and was strong enough to be handled. The seedling mat was
rolled up, weighing about 12 kg which was about 20 percent of the weight of a conventional mat
with young seedlings raised in a soil bed. A rice transplanter was designed and tested to
transplant the roll of seedlings into paddy fields. The rate of damaged seedlings immediately
after transplanting was 30 to 50 percent. The minimum rate of missing hills after rooting was
3%, when the number of plants per hill ranged from 7 to 8. Working rate of the transplanter was
approximately 0.5 ha/h for a working speed of 1.13 m/s and a working width of 1.8 m.
Garg et al. (2001) compared the self propelled 8 row transplanter against the manual
paddy transplanter. It has been proved that self propelled paddy transplanter is more efficient for
yield, plant height and number of hill, plant population. Average yield in case of engine operated
transplanter was more than manual transplanter. Chocking and twisting of planting fingers were
observed in case of transplanting with engine operated machine. Operating cost was worked out
to be Rs. 1898 per ha as compared to Rs. 1480 per ha in manual transplanter.
Durasamy et al. (2002) tested a 6 row manually operated transplanter. The field capacity
of manual transplanter was 0.028 ha/h. The cost of operation was reduced from Rs. 2700 / ha to
650/ ha as compare to conventional manual transplanting. There was 84 per cent and 76 per cent
saving in time and cost respectively.
Durasamy et al. (2002) tested the self propelled rice transplanter in Tamil Nadu in 8
locations covering 15 ha area during August, 2000. The seedling used was prepared in mat
nursery. The field capacity of the machine was 0.13 ha/h. the cost of operation was Rs. 1073/ ha
against Rs. 2700/ha by manual transplanting. The machine could not be operated under heavy
clay soil conditions and if the nursery was prepared in gravel soils. The performance of the
machine was good in terms of transplanting as far as field was well prepared and settled with a
soil cone index of above of 20 kPa.
Manjunatha et.al (2003) concluded that the self propelled 8 row paddy transplanter could
be used successfully with a labour saving of about 30 man - days per hectare eliminating the
drudgery on the part of labourers. The field capacity of the transplanter being 0.19 ha/h, an area
of 1.5 ha can be transplanted in a day of eight working hours. The maximum area that could be
covered by the mechanical transplanter in a year was 144 hectare as the transplanting operations
are seasonal.

Chandra and Ram (2003) have tested 8 row self propelled Chinese paddy transplanter in
silty loam calcareous soil of RAU, Pusa. Mat type seedlings of 22 days were transplanted in field
with zero hour (S1), 8 hr (S2), and 24-hour (S3) soil setting time after puddling. The machine was
operated at three throttle positions, T1, T2, T3 i.e. lowest (1.5 km/h), medium (1.7 km/h) and
highest (1.9 km/h) respectively in each plot. Maximum missing hills was found in S 1T3
treatment. The plant height and tiller population after 25 days of transplanting were found
maximum in S3T3 treatment followed by S3T3 treatment.
The testing of self – propelled rice transplanter was conducted by Allahabad Agriculture
Institute at nine farmers‟ fields (2004) covering 9.5 ha for Pant-10 and Masoori varieties. The
machine saved 72 per cent labour and 15.3 per cent cost of operation compared to manual rice
transplanting. The machine saved 80 per cent labour and increased the yield by 10-12 per cent. It
gave cost effectiveness up to 47 per cent compared to hand transplanting. The machine covered
1-1.2 ha/day and only 4-5 persons were engaged.
Dewangan et al. (2005) reported than single row rice transplanter was developed and in it
the transplanter was stationary while the tray containing is movable. The slot size of the fixed
fork finger was decided based on the number of seedlings to be picked during planting. The
transplanter was evaluated for both root washed and mat washed seedlings at two levels each of
the size of finger slot, age of seedling and depths of planting and three levels of speed of
operation. The average population of established root washed seedlings varied from 3.38 to 4.2
and for mat type seedlings from 5.40 to 6.89 per hill. The inclination of seedling was about 730
to 750 for both types of seedlings. The laboratory model when set for a depth 6 cm and operated
at 35 strokes/min can operate with root washed seedling and mat type seedling of age 35 to 40
days with 23.3 per cent and 18.6 per cent missing hills and 6.4 per cent hills respectively.
However, 3 mm slot size finger was found to be suitable for both types of seedlings.
Tatugade et al. (2006) evaluated a two row paddy transplanter. It was working with
respect to uniformity in spacing and number of plants per hill. In laboratory test of transplanter, it
has shown best performance at 1100 rpm of the power source with forward speed of transplanter
1.78 km/h and 140 strokes of transplanting arm. Hill to hill spacing was observed to be varying
as per forward speed of machine and average hill to hill spacing was 23.4 cm. Field trial reported
that average forward speed of transplanter was 1.8 km/h and there was sinkage of transplanter
with power source in puddle field because of rigid hitching system and smaller size of lug
wheels.
Mohanty (2010) reported that the inadequate number of hills per hectare transplanted by
manual labour and the delay in transplanting due to labour shortage during peak transplanting
season pushed the demand for a mechanical transplanting. Manually operated 4 row transplanter
was not successful due to low work output depending on human labour and drudgery. To
overcome these problems, studies were conducted at farmers‟ field by Krishi Vigyan Kendra,
Deogarh, Orissa state during 2009 on feasibility of mechanizing transplanting operation of paddy
crop with a view to reduce the cost of cultivation. Plant population of 34-36 hills/m2 was
achieved by this transplanter. Number of plants per hill was observed to be within 3 to 5. An
eight row self propelled transplanter was used for the purpose. The performance of mechanical
transplanter was quite satisfactory. The field capacity, field efficiency and fuel consumption of
transplanter were 0.123 ha/h, 78 per cent and 6.5 l/ha respectively. Cost of mechanical
transplanting was Rs. 1554/ha as compared to Rs.2675 /ha in case of manual transplanting.
Shahare and Bhat (2011) developed two row self propelled transplanter and its
performance was studied. The transplanter was tested at the Agronomy Farm of Dr. B.S.K.K.V.,
Dapoli. Various parameters like plant to plant spacing, planting depth, field capacity, field
efficiency, total time of operation, speed of operation were recorded during field evaluation. The
field efficiency and field capacity of the transplanter was observed to be 84.5 per cent and 0.051
ha/h respectively. The total numbers of hill/m2 area were obtained as 23.3 and plant to plant
distance, plant depth were obtained as 12.46 cm and 4.49 cm respectively.
The review revealed that the transplanting with self propelled rice transplanter (6-8 row)
can reduce the labour requirement to a large extent. At present these transplanters are suitable on
bigger farm, plane land and not suitable for hilly terrain. They require mat type seedling of 15-22
days developed on raised bed covered with plastic. Manually operated and bullock drawn
transplanter could not perform well. Looking into the limitations of Konkan region, it is needed
to develop a self propelled transplanter of smaller size (Two, four row) which will be suitable for
small farm with mat type nursery seedling.
III. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS

Rice is major food grain worldwide. Unlike upland row crops, cultivation of lowland rice
is tedious and labour consuming process. Conventional method of cultivation involves growing
nursery and transplanting the seedling manually in the puddled soil. During the transplanting
season, there is an acute shortage of farm labourers. Acute labour shortages in the transplanting
season and increased wages of farm labourers have necessitated the mechanisation of rice
transplanting. This chapter deals with the theoretical considerations involved in the development
and testing of two row transplanter.
The two-row self propelled rice transplanter can plant two rows of rice at a time. The
transplanter is fitted with the 2.1 hp engine. Engine power is supplied to gear box for speed
reduction. From gear box, part of power is transmitted to transplanting mechanism while other is
transmitted for the forward motion of drive wheel. The transplanter consist of various
components like engine, float, gear box, transplanting arm, rocker arm, tray, picking – cum -
transplanting mechanism, drive wheel etc.

At the time of transplanting operation, the cut mat nursery is placed on the tray. After
every stroke of transplanting arm, the tray slides and 2-4 seedlings from mat nursery are properly
picked up by needle and planted in the puddle soil at 4-5 cm depth. The tray has the horizontal
sliding movement which controls the supply of seedling to the needle at every stroke.

The transplanting arm starts rotating in elliptical path. When the planting arm reaches to
its upper position, the separating needle removes 2-4 seedlings from mat nursery placed in the
tray and at the end; knock out mechanism pushes it in the soil to a specified depth of 4-5 cm. As
the tray is moving at every stroke, the transplanting arm removes new area of mat nursery and
the planting of rice seedlings thus occurs. The power from gear box is transmitted to drive
wheels through chain and sprocket arrangement. As the engine is started, power is transmitted
from gear box to drive wheels which causes the forward motion of the transplanter. Theoretical
consideration is presented under following heads.

1. Prime movers for transplanting mechanism.


2. Size of the machine.
3. Plant population.
4. Drive wheel of two row transplanter.
5. Forward speed of machine.
6. Power requirement of machine.
7. Design of drive wheel.
8. Nursery raising.
9. Soil conditions.
10. Measurement of parameters.
3.1 Prime movers for transplanting mechanism
Apart from saving in time and cost of transplanting which is very high in manual
transplanting, transplanter removes human drudgery and can give uniform and desired plant
density. Moreover, one can plant the crop in line at no extra cost and make weeding and
intercultural operation easier. Though attempts have been made in different countries to develop
a mechanical paddy transplanter so far transplanters have been manufactured and successfully
introduced only in a few countries like Japan, Korea and China.
Eight row riding type Chinese transplanter (make, Yanji Shakthi) worked satisfactorily in
Korean region. It has 2.9 kW air cooled diesel engine. The cost of the machine (i.e. 1.6 lacs) and
small plot size on hilly terrain are the limitations for such machines. Hence, the small size
machine possibly two row or four row with engine lighter in weight with low machine cost,
easily transportable is needed to develop in this region.
Self propelled two row engine operated paddy transplanter is lighter in weight. Its engine
power is 2.1 hp operated with petrol is expected for fulfilling the need of the hilly region of
Konkan. It requires one to two labour for operating in the field. Also, walking type of machine
gives idea of planting rows in straight manner. Hence, small machine with some self propelling
arrangement for forward movement of machine is needed to be developed.

3.2 Size of machine

Transplanting of paddy is a highly labour intensive operation and is still done manually.
It has been observed that plant population planted by the contractual labour is very low and it
causes decrease in the yield. Higher labour requirement of about 250-300 man- h/ha (Singh,
1985) is required for transplanting. Scarcity of labour during peak season of transplanting creates
a problem to complete the transplanting operation in time.
The 8 row self propelled rice transplanter using mat type seedlings has advantages over
the manual hand transplanting. The performance of the machine was found highly satisfactory
and could be recommended for adoption by farmers (Mohanty et al., 2010). Also, it was tested in
Konkan region. The average field capacity of the machine was found 0.12 to 0.15 ha/h. The
width of the machine was 184 cm and able to maintain row to row spacing 23.8 cm and plant to
plant spacing 14 and 16 cm. The machine worked well in some of the regions of Konkan where
plot size is big.
Mostly in the Konkan region, paddy fields are available on terraces and plot size is very
small. In small hilly plots, turning spaces and transportation of the machine is very difficult.
Considering these limiting factors; light weight, small, pushing type but self propelled machine
of two row, four row is needed to be developed for small fields. Hence, it is planned to develop
two row, self propelled, light weight, small size transplanter.
3.3 Plant population
The ultimate productivity of a crop is determined by plant population per unit area. Low
plant population may result in increased tillering which creates more variation in panicle
maturity, increased weed population and reduced yield potential of the variety. High plant
population may reduce yield and quality. The paddy seedlings are planted at 20× 15 cm spacing
(Anonymous, 2010). In one hill, 3-5 seedlings are planted. Fork spacing available in commercial
transplanting arm of transplanter has been considered to be 23.8 cm. Hence the machine
developed should give the required row spacing of 23 cm and plant spacing of 15 cm. The yield
of the crop fully depends upon the plant population. If machine is not able to plant the seedlings
at the required spacing, then plant geometry is to be adjusted such that optimum plant population
is maintained by the machine.
Transplanter should give 15 cm plant to plant distance which is basic requirement to
achieve during the development of two row paddy transplanter.
3.4 Drive wheels of two row transplanter
The developed wheels should be able to balance part weight of transplanter. It should be
able to plant the seedlings at required plant spacing. The wheels developed should be able to run
at required forward motion. Also, it should be able to produce required traction at the time of
transplanting in puddled field.
3.5 Forward speed of machine
Power tiller operated seven row paddy transplanter using conventional seedling was
comfortably operated at 0.9 to 1.2 km/h speed. Six row riding type paddy transplanter (PAU
design) with operating speed of 0.8 to 1.13 km/h results in field capacity of 0.084 to 0.137 ha/h,
(Garg I.K., 1992).
Chaudhary et al. (2005), had operated the eight row self propelled paddy transplanter at
1.4 km/h and 1.8 km/h speed. For development of drive wheel of two row pulled type
transplanter, the forward speed is selected as 1.5 km/h.
The walk behind type two row and four row transplanter operated at forward speed of
2.27 km/h and 1.76 km/h respectively gave the field capacity of 0.125 ha/h and 0.163 ha/h
respectively. The higher speed also results into low plant population of 23 hills/m 2 (average)
against recommended value of 33 hills/m2.
3.6 Power requirement of transplanter
The total power required for the transplanting mechanism is the sum for power available
required for removal of plant from nursery and power required for forward motion of
transplanter.
1. Power available for removal for removal of plants from mat (Pr)
The power available for the removal of plant from nursery can be calculated as given
below.
2N g Tg
Power available required (Pr) =
4500

Where,

Pr = Power available for removal of plant from nursery;

Ng = Output speed at gearbox;

Tg= Torque at gearbox.

2. Power required for forward motion of transplanter


The rolling coefficient, weight of machine, width of drive wheel, diameter of wheel are
the influencing parameters for power requirement of the developed transplanter.

0.049  0.287
1. Rolling coefficient,  =
M

Where, M = Mobility number

M= CIbd/W

Where,
CI = Cone index;
b = Width of drive wheel;
d = Diameter of drive wheel;
W = Weight on drive wheel, kg.
2. Tractive effort = [drawbar pull] + [Rolling co-efficient ×Weight on drive wheel]
3. Torque at drive wheel shaft = [Tractive effort] × [Rolling radius of drive wheel]
4. Power required for forward motion of transplanter (Pm)
2N g Td
Pm =
4500
Total power required = Pr + Pm
3.7 Design of drive wheel
Diameter of wheel was determined using formulae. Considering the forward speed of
transplanter as 1.5 km/hr, diameter of wheel was determined.
Engine speed
1. Rotational speed of drive wheel =
Gear ratio
2. Let us take D as diameter of drive wheel in meter.

3. Forward motion of transplanter, = ×D× Rotational speed of drive wheel

4. Assuming 50% slippage in field during actual forward motion of transplanter

= 0.50 ××D ×Rotational speed of drive wheel.


5. Considering normal walking speed of the human being as 1.5 km/h (Choudhary et
al., 2005)

1.5 = (×0.50×60 ×D× speed of wheel)/1000)

3.8 Nursery Raising


The system of growing the paddy seedling on plastic sheet is called mat nursery. For
transplanting operation using machine, a special kind of nursery is prerequisite. It keeps the roots
from touching the soil. Field plot should be selected for the preparation of mat nursery over
which plastic sheet is spread to be used as nursery bed. The raised bed is prepared on levelled
ground. The bed surface needs to be compact and smoothen. Normally three raised beds of 10×1
m are required for 0.4 ha land (1 Acre). Normally 5 kg seeds are required for one bed. The bed is
covered with the polythene sheet (150-200 gauge) with perforations and is spread to serve as
base. The frame size of 1 m × 1 m × 0.25 m is made with angle iron of 25 mm and 2 mm thick, is
filled with prepared mixture of soil to the depth of 25 mm and levelled properly. The soil is
moistened with water and sprouted seeds are spread evenly in frame with hand.
After 21 days of sowing, the seedlings come to 3-4 leaf stage and are ready for
transplantation. The more seedling age results in more nursery height i.e. from 15 to 19 cm and
average stem thickness from 0.10 cm to 0.14 cm. The number of tillers/ hill also increases from
11.3 to 14.7. Hence, seeding age should be optimum for picking 2 to 4 seedlings from the tray by
the fingers.
Hence, it is decided to go for mat type seeding to grow on raised bed covered with
plastic.
3.9 Soil condition
It is generally known that soil conditions can significantly affect the performance of
transplanters. The transplanter can be successfully adopted under those conditions where field
conditions are favourable. The water level in the field at time of transplanting should be about 5
cm. It also reported that when water level is less, the soil sticks with the wheels and planting
becomes difficult. When water in the field is more at the time of transplanting, the seedlings are
not fixed properly in the soil and start floating. The depth of puddling should be shallow for
proper working of machine. The soil should be well puddled and well settled for better
performance (Garg and Sharma, 1984).
Shallow tillage of 15-20 cm depth is recommended when the transplanter is used in field
. Depth of puddling maximum up to10 cm is recommended for Japanese paddy transplanter
(Singh and Garg, 1984). The soil flow can be avoided in the levelled field after 48 to 72 hours of
puddling.
Most critical factor is soil settlement period. Soil settlement period after puddling varied
from 1 to 4 days for proper functioning of different types of transplanter. The 24 hours soil
settlement time results into maximum number of tillers (31/ hill) after 45 days of transplanting at
silty loam calcareous soil of Pusa, Samastipur (Chandra and Ram, 2003). Soil settlement period
ranges from 24 to 72 hours in silt clay loam. The hill damage was found more in case of lower
settlement period of 24 hours for silt clay loam and 2 hours for sandy loam in Punjab.
Hence, it is decided to go for shallow ploughing of 15-20 cm. The shallow puddling will
be done in the field and settlement period of 48- 72 hours will be given before transplanting of
mat type seedling in the field.
3.10 Measurement of parameters
The theory involved in the measurement of soil and machine parameter is presented as,
1. Field efficiency
2. Sinkage
3. Puddling index

1. Field efficiency
The field efficiency is the ratio of the effective field capacity to the theoretical field
capacity, usually measured in terms of percentage.
2. Sinkage
The sinkage can be measured with the help of sinkage measuring apparatus. The sinkage
measuring apparatus consist of hollow circular cylinder. Scale is marked on the outer side of the
cylinder, which gives direct reading of sinkage.

3. Puddling index

The puddling index can be measured by collecting the soil samples from various area of
the field. The sample should be kept for settlement for 24-36 hours. Then the puddling index can
be measured by using following formula. ( Behera et al. 1991)
Vs
Puddling index (PI) = x 100
V
Where,
Vs = Volume of soil, ml
V = Total volume of the sample, ml
IV. MATERIALS AND METHODS

This chapter describes the approach for development of paddy transplanter, material and
experimental methodology adopted for conducting the study, facility developed for laboratory
evaluation and performance testing of the two row self propelled paddy transplanter .

Paddy transplanter is used to enhance speed of the transplanting operation and proper
placement of paddy seedlings. The study was conducted in two phases. Firstly, the transplanter
was developed and tested in laboratory. Secondly developed two row self propelled paddy
transplanter was tested in the field. The two row transplanter was developed for rice (Oryza
sativa) with consideration that, the development of the two row rice transplanter was undertaken
with the view to find the possible solution to the problems in rice transplanting in the hilly terrain
of Konkan region. The machine was developed considering various factors affecting the
performance of the transplanter. The factors affecting the design and performance of transplanter
are discussed below.

4.1 Design considerations

Size of farm
Because of hilly terrain area there is problem of transportation of a commercially
available self propelled eight row rice transplanters, from one plot to another and restricting its
use on large scale. Here in Konkan region land holdings by individual farmers are very small.
Marginal farmers having less than 2 ha area are 71.96% (Anonymous, 2002).
Undulating terrain
Rice plots in Konkan are available on terraces resulting into difficulties in transportation
of machine into fields. The machinery developed for this region must be light in weight which
could be transported by two to three persons from one field to another.
Good operating conditions
In order to obtain satisfactory operation, good quality work and efficiency of the
developed machine besides ensuring good technical condition and correct operation of the
machine, suitable soil conditions in the field and the seedlings of the machine should be
available. The machine has to be operated for transplanting mat type seedlings in the puddled
field. The quality of nursery and puddling must be favourable and uniform for easy machine
operation. The suitable conditions of the field and the seedlings are presented in Table 4.1.
Table 4.1 Suitable conditions of the field and the seedlings

Sr. Items Sub-items Good suitable conditions


4.2
No
Rice
Depth of tillage 10-15 cm
transpl
Depth of water in field Average depth of standing water anter
during puddling 2-4 cm A
1. Paddy field
Soil quality in field Sandy soil with a certain rice
percentage of sand transpla
Foreign matter No stones and no foreign matter nter is a
in the field. speciali
1. Uniform soil layer, seedling zed
slice in good order and machin
completely formed mat. e
2. Tray nursery Seedbed soil 2. No foreign matter in soil, suitable
seedlings proper water, seedbed soil to
thickness 20-25 mm. transpla
Height of seedling Seedling height 10-20 cm nt rice
1. Dark green sturdy seedlings, seedling
no futile growth, no disease. s onto
Quality of seedling 2. Uniform growth, nor too thick paddy
or too thin. field. A
commo
1. Small seedling: 1.2 kg/m2 (dry
n rice
seed)
transpla
Quantity of seedling 2. Middle seedlings: 0.6 kg/m2
nter
(dry seed) or 0.74 kg/m2 (urge
compris
sprouted seeds)
es; a
seedling tray like a shed roof on which mat type rice nursery are kept; a seedling tray shifter that
shifts the seedling tray and pickup forks that pick up a seedling from mat type nursery on the
seedling tray and put the seedling into the puddle soil, as if the seedling are taken between
human fingers. The floating board of the transplanter served as a base and also helps in
movement of the machine over excess water in the field. It also serves as a platform for
placement of nursery during transplanting operation. In general, the self propelled mechanical
rice transplanters has a provision of transplanting seedling rows in single pass with specified row
spacing and hill spacing. Commercially available (eight row and four row ) rice transplanters are
shown in Fig 4.1 and 4.2
4.3 Development of new two row paddy transplanter
Rice transplanters are complex machine consisting of several mechanisms to perform the
transplanting operation satisfactorily in the field.

4.3.1 General components of rice transplanter


The rice transplanter necessarily consists of mainly power source and transplanting
mechanism. Its different functional components are enlisted as below.
1. Main frame
2. Engine
3. Gear box
4. Picking - cum- transplanting mechanism.( Transplanting arm, Rocker arm )
5. Indexing mechanism
Fig.4.1. Eight row riding type rice transplanter.

Fig. 4.2 Four row riding type rice transplanter.

6. Tray
7. Power transmission unit.
8. Float
9. Drive wheels
10. Handle.

4.3.2 Development methodology


Looking into the constraints of commercial paddy transplanter, it was decided to develop
small light weight, walking type paddy transplanter which should be able to transplant paddy
seedlings automatically in two rows at row spacing of 23.8 cm and hill spacing 15 cm. The
engine is main power source and the power is utilized for forward movement of transplanter as
well as for automatic transplanting mechanism. The total power flow of the machine is as given
in Plate 4.1. It was decided to select light weight engine. Petrol engines are lighter in weight with
less vibration. Hence, it was decided to go for petrol engine.
4.3.2.1 Power available for paddy transplanter
The total power of engine is summation of power available required for the removal of
seedlings from mat and placement of seedlings onto soil (mud). Seedling removal is more power
consuming operation. Hence, initially total power requirement for seedling removal and
placement was calculated theoretically. The power of engine is transmitted to drive wheel.
Hence, the power required for forward motion of transplanter is also calculated theoretically. The
power transmission for the machine under the study is shown in Fig. 4.3
4.3.2.1.1 Power available for removal of seedlings from mat
Considering engine rpm at the time of operation as 6700 rpm; from engine to gear box we
got 4187.5 rpm and considering the belt losses as 5 % ( Design of Agricultural Machinery, Paul
Claar), we got input to gear box as 3978 rpm.
Gear ratio of gear box = 12.5: 1
Output from gearbox = 319 rpm
Torque at 4500 rpm = 0.27 kg-m ......... (Manual of Honda engine ,GXH 50)
From relation, N1T1 = N2 T2

Transplanting arm

43 T
Engine
2.5” pulley

9T

14 T
GEAR
BOX
4” pulley

12.5: 1
Fig. 4.3 Power transmission from engine to ground wheel and transplanting mechanism

Torque at 319 rpm is 3.8 kg-m

Power available for seedling removal =

Where,
Pr = Power available to remove seedlings from mat, hp;
Ng = Speed from gear box, rpm;
Tg = Gear box torque, kg-m.
Pr = ............... (1)

= 1.6 hp

4.3.2.1.2 Power required for forward motion of transplanter


Rolling co-efficient () for hard wheels on the soft surfaces is given by formula,

0.049  0.287
=
M
Where,
M = mobility number …… (2)
M= ........ (3)

Where,
CI = Cone index = 200 kPa for loose wet soil;
b = Width of drive wheel = 0.03 m;
d = Diameter of drive wheel = 0.4 m;
W = Weight on drive wheel, kg.

(The diameter of the drive wheel was limited by the high drive axle speed. To keep slow forward
speed of operation, drive wheel diameter was kept smaller).
W= weight on drive wheel = 5 kg
Hence, from equation (2) and (3)

M=

= 0.48
 =

 = 0.7
Hence, rolling coefficient for two wheels
 = 0.7 × 2
= 1.4
Tractive effort = Drawbar pull + (rolling co-efficient × weight on drive wheel)
= 20 + (1.4 × 10)
= 34 Kg
Torque at drive wheel shaft = Tractive effort × rolling radius of drive wheel
= 34 × 0.2 m
= 6.8 Kg-m
Gear ratio from gear box to drive wheel is 7.8:1, therefore
Td = = 0.87 kg-m

Power required for forward motion =

=
= 0.38 hp
Total power required for the operation of transplanter = 1.6 + 0.38
= 1.98 hp
Hence, engine power of 2.1 hp is sufficient for the operation of transplanter. Based on
these calculations the commercially available Honda engine of 2.1 hp, four stroke was selected
for the study (Plate 4.2).

4.3.2.2 Design of indexing mechanism for seedling feed tray


Mechanical transplanter has been used for transplanting mat type seedlings with the help
of transplanting mechanism. Separating needle removes piece of mat along with seedlings. The
mat is fed to transplanting mechanism from seedling feed tray. The mat is having 238 mm width.
After every stroke of transplanting arm, the seedling tray must be moved by equal to the width of
removed piece of mat. To achieve this movement indexing mechanism was designed.
The transplanting arm would operate the lever after every stroke. The movement required
for tray was 225 mm.
The roller and sprocket used for mounting indexing chain having minimum possible hub
diameter were used. The diameter was 18 mm (the diameter was limited by smallest movable
radius of roller chain).
The tray movement required per stroke -12 mm (equal to width of piece of mat removed
per stroke)
The diameter of selected ratchet was 78 mm
Hence, total periphery of ratchet =245mm
Rotation required per stroke will be
:

Rotation required per stroke = 17.600


Length of lever attached to ratchet, r1 =72 mm, 2 r1 = 452.1 mm
Total movement of lever required for rotation of ratchet per stroke

d1= :

d1 = 22.10 mm
Length of transplanting arm attached to lever, r2 = 114 mm, 2πr2 =715.92 mm
Total movement of transplanting arm which is available for activation of lever

d2 = :

d2 = 35 mm

The total leverage = =

=1.58

Length of lever l = l1 + l2
Where,
l = total length of lever
l1= load arm
l2= effort arm
(Total length of lever was limited by the available distance between the indexing
mechanism and transplanting arm crank =360 mm)
360 = l2 + 1.58 l2
l2 =

Hence, l2 = 227.8 =228


Hence, l1 = 360-228 = 132
Hence,
l1 = load arm= 132 mm
l2 = effort arm= 228 mm
The designed indexing mechanism is shown in Fig.4.4
4.3.2.3 Design of drive wheel
Two wheels provided more traction and it was good for balancing also. It was decided to
provide two drive wheels. Drive mechanism for transplanter has been designed so that one to two
people can operate it comfortably. Two wheels provide more traction as well as balancing.

Considering the forward speed of transplanter, as 1.5 km/h, diameter of wheel was
determined. The calculations for determining the diameter of drive wheel is as follows:
1.Rotational speed of output shaft of gear box- 319 rpm.
2. Gear ratio of output shaft of gear box to drive wheel- 7.8: 1.
Speed from gear box
Hence, rotational speed of drive wheel = .............. (4)
Gear ratio
=

= 41 rpm
3. Let us take D as diameter of drive wheel in meter.
4. Forward motion of transplanter, = ×D× Rotational speed of drive wheel
…….. (5)

= ×D× 41 m/min

5. Assuming 50% slippage in field, actual forward motion of transplanter,

= ×D×0.50 × 41

= km/h .......... (6)

6. Considering normal walking speed of the human being as 1.5 km/h

(Choudhary et al., 2005).


228 218

80

132

Fig. 4.4 Indexing mechanism of transplanter for movement of tray

From equation (6),

1.5 =

1.5 = 3.8 D
Hence, D = 0.39 m
Effective diameter of the lug wheel ≈ 0.4 m. The designed drive wheel is shown in Fig.
4.5.
Ø 400

Fig. 4.5 Design of drive wheel of transplanter.


4.4. Fabrication and assembling of components
After finding out power requirement of the new transplanter, designing the indexing
mechanism and drive wheel, the different components were assembled to main frame. Some of
the component viz. tray, float, indexing mechanism, drive wheel were fabricated in FMP
workshop. The procedure of their fabrication and mounting in details is described as under.
I)Main frame
It is component of transplanter where all the major component of transplanter viz. engine,
gearbox, transplanting and indexing mechanism are fitted. The main frame consists of mast,
transplanting mechanism supports, U-frame for tray support. The mast is made of 8 mm thick
mild steel flat, which had two holes for attachment of the transplanter with the power source. The
U-frame made up of M.S. angle 25 mm x 25 mm x 3 mm, gave support to the tray. Rollers were
mounted on the U-frame to restrict the movement of tray to horizontal plane only.
II) Engine
Based on the power requirement and the procedure described (Section 4.3.2.1) the
commercially available Honda-GXH- 50, four stroke, petrol engine was selected ( Plate 4.2). The
engine was fitted over main frame with nut and bolts. It has output speed of 7000 rpm. The
weight of engine was 5.5 kg. The speed of transplanting finger is decided as 104 rpm.
III) Gear box
The engine speed is further reduced to 319 rpm with the help of gear box. The gear box
gives speed reduction ratio 12.5: 1 was selected from the commercial market. The gears available
are of warm type. The diameter of gear box casing is 17 cm. The engine power is transmitted to
input shaft of gear box with the help of belt of size 30 cm. The gear box used for the developed
transplanter is shown in Plate 4.3
The power from gear box was given to tray operating mechanism (indexing mechanism)
and also to picking - cum - transplanting mechanism.
IV) Picking - cum - transplanting mechanism
The function of this mechanism is to pick selected number of seedlings from tray. Also it
carries these seedlings to puddle soil surface in standing position. This mechanism is used to
transplant the seedlings into puddle soil. Actuating type of commercially available transplanting
mechanism (Plate 4.4) is used on the machine. It consists of one transplanting arm, two fingers,
two rocker arm and two needles. The rocker arm and needle are attached to both sides of
transplanting arm. The fingers actuate with the help of cams, pinions and push rods.
Pair of separating needles (Plate 4.5) and knock out mechanism is fitted in aluminium
casing. The separating needles are made up in U- shape 4 mm thick, and the distance between
two tongs of needle is 4 mm. The knockout mechanism have cam, rocker arm. Actions of all
these components press the seedlings into puddled soil. The rocker arm helps the needle to
achieve proper elliptical profile by restricting the rotational movement of rear end of
transplanting arm led soil at lowest point of profile of separating needle. Rocker arm is made up
of aluminium casting connected at rear end of transplanting arm and hinged to the adjustable link
of chain case. One end of rocker arm is fixed while other moves in arc.

V) Indexing mechanism
The indexing mechanism was ( Fig. 4.4) designed as per procedure mentioned in section
4.3.2.2 which gives the movement to the tray equal to the width of removed piece of mat by the
needle of transplanter.
Indexing mechanism (Plate 4.6) consists of connecting rod, chain, ratchet, sprocket and
rollers, lever, and link. The lever made up of „T- section‟ 20 mm × 20 mm × 3 mm in size. Lever
is supported on the float with the help of hinge. The return spring was provided to maintain the
contact between transplanting arm and lever. The chain was mounted on rollers and sprocket.
The chain is engaged to ratchet with the help of two rollers. The ratchet is operated by the
connecting link between lever and the ratchet. One of the roller pins of chain is connected with
tray with the help of connecting rod. The distance between the outer ends of chain is kept equal
to tray motion of 225 mm.
VI) Seedling tray
The seedling tray was fabricated with G.I. sheet (mm). It was made into two
compartments to keep two cut piece of the nursery mat. The size of compartment was kept 440 ×
23.8 mm. After every stroke of transplanting arm, tray slides horizontally along with rectangular
plat form at the bottom. The tray was fitted at 450 angle and supported from rear side by U
frame. The height of tray from the main frame was kept 300 mm. The developed seedling tray is
shown in the Plate 4.7
VII) Power transmission unit
The power transmission unit transmitted power from engine to planting device and drive
wheel. Petrol run 2.1 hp engine was fitted on main frame which gives power to the transplanter.
The engine power was transmitted to main shaft of gear box with the help of belt and pulley
arrangement. The clutch was also provided to connect and disconnect power from engine. The
gear box of speed ratio 12.5:1 was provided on machine. Through chain and sprocket
arrangement, the power is transmitted to shaft of transplanting arm. The engine speed is 7000
rpm. The engine speed reduced to 319 rpm with help of gear box. In newly developed rice
transplanter, the speed from the gear box is further reduced to 41 rpm using chain and sprocket
arrangement for operating drive wheel mechanism (Fig. 4.3).

VIII) Float
Float is the component of transplanter which is in touch with the mud. The float also
gives support to main frame, indexing mechanism and transplanting mechanism. The float of the
transplanter serves as a base and also helps in movement of the machine over excess water in the
field. It also serves as a platform for placement of nursery during transplanting operation. The
purpose of providing float was to avoid its sinking in puddle soil. The floats were three in
number. With the help of float, the machine was able to slide on puddled soil. The floats were
curved at forward end to avoid the entry of puddled soil on it. Floats provide excellent right
direction to machine under all swampy conditions and constant planting depth of seedling. The
cross section of the floats was made such that the soil in between the two floats will project up
which assures good placement of the seedling into it. The float was 750×600 mm in size.
Developed float is shown in Plate 4.8
IX) Drive wheel
Based on the calculations (Section 4.3.2.3), two drive wheels were fabricated with M.S.
hollow rod of 3 cm diameter. The lugs were provided on outer periphery of drive wheel.
Considering the lug height of 50 mm with radial height of 40 mm keeping lugs 55 0 inclined with
the normal, the effective diameter of wheel was taken as 400 mm. Thus diameter of lugged
wheel was taken as 0.4 m. The wheel rim was fabricated using MS sheet of 40×4 mm. The hub
diameter was selected as 40 mm. The hub was made hollow for inserting axle shaft. Total six MS
rods of 20 mm diameter were used as spokes for drive wheel. On the periphery of the wheel, 10
lugs were welded at uniform spacing of 30 mm. Two wheels were fixed on axle shaft of diameter
30 mm. The distance between wheels was 600 mm. The power from output shaft of gear box was
transmitted to drive wheel using chain and sprocket arrangement. The side view of developed
drive wheels is shown in plate 4.9.

X) Handle
Two handles at front and backside of transplanter are provided for the movement of
transplanter. For operating, clutch levers were provided on handle, also engine acceleration was
controlled from the lever fitted on the handle.

The different component of transplanter (Fig.4.6) are fabricated and assembled. The
overall dimensions of developed transplanter are shown in Fig.4.7. The final prototype of two
row paddy transplanter is shown in Plate 4.10

4.5. Working of two row paddy transplanter

The two row rice transplanter can plant two rows of rice at a time. It gets power from the
engine by belt and pulley arrangement. An engine is used as a power source for the transplanter.
The floats ensure the floating of transplanting assembly on the puddled soil and also to avoid
the sinking of the machine. At the time of transplanting operation, the cut mat nursery is placed
on the tray. After every stroke of transplanting arm, the tray slides and 2-4 seedlings from mat
nursery are properly picked up by needle and planted in the puddle soil at 4-5 cm depth. The
tray has the horizontal sliding movement through indexing mechanism at the back of the tray
which moved tray to and fro.

After the engine is started, the transplanting arm starts rotating in elliptical path. When
the planting arm is reached to its upper position, the separating needle removes 2-4 seedlings
from mat nursery placed in the tray and at the end; knock out mechanism pushes it in the soil to
a specified depth of 4-5 cm. As the tray is moving at every stroke, the transplanting arm
removes new area of mat nursery and the planting of rice seedlings thus occurs.

4.6 Method of raising nursery

A special type of mat nursery was prepared for growing the rice seedling for
mechanical transplanting of rice. Efficiency of machine mainly depends on quality of mat type
nursery and quality of puddling of field. So, care should be taken while preparing the mat type
nursery. For raising mat type nursery, the raised bed was prepared on levelled ground. The bed
surface was levelled, compacted and smoothened. The bed of 5×1 m was prepared.
4.6.1 Preparation of raised bed
Selected well drained site for preparation of raised bed. Levelled the land and prepared
raised bed of 5 X 1 m size. Maintained height of bed as 15-20 cm. Dug the trench of 15-20 cm in
between two raised beds to drain the excess water or to irrigate the beds as per requirements. The
thick plastic paper of 6 X 2 m size was spread over the raised bed.
4.6.2 Seed treatment
Dipped the selected seeds in 15-16 % salt solution. Removed floating seeds from the
water. Dipped the seeds in good quality water of 400 C for 24 hours. Then removed seed from
water and kept in moist cloth.
4.6.3 Spreading of spouted seeds
The frame size of 1 m×1 m×0.25 m was made with angle iron of 25 mm and 2 mm thick
placed on the raised bed covered with plastic (Plate 4.11). The prepared soil mixture was spread
uniformly in the frame and compacted it well. The sprouted seeds were spread uniformly over
the soil mixture (Plate 4.12). Soil mixture of 5 mm thick was spread over sprouted seeds. The
sprouted seeds were covered with rice straw for protecting seeds from birds (Plate 4.13). The
straw removed on 4th day and then the water splashed over the seedlings for next 7-8 days as per
the requirements. Water applied to the seedlings through the trench dug around the raised bed so
as to get continuous water to the roots. After 21-22 days, the seedlings were ready for
mechanical transplanting (Plate 4.14).
4.7 Methodology for measurement of performance parameters
The performance testing of two row rice transplanter was carried out as per test code and
procedure provided by RNAM (1995) at Botany field of Dr. B.S.K.K.V, Dapoli. The test sheet
is prepared to record the items to be studied as required. The performance test is required to
obtain reliable data on operating accuracy, work rate, field efficiency and other parameters in
field. The methodology adopted for measurement of crop and field parameters under study are
as given below.

4.7.1 Crop parameters

4.7.1.1 Nursery height

Nursery height was measured by 30 cm scale. For measurement purpose, the seedlings
were uprooted randomly from different nursery locations and ten observations were noted. The
height was measured from bottom of the seedlings to tip of leaves (Garg I.K., 1999).

4.7.1.2 Leaf stage


Numbers of leaves of uprooted seedlings were counted. Ten observations from different
locations were recorded to find average.

4.7.1.3 Stem diameter


Stem diameter of the seedling was measured with the help of vernier calliper. The
diameter was measured at the height of 25 mm from the root to maintain uniformity in readings.
Ten such readings were noted to find average.

4.7.2 Field performance parameters


The field performance parameters viz. row to row spacing, number of plants per hill,
missing of hills, speed of operation, sinkage etc. were measured during field testing. The
methodology adopted for measurement of these parameters is as given below.
4.7.2.1 Row spacing
Row spacing of the plant was measured with the help of 30 cm scale. Ten readings were
noted from different locations of field and average row spacing was taken into consideration
4.7.2.2 Number of plants per hill

Numbers of plants on each hill were noted from different location of the field. Average
number of plants on hill was calculated.

4.7.2.3 Number of hills per row

Number of hills on each row was noted. Then the average hills per row were calculated.

4.7.2.4 Missing of hills

The observed missing hills were taken into consideration.

4.7.2.5 Total time required for operation


Total time required for operation of transplanter is the total time required for
transplanting, time required for turning, time required for feeding nursery, time required for
repair and adjustment. The time required for the operation was measured with the stop watch
(Make: Angat).
4.7.2.6 Speed of operation
The time required to cover 10 m distance was measured with the help of stopwatch. Total
five replications were taken for each set of observation.
4.7.2.7 Time required for turning
Time required for turning of transplanter for each row is measured with the help of watch.
Total time spent for turning is the sum of time spent for turning in each row.
4.7.2.8 Sinkage
Sinkage is one of the most important factor, which affect transplanter performance.
Sinkage was measured using the fabricated sinkage measuring apparatus (Plate 4.15) (Garge I.
K., 1999). The device comprises of hollow circular cylinder of 25 cm diameter and 25.5 cm
height. Weights could be added inside to achieve the desired ground contact pressure. The scale
was marked on the cylinder periphery. For the measurement of sinkage, the sinkage measuring
device was placed on the level ground after draining water from field and reading on scale were
noted by adding different weights in desired ground contact pressure.
4.7.2.9 Field efficiency
It is the ratio of the effective field capacity and theoretical field capacity expressed in
percentage. The field efficiency can be calculated using following formula.
To 100
Field efficiency (η) =
Te  Th  Ta
Where,
To = Theoretical time to cover one ha (h);
Te= Effective time to cover one ha (h);
Th = turning loss per ha (h);
Ta = Time loss in repair and adjustment (h).

4.7.2.10 Puddling index


Soil water suspension sample were collected during last lap of puddling from different
spots with the help of 1.25 cm diameter steel pipe. Samples were taken by closing the upper end
of the pipe with thumb and collecting in a measuring cylinder till the volume reached 500 ml.
The soil suspension was allowed to settle for 24-36 hours and the volume the soil water
suspended was allowed to settle for 48 hours and the volume of soil settle was recorded. Then
the puddling index was determined by using following formula.

Vs
Puddling index (PI) = x 100
V

Where,
Vs = Volume of soil, ml;
V = Total volume of the sample, ml.

4.8 Performance testing of newly developed prototype


The newly developed two row paddy transplanter (Plate 4.10 ) was tested for its
performance. Before testing the machine in the field, the laboratory test of the transplanter was
carried out. The machine was operated in laboratory for observing its forward movement and
working of transplanting mechanism using newly developed driving mechanism.
4.8.1 Laboratory tests
Laboratory testing of newly developed two row paddy transplanter was done and
different parameters were measured. The transplanter was jacked first; arrangement was made
properly to test the transplanter in laboratory. Observations of engine speed, drive wheel speed,
speed of transplanting mechanism was taken. The hill to hill spacing and number of seedling per
hills was measured. (Plate 4.16)
4.8.2 Field testing

After satisfactory working of the machine under laboratory condition, the


performance of developed machine in the field was studied. The field of 10 m ×10 m size was
prepared using rotavator. The depth of tilling was kept as 10 cm. Puddling of the field was
carried out with the help of power weeder. The soil was allowed to settle for 48 hours. After
settlement, depth of water was maintained in the field to 2-4 cm. Before field testing, sufficient
practice was given to operator for operating the machine in the puddle soil without load
(running in idle without operating transplanting mechanism). The crop of 21 days old of
12-15 cm height with 3-4 leaves grown in mat type nursery was cut into small pieces and placed
on the tray and field test of the developed transplanter was carried out. The trial was replicated
three times. The newly developed transplanter working in field is shown in plate 4.17
The various parameters recorded during field testing are as given bellow.
1. Plant to plant spacing
2. Planting depth
3. Number of plants per hill
4. Number of hills per m2 area
5. Missing hills.
6. Total time required for operation
7. Time loss for turning
8. Speed of operation
9. Sinkage
10. Field efficiency
11. Puddling index
12. Field capacity
13. Fuel consumption.
As discussed in this chapter, the two row paddy transplanter was developed. Its
performance was evaluated in field. The details about its performance evaluation are described in
next chapter.
V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter deals with the results obtained from the experiments conducted on two row paddy
transplanter in laboratory as well as in the field. The results are described and discussed as
follow.
1. Data on target crop
2. Laboratory test
3. Studies on sinkage
4. Studies on puddling index
5. Functional field trial of newly developed two row paddy transplanter.

5.1 Data on target crop


Before commencement of operation, the data on targeted crop were collected, which was
required for proper functioning of transplanter.
Plant parameter
The targeted crop was rice which is belongs to family Gramineae and genus of Oryza and
botanical name Oryza sativa. The variety selected was Ratnagiri-24 and recommended spacing
was 20×15 cm. The plant parameters recorded during nursery raising is presented in the Table
5.1
Table 5.1 Details of plant parameters during nursery raising
Sr.
No. Parameter Particular
1. Variety of seed Ratnagiri -24
2. Type of nursery Mat
3. Age of seedling (days) 21
4. Leaf stage 4-5 leaf
5. Height of seedling (cm) 13

5.2 Laboratory tests


The newly developed machine was tested in the laboratory. Laboratory setup was arranged as
discussed in the subsection 4.8.1 of chapter IV. The machine was checked for specifications and
functioning in laboratory. The specification of the developed two paddy transplanter and
observations are given in Table 5.2 and 5.3.
5.2.1 Specifications of the two row transplanter
The two paddy transplanter was developed and fabricated in workshop of Department of Farm
Machinery and Power, Dr. B. S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli. The specifications of
machine are as given below.
Table 5.2 Detailed specification of transplanter
Sr. No. Particulars Details/ Specifications
2. Overall dimensions (mm) Length : 750 mm; Width : 600 mm; Height :
700 mm
3. Weight (Kg) 70 Kilograms
4. Planting rows Number : Two
Spacing : 238 mm
5. Seedlings Number per hill : 4 to 5
Distance between hills: 160 mm
7. Engine Model: GHX-50 (Honda Engine);
Power (kW): 1.6 kW; Speed (rpm): 7000 rpm;
Fuel used : Petrol

8. Wheels Type : Lugged


Diameter: 400 mm
9. Float Shape: Rectangular
Size : 600 mm× 750 mm
10. Power transmission system V belt pulley
11. Depth of water at the time of 12 mm to 25 mm at on puddled soil.
transplanting
12. Planting mechanism Mechanism of planting fork: knock out
mechanism. Locus of planting : Elliptical

13. Number of workers required for


operating the machine 2 person

5.2.2 Laboratory test results


During laboratory test, the developed transplanter was tested at three different engine speeds i.e.
319 rpm, 309 rpm, 285 rpm. The transplanter was run on tar road. Laboratory tests results of the
newly developed two row rice transplanter are mentioned below.
Table 5.3 Laboratory test results of transplanter
Sr. No. Observations Test 1 Test 2 Test 3

1. Speed at gearbox (output), rpm 285 309 319

2. Speed of traction wheel, rpm 37 39 41

3. Speed of transplanting arm, strokes /min 90 98 101

4. Spacing of hills in row, cm 27 29 30

5. Row to row spacing, cm 23.8 23.8 23.8

5. Number of seedlings per hills 5 to 7 4 to 5 4 to 5


(Average of 10 readings)
6. Plant population 19 20 20.5
(No. of hills per square meter).

5.2.3 Speed relationship


The machine was tested by operating at different engine speeds so the relation between engine
speed, speed of traction wheels and speed of transplanting arms were obtained. Best results were
given at engine speed of 319 rpm and transplanting arm speed of 101 strokes / min.
5.2.4 Hill spacing
Hill spacing depends on the traction wheel slip. Distance between hills was observed to be
varying between 270 mm to 300 mm at different engine speeds. Recommended hill to hill
spacing in the field is 150 mm. Considering 50 per cent drive wheel slippage in the puddled field
machine could produce required hill spacing.

5.2.5 Plants per hill


The adjustments in the separating needles of transplanting forks is provided to adjust plants as
per requirement. The plants per hills were observed to be 4 to 5.
5.2.6 Hill population
Number of hills placed per unit area was found to be about 20- hills /m2 and that slightly varied
as per the forward speed of the machine. The obtained hill / population is of satisfactory level.
5.2.7. General
The machine operation was found to be satisfactory during laboratory testing. Results shown that
transplanting and feeding mechanism was functioning properly. No breake down was found
during laboratory testing. While designing, the engine speed was considered to be 6700 rpm.
Using pulley of 2.5” and 4” and gearbox with reduction ratio 12.5:1, the output speed at gearbox
was achieved to 319 rpm. Using the data; the indexing mechanism, driving mechanism was
designed and machine was fabricated. The speed achieved at the fork of transplanting arm of
101 rpm at gearbox speed of 319 rpm indicated the hill to hill spacing to a satisfactory level
during field operation considering slippage in puddled field.

5.3 Studies on sinkage


The soil settlement period was varied from 6 hours to 48 hours. The average float sinkage
was observed to vary between 2 to 4.1. The values of sinkage at ground contact pressure 20.40 g
/cm2 obtained at different soil settlement period are given in Table 5.4.
The results indicated that as sedimentation period increased, the float sinkage decreased for
transplanter. The reason for higher sinkage at lower sedimentation period may be due to partial
settlement of soil particles and loose condition of soil. Gradual decrease in sinkage at a higher
sedimentation period was due to increase in hardness of soil surface. Garge et. al, 1997 reported
that float sinkage less than 1.0 cm signifies hard field conditions, which might pose problem in
penetration of transplanting fingers into puddled soil. The soil settlement period up to 48 hours
and sinkage up to 2 cm provided favourable conditions for placement at seedlings into soil.

Table 5.4 Sinkage readings as per sedimentation period


Sr. No. Sedimentation period (hr) Sinkage (cm)
1. 6 hours 4.1
2. 12 hours 3.78
3. 24 hours 3.5
4. 36 hours 2.7
5. 48 hours 2
The variation of sinkage with soil settlement period is shown in Fig 5.1. The relation between
sinkage and soil settlement period is observed to be exponential type and expressed as,
S = 5.144
Where,
S = sinkage of soil;
t = soil settlement period, h
a and b = regression coefficient.
Table 5.5 Regression coefficient for linear relationship of sinkage and soil settlement period
Sr. No. Regression coefficient. R2
a b
1. 5.144 -0.01 0.966

5.4 Studies on puddling index


The effect of soil settlement period on puddling index was studied. The soil settlement
period was varied from 6 hours to 48 hours. The values of puddling index obtained during test
are presented in Table 5.6. The results indicated that, puddling index increased from 37 to 62
with increase in soil settlement period from 6 hours to 48 hours.
The variation of puddling index with soil settlement period is shown in Fig 5.2. The relation
between puddling index and soil settlement period is observed to be polynomial type and
expressed as,
P = -0.016t2 + 1.446t + 29.35

Where,
P = puddling index of soil;
t = soil settlement period, hrs
a and b = regression coefficient.

Table 5.6 Puddling index of the soil at different soil sedimentation period.
Sr. No. Sedimentation period Puddling index (%)
1. 6 hours 37
2. 12 hours 45
3. 24 hours 55
4. 36 hours 60
5. 48 hours 62

Table 5.7 Regression coefficient for linear relationship of puddling index and soil
settlement period
Sr. No. Regression coefficient. R2
a b c
1. -0.016 1.446 29.35 0.997

5.5 Functional field trial


The functional field trial of the developed two row rice transplanter was carried out in the Botany
field of Dr. B.S.K.K.V., Dapoli. Various observations noted down during field trial and results
are discussed below.
5.5.1 Condition of seedlings
The details about nursery seedlings are given in Table 5.8
5.5.2 Conditions of field under test
The observations of the field condition during transplanting operation were taken. These are
given as in Table 5.9

Table 5.8 Condition of seedlings during field trial


Sr. Items Details / Specifications
No.
1. Variety of Paddy Ratnagiri-24
2. Type of Nursery Mat nursery
3. Soil type of seed bed Laterite
4. Date of sowing in the nursery 29 /08 /2012
5. Date of transplanting in the field 24 /09 /2012
6. Age of seedlings (days) 26
7. Leaf stage 4 leaves per seedling
8. Size of seedlings (thickness at the base of 1 mm
shoot, mm)
9. Length of seedling (mm) 170-180 mm
10. Treatment of root ,if any Urea application (10 gram in 1 litre)
11. Growing density of seedling 15 to 17 seedlings per cm2

Table 5.9 Conditions of field under test


Sr. No. Items Details/ Specifications
1. Location Botany field of Dr. B.S.K.K.V.,
Dapoli.
2. Length of field (m) 10
3. Width of field (m) 10

4. Area of field (m2) 100

6. Puddling index 62 %

7. Interval between puddling and transplanting 48 hours

8. Depth of water at the time of transplanting 2.3 cm

5.5.3 Field performance


Field testing of developed two row paddy transplanter was carried out at experimental plot of
Botany Department of Dr. B.S.K.K.V, Dapoli. The plot size of field was 10 × 10 m 2. Puddling
of the field was done using power tiller. The puddling was done twice. After 48 hours of
pudding, mat type seedlings of 26 days old were used for the transplanting and the field testing
of transplanter was carried out. Three field trials were taken. The observations during trial are
given in Table 5.10
Table 5.10 Observations during functional field trial
Sr. No. Items Details / Observations
1. Date of transplanting 27 / 08 / 2012
2. Time of start 4:00
3. Time of finish 4:25
4. Ease of operation of machine Easy to carry
5. Ease and precision of machine Acceptable
6. Skill of operator Moderate

The result reveals that, average plant to plant spacing and planting depth during testing was 16
cm and 3 cm respectively. The average seedlings per hill were 5. The average numbers of hills in
one square meter area were found as 20 hills/ m2. The newly developed semi automatic machine
maintained the required row spacing. The hill spacing is towards slightly high value. However,
the plant population obtained from the machine is satisfactory with the required plant population
of 100 seedlings/ m2. Missing hills/m2 was observed to be 3.33. The performance parameters in
details are given in Table 5.11
Table 5.11 also shows the average speed of operation of transplanter was 1.58 km/hr. Fuel
consumption of the machine was recorded 0.89 l/h. Number of operators required for various
operations were observed to be two. Details of time requirement of transplanter for transplanting,
nursery feeding, repair and adjustments, are presented in Table 5.11

Table 5.11 Operating parameters of the two row transplanter

Sr. No. Items Transplanting


T1 T2 T3 Average
1 Planting distance,(cm) 17 16 16 16
2 Row spacing, (cm) 23.8 23.8 23.8 23.8
2 Planting depth, (cm) 2.5 3.5 3 3
3 No. of seedlings/ hill 5 5 6 5
4 No. of hills/m2 19 20 20 19.66
5 Travel speed (km/hr) 1.5 1.63 1.63 1.58

6 Missing hills/ m2 4 3 3 3.33


7 Sinkage (cm) 3.5 2.7 2 2.73

8 Fuel consumption (l/h) 1.03 0.85 0.8 0.89


9 Field efficiency, (%) 72.3 75.4 78.5 75.4
10 No. of persons 1 1 1 1
required for operating
machine
11 No. of persons 1 1 1 1
required for mat
feeding

Table 5.12 Time required for different operations and field capacity.
Sr. Operation Time consumed (hr/ha)
No. T1 T2 T3 Average
1 Planting 17.57 18 18.38 17.98

2 Turning 0.90 0.93 0.98 0.93

3 Feeding 2.2 2 2.1 2.1


4 Total time of 20.67 20.93 21.46 21.01
operation
5 Field capacity (ha/h) 0.0516 0.0584 0.0608 0.0569

The time required for planting was observed to be 17.98 h/ha. The time loss in turning and
feeding was 0.93 h/ha and 2.1 h/ha respectively. Total time of operation of the transplanter was
observed to be 21.01 h/ha. The field capacity of the machine was found to be 0.0569 ha/h. For
operating the transplanter, operator has to guide the machine, which was easy than pulling
machine in the puddled field. The field efficiency of newly developed machine was found to be
75.4 % (Table 5.11). As compared to manual transplanting method, transplanting with newly
developed machine has saving ` 2532 /ha which is 52.75 % over manual transplanting method.

5.6 General observations


As the overall weight of newly developed paddy transplanter was only 70 Kg. The handling of
machine into the puddled field was easy. It requires one person to operate and another for
feeding nursery mat. Hinge points were well adjusted at the time of fabrication which was
resulted into proper balancing of machine during field operation. Good traction was provided to
machine in puddle soil by the two lugged drive wheels. Simple clutch system provided on drive
wheels gave proper turning in field. No breakdown of the machine observed during the
functional field trial.
Though the field capacity of the developed transplanter is less as compared to available
transplanters, but considering its lighter weight, easy handling, maneuverability and its operating
cost was found to be ` 223.58/ h. The newly developed transplanter can be a solution for the
present problems of mechanization in Konkan region.
VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

In India, paddy cultivation is mostly done by transplanting method. It has been observed
that transplanting is labour consuming operation, puddling and transplanting share 50 per cent of
total production cost. Transplanting of young rice seedlings in puddled soil is one of the most
widely accepted cultivation practices for rice crop. Manual transplanting is very common in most
of the rice growing countries. Transplanting of rice seedlings manually in puddled soil is a very
tedious and labour intensive activity in Indian agriculture (about 400 man-hour/ha).
Mechanization in agriculture has released millions of agricultural workers in the industrial
sectors, which reduces level of manpower and increase the burdens on the worker. All current
methods of producing rice depend largely on availability of manual labour. In traditional
methods 250-300 man hours are required per hectare for rice production. Many operations in
agriculture need to be performed by machines. This will reduce the labour requirement which is
the principal motivating force in mechanization.
In Konkan region, wet land cultivation system is followed. The land is ploughed
thoroughly and puddled in 3-5 cm standing water. The puddling is largely done by bullock drawn
country plough and wooden planks in the region. In some of the pockets, the power tiller is used
for puddling, but the extent is very low. Efforts were made by Dr. B.S.K.K.V., Dapoli to
popularize the commercially available self propelled
eight row transplanter (Yanji Shakti). The machine works well in Laterite soil of Konkan region.
More weight, bigger size and transportation problem on fragmented land and hilly terrain of
Konkan and high machine cost restricts eight row paddy transplanter in Konkan region.
Considering the needs of development of mechanized transplanting in this region and to
overcome the drudgery involved and labour shortage problem in manual transplanting
operations, it is necessary to develop a small low cost transplanting machine suitable to this
region.

In view of these problems, an investigation was taken up to develop suitable paddy


transplanter for Konkan region which would help the rice seedlings to penetrate into soil, would
plant the seedlings at recommended spacing and reduce cost of operation. The objectives of the
study were as follows,
1. To develop two row paddy transplanter.
2. To test the field performance of developed two row paddy transplanter.
Puddled field for transplanting had the standing water of 3-4 cm hence it was very critical
to pull the machine and walk in front of transplanter. This critical operation of walking in muddy
field did not give proper idea of planting direction. Also, higher weight of transplanter was
creating the transportation problem in the fragmented land of this region. The chain and sprocket
mechanism was provided with combination of gear box to achieve required speed ratio. Mud was
obstructing the proper mechanism of chain and sprocket hence it was decided to keep the chain
and sprocket in the casing which prevents the mechanism from mud. The chain case was made of
MS sheet of 2 gauge, 200×400×60 mm in dimension. The base was provided to support the
whole transmission assembly. It also partially supports the engine which was light in weight.
The numbers of seedlings at a time in a hill were considered to be 4 to 5. The newly
developed transplanter consists of main frame, engine, gearbox, picking- cum- transplanting
mechanism, indexing mechanism and drive wheels. The power requirement was calculated for
the machine. The total power required for removal of seedlings and their placement and forward
motion of machine was found to be 1.98 hp. The main frame consists of mast, transplanting
mechanism supports, U-frame for tray support. Rollers were mounted on the U-frame to restrict
the movement of tray to horizontal plane only. Based on the power requirement the
commercially available Honda-GXH- 50, four stroke, petrol engine was selected. The engine
was fitted over main frame with nut and bolts. The engine speed is further reduced to 319 rpm
with the help of gear box. The gear box gave speed reduction ratio 12.5: 1 was selected from the
commercial market. The gears available were of warm type. The diameter of gear box casing
was 17 cm.
Actuating type of commercially available transplanting mechanism is used on the
machine. It consists of one transplanting arm, two fingers, two rocker arm and two needles. The
rocker arm and needle are attached to both side of transplanting arm. The fingers actuate with the
help of cams, pinions and push rods. Pair of separating needles and knock out mechanism is
fitted in aluminum casing. The separating needles are made up in U- shape 4 mm thick, and the
distance between two tongs of needle is 4 mm. Indexing mechanism was used for horizontal
movement of the tray which feeds the rice seedling to planting mechanism. The movement of
indexing mechanism was given through slider crank mechanism. Crank and rocker mechanism
of four - bar linkage has been used in planting mechanism. A planting finger which was a part of
the coupler link of the mechanism, separates the seedlings from the seedling tray and places them
into soil. The curve traced by the planting finger may have an influence on the stability of the
planting seedlings. Also, because of small lands of this region, the required head land was also
small hence the working width of transplanter essential for turning of machine was kept small.
For the proper traction and forward motion in field it was decided to design a drive wheel
of the transplanter. Required operating speed, speed available at output shaft of gear box, engine
power availability, rotating speed of drive wheel were the basic parameters considered in the
designing of drive wheels. Considering these parameters two lugged wheels were fabricated.
Simple clutch system has been provided on the drive wheel for the easy turning of the
transplanter.
Laboratory test results showed that transplanting mechanism and feeding mechanism
functions properly. Constant row spacing of 23.8 cm was maintained. No any break downs were
observed in laboratory test.
Mat type nursery was prepared for the field test of the transplanter. For transplanting, 26
days seedling was used. The puddling of the test field was carried out with power weeder at 3-4
cm standing water condition before 24 hours of transplanting. The performance testing of
transplanter was carried out by following the RNAM test code. The parameters like plant to plant
spacing, missing hill/m2, number of hill/m2, sinkage, puddling index, total time of operation,
time loss in feeding nursery, speed of operation etc. were recorded. During the test, effect of soil
settlement period on sinkage and puddling index were also studied. The instruments like tape,
stop watch, measuring cylinder, sinkage measuring apparatus were used for measurement of
different parameters during the testing the machine in field.
The results of sinkage test indicated that as sedimentation period increased, the float
sinkage decreased for transplanter. With increase of sedimentation period, the soil gained
strength which supported the weight of the float thereby reducing the sinkage. Float sinkage with
respect to sedimentation period was used as yardstick for selecting optimum period for
transplanting. The studies on puddling index indicated that it increased from 37 to 62 on
increasing soil settlement period from 6 hours to 48 hours. The higher puddling index gives
better conditions for machine operating in field.
The newly developed machine was operated in field for filler trial. The result reveals that
the plant to plant spacing for newly developed transplanter was 16 cm. The planting depth of the
transplanter was observed to be 3 cm. The seedlings per hill and missing of hill were observed to
be 5 and 3.33 respectively. The total numbers of hill/m2 area were obtained as 20. The sinkage of
the machine was observed to be 2 cm. Fuel consumption for the newly developed transplanter
was 0.89 l/ha. The operating speed of the transplanter was observed to be 1.58 km/h. The field
efficiency of the transplanter was 75.4%. Total time of operation was obtained to be 21.01 h/ha.
Time required for transplanting, turning, feeding the nursery were found to be 17.98, 0.93, 2.1
h/ha respectively. The field capacity of the transplanter was 0.0569 ha/h. The operating cost of
newly developed transplanter was Rs. 223.58 /h and Rs. 1788 /ha. In general, the newly
developed transplanter worked satisfactorily in the field.

Conclusions
1. The performance of developed two row self propelled paddy transplanter was
satisfactory.
2. Considering engine speed 6700 rpm; reducing ratio of pulley and gearbox achieving
output speed at gearbox to 319 rpm, designing indexing mechanism, driving mechanism,
the achieved forward speed of machine to 1.58 km/h and speed of transplanting fork to
101 rpm is found to be satisfactory while using the machine in the field.
3. The required plant population (100/m2) was maintained by the newly developed machine.
4. The field capacity and field efficiency of newly developed transplanter was found to be
0.0569 ha/h and 75.4 % respectively.
5. The labour requirement for transplanting operation was reduced.
6. The newly developed transplanter saving in cost of transplanting operation by ` 2532 /ha
(52.75%) which is quite substantial amount.
7. Newly developed two row paddy transplanter is a solution for mechanized transplanting
in the fragmented hilly region of Konkan.
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VIII. APPENDICES

A) Cost estimation of newly developed transplanter


Sr. Quantity Weight
No. Component Specification „m‟ No. (Kg) Rate Amount
(`)
1. Main frame
U frame ISA – 1.2 1 1.3 Rs.40/ Rs. 52
25mm×25mm×3mm Kg
Roller slide M.S bar Ø 6mm 0.5 1 0.1 Rs.40 / Rs. 4
Kg
Chain Case M.S sheet 1 10 Rs. 35 Rs.350
2 gauge /Kg
Chain case M.S flat – 0.13 2 0.5 Rs. 40 / Rs. 20
support 50mm×5mm Kg
Base frame M.S flat – 0.5 2 1.9 Rs.40 / Rs. 76
50mm× 5mm Kg
ISA – 1.2 1.3
25mm×25mm×3mm RS. 40 / Rs. 52
Kg
2. Float M.S sheet 16 SWG - 1 9 Rs. 60 Rs.
66 cm×90 cm /Kg 540
3. Seedling G.I sheet 22 SWG - 1 - Rs. 35/ Rs. 35
feed tray 47.5 cm × 40 cm Kg
4. Support ISA – 0.35 1 0.66 Rs. 40 / Rs. 26
angle 25mm×25mm×3mm Kg
5. Fixed angular support

Rollers M.S bar Ø 20mm - 2 - Rs. 1 Rs. 2


/roller
Nut bolts Ø 3/16” × 50mm - 2 - Rs. 4
Rs. 2 /
bolt
Al. Rivets Ø 5mm × 12mm - 20 - Rs. 1 Rs. 20

6. Indexing Mechanism

Roller Ø 18 mm × 4mm - 2 - Rs. 1 Rs. 2

Chain Pitch 13 mm 0.49 1 - Rs. 45 Rs. 45

Nut bolts Ø 3/16” × 50mm - 3 - Rs. 2 Rs. 6


Sprocket 6 teeth Ø 18 mm - 1 - Rs. 10 Rs. 10
Ratchet Ø 78 mm - 1 - Rs. 50 Rs. 50
Lever ISA – 0.36 1 0.70 Rs. 40 / Rs. 28
25mm×25mm×3mm Kg
Connecting M.S flat 10mm× 0.23 1 0.05 Rs.40 / Rs.2
rod 3mm Kg
Link Ø 6 mm 0.1 1 0.04 Rs. 35/ Rs. 1.5
Kg
Spring - 1 - Rs. 10 Rs.10

7. Power Honda engine - 1 - Rs. Rs.


source (GHX 50) 18500 18500
8. Power transmission
V pulley Ø 8.9 cm - 1 - Rs. 190 Rs. 190

Ø 3.8 cm - 1 - Rs.100 Rs.100


Bearings P 205 - 2 - Rs. 200 Rs. 400

Gear box GR 12.5: 1 - 1 - Rs. Rs.


10300 10300

Sprocket 45 teeth Ø mm - 1 - Rs. 70 Rs. 70

44 teeth Ø mm - 2 - Rs. 70 Rs.70

15 teeth Ø mm - 1 - Rs. 35 Rs. 35

14 teeth Ø mm - 2 - Rs. 35 Rs. 35

9. Transplantin Yanji Shakthi - 1 - Rs. 9500 Rs. 9500


g (2ZT-238-8)
mechanism
10. Cage wheels M.S sheet - 2 6 Kg Rs. 60/ Rs. 360
Kg
11. Clutch

Clutch G.I sheet - - 0.25 Rs. Rs.7.5


12 gauge 30/kg
Lever Cycle Lever - 2 - Rs. 60 / Rs. 120
lever
Cable Inner and outer 1 2 - Rs.45 / Rs. 90
Cable
Total 41113

Hence, total material cost = Rs. 41113


Initial cost = Rs. 41113

B) Operating cost of newly developed transplanter


i) Fixed cost
1. Depreciation /h =
=

= Rs. 46.25

2. Interest /h @ 10% =

= Rs. 11.30
Housing cost, insurance cost, taxes@ 1% of initial cost

3. Housing cost /h = (41113×1) /(100×200)


= Rs. 2
4. Insurance cost, taxes /h = Rs. 2 + Rs. 2
= Rs. 4
Total fixed cost = 46.25 + 11.30 + 2 + 4
= Rs.63.55

ii) Variable cost


1. Fuel cost /h = 0.89 × 70
= Rs. 62.3
2. Cost of lubrication /h @ 20 % of fuel cost = 62.3 × 0.20
= Rs. 12.46
3. Repair and maintenance cost @ 5 % = (41113 × 5 ) / (100 × 200)
= Rs. 10.27
4. Wages of operator /h @ Rs. 300 / day = (2 × 300) /8
= Rs.75
Total variable cost /h = 62.3 + 12.46 + 10.27 + 75
= Rs. 160.03/ h
Total operating cost = Fixed cost + variable cost
= Rs. 63.55 + Rs. 160.03
= Rs. 223.58 /h
Total operating cost, Rs. /ha = Rs. 1788.64 /ha
Total operating cost/ha = Rs. 1788/ ha

C) Cost of Operation of transplanting.


the cost of transplanting is the sum of operating cost of machine and cost of nursery
preparation and management and labour cost.
i) Operating cost of machine = 223.58 /hr
= 1788 /ha
ii) Nursery preparation and management –
No. of labours = 2/ha
Labour cost = Rs. 120 /day
= Rs. 240/ha
ii) No. of labour required during field operation = 2 labours /ha
Total labour cost = 120×2
= Rs. 240 /ha

Hence, total cost of transplanting operation = Operating cost of machine + cost of


nursery preparation and management + labour
cost
= 1788 + 240 + 240
= 2268 /ha

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