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# Dr.

ME553

Lecture # 27:
CONTINOUS SYSTEM:
VIBRATION OF SHAFTS & BEAMS
Department of Mechanical Engineering

## ME553, Advanced Vibrations / Term 162

Lecture’s Objectives

## After completing this chapter you should be able to do the

followings:
 Derive the EOM of beam (bending) and shaft (torsion) systems
from the FBD of an infinitesimally small element of the system
and Newton’s 2nd law.

##  Find the natural frequencies and mode shapes of beam and

torsional shaft systems.

##  Determine the free vibration / forced vibration solutions of

beam and torsional shaft systems.

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Torsional Vibration
of Shafts
The Figure shows a non-uniform
shaft subjected to external
torque f(x,t) per unit length.

(*)
where Mt(x,t) is the twisting moment
G is the shear modulus
GJ is the torsional stiffness
J(x) is the polar moment of inertia of the cross section for a circular section
Dr. Hassen OUAKAD ME 553 / 46

Torsional Vibration
of a Shaft
If the mass polar moment of inertia of the shaft per unit length is
I0 , Inertia torque acting on an element of length dx becomes

If external torque f(x,t) acts on the shaft per unit length, the
application of Newton’s second law yields the EOM

By expressing dMt as
and using Eq. (*), the forced torsional vibration equation for a
non-uniform shaft can

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Torsional Vibration
of a Shaft

## Dr. Hassen OUAKAD ME 553 / 48

Torsional Vibration
of a Shaft
 If the shaft is given an initial angular displacement and
angular velocity at t = 0 , the initial conditions can be
stated as:

 General solution:

##  The Table in the next SLIDE gives the common boundary

conditions and the corresponding frequency equations and
normal functions.
Dr. Hassen OUAKAD ME 553 /
49

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## Boundary Conditions for uniform shafts (rods)

subjected to torsional vibrations

## Dr. Hassen OUAKAD ME 553 / 50

Example # 01
Natural frequencies of a Milling Cutter

## Find the natural frequencies of the plane milling cutter shown

below when the free end of the shank is fixed. Assume the
torsional rigidity of the shank as GJ and the mass moment of
inertia of the cutter as I0.
General solution is given by :

or where
Dr. Hassen OUAKAD ME 553 / 51

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Example # 01
(continued)
Equation can be expressed as (*)

The solution of Eq. (*), and thus the natural frequencies of the
system, can be obtained as in the case of Example # 04 of the
previous Lecture.

##  Equation of Motion (EOM):

Consider the FBD of an element of a beam shown in Fig. (xx),
where M(x,t) is the bending moment, V(x,t) is the shear force,
f(x,t) is the external force per unit length of the beam.

## Inertia force acting on the element of the

Beam in Bending Regime beam is

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Lateral Vibration of
Beams

## 1- Force equation of motion in z-direction

(*)
Where ρ is the mass density and A(x) is the cross-sectional area of the beam.
2- Moment equation of motion about the y-axis passing through point 0:

(**)

By writing

Disregarding terms involving 2nd powers in dx, Eqs. (*) and (**) can be written
as

## Lateral Vibration of Beams

(*)

(**)

By using the relation then, the above Eqs. (*) and (**) becomes:

## From the elementary theory of bending of beams (also known as

the Euler-Bernoulli or thin beam theory), the relationship
between bending moment and deflection can be expressed as:

where E is the Young’s modulus of elasticity and I(x) is the moment of inertia of
the beam cross-section about the y-axis.
Dr. Hassen OUAKAD ME 553 / 55

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##  For a uniform beam:

A 4th (fourth) order PDE ME 553 / 56

## A fourth order PDE

Initial conditions:

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## Free vibration solution can be found by separation of variables:

(**)
Substituting Eq. (**) into Eq. (*) and rearranging leads to

(***)

equations

where

(*) (**)

## Solution of Eq. (*) can be written as:

where A and B are constants that can be found from the Initial
conditions.

##  The roots are:

Hence the solution of Eq. (**) becomes:

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## Free Vibration Problem

(*)

where C1, C2, C3 and C4 are constants that can be found from the
boundary conditions.

## The natural frequencies of the beam are computed from the

following Equation:

##  The function W(x) is known as the normal mode or characteristic

function of thebeam and is called the natural frequency of vibration.

 For any beam, there will be an infinite number of normal modes with
one natural frequency associated with each normal mode.

##  The unknown constants C1 to C4 and the value of β can be

determined from the boundary conditions of the beam.

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1. Free end:
Bending moment

Shear force

Deflection

Bending moment

## 3. Fixed (clamped) end:

Deflection

Bending moment
Dr. Hassen OUAKAD ME 553 / 62

4. End connected
to a linear
spring, damper
and mass

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## Boundary Conditions (BCs)

5. End connected to
a torsioal spring,
torsional damper and
rotational inertia
In this case, the B. C’s are

## Boundary Conditions (BCs)

Common Boundary Conditions for the transverse vibration of a beam

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## Boundary Conditions (BCs)

Common Boundary Conditions for the transverse vibration of a beam

## Orthogonality of Normal Functions

Normal functions W(x) satisfy the following:

## Let Wi(x) and Wj(x) be the normal functions corresponding to ωi

and ωj respectively.

(*) (**)

## Multiply Eq (*) by Wj and Eq (**) by Wi, subtract the resulting

equations one from the other, and integrate from 0 to l:

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or

## The RHS of the above Equation can be evaluated using

integration by parts to obtain:

## Orthogonality of Normal Functions

The RHS of the above Equation reaches zero for any combination
of free, fixed, or simply supported end conditions.

 At free end, the bending moment and shear force are zero:

##  For a fixed end, the deflection and slope are zero:

 At a simply supported end, the bending moment and deflection are zero:

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(*)

## Since each term on the RHS of the above Equation is zero at x = 0

or x = l for any combination of the boundary conditions in the
previous SLIDE, then Eq. (*) reduces to:

## which proves the orthogonality of normal functions for the

transverse vibration of beams

Example # 02

## Determine the natural frequencies of vibration of an uniform

beam fixed at x = 0 and simply supported at x = l.

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Example # 02
(continued)

Example # 02
(continued)