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Residential Materials


Part 2
Stone construction
The building industry today uses stone largely as a facing material for large
buildings with steel or concrete frames. When used as facing, stonework may be
divided into four general categories:
• panelling
• veneer
• trim
• stone flatwork.
Veneer may be applied in one of two patterns: ashlar patterns or as rubble.

ashlar rubble
Panelling, sometimes known as dimension stone, is
used as curtain wall material to provide a finished
exterior on structural frames. Panels can be solid
slabs supported directly by the structural frame, or
they can be incorporated into
insulated sandwich panels.
Stone veneering involves the use of relatively
small pieces of stone of various thicknesses,
fastened to the surface of a backup wall, such as
block, brick, tile, or concrete with some type of
stone anchor.
As an interior finish, stone veneer is used in feature
walls such as entranceways and as a finish on
Stone veneers such as these are normally 25 to 50
mm in thickness and:
• have custom cut face areas.
• are placed in an ashlar or rubble pattern
• are anchored to the backup wall with standard
stone anchors.
• If light enough can be applied to a wall using
common portland cement mortar
Stone trim
Stone trim refers to those pieces of cut stone which
are used for such specific purposes as base, window
stool, stair treads, copings, and similar items that
are normally regarded as finishing.
Stone flatwork
Stone floors, walks, and patios are made by
covering a base of stone, concrete, brick, or tile
with flagstones. They may be random flagstone,
trimmed flagstone, trimmed rectangular, or
square and rectangular.
• Random flagstone consists of natural
irregularly shaped pieces laid without any
attempt at pattern.
Stone flatwork cont.
• Trimmed flagstones consist of natural
random pieces, a percentage of which have
one or two edges saw trimmed.
• Trimmed rectangular flagstones have four
straight sawn edges with right-angle corners
but are of no specific dimensions.
• Square and rectangular flagstones have
straight edges, right-angle corners, and are
cut to specific sizes, often 100 x 100 mm or
150 x 150 mm, but they may be cut to
anyspecified size.
Stone Flatwork