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BIOGRAPHY W. R.

Supratman

Wage Rudolf Supratman (Wage Roedolf Soepratman in the old orthography or commonly
known as W. R. Supratman) (Purworejo, 9 March 1903 – Surabaya, 17 August 1938) was an
Indonesian songwriter who wrote both the lyrics and melody of the national anthem of
Indonesia - "Indonesia Raya."
Supratman was born Wage on 9 March 1903 in Somongari, Purworejo. Several months later,
his father Sergeant Djoemeno Senen Sastrosoehardjo, KNIL army added Supratman to his name
and explained that Supratman born in Meester Cornelis, Batavia. Rudolf was added to his name
while he went along with his sister, Rukiyem Supratiyah van Eldik to Makassar, so his rights
were equal to Dutch, and he was allowed to attend Europese Lagere School.
At the age of 6, he entered Budi Utomo elementary school in Cimahi. After his father retired,
he was taken by Rukiyem and sent to ELS in 1914, but he was dropped out because the fact
that he is not European descent was revealed. He continued his studies to Malay school. After
returning home, he learned to play guitar and violin. His brother-in-law, van Eldik, gave him a
violin as seventeenth birthday present in 1920. After graduating from Malay school in 1917, he
attended Dutch language courses and graduated in 1919. He continued to Normaal School and
became an auxiliary teacher in Makassar after he graduated.
In 1920, he and van Eldik founded a jazz-styled band, called Black & White. He played as a
violinist. They performed at weddings and birthday parties in Makassar.
Since July 1933, he began to feel ill. In November 1933, he resigned as Sin Po journalist and
settled in Cimahi, then Palembang, finally in Surabaya. On 17 August 1938, he died at 01.00
a.m. and his remains were buried in Kenjeran, Surabaya. On 13 March 1956, his bones was
moved to Tambak Segaran Wetan cemetery.
BIOGRAPHY Pangeran Antasari

Prince Antasari (1809 – 11 October 1862), also known by his Indonesian name Pangeran
Antasari, was a sultan of Banjar and is a National Hero of Indonesia.Antasari was born in 1809.
He was son of Prince Mashud and grandson of Prince Amir. He was a prince from a line of the
royal family whose power had been usurped in the 18th century.
Antasari was concerned about the coronation of Sultan Tamjid (or Tamjidillah), instead of
Prince Hidayat (or Hidayatullah), as the replacement to Sultan Adam in Banjar in 1859;
Tamjidillah's coronation was backed by the Dutch colonials, who were looking to sow unrest
and discord to make their attempts to take over Borneo easier. As Antasari wanted to repel the
Dutch, he cooperated with the leaders of Martapura, Kapuas, Pelaihari, Barito, and Kahayan.
He was also aided by Hidayatullah and Demang Leman.
On 18 April 1859, the Banjarmasin War broke out between Antasari's alliance, which was able
to field some 6,000 armed men, and the Dutch. The war took place mainly in South and Central
Kalimantan. Antasari's forces attacked the Dutch in Gunung Jabuk and also the Dutch coal
mines in Pengaron. Meanwhile, his allies attacked other Dutch posts. They also attacked Dutch
ships, killing Lieutenants Van der Velde and Bangert when they sank the ship Onrust in
December 1859. Antasari rejected Dutch attempts to negotiate an end to the war, in which they
offered him wealth and power in exchange for his surrender.
In early August 1860, Antasari's forces were in Ringkau Katan. They were defeated in a battle
on 9 August, after Dutch reinforcements had arrived from Amuntai. Hidayatullah was exiled to
Java, but Antasari, together with Prince Miradipa and Tumenggung Mancanegara, defended
Tundakan fort on 24 September 1861. He also defended a fort in Mount Tongka on 8 November
1861 with Gusti Umar and Tumenggung Surapati.
In October 1862, Antasari was planning a big attack. However, an outbreak of smallpox led to
his death on 11 October 1862. He was buried in Banjarmasin; and several other resistance
leaders, from different periods, were later buried there; the place was later named the Antasari
Heroes' Cemetery. After Antasari's death, his son, Muhammad Seman, continued his struggle
against the Dutch. The resistance ended with Seman's death in 1905.
BIOGRAPHY R. E. Martadinata

Admiral Raden Eddy Martadinata (often stylised R. E.


Martadinata; 29 March 1921 – 6 October 1966) was an
Indonesian Navy admiral and diplomat. He was
conferred the title of "National Hero of Indonesia"
posthumously in 1966. He is recognised as one of the
founders of the Indonesian Navy. Martadinata was born
in Bandung, West Java, on 29 March 1921. His father
was Raden Ruhiyat Martadinata and his mother was Nyi
Raden Suhaemi. He completed his education through
senior high school, first in Bandung then in Batavia
(now Jakarta). After graduating high school he enrolled
in a Dutch-run school for sailors in 1941,
He later continued, under Japanese tutelage, and by 1944 was working as an assistant teacher.
Sukarno proclaimed Indonesia's independence in 1945, and in late August he established the
People's Security Body (Badan Keamanan Rakjat, or BKR). Martadinata and other naval
trainees began efforts to establish a naval branch of the BKR, which eventually became the
Indonesian Navy. During the National Revolution (1945–1949) Martadinata saw several
leadership positions, including as Operating Staff Chief in Yogyakarta and Chief of Staff at the
base in Surabaya. After the Dutch recognised Indonesian independence in 1949, Martadinata
remained with the Navy. He oversaw naval operations in South Sulawesi in 1950, when the
national government was dealing with the Makassar uprising. In 1953 he was sent to study in
the United States. After his return to Indonesia he supervised the purchase of various ships for
the Navy. After a period of infighting in the late 1950s, Martadinata replaced Subiyakto as
Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy, leaving him in charge of the service branch; the
infighting quelled soon after. Martadinata rose through the ranks, reaching vice admiral by
1960.
The 30 September Movement in 1965, an unsuccessful coup attempt which the government
blamed on the Communist Party of Indonesia, led to massive changes in the country. At a
funeral for Irma, a daughter of Abdul Haris Nasution who had been killed in the coup,
Martadinata indicated a wish to purge the communists; this and similar communist purges led
to deaths of thousands, although the total is uncertain. In February 1966 Martadinata left the
Navy as he perceived the government to be unwilling to deal with communists. He was
reassigned as Indonesia's ambassador to Pakistan. For the 21st anniversary of the Indonesian
military on 5 October 1966, Martadinata returned to the country with some Pakistani guests.
The day after the ceremony, Martadinata and his guests were flying in an Aérospatiale Alouette
II helicopter when the pilot crashed into Mount Riung Gunung. After his body was recovered,
Martadinata was buried in Kalibata Heroes' Cemetery in Jakarta. Martadinata was awarded the
title of National Hero of Indonesia on 7 October 1966, based on Presidential Decree No. 220 of
1966. Since then he has been the namesake for various items, including streets and a warship
BIOGRAPHY Yos Sudarso

Commodore Yosaphat "Yos" Sudarso (24 November 1925 - 15 January 1962) was an
Indonesian naval officer killed at the Battle of Arafura Sea. At the time of his death, Yos
Sudarso was deputy chief of staff of the Indonesian Navy and in charge of an action to infiltrate
Dutch New Guinea. The battle near Vlakke Hoek (Etna Bay) of the Arafura Sea stopped an
attempt by the Indonesian Navy to drop off 150 soldiers in Kaimana in Dutch New Guinea for
sabotage and to incite the local population against the Dutch government. Sudarso was in charge
of the operation at sea, while colonel Murshid commanded the infiltrants. Three torpedo boats
left the Aru Islands in the middle of the night but were intercepted by a Dutch reconnaissance
plane, as the Dutch had anticipated the action for weeks. The torpedo boats responded to the
flares sent off by the plane by shooting at it. The Dutch frigate HMS Evertsen then joined the
scene and sunk the KRI Macan Tutul, commanded by Sudarso. The other two ships, KRI Macan
Kumbang and KRI Harimau, fled, but one hit a reef and the other was disabled by shooting.
The Evertsen was able to save most occupants of the Macan Tutul, but at least three sailors
died, among whom was commodore Sudarso.
The action itself was an abject failure and General Nasution even refused to relay the bad news
to Sukarno, forcing colonel Murshid to do this in person. However, the small battle was partially
responsible for the subsequent involvement of the Soviet Union and United States in the case
of Dutch New Guinea, and it is honored in Indonesia by "Sea Sacrifice Day," an annual nation-
wide day of remembrance. Twelve years after his death, Yos Sudarso was officially added to
the register of Indonesian heroes of the Revolution. Indonesia issued a special postage stamp to
commemorate his service to his country, while the KRI Harimau was made into a monument
in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah. A replica of the KRI Matjan Tutul at the Satriamandala
Museum Indonesia's Yos Sudarso Island and Yos Sudarso Bay are named in his honor. There
is also an ex-Dutch warship named KRI Yos Sudarso (ship number 353) in honor of him. It is
still active in the fleet today.
BIOGRAPHY Robert Wolter Monginsidi

Robert Wolter Mongisidi (Malalayang, February 14, 1925 – Pacinang, September 5, 1949)
was part of Indonesia's struggle for independence from the Dutch in South Sulawesi. Robert
was born in Malalayang (now part of Manado) and was the son of Petrus Monginsidi and Lina
Suawa. He started his education in 1931 in elementary school (Dutch: Hollands Inlandsche
School (HIS)), which was followed by middle school (Dutch: Meer Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs
(MULO)) at Frater Don Bosco in Manado. Monginsidi was then educated as a Japanese
language teacher at a school in Tomohon. After his studies, he taught Japanese in Liwutung, in
the Minahasa region, and in Luwuk, Central Sulawesi, before making his way to Makassar,
South Sulawesi. Indonesia's independence was proclaimed while Monginsidi was in Makassar.
However, the Dutch sought to regain control of Indonesia after the end of World War II. They
returned through the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA). Monginsidi became
involved in the struggle against NICA in Makassar. On July 17, 1946, Monginsidi with
Ranggong Daeng Romo and others formed the Indonesian people's resistance army in Sulawesi
(Indonesian: Laskar Pemberontak Rakyat Indonesia Sulawesi (LAPRIS)), which continually
harassed and attacked Dutch positions. He was caught by the Dutch on February 28, 1947, but
managed to escape on October 27, 1947. The Dutch caught him again and this time sentenced
him to death. Monginsidi was executed by firing squad on September 5, 1949. His body was
moved to the Makassar heroes cemetery on November 10, 1950. Robert Wolter Monginsidi
was posthumously named a national hero (Indonesian: Pahlawan Nasional) by the government
of Indonesia on November 6, 1973. He also received the country's highest honor, the Bintang
Mahaputra (Adipradana), on November 10, 1973. His then 80-year-old father, Petrus, accepted
the honor. The airport in Kendari, South East Sulawesi is named in honor of Monginsidi, as is
an Indonesian naval ship, the KRI Wolter Monginsidi.
BIOGRAPHY Adam Malik

Adam Malik Batubara (22 July 1917 – 5 September 1984) was Indonesia's third vice
president, a senior diplomat, and one of the pioneers of Indonesian journalism.
Malik was born in Pematang Siantar, North Sumatra, Dutch East Indies to Abdul Malik
Batubara and Salamah Lubis. He is from a Batak Mandailing Muslim family of Batubara clan.[1]
After completing Junior High School, he received his first job as a shopkeeper, filling in time
by reading books and increasing his knowledge. Malik quickly developed an interest in politics
and aged just 17, became the Chairman of the Pematang Siantar branch of Partindo (Indonesia
Party). In this position, Malik campaigned for the Dutch Colonial Government to grant
independence to Indonesia. As a result of this, Malik was put in prison for disobeying the
Colonial Government's ban on political assemblies. Once he was freed, Malik left Pematang
Siantar for Jakarta. Malik's stint as MPR Chairman would not last long however. In March
1978, Suharto had been elected President for a 3rd term and had expected Hamengkubuwono
IX to continue as Vice President. As it turned out, Hamengkubuwono refused to be nominated.
After considering some alternative candidates, Suharto chose Malik to be his Vice President.
In his position as Vice President, Malik was not afraid to criticize the Government. In 1979, he
admitted that the current regime had violated the spirit of the 1945 constitution. He also
criticized the increasing feudalism in the regime. A reference to Suharto, who acted in the
manner of a feudal Javanese King. In 1981, Malik commented on the corruption in the regime,
referring it as an "epidemic". In 1983, Malik's term as Vice President came to an end and he
was replaced by Umar Wirahadikusumah. Malik died on 5 September 1984 in Bandung, West
Java, as a result of liver cancer.
BIOGRAPHY I Gusti Ngurah Rai

Lieutenant Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai (30 January 1917 – 20 November 1946) is an
Indonesian National Hero who commanded Indonesian forces in Bali against the Dutch during
the Indonesian War of Independence. He was killed in the Battle of Margarana
Ngurah Rai was born in Carangsari, Badung Regency, Bali on 30 January 1917. He studied at
a Dutch elementary school, then went to high school in Malang, East Java. He then received
Dutch military training at the Military Cadet School in Gianyar, Bali and Magelang, Central
Java. After graduating, he joined the Dutch-sponsored military as a second lieutenant in Bali.
After the Indonesian Declaration of Independence he established the People's Security Army,
the forerunner of the military of Indonesia, for the Lesser Sunda Islands. He then left for the
republican capital, Yogyakarta to receive orders before returning to Bali to oppose the
approximately 2,000 Dutch troops who had landed on 2 and 3 March 1946.
Ngurah Rai found that the republican forces were divided and he worked hard to reunite them.
He then organized the first attack against the Dutch forces headquarters at Tabanan. The Dutch
then attempted to locate Nguraha Rai's base and offered negotiations, which he refused.
On 20 November 1946, the Dutch launched a large attack on Marga with the assistance of troops
from Lombok and supported by aircraft. Lt. Col Ngurah Rai ordered a Puputan, or fight to the
death. He died along with all of his troops. The battle is now known as the Battle of Margarana.
Ngurah Rai was buried in Marga. On 9 August 1975, he was made a national hero via
Presidential Decision No. 063/TK/TH 1975. Ngurah Rai International Airport in Bali is named
for him and he appears on the IDR 50,000 note.
BIOGRAPHY Nyi Ageng Serang

Raden Ajeng Kustiyah Wulaningsih Retno Edhi (1752–1838), better known as Nyi Ageng
Serang, is a National Heroine of Indonesia. Nyi Ageng Serang was born under the name Raden
Ajeng Kustiyah Wulaningish Retno Edhi in Serang (40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Solo), in
1752. Her father was Pangeran Natapraja (also known as Panembahan Serang), a ruler of Serang
and Pangeran Mangkubumi's war commander. She was also a descendant of Sunan Kalijaga.
The name Nyi Ageng Serang was given to her after her father died of disease and she took over
his position. She helped her father to fight against the Dutch colonial government, which
attacked them because her father still maintained troops, in violation of the Treaty of Giyanti.
After the battle, she was arrested and taken to Yogyakarta. Then, she was sent back to Serang.
At the beginning of Diponegoro War in 1825, 73-year-old Nyi Ageng Serang commanded the
force on a stretcher to help Pangeran Diponegoro fighting the Dutch. During the war, she was
accompanied by her son-in-law, Raden Mas Pak-pak. She also became a war advisor. She
fought in several areas, including Purwodadi, Demak, Semarang, Juwana, Kudus, and
Rembang. She was also assigned to defend the area of Prambanan from the Dutch. One of her
best-known strategies was the use of lumbu (green taro leaves) for disguise. Her forces attached
the lumbu to poles to look like a taro orchard. She stopped fighting after 3 years, although her
son-in-law continued fighting. Despite fighting the Dutch, beginning in 1833 they gave her an
annuity of 100 gulden per month.
She died in Yogyakarta in 1838. Her remains were buried in Beku, Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta
Nyi Ageng Serang was awarded the title National Heroine of Indonesia through Presidential
Decree number 084/TK/1974 on 13 December 1974. One of her grandsons, Raden Mas
Soewardi Soerjaningrat, is also a national hero. Her name is used for the building of the Culture
and Museum Office (Dinas Kebudayaan dan Permuseuman) in South Jakarta.
BIOGRAPHY Ki Hajar Dewantara

Raden Mas Soewardi Soerjaningrat (EYD: Suwardi Suryaningrat; from 1972 Ki Hadjar
Dewantara, EYD: Ki Hajar Dewantara, which some write Ki Hajar Dewantoro to reflect its
Javanese language sounds; Yogyakarta, May 2, 1889-Yogyakarta, April 26, 1959, hereinafter
abbreviated as Soewardi or KHD) was a leading activist in the Indonesian independence
movement, columnist, politician, and pioneer of education for native Indonesians in Dutch
colonial times. He founded the College Student Park, an institution that provides an educational
opportunity for indigenous commoners which otherwise was limited to the aristocracy and the
Dutch colonials. His birth date is now celebrated in Indonesia as National Education Day. Part
of the motto creation, tut wuri handayani, a slogan for the ministry of education. A navy training
ship bears his name, KRI Ki Hajar Dewantara. His portrait immortalizes him in the paper money
20,000 rupiah denomination in 1998. He was confirmed as a National Hero of Indonesia by
Indonesia's first president, Sukarno, on 28 November 1959. Bapak Soewardi comes from a
family environment Yogyakarta Palace. He graduated from basic education in ELS (Primary
Schools Europe/Netherlands). Could then continue to STOVIA (Bumiputera medical school),
but it was not until the end because of illness. Later he worked as a writer and journalist in a
newspaper, among others, Sediotomo, Midden Java, De Expres, Oetoesan Indies, Kaoem
Moeda, Tjahaja Timoer and Poesara. At the time, he was considered a reliable writer. His
writings communicative and sharp with anti-colonial spirit.
BIOGRAPHY Tuanku Imam Bonjol

Tuanku Imam Bonjol (1772 – November 6, 1864), also known as Muhammad Syahab, Peto
Syarif, and Malim Basa, was one of the most popular leaders of the Padri movement in West
Sumatra. He was declared a National Hero of Indonesia.
Tuanku Imam Bonjol was born in the village of Tanjung Bunga in the Pasaman regency of West
Sumatra. His father's name was Buya Nudin. He was immersed in Islamic studies as he grew
up, studying first from his father and later under various other Muslim theologians.
After founding the state of Bonjol, Syarif became involved in the Adat/Paderi controversy as a
Paderi leader. The Paderi movement, which has been compared to the Ahlus Sunnah wal
Jamaah (Sunni) school of Islam in the now Saudi Arabia, was an effort to return the Islam of
the area to the purity of its roots by removing local distortions like gambling, cockfighting, the
use of opium and strong drink, tobacco, and so forth. It also opposed the powerful role of
women in the matrilineal Minangkabau culture. The Adat, or traditionalist, position was that
local custom that pre-dated the arrival of Islam should also be respected and followed.
Feeling their leadership position threatened, the traditionalists appealed to the Dutch for help in
their struggle against the Paderis. At first, the Dutch were not able to win militarily against the
Paderis because their resources were stretched thin by the Diponegoro resistance in Java. In
1824, the Dutch signed the Masang Agreement ending hostilities with the state of Bonjol.
Subsequently, however, once the Diponegoro resistance was suppressed, the Dutch attacked the
state of Pandai Sikat in a renewed effort to gain control of West Sumatra. Despite valiant
fighting by the Indonesians (by this time the traditionalists had realized they didn't want to be
ruled by the Dutch either and had joined forces with the Paderis in their resistance), the
overwhelming power of the Dutch military eventually prevailed. Syarif was captured in 1832
but escaped after three months to continue the struggle from his tiny fortress in Bonjol.
After three years of siege, the Dutch finally managed to sack Bonjol on August 16, 1837.
Through a negotiation ruse, the Dutch again captured Syarif and exiled him, first to Cianjur in
West Java, then to Ambon, and later to Manado in Sulawesi. He died on November 6, 1864, at
the age of 92 and is buried in Sulawesi. The site of his grave is marked by a Minangkabau (West
Sumatran) house.

BIOGRAPHY Ki Hajar Dewantara

Raden Mas Soewardi Soerjaningrat (EYD: Suwardi Suryaningrat; from 1972 Ki Hadjar
Dewantara, EYD: Ki Hajar Dewantara, which some write Ki Hajar Dewantoro to reflect
its Javanese language sounds; Yogyakarta, May 2, 1889 – Yogyakarta, April 26, 1959,
hereinafter abbreviated as Soewardi or KHD) was a leading activist in the Indonesian
independence movement, columnist, politician, and pioneer of education for native Indonesians
in Dutch colonial times. He founded the College Student Park, an institution that provides an
educational opportunity for indigenous commoners which otherwise was limited to the
aristocracy and the Dutch colonials.
His birth date is now celebrated in Indonesia as National Education Day. Part of the motto
creation, tut wuri handayani, a slogan for the ministry of education. A navy training ship bears
his name, KRI Ki Hajar Dewantara. His portrait immortalizes him in the paper money 20,000
rupiah denomination in 1998.
He was confirmed as a National Hero of Indonesia by Indonesia's first president, Sukarno, on
28 November 1959

BIOGRAPHY Muhammad Hatta

Muhammad Hatta (12 August 1902 – 14 March 1980) was Indonesia's first vice president, later
also serving as the country's Prime Minister. Known as "The Proclamator", he and a number of
Indonesians, including the first president of Indonesia, Sukarno, fought for the independence
of Indonesia from the Dutch. Hatta was born in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies
(now Indonesia). Despite his efforts to gain Indonesian independence, he studied in the
Netherlands from 1921 until 1932. Moreover, after his early education, he studied in Dutch
schools in Indonesia.
Mohammad Hatta is often remembered as Bung Hatta ('Bung' is an affectionate title used to
address colleagues, popular in the early 1900s and is still used by Indonesians).
Hatta was born in Bukittinggi on 12 August 1902 into a prominent and strongly Islamic family.
His grandfather was a respected ulema in Batuhampar, near Payakumbuh. His father, Haji
Mohammad Djamil, died when he was eight months old and he was left with his six sisters and
his mother. As in the matrilineal society of Minangkabau tradition, he was then raised in his
mother's family. His mother's family was wealthy, and Hatta was able to study Dutch as well
as finishing Qur'an after school. on 17 August 1945, at Sukarno's residence, Indonesia's
Independence was finally proclaimed in a short statement on paper signed by both Sukarno and
Hatta. On 18 August 1945, Hatta was selected as Indonesia's first Vice President by the PPKI
to accompany Sukarno, who had been elected as the nation's first president.
As Vice President, Hatta quickly established himself as the day-to-day administrator of the
government, with Sukarno setting government policy and then trying to win support for it.
Although they had different styles of governing, many agree that the style difference
complemented both men's talents perfectly. They were nicknamed the Duumvirate
(Dwitunggal) and until today are hailed by many as the best President and Vice President
partnership in Indonesia's history.
Hatta died on 14 March 1980 in Jakarta and was buried in Jakarta's Tanah Kusir public
cemetery. He was declared a "Proclamation Hero" by the Suharto government in 1986.

BIOGRAPHY CUT NYAK DIEN

Cut Nyak Dhien or Tjoet Nja' Dhien (Lampadang, 1850 – November 6, 1908, Sumedang)
was a leader of the Acehnese guerrilla forces during the Aceh War. Following the death of her
husband Teuku Umar, she led guerrilla actions against the Dutch for 25 years. She was
posthumously awarded the title of National Hero of Indonesia on May 2, 1964 by the Indonesian
government.
Cut Nyak Dhien was born into an Islamic aristocratic family in Aceh Besar in VI mukim district
in 1848. Her father, Teuku Nanta Setia, was a member of the ruling Ulèë Balang aristocratic
class in VI mukim, and her mother was also from an aristocrat family. She was educated in
religion and household matters. She was renowned for her beauty, and many men proposed to
her until her parents arranged for her marriage to Teuku Cek Ibrahim Lamnga, the son of
aristocrat family, when she was twelve.
Dhien was brought to Banda Aceh and her myopia and arthritis slowly healed, but in the end
she was exiled to Sumedang, West Java because the Dutch were afraid she would mobilize the
resistance of Aceh people. In May 2, 1964 she was posthumously proclaimed a National Hero
by President Soekarno

BIOGRAPHY MARTHA CHRISTINA TIAHAHU

Martha Christina Tiahahu (4 January 1800 –


2 January 1818) was a Moluccan freedom
fighter and National Heroine of Indonesia. Born
to a military captain, Tiahahu was active in
military matters from a young age. She joined
the war led by Pattimura against the Dutch
colonial government when she was 17, fighting
in several battles. After being captured in
October 1817, she was released on account of
her age. She continued to fight, and was
captured again. Sent to Java to be a slave
labourer, she fell ill on the way and, refusing to
eat or take medicine, died on a ship in the Banda
Sea.
Tiahahu is considered a National Heroine of Indonesia, with the date of her death celebrated as
a holiday. She has also been honoured with two statues, one in Ambon and one in Abubu; other
namesakes include a warship, street, Moluccan social organization, and women's magazine.
Tiahahu was born in Abubu village on Nusalaut Island, near Maluku, on 4 January 1800. Her
father was Captain Paulus Tiahahu of the Soa Uluputi clan. After her mother died while she
was an infant, Tiahahu was raised by her father. As a child, she was stubborn and followed her
father wherever he went, at times joining him in planning attacks. Beginning in 1817 Tiahahu
joined her father in a guerrilla war against the Dutch colonial government. They also backed
Pattimura's army. She saw several battles. In a battle at Saparua Island, the troops killed Dutch
commander Richement and wounded his replacement Commander Meyer. In another battle,
she and her troops succeeded in burning Duurstede Fortress to the ground. During battles, she
was said to throw stones at the Dutch troops if her soldiers were out of ammunition, while other
accounts have her wielding a spear. After Vermeulen Kringer took over the Dutch military in
Maluku, Tiahahu, her father, and Pattimura were captured in October 1817. Carried on the
HNLMS Evertsen to Nusalaut, Tiahahu was the only captured soldier not punished; this was
due to her young age. After a period of time in holding in Fort Beverwijk, where her father was
executed, in late 1817 Tiahahu was released. She continued to fight against the Dutch. In a
sweep in December 1817 Tiahahu and several other former rebels were caught. The captured
guerrillas were placed on the Evertsen to be transported to Java; they were meant to be used as
slave labour on the coffee plantations there. However, on the way Tiahahu fell ill. Refusing
medication and food, she died on 2 January 1818 while the ship was crossing the Banda Sea;
she received a burial at sea later that day

BIOGRAPHY DEWI SARTIKA


Dewi Sartika (4 December 1884 – 11 September 1947) was the leading figure and pioneer for
the education for women in Indonesia. She founded the first school for women in Dutch East
Indies. She was acknowledge as a National Hero by the Indonesian government in 1966.
Dewi Sartika was born into a Sundanese state, R. Rangga Somanegara and R. A. Rajapermas
in Cicalengka, on 4 December 1884. As a child, after school she often pretended to be a teacher
while playing with her friends. After her father dead, she lived with her uncle. She got education
of Sundanese culture from her uncle. Also she got Western culture from a wife of resident
assistant. In 1899, she moved to Bandung. On 16 January 1904, she founded a school named
Sekolah Isteri at Bandung Regency's Pendopo and later moved to Jalan Ciguriang and the
school name changed to Sekolah Kaoetamaan Isteri (Wife Eminency School) in 1910. In 1912,
there are nine Sekolah Kaoetamaan Isteri in cities or regencies in West Java (half of the cities
and regencies), and in 1920 all of cities and regencies has one school. In September 1929, her
school changed its name to Sekolah Raden Dewi. She died on 11 September 1947 in Cineam,
Tasikmalaya while she was evacuating from Bandung due to independence war
Her name Dewi Sartika is known for the street that was the place of her school. She was awarded
the Order of Orange-Nassau at the 35th anniversary of Sekolah Kaoetamaan Isteri as a tribute
of her service in education. On 1 December 1966, she received Heroine of the National
Movement title
BIOGRAPHY SISINGAMANGARAJA XII

Patuan Besar Ompu Pulo Batu, better known


as Sisingamangaraja XII (1849 – 17 June
1907), was the last priest-king of the Batak
peoples of north Sumatra. In the course of
fighting a lengthy guerrilla war against the
Dutch colonisation of Sumatra from 1878
onwards, he was killed in a skirmish with Dutch
troops in 1907. He was declared a National
Hero of Indonesia in 1961 for his resistance to
Dutch colonialism. Sisingamangaraja XII was
born Patuan Besar Ompu Pulo Batu in Bakkara,
Tapanuli, in 1849. He was the successor to his
father Sisingamangaraja ("great-king-kind-of-
lion") XI, who died in 1867.
He was the last in a line of figures known as parmalim (religious leaders) who were regarded
as divine kings and incarnations of Batara Guru, the Javanese version of the god Shiva. The
Sisingamangaraja was believed to have powers such as the ability drive away evil spirits, call
forth the rain and control rice-growing. He was not normally seen as a political figure, but when
Dutch colonists and missionaries began penetrating north Sumatra from the 1850s onwards both
Sisingamangaraja XI and XII became the focus of Batak resistance to colonial rule. Although
they were not personally anti-Christian, the two Sisingamangarajas faced pressure to act from
traditiona list Batak chiefs and the neighbouring Sultanate of Aceh, which was at war with the
Dutch from 1873.
In February 1878, Sisingamangaraja XII held a religious ceremony to rally the Bataks behind
him in a war of resistance against the Dutch. His forces attacked Dutch outposts in Bakal Batu,
Tarutung, but were defeated. He regrouped and launched a fresh offensive in 1883–84 with
Acehnese aid, attacking the Dutch at Uluan and Balige in May 1883 and in Tangga Batu in
1884. The Dutch mounted a harsh response, torturing and killing Bataks suspected of being
followers of Sisingamangaraja XII, as well as burning houses and imposing punitive taxes.
They offered rewards for information on his whereabouts but were unable to capture him.
In 1904, Dutch forces under Lt Col Gotfried Coenraad Ernst van Daalen attacked Tanah Gayo
and some areas around Lake Toba in order to break the Batak resistance. Sisingamangaraja
XII's forces resorted to guerrilla warfare and evaded the Dutch troops. The Dutch reinforced
their troops and weapons before launching another offensive in 1907 against the remainder of
Sisingamangaraja XII's forces in the Toba region. A battle was fought at Pak-pak between the
Dutch, led by Captain Hans Christoffel, and Sisingamangaraja's troops. On 17 June 1907
Sisingamangaraja XII was killed in a clash at Dairi along with his daughter Lopian and his sons,
Patuan Nagari and Patuan Anggi. He was buried in Tarutung, then moved to Balige, and later
moved to Samosir Island

BIOGRAPHY BUDI UTOMO


Budi Utomo (also Boedi Oetomo; "Prime
Philosophy") was the first native political society
in the Dutch East Indies. The political society is
considered instrumental on the beginning of the
Indonesian National Awakening.Budi Utomo was
founded on May 20, 1908 was the first native
political society in the Dutch East Indies. The
founder of Budi Utomo was a pensioned
government doctor who felt that native intellectuals
should improve the masses in education and
culture. The society held its first congress in May
1908. The congress was a gathering of students in
Batavia. The first leader was Dr.Wahidin
Soedirohoesodo, but by the organization's first
major gathering in Yogyakarta in October 1908, he
stepped aside for younger organizers.
The Dutch were tolerant of the rise and development of Indonesian nationalism. Budi Utomo
did not have mass appeal and they regarded the nationalist activities in the first decade of the
20th century as a natural outcome of the Ethical Policy, which emphasised the importance of
looking after the welfare of the people.
The membership was a very high class of natives, government officials and intellectuals,
confined very largely in Java and the Javanese. The furtherance of popular education became
the main activity. Few branches expanded the activity into native commerce and industry.
Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo, who would later found the more radical Indische Party, expanded
the scope of the society to include more working classes, and also the rest of the Indïes outside
of Java. The organization enjoyed a rapid growth; in 1910 the society had 10,000 members
enrolled in 40 branches. At the same time, it received official recognition form the colonial
government.
Budi Utomo's primary aim was first not political. However, it gradually shifted toward political
aims with representatives in the conservative Volksraad (the People's Council) and in the
provincial councils in Java. Budi Utomo officially dissolved in 1935, but it has marked the first
nationalist movement in the early twentieth century. After dissolution, some of the members
joined the largest political party its time, the moderate Greater Indonesian Party (Parindra). In
keeping with the outlook of Budi Utomo, former members—whether in the Volksraad or
Parindra—insisted on the Indonesian language for all public statements.
The use of Budi Utomo to mark the inception of modern nationalism in Indonesia is not without
controversy. Although many scholars agree that Budi Utomo was likely the first modern
indigenous political organization, others question its value as an index of Indonesian
nationality. For example, in his novels, Pramoedya Ananta Toer pointed to the exclusively
aristocratic and male composition of Budi Utomo. Ariel Heryanto questions the nationalism of
Budi Utomo, given that its existence was permitted by the Dutch regime: "Because of [Budi
Utomo's] remarkably conservative character, the Dutch colonial administration tolerated [it]."
Heryanto points to a "more populist and egalitarian" Muslim association (Sarekat Dagang
Islamiyah), born a few years prior, as a more genuinely nationalist organization: one which was
banned by the Dutch. In enshining Budi Utomo as the first nationalist organization, the current
government reiterates the colonial version of history

BIOGRAPHY DIPONEGORO

Diponegoro was born on 11 November 1785 in


Yogyakarta, and was the eldest son of Sultan
Hamengkubuwono III of Yogyakarta. When the
sultan died in 1814, Diponegoro was passed over for
the succession to the throne in favor of his younger
half brother, Hamengkubuwono IV who was
supported by the Dutch. Being a devout Muslim,
Diponegoro was alarmed by the relaxing of religious
observance at his half brother's court, as well as by the
court's pro-Dutch policy.
In 1821, famine and plague spread in Java. His half brother Hamengkubuwono IV (r. 1814-
1821) who had succeeded their father died. He left only an infant son as heir, Hamengkubuwono
V. When the year-old was appointed as new sultan, there was a dispute over his guardianship.
Diponegoro was again passed over, though he believed he had been promised the right to
succeed his half brother. This series of natural disaster and political upheaval finally erupted
into full scale rebellion
Dutch colonial rule was becoming unpopular by the local farmers because of tax rises, crop
failures and by Javanese nobles because the Dutch colonial authorities deprived them of their
right to lease land. Because the local farmers and many nobles were ready to support
Diponegoro and because he believed that he had been chosen by divine powers to lead a
rebellion against the Christian colonials, he started a holy war against the Dutch. Dipenogoro
was widely believed to be the Ratu Adil, the Just Ruler predicted in the Pralembang Joyoboyo
The beginning of the war saw large losses on the side of the Dutch, due to their lack of coherent
strategy and commitment in fighting Diponegoro's guerrilla warfare. Ambushes were set up,
and food supplies were denied to the Dutch troops. The Dutch finally committed themselves to
controlling the spreading rebellion by increasing the number of troops and sending General De
Kock to stop the insurgencies. De Kock developed a strategy of fortified camps (benteng) and
mobile forces. Heavily-fortified and well-defended soldiers occupied key landmarks to limit
the movement of Diponegoro's troops while mobile forces tried to find and fight the rebels.
From 1829, Diponegoro definitely lost the initiative and he was put in a defensive position.
Many troops and leaders were defeated or deserted.

BIOGRAPHY SUTOMO
Sutomo was born in Kampung Blauran in the centre
of Surabaya to a clerk father, Kartawan
Tjiptowidjojo, and mother of mixed Javanese,
Sundanese and Madurese descent. He had received
Dutch secondary education before the Japanese
occupation. Alongside menial jobs, he joined the
Indonesian Scouting organisation and at the age of
seventeen as the second Pramuka Garuda; a rank
achieved by only three Indonesians before the
Japanese occupation during World War II. During
the occupation period he worked for the Dōmei
Tsushin in Surabaya. Sutomo became famous by
setting up Radio Pembarontakan (Radio Rebellion),
which promoted unity and fighting spirit among the
Indonesian pemuda (youth).
During the Japanese occupation, Sutomo was chosen in 1944 as a member of the Japanese-
sponsored Gerakan Rakyat Baru (New People's Movement). During the early stages of the
Indonesian National Revolution he played a central role when Surabaya came under British
attack. Although the Surabaya city was lost to the British, the battle served to galvanise
Indonesian and international opinion in support of the independence cause. Sutomo spurred
thousands of Indonesians to action with his distinctive, emotional speaking-style of his radio
broadcasts. His "clear, burning eyes, that penetrating, slightly nasal voice, or that hair-raising
oratorical style that second only to Sukarno's in its emotional power". During the Bersiap perod,
Sutomo encouraged atrocities against Indonesians of mixed European–Asian ancestry and
personally supervised the summary executions of hundreds of civilians.
His relationship with President Sukarno soured after Bung Tomo offended the president by
asking about personal matters. After the 1950s, Sutomo emerged again as a national figure
during the 1965 turbulent period. Initially, he supported Suharto to replace the left-leaning
Sukarno government, but later opposed aspects of the New Order regime. On 11 April 1978, he
was detained by the government for his outspoken criticism of corruption and abuses of power;
upon his release three years later, however, Sutomo continued to loudly voice his criticisms. He
said that he did not want to be buried in the Heroes' Cemetery because it was full of "fairweather
heroes" who had lacked the courage to defend the nation at times of crisis, but when peace came
appeared in public to glorify their achievements.
On 9 June 1947, Sutomo married Sulistina in Malang, East Java. He was known as a devoutly
religious father of five who took religious knowledge seriously throughout his life. Before his
death, Sutomo managed to finish a draft of his own dissertation on the role of religion in village-
level development. On 7 October 1981, he died in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, during his Hajj
pilgrimage.[1] Renowned as a 1945 Revolution hero, his family and friends succeeded in their
request for his body to be returned to Indonesia, but although his reputation and military rank
gave him the right to be buried in the Heroes' Cemetery, he was laid to rest in public burial
ground at Ngagel, Surabaya, East Java.

BIOGRAPHY PATTIMURA

Pattimura was born Thomas Mattulessi on 8 June


1783 in Saparua, Maluku; the name Pattimura
was his pseudonym. His parents were Frans
Matulessia and Fransina Tilahoi, and he had a
little brother named Yohanis. In 1810, the
Maluku islands were taken over from the Dutch
colonials by the British. Mattulessi received
military training from their army and reached the
rank of sergeant major. After the signing of the
Anglo-Dutch Treaty on 13 August 1814,
in 1816 the Maluku islands were returned to the Dutch; Pattimura attended the ceremony.
Afterwards, in violation of the treaty, he and his fellow soldiers were discharged to their
hometowns. However, Pattimura refused to accept the restoration of Dutch power. He felt that
they would stop paying native Christian teachers, as they had done in 1810, and was concerned
that a proposed switch to paper currency would leave the Maluku people unable to give alms —
only coins were considered valid — and thus lead to churches being unable to help the poor.
He was appointed as Kapitan by the people of Saparua to rebel against the Dutch on 14 May
1817. The assault began on the 15th, with Pattimura and his lieutenants Said Perintah, Anthony
Reebhok, Paulus Tiahahu and Tiahahu's daughter Martha Christina Tiahahu leading the way
On 16 May 1817, he managed to seize the Duurstede Fort, and killed nearly all Dutchmen
inside, including Resident van den Berg. The only Dutch survivor was van den Berg's five-
year-old son. On 29 May, together with other Maluku leaders, he made the Haria Proclamation,
which outlined their grievances against the Dutch government and declared Pattimura to be the
leader of the Maluku people. After the seizure, Pattimura defended the fort and defeated Major
Beetjes, Second Lieutenant E. S. de Haas, and their troops. He later led an unsuccessful attack
on Fort Zeelandia in Haruku.
Due to betrayal from Booi's king, Pati Akoon, and Tuwanakotta, he was arrested on 11
November 1817 while he was in Siri Sori, and the Duurstede Fort was recaptured by the Dutch
Army. He and his fellows were sentenced to death. On 16 December 1817, Pattimura together
with Anthony Reebook, Philip Latumahina, and Said Parintah were hanged in front of Niew
Victoria Fort in Ambon

BIOGRAPHY SOEDIRMAN
General of the Army Raden Soedirman (Perfected
Spelling: Sudirman; 24 January 1916 – 29 January 1950)
was a high-ranking Indonesian military officer during the
Indonesian National Revolution. The first commander-in-
chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces, he continues to be
widely respected in the country. Born in Purbalingga,
Dutch East Indies, Sudirman moved to Cilacap in 1916
and was raised by his uncle. A diligent student at a
Muhammadiyah-run school, he became respected within
the community for his devotion to Islam. After dropping
out of teacher's college, in 1936 he began working as a
teacher, and later headmaster, at a Muhammadiyah-run
elementary school.
After the Japanese occupied the Indies in 1942, Sudirman continued to teach, before joining the
Japanese-sponsored Defenders of the Homeland as a battalion commander in Banyumas in
1944. In this position he put down a rebellion by his fellow soldiers, but was later interned in
Bogor. After Indonesia proclaimed its independence on 17 August 1945, Sudirman led a break-
out then went to Jakarta to meet President Sukarno. Tasked with overseeing the surrender of
Japanese soldiers in Banyumas, he established a division of the People's Safety Body there. On
12 November 1945, at an election to decide the military's commander-in-chief in Yogyakarta,
Sudirman was chosen over Oerip Soemohardjo in a close vote. While waiting to be confirmed,
Sudirman ordered an assault on British and Dutch forces in Ambarawa. The ensuing battle and
British withdrawal strengthened Sudirman's popular support, and he was ultimately confirmed
on 18 December.
During the following three years Sudirman saw negotiations with the returning Dutch colonial
forces fail, first after the Linggadjati Agreement – which Sudirman participated in drafting –
and then the Renville Agreement; he was also faced with internal dissent, including a 1948 coup
d'état attempt. He later blamed these issues for his tuberculosis, which led to his right lung
being collapsed in November 1948. On 19 December 1948, several days after Sudirman's
release from the hospital, the Dutch launched an assault on the capital. Sudirman and a small
contingent escaped Dutch forces and left the city, making their headquarters at Sobo, near
Mount Lawu. There Sudirman commanded military activities throughout Java, including a
show of force in Yogyakarta on 1 March 1949. When the Dutch began withdrawing, in July
1949 Sudirman was recalled to Yogyakarta and forbidden to fight further. In late 1949
Sudirman's tuberculosis relapsed, and he retired to Magelang, where he died slightly more than
a month after the Dutch recognised Indonesia's independence. He is buried at Semaki Heroes'
Cemetery in Yogyakarta.
Sudirman's death was grieved throughout Indonesia, with flags flown at half-mast and
thousands gathering to see his funeral convoy and procession. He continues to be highly
respected in Indonesia. His guerrilla campaign has been credited with developing the army's
esprit de corps, and the 100-kilometre (62 mil) long route he took must be followed by
Indonesian cadets before graduation.

BIOGRAPHY SULTAN HASANUDDIN

Sultan Hasanuddin (Sultan Hasanuddin


Tumenanga Ri Balla Pangkana; 12 January
1631 – 12 June 1670) was the 16th Ruler of The
Sultanate of Gowa from 1653 to 1669. He was
proclaimed as Indonesian National Hero on 6
November 1973. Sultan Hassanudin was born in
Makassar, Gowa Kingdom (on what is now part
of South Sulawesi) under the name I Mallombasi
Muhammad Bakir Daeng Mattawang Karaeng
Bonto Mangepe. He was the second prince of the
15th King of Gowa, Sultan Malikussaid. Upon
his conversion to Islam, Hassanudin changed his
name to Sultan Hasanuddin Tumenanga Ri Balla
Pangkana.
After his accession to the throne of Gowa, Hasanuddin was faced with a turbulent situation as
the Dutch colonized the East Indies. During this period, the Kingdom of Gowa was the sole
large east Indonesian kingdom which not colonized by the Dutch. In 1666, under the leadership
of Captain Cornelis Spellman, the Dutch East India Company sought to seize each and every
east Indonesian kingdom to monopolized the spice trade, though were unable to colonize Gowa.
In order to resist Dutch encroachments, Hasanuddin tried to gather each of the kingdom’s
military powers to attack the Dutch East Indies Company collectively. The wars between the
Dutch and the States continued to worsen until the Dutch increased their military presence.
Eventually the Kingdom of Gowa had no other choice but to agree to peace with the Dutch
under the terms of the Bugaya treaty.
Following the signing of the Bugaya treaty, Gowa felt that the treaty was unfair and that they
were disadvantaged by the terms of the treaty. As a result, Gowa continued to attack the Dutch.
Finally, the Dutch sought military assistance from Batavia, resulting in a fierce and a bloody
war between the Dutch and Gowa. The war continued until the company managed to conquer
Gowa’s last stronghold, Sombaupu Fort, on 12 June 1669. Sultan Hassanudin retreated and
abdicated as the King of Gowa. He died a year later, on 12 June 1670, and was buried in
Katangka, Makassar.
BIOGRAFI KARTINI

Biografi R.A Kartini - Raden Ajeng Kartini lahir pada 21 April tahun 1879 di kota Jepara,
Jawa Tengah. Ia anak salah seorang bangsawan yang masih sangat taat pada adat istiadat.
Setelah lulus dari Sekolah Dasar ia tidak diperbolehkan melanjutkan sekolah ke tingkat yang
lebih tinggi oleh orangtuanya. Ia dipingit sambil menunggu waktu untuk dinikahkan. Kartini
kecil sangat sedih dengan hal tersebut, ia ingin menentang tapi tak berani karena takut dianggap
anak durhaka. Untuk menghilangkan kesedihannya, ia mengumpulkan buku-buku pelajaran dan
buku ilmu pengetahuan lainnya yang kemudian dibacanya di taman rumah dengan ditemani
Simbok (pembantunya).
Akhirnya membaca menjadi kegemarannya, tiada hari tanpa membaca. Semua buku, termasuk
surat kabar dibacanya. Kalau ada kesulitan dalam memahami buku-buku dan surat kabar yang
dibacanya, ia selalu menanyakan kepada Bapaknya. Melalui buku inilah, Kartini tertarik pada
kemajuan berpikir wanita Eropa (Belanda, yang waktu itu masih menjajah Indonesia). Timbul
keinginannya untuk memajukan wanita Indonesia. Wanita tidak hanya didapur tetapi juga harus
mempunyai ilmu. Ia memulai dengan mengumpulkan teman-teman wanitanya untuk diajarkan
tulis menulis dan ilmu pengetahuan lainnya.
Ditengah kesibukannya ia tidak berhenti membaca dan juga menulis surat dengan teman-
temannya yang berada di negeri Belanda. Tak berapa lama ia menulis surat pada Mr.J.H
Abendanon. Ia memohon diberikan beasiswa untuk belajar di negeri Belanda.
Beasiswa yang didapatkannya tidak sempat dimanfaatkan Kartini karena ia dinikahkan oleh
orang tuanya dengan Raden Adipati Joyodiningrat. Setelah menikah ia ikut suaminya ke daerah
Rembang. Suaminya mengerti keinginan Kartini dan Kartini diberi kebebasan dan didukung
mendirikan sekolah wanita di sebelah timur pintu gerbang kompleks kantor kabupaten
Rembang, atau di sebuah bangunan yang kini digunakan sebagai Gedung Pramuka.
Ketenarannya tidak membuat Kartini menjadi sombong, ia tetap santun, menghormati keluarga
dan siapa saja, tidak membedakan antara yang miskin dan kaya.
Anak pertama dan sekaligus terakhirnya, Soesalit Djojoadhiningrat, lahir pada tanggal 13
September 1904. Beberapa hari kemudian, 17 September 1904, Kartini meninggal pada usia 25
tahun. Kartini dimakamkan di Desa Bulu, Kecamatan Bulu, Rembang.. Berkat kegigihannya
Kartini, kemudian didirikan Sekolah Wanita oleh Yayasan Kartini di Semarang pada 1912, dan
kemudian di Surabaya, Yogyakarta, Malang, Madiun, Cirebon dan daerah lainnya. Nama
sekolah tersebut adalah "Sekolah Kartini". Yayasan Kartini ini didirikan oleh keluarga Van
Deventer, seorang tokoh Politik Etis. Setelah Kartini wafat, Mr.J.H Abendanon
memngumpulkan dan membukukan surat-surat yang pernah dikirimkan R.A Kartini pada para
teman-temannya di Eropa. Buku itu diberi judul “DOOR DUISTERNIS TOT LICHT” yang
artinya “Habis Gelap Terbitlah Terang”.
Saat ini mudah-mudahan di Indonesia akan terlahir kembali Kartini-kartini lain yang mau
berjuang demi kepentingan orang banyak. Di era Kartini, akhir abad 19 sampai awal abad 20,
wanita-wanita negeri ini belum memperoleh kebebasan dalam berbagai hal. Mereka belum
diijinkan untuk memperoleh pendidikan yang tinggi seperti pria bahkan belum diijinkan
menentukan jodoh/suami sendiri, dan lain sebagainya.
Kartini yang merasa tidak bebas menentukan pilihan bahkan merasa tidak mempunyai pilihan
sama sekali karena dilahirkan sebagai seorang wanita, juga selalu diperlakukan beda dengan
saudara maupun teman-temannya yang pria, serta perasaan iri dengan kebebasan wanita-wanita
Belanda, akhirnya menumbuhkan keinginan dan tekad di hatinya untuk mengubah kebiasan
kurang baik itu. Presiden Soekarno mengeluarkan Keputusan Presiden Republik Indonesia
No.108 Tahun 1964, tanggal 2 Mei 1964, yang menetapkan Kartini sebagai Pahlawan
Kemerdekaan Nasional sekaligus menetapkan hari lahir Kartini, tanggal 21 April,
untuk diperingati setiap tahun sebagai hari besar yang kemudian dikenal sebagai Hari Kartini.
Belakangan ini, penetapan tanggal kelahiran Kartini sebagai hari besar agak diperdebatkan.
Dengan berbagai argumentasi, masing-masing pihak memberikan pendapat masing-masing.
Masyarakat yang tidak begitu menyetujui, ada yang hanya tidak merayakan Hari Kartini namun
merayakannya sekaligus dengan Hari Ibu pada tanggal 22 Desember.
Alasan mereka adalah agar tidak pilih kasih dengan pahlawan-pahlawan wanita Indonesia
lainnya. Namun yang lebih ekstrim mengatakan, masih ada pahlawan wanita lain yang lebih
hebat daripada RA Kartini. Menurut mereka, wilayah perjuangan Kartini itu hanyalah di Jepara
dan Rembang saja, Kartini juga tidak pernah memanggul senjata melawan penjajah. Dan
berbagai alasan lainnya. Sedangkan mereka yang pro malah mengatakan Kartini tidak hanya
seorang tokoh emansipasi wanita yang mengangkat derajat kaum wanita Indonesia saja
melainkan adalah tokoh nasional artinya, dengan ide dan gagasan pembaruannya tersebut dia
telah berjuang untuk kepentingan bangsanya. Cara pikirnya sudah dalam skop nasional.
Sekalipun Sumpah Pemuda belum dicetuskan waktu itu, tapi pikiran-pikirannya tidak terbatas
pada daerah kelahiranya atau tanah Jawa saja. Kartini sudah mencapai kedewasaan berpikir
nasional sehingga nasionalismenya sudah seperti yang dicetuskan oleh Sumpah Pemuda 1928.
Terlepas dari pro kontra tersebut, dalam sejarah bangsa ini kita banyak mengenal nama-nama
pahlawan wanita kita seperti Cut Nya’ Dhien, Cut Mutiah, Nyi. Ageng Serang, Dewi Sartika,
Nyi Ahmad Dahlan, Ny. Walandouw Maramis, Christina Martha Tiahohu, dan lainnya. Mereka
berjuang di daerah, pada waktu, dan dengan cara yang berbeda. Ada yang berjuang di Aceh,
Jawa, Maluku, Menado dan lainnya. Ada yang berjuang pada zaman penjajahan Belanda, pada
zaman penjajahan Jepang, atau setelah kemerdekaan. Ada yang berjuang dengan mengangkat
senjata, ada yang melalui pendidikan, ada yang melalui organisasi maupun cara lainnya.
Mereka semua adalah pejuang-pejuang bangsa, pahlawan-pahlawan bangsa yang patut kita
hormati dan teladani. Raden Ajeng Kartini sendiri adalah pahlawan yang mengambil tempat
tersendiri di hati kita dengan segala cita-cita, tekad, dan perbuatannya. Ide-ide besarnya telah
mampu menggerakkan dan mengilhami perjuangan kaumnya dari kebodohan yang tidak
disadari pada masa lalu. Dengan keberanian dan pengorbanan yang tulus, dia mampu
menggugah kaumnya dari belenggu diskriminasi. Bagi wanita sendiri, dengan upaya awalnya
itu kini kaum wanita di negeri ini telah menikmati apa yang disebut persamaan hak tersebut.
Perjuangan memang belum berakhir, di era globalisasi ini masih banyak dirasakan penindasan
dan perlakuan tidak adil terhadap perempuan
BIOGRAFI NABI MUHAMMAD SAW
Oleh:
Nama : Nur
Alam
Kelas : VIII
F

Nabi Muhammad SAW adalah Nabi terakhir yang diutus oleh Alloh SWT sebagai
penyempurna ajaran Nabi-Nabi sebelumnya dan juga sebagai Nabi penutup zaman. Nabi
Muhammad dilahirkan di Mekkah pada hari Senin 12 Rabiul Awal Tahun Gajah atau bertepatan
dengan tanggal 20 April 571M/12 Rabiul Awal tahun Gajah atau Amul Fiil. Ayah Nabi
Muhammad SAW bernama Abdullah bin Abdul Muthalib, sedang ibu Beliau bernama Aminah.
Sang Ayah wafat ketika Nabi Muhammad SAW masih dalam kandungan (6 bulan). Sedang
sang ibu wafat ketika Nabi Muhammad SAW berumur 6 tahun. Selanjutnya beliau diasuh oleh
sang kakek yang bernama Abdul Muthalib, yang tidak lama langsung meninggal, ketika Nabi
Muhammad SAW berumur 8 tahun. Setelah sang kakek yaitu Abdul Muthalib wafat, beliau
diasuh pamannya yaitu Abu Thalib, kasih sayang pamannya sangat besar karena Nabi
Muhammad SAW memiliki sifat yang baik dan terpuji. Ketika Nabi Muhammad SAW berumur
14 tahun sang paman mengajak-Nya berdagang ke Syams. Peristiwa itu terkenal dalam sejarah
Islam karena tanda-tanda kenabian mulai diketahui ada pada dalam diri Nabi Muhammad SAW.
Tanda-tanda itu diketahui oleh seorang pendeta Nasrani yang bernama Buhaira. Pendeta
tersebut berpesan kepada Abu Thalib untuk menjaga keponakannya tersebut dengan baik. Sejak
kecil hingga dewasa Nabi Muhammad SAW telah dikenal sebagai orang yang jujur, tidak
pernah berkata kotor, tidak pernah berbohong, dan tidak pernah melakukan maksiat.
Karena kejujurannya dalam berkata dan bersikap itulah kemudian beliau diberi gelar al-
Amin oleh kaumnya yang berarti “orang yang terpercaya”. Pada usia 40 tahun saat Nabi
Muhammad SAW sedang menyendiri atau bertahanuts atau berkhalwat atau bertapa di Gua
Hiro. Beliau ingin mendekatkan diri kepada Allah SWT. Tepatnya pada tanggal 17 Ramadhan,
datanglah Malaikat Jibril membawa wahyu yang pertama yaitu surah/surat Al-Alaq ayat 1-5.
Hal ini menjadi tanda bahwa Nabi Muhammad SAW telah diangkat sebagai seorang nabi atau
rasul Allah SWT.
Dakwah yang dilakukan Nabi Muhammad SAW pada awalnya mendapat tentangan dari
kaumnya hingga beliau mendapat wahyu hijrah ke Madinah. Nabi Muhammad SAW bukan
hanya seorang nabi dan rasul semata melainkan adalah seorang kepala negara yang ahli akan
tata negara, panglima perang yang tangguh, seorang suami dan ayah yang teladan.Sesudah
terjadi berbagai peperangan dengan kaum kafir, akhirnya Mekah dapat direbut kembali ke
tangan muslimin, sebagai kota suci. Dengan jatuhnya kota Mekah, maka segera berakhirlah
tugas kenabian beliau selama kurang lebih 13 tahun di Mekah dan 10 tahun di Madinah.
Sesudah melaksanakan haji wada’ Beliau menghadap ALLAH SWT pada usia 63 tahun yaitu
pada tanggal 12 Rabiul Awwal tahun 11 Hijriah atau tanggal 8 Juni 632 M, Dan Beliau
dimakamkan di Madinah.

BIOGRAFI IR. SOEKARNO


Ir. Soekarno atau yang biasa dipanggil Bung Karno yang lahir di Surabaya, Jawa Timur
pada tanggal 6 Juni 1901 dari pasangan Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo dengan Ida Ayu Nyoman
Rai. Ayah Soekarno adalah seorang guru. Raden Soekemi bertemu dengan Ida Ayu ketika dia
mengajar di Sekolah Dasar Pribumi Singaraja, Bali.
Soekarno hanya menghabiskan sedikit masa kecilnya dengan orangtuanya hingga
akhirnya dia tinggal bersama kakeknya, Raden Hardjokromo di Tulung Agung, Jawa Timur.
Soekarno pertama kali bersekolah di Tulung Agung hingga akhirnya dia ikut kedua orangtuanya
pindah ke Mojokerto.
Di Mojokerto, ayahnya memasukan Soekarno ke Eerste Inlandse School. Di tahun 1911,
Soekarno dipindahkan ke Europeesche Lagere School (ELS) untuk memudahkannya diterima
di Hoogere Burger School (HBS).
Setelah lulus pada tahun 1915, Soekarno melanjutkan pendidikannya di HBS, Surabaya,
Jawa Timur. Di Surabaya, Soekarno banyak bertemu dengan para tokoh dari Sarekat Islam,
organisasi yang kala itu dipimpin oleh HOS Tjokroaminoto yang juga memberi tumpangan
ketika Soekarno tinggal di Surabaya.

Dari sinilah, rasa nasionalisme dari dalam diri Soekarno terus menggelora. Di tahun
berikutnya, Soekarno mulai aktif dalam kegiatan organisasi pemuda Tri Koro Darmo yang
dibentuk sebagai organisasi dari Budi Utomo. Nama organisasi tersebut kemudian Soekarno
ganti menjadi Jong Java (Pemuda Jawa) pada 1918. Di tahun 1920 seusai tamat dari HBS,
Soekarno melanjutkan studinya ke Technische Hoge School (sekarang berganti nama menjadi
Institut Teknologi Bandung) di Bandung dan mengambil jurusan teknik sipil.
Saat bersekolah di Bandung, Soekarno tinggal di kediaman Haji Sanusi yang merupakan
anggota Sarekat Islam dan sahabat karib Tjokroaminoto. Melalui Haji Sanusi, Soekarno
berinteraksi dengan Ki Hajar Dewantara, Tjipto Mangunkusumo dan Dr Douwes Dekker, yang
saat itu merupakan pemimpin organisasi National Indische Partij.
Pada tahun 1926, Soekarno mendirikan Algemene Studie Club di Bandung yang
diinspirasi dari Indonesische Studie Club (dipimpin oleh Dr Soetomo). Algemene Studie
Club merupakan cikal bakal berdirinya Partai Nasional Indonesia pada tahun 1927.
Bulan Desember 1929, Soekarno ditangkap oleh Belanda dan dipenjara di Penjara
Banceuy karena aktivitasnya di PNI. Pada tahun 1930, Soekarno dipindahkan ke penjara
Sukamiskin. Dari dalam penjara inilah, Soekarno membuat pledoi yang fenomenal, Indonesia
Menggugat. Soekarno dibebaskan pada tanggal 31 Desember 1931. Pada bulan Juli 1932,
Soekarno bergabung dengan Partai Indonesia (Partindo), yang merupakan pecahan dari PNI.
Soekarno kembali ditangkap oleh Belanda pada bulan Agustus 1933 dan diasingkan ke Flores.
Karena jauhnya tempat pengasingan, Soekarno hampir dilupakan oleh tokoh-tokoh nasional
lainnya. Namun semangat Soekarno tetap membara seperti tersirat dalam setiap suratnya
kepada seorang Guru Persatuan Islam bernama Ahmad Hasan. Pada tahun 1938 hingga tahun
1942 Soekarno diasingkan ke Provinsi Bengkulu. Soekarno baru benar-benar bebas setelah
masa penjajahan Jepang pada tahun 1942.
Di awal kependudukannya, Jepang tidak terlalu memperhatikan tokoh-tokoh pergerakan
Indonesia hingga akhirnya sekitar tahun 1943 Jepang menyadari betapa pentingnya para tokoh
ini. Jepang mulai memanfaatkan tokoh pergerakan Indonesia dimana salah satunya adalah
Soekarno untuk menarik perhatian penduduk Indonesia terhadap propaganda Jepang.
Akhirnya tokoh-tokoh nasional ini mulai bekerjasama dengan pemerintah pendudukan
Jepang untuk dapat mencapai kemerdekaan Indonesia, meski ada pula yang tetap melakukan
gerakan perlawanan seperti Sutan Sjahrir dan Amir Sjarifuddin karena menganggap Jepang
adalah fasis yang berbahaya.

Soekarno sendiri mulai aktif mempersiapkan kemerdekaan Indonesia, di antaranya adalah


merumuskan Pancasila, UUD 1945 dan dasar-dasar pemerintahan Indonesia termasuk
merumuskan naskah proklamasi Kemerdekaan.
Pada bulan Agustus 1945, Soekarno diundang oleh Marsekal Terauchi, pimpinan
Angkatan Darat wilayah Asia Tenggara ke Dalat, Vietnam. Marsekal Terauchi menyatakan
bahwa sudah saatnya Indonesia merdekan dan segala urusan proklamasi kemerdekaan
Indonesia adalah tanggung jawab rakyat Indonesia sendiri.
Setelah menemui Marsekal Terauchi di Dalat, Vietnam, terjadilah Peristiwa
Rengasdengklok pada tanggal 16 Agustus 1945. Para tokoh pemuda dari PETA menuntut agar
Soekarno dan Hatta segera memproklamasikan kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia, karena pada
saat itu di Indonesia terjadi kevakuman kekuasaan. Ini disebabkan karena Jepang telah
menyerah dan pasukan Sekutu belum tiba. Namun Soekarno, Hatta dan beberapa tokoh lainnya
menolak tuntutan ini dengan alasan menunggu kejelasan mengenai penyerahan Jepang. Pada
akhirnya, Soekarno bersama tokoh-tokoh nasional lainnya mulai mempersiapkan diri
menjelang Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia. Berdasarkan sidang yang diadakan
oleh Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (BPUPKI) panitia kecil untuk
upacara proklamasi yang terdiri dari delapan orang resmi dibentuk.
Pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945, Indonesia memplokamirkan kemerdekaannya. Teks
proklamasi secara langsung dibacakan oleh Soekarno yang semenjak pagi telah memenuhi
halaman rumahnya di Jl Pegangsaan Timur 56, Jakarta.
Hari Minggu, 21 Juni 1970 Presiden Soekarno meninggal dunia di RSPAD (Rumah Sakit
Pusat Angkatan Darat) Gatot Subroto, Jakarta. Presiden Soekarno disemayamkan di Wisma
Yaso, Jakarta dan kemudian dimakamkan di Blitar, Jawa Timur berdekatan dengan makam
ibundanya, Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai. Pemerintah kemudian menetapkan masa berkabung selama
tujuh hari. Ir Soekarno adalah seorang sosok pahlawan yang sejati. Dia tidak hanya diakui
berjasa bagi bangsanya sendiri tapi juga memberikan pengabdiannya untuk kedamaian di dunia.
Semua sepakat bahwa Ir Soekarno adalah seorang manusia yang tidak biasa yang belum tentu
dilahirkan kembali dalam waktu satu abad. Ir Soekarno adalah bapak bangsa yang tidak akan
tergantikan.
Presiden pertama Republik Indonesia, Soekarno yang biasa dipanggil Bung Karno, lahir
di Blitar, Jawa Timur, 6 Juni 1901 dan meninggal di Jakarta, 21 Juni 1970. Ayahnya bernama
Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo dan ibunya Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai. Semasa hidupnya, beliau
mempunyai tiga istri dan dikaruniai delapan anak. Dari istri Fatmawati mempunyai anak
Guntur, Megawati, Rachmawati, Sukmawati dan Guruh. Dari istri Hartini mempunyai Taufan
dan Bayu, sedangkan dari istri Ratna Sari Dewi, wanita turunan Jepang bernama asli Naoko
Nemoto mempunyai anak Kartika..
Masa kecil Soekarno hanya beberapa tahun hidup bersama orang tuanya di Blitar. Semasa
SD hingga tamat, beliau tinggal di Surabaya, indekos di rumah Haji Oemar Said Tokroaminoto,
politisi kawakan pendiri Syarikat Islam. Kemudian melanjutkan sekolah di HBS (Hoogere
Burger School). Saat belajar di HBS itu, Soekarno telah menggembleng jiwa nasionalismenya.
Selepas lulus HBS tahun 1920, pindah ke Bandung dan melanjut ke THS (Technische
Hoogeschool atau sekolah Tekhnik Tinggi yang sekarang menjadi IT.Ia berhasil meraih gelar
“Ir” pada 25 Mei 1926.
Kemudian, beliau merumuskan ajaran Marhaenisme dan mendirikan PNI (Partai Nasional
lndonesia) pada 4 Juli 1927, dengan tujuan Indonesia Merdeka.

Akibatnya, Belanda, memasukkannya ke penjara Sukamiskin, Bandung pada 29 Desember


1929. Delapan bulan kemudian baru disidangkan. Dalam pembelaannya berjudul Indonesia
Menggugat, beliau menunjukkan kemurtadan Belanda, bangsa yang mengaku lebih maju itu.
Pembelaannya itu membuat Belanda makin marah. Sehingga pada Juli 1930, PNI pun
dibubarkan. Setelah bebas pada tahun 1931, Soekarno bergabung dengan Partindo dan
sekaligus memimpinnya. Akibatnya, beliau kembali ditangkap Belanda dan dibuang ke Ende,
Flores, tahun 1933. Empat tahun kemudian dipindahkan ke Bengkulu.
Setelah melalui perjuangan yang cukup panjang, Bung Karno dan Bung Hatta
memproklamasikan kemerdekaan RI pada 17 Agustus 1945. Dalam sidang BPUPKI tanggal 1
Juni 1945, Ir.Soekarno mengemukakan gagasan tentang dasar negara yang disebutnya
Pancasila. Tanggal 17 Agustus 1945, Ir Soekarno dan Drs. Mohammad Hatta
memproklamasikan kemerdekaan Indonesia. Dalam sidang PPKI, 18 Agustus 1945 Ir.Soekarno
terpilih secara aklamasi sebagai Presiden Republik Indonesia yang pertama.
Sebelumnya, beliau juga berhasil merumuskan Pancasila yang kemudian menjadi dasar
(ideologi) Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia. Beliau berupaya mempersatukan nusantara.
Bahkan Soekarno berusaha menghimpun bangsa-bangsa di Asia, Afrika, dan Amerika Latin
dengan Konferensi Asia Afrika di Bandung pada 1955 yang kemudian berkembang menjadi
Gerakan Non Blok.Pemberontakan G-30-S/PKI melahirkan krisis politik hebat yang
menyebabkan penolakan MPR atas pertanggungjawabannya. Sebaliknya MPR mengangkat
Soeharto sebagai Pejabat Presiden. Kesehatannya terus memburuk, yang pada hari Minggu, 21
Juni 1970 ia meninggal dunia di RSPAD. Ia disemayamkan di Wisma Yaso, Jakarta dan
dimakamkan di Blitar, Jatim di dekat makam ibundanya, Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai. Pemerintah
menganugerahkannya sebagai “Pahlawan Proklamasi”.

Proklamator yang lahir pada 6 Juni 1901 dan wafat pada tanggal 21 Juni 1970. Beliau
lahir dari orang tua yang bernama Raden Soekemi Sosrodihardjo serta juga ibunya yang
bernama Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai. Semasa hidupnya presiden Indonesia ini mempunyai 3 orang
istri serta masing-masing istri berikan keturunan. Dari istri yang bernama Fatmawati, beliau
dikaruniai 5 orang anak yaitu Megawati, Rachmawati, Sukmawati, Guntur serta Guruh. Sedang
dari Hartini, Soekarno dikaruniai 2 orang anak, yaitu Bayu serta Taufan.
Soekarno dilahirkan dengan nama Kusno Sosrodihardjo . Ayahnya bernama Raden
Soekemi Sosrodihardjo seorang guru di Surabaya, Jawa . Ibunya bernama Ida Ayu Nyoman Rai
berasal dari Buleleng, Bali. Ketika kecil Soekarno tinggal bersama kakeknya di Tulungagung,
Jawa Timur. Pada usia l4 tahun, seorang kawan bapaknya yang bernama Oemar Said
Cokroaminoto mengajak Soekarno tinggal di Surabaya dan disekolahkan ke HBS. Di Surabaya,
Soekarno banyak bertemu dengan para pemimpin Serikat Islam, organisasi yang dipimpin
Cokroaminoto saat itu. Soekarno kemudian bergabung dengan organisasi, Jong Java (Pemuda
Jawa).
Tamat HBS di tahun 1920, Soekarno melanjutkan ke Technische Hoge School (sekarang
ITB) di Bandung, dan tamat pada tahun 1925. Saat di Bandung Soekarno berinteraksi dengan
Cipto Mangunkusumo dan Douwes Dekker, yang saat itu merupakan pemimpin National
lndische Partij.
Pada tahun l926, Soekarno mendirikan Algemene Studie Club di Bandung. Organisasi ini
menjadi cikal bakal Partai Nasional Indonesia yang didirikan pada tahun 1927. Aktivitas
Soekarno di PNI menyebabkannya ditangkap Belanda pada bulan Desember 1929, dan
memunculkan pidato pembelaannya yang fenomenal: Indonesia Menggugat, hingga dibebaskan
kembali pada tanggal 31 Desember 1931. Pada bulan Juli 1932, Soekarno bergabung dengan
Partai Indonesia (Partindo), yang merupakan pecahan dan PNI.
Soekarno kembali ditangkap pada bulan Agustus 1933, dan diasingkan ke Flores. Di sini,
Soekarno hampir dilupakan oleh tokoh-tokoh nasional. Namun, semangatnya tetap membara.
Pada tahun 1938 hingga tahun 1942 Soekarno diasingkan ke Bengkulu. Soekarno baru kembali
bebas pada masa penjajahan Jepang pada tahun 1942.
Pada awal masa penjajahan Jepang (1942-1945), pemerintah Jepang sempat tidak begitu
memerhatikan tokoh-tokoh pergerakan Indonesia. Namun akhirnya, pemerintahan pendudukan
Jepang memanfaatkan tokoh Indonesia, seperti Soekarno dan Mohammad Hatta dalam setiap
organisasi-organisasi dan lembaga lembaga untuk menarik hati penduduk Indonesia. Organisasi
seperti Jawa Hokokai Pusat Tenaga Rakyat (Putera), BPUPKI, dan PPKI, selalu melibatkan
tokoh Indonesia yang memilih strategi kooperatif.
Presiden Soekarno sendiri, saat pidato pembukaan menjelang pembacaan teks Proklamasi
Kemerdekaan, mengatakan bahwa meski sebenarnya kita bekerjasama dengan Jepang,
sebenarnya kita percaya dan yakin serta mengandalkan kekuatan sendiri. Ia aktif dalam usaha
persiapan kemerdekaan Indonesia, di antaranya merumuskan Pancasila, UUD 1945 dan dasar
dasar pemerintahan Indonesia, termasuk merumuskan naskah Proklamasi Kemerdekaan.
Soekarno bersama tokoh-tokoh nasional kemudian mempersiapkan Proklamasi
Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia melalui sidang Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan
Kemerdekaan Indonesia (BPUPKI) dan Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (PPKI).
Pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945, berkumandanglah Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia yang
dibacakan Soekarno dan ditandatangani Soekarno-Hatta atas nama rakyat Indonesia. Tanggal
18 Agustus l945, Soekarno dan Muhammad Hatta diangkat oleh PPKI menjadi Presiden dan
Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia. Pada tanggal 29 Agustus 1945 pengangkatan menjadi
Presiden dan Wakil Presiden dikukuhkan oleh KNIP. Kedatangan kembali pasukan Belanda
bersama pasukan sekutu memicu perang antara Belanda dan sekutu melawan rakyat Indonesia.
Akibatnya, ibukota Indonesia dipindahkan ke Yogyakarta.
Setelah Pengakuan Kedaulatan (Pemerintah Belanda menyebutkan sebagai Penyerahan
Kedaulatan), Presiden Soekarno diangkat sebagai Presiden Republik Indonesia Serikat (RIS)
dan Muhammad Hatta diangkat sebagai Perdana Menteri RIS. Jabatan Presiden Republik
Indonesia diserahkan kepada Mr. Assaat, yang kemudian dikenal sebagal RI Jawa-Yogya.
Namun karena tuntutan dari seluruh rakyat Indonesia yang ingin kembali ke negara kesatuan,
maka pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1950, RIS kembali berubah menjadi Republik Indonesia dan
Presiden Soekarno menjadi Presiden RI. Mandat Mr Assaat sebagai pemangku jabatan Presiden
RI diserahkan kembali kepada Ir. Soekarno
Masa-masa kejatuhan Soekarno dimulai sejak Ia “bercerai” dengan Wakil Presiden
Muhammad Hatta, pada tahun 1956, akibat pengunduran diri Hatta dari kancah perpolitikan
Indonesia. Ditambah dengan sejumlah pemberontakan yang terjadi di seluruh pelosok
Indonesia, dan puncaknya, pemberontakan PKI melalui G 30 S. Soekarno wafat pada tanggal
21 Juni 1970 di Wisma Yaso, Jakarta. Jenazahnya dikebumikan di Kota Blitar, Jawa Timur.
Makam beliau hingga kini ramai dikunjungi, terutama pada saat penyelenggaraan Haul Bung
Karno.

Ia memainkan peranan penting dalam memerdekakan bangsa Indonesia dari penjajahan


Belanda. Ia adalah Proklamator Kemerdekaan Indonesia (bersama dengan Mohammad Hatta)
yang terjadi pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945. Soekarno adalah yang pertama kali mencetuskan
konsep mengenai Pancasila sebagai dasar negara Indonesia dan ia sendiri yang menamainya.
Soekarno menandatangani Surat Perintah 11 Maret 1966 Supersemar yang kontroversial,
yang isinya-berdasarkan versi yang dikeluarkan Markas Besar Angkatan Darat-menugaskan
Letnan Jenderal Soeharto untuk mengamankan dan menjaga keamanan negara dan institusi
kepresidenan. Supersemar menjadi dasar Letnan Jenderal Soeharto untuk membubarkan Partai
Komunis Indonesia (PKI) dan mengganti anggota-anggotanya yang duduk di parlemen. Setelah
pertanggung-jawabannya ditolak Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat Sementara (MPRS) pada
sidang umum ke empat tahun 1967, Soekarno diberhentikan dari jabatannya sebagai presiden
pada Sidang Istimewa MPRS pada tahun yang sama dan Soeharto menggantikannya sebagai
pejabat Presiden Republik Indonesia
Hari Minggu, 21 Juni 1970 Presiden Soekarno meninggal dunia di RSPAD (Rumah Sakit
Pusat Angkatan Darat) Gatot Subroto, Jakarta.

BIOGRAFI MOH. HATTA


Dr. Drs. H. Mohammad Hatta lahir populer dengan sebutan Bung Hatta lahir di Kota
Bukit Tinggi pada tanggal 12 agustus 1902 dan menjadi Wakil Presiden Pertama di Indonesia.
Adalah merupakan sosok pejuang negara dan sekaligus ekonom yang handal dan tidak salah
ketika dia dijuluki sebagai Bapak Koperasi Indonesia.
Dalam perjuangannya, Bung Hatta pernah mengalami pembuangan ke Digul dan Banda
Neira. Setelah Perang Pasifik pecah beliau dikembalikan ke Jawa. Pemerintah Hindia Belanda
pun pecah, dan Jepang akan berkuasa.Indonesia dibawah pemerintahan Jepang juga
diperlakukan semena-mena. Bung Hatta membacakan suatu pidato tentang cita-cita
kemerdekaan Indonesia di lapangan Ikada (Monas) pada 8 Desember 1942. Jepang mengangkat
Bung Hatta dan tiga Tokoh Nasional lainnya untuk memimpin Potera (Pusat Tenaga Rakyat)
yang didirikan oleh Jepang. Beliau juga merupakan anggota BPUPKI dan wakil ketua PPKI
yang keduanya dibentuk oleh Jepang untuk persiapan kemerdekaan Indonesia
Pada tanggal 17 Agustus tahun 1945 Bung Hatta bersama Soekarno membacakan teks
proklamasi kemerdekaan Indonesia di Pegangsaan Timur 56. Siti Rahmiati adalah isteri Bung
Hatta, yang dinikahi pada tanggal 18 November 1945 dan memperoleh tiga orang anak.
Konfrensi Meja Bundar, delegasi Indonesia diketuai oleh Bung Hatta dan diadakan di Den Haag
pada tahun 1949. Pada tanggal 15 Agustus 1972. Beliau meninggal pada hari Jum’at, 14 Maret
1980 karena sakit.

BIOGRAFI HAJI AGUS SALIM


Agus Salim adalah pejuang kemerdekaan Indonesia yang terkenal dalam sebuah
organisasi bernama Sarekat Islam. Haji Agus Salim lahir pada 8 Oktober 1884 di Kota Gadang,
Sumatera Barat, dengan nama Musyudul Haq yang berarti ‘pembela kebenaran’. Ayahnya
seorang jaksa di pengadilan Riau memungkinkan Haji Agus Salim untuk belajar di sekolah
dasar Belanda ELS (Europeese Lager School). Lulus pada 1897, dia bertolak ke Batavia untuk
masuk ke Hogere Burger School (HBS), sekolah lanjutan yang sebenarnya hanya untuk orang-
orang Eropa. Pada masa itu, sangat jarang melihat anak pribumi masuk ke sekolah Eropa. Ia
lulus dari HBS dengan nilai paling tinggi di tingkat nasional, mengalahkan orang-orang
Belanda saat berusia 19 tahun.
Beliau pun berniat melanjutkan ke sekolah dokter di Belanda. Namun, permohonan
beasiswanya tidak diluluskan pemerintah Belanda, sementara keluarga beliau tidak memiliki
uang. Baru setelah R.A. Kartini yang mendengar berita mengenai Haji Agus Salim memberi
rekomendasi, pemerintah Belanda pun memberi beasiswa. Terlanjur merasa tersinggung, Haji
Agus Salim pun menolaknya. Agus Salim memilih berangkat ke Jedah, Arab Saudi, untuk
bekerja sebagai penerjemah di konsulat Belanda di kota itu antara 1906-1911. Di sana, dia
memperdalam ilmu agama Islam dan mempelajari diplomasi. Beliau juga belajar beragam
bahasa, seperti Belanda, Inggris, Jerman, Prancis, Arab, Turki, dan Jepang. Pulang ke
Indonesia, pada tahun 1915, Haji Agus Salim masuk ke dalam Serikat Islam (SI) pada masa
kepemimpinan H.O.S. Cokroaminoto . Dalam waktu singkat, mereka menjadi kawan baik dan
bekerja sama demi masa depan Indonesia. Haji Agus Salim lantas dipercaya menggantikan
Cokroaminoto di Volksraad pada 1922-1925. Di sini, beliau tak jarang bicara terbuka, keras,
dan menantang. Seiring bergesernya gaya perjuangan SI ke arah non kooperatif, Agus Salim
mundur dari Volksraad . Ia kemudian aktif di JIB (Jong Islamieten Bond) dan bekerja sebagai
jurnalis. Haji Agus Salim wafat pada 4 November 1954. Haji Agus Salim adalah pahlawan
pertama yang dimakamkan di Taman Makam Pahlawan Kalibata.
BIOGRAFI MOHAMMAD YAMIN

Nama Mohammad Yamin terkenal sejak masa mudanya. la seorang tokoh Pergerakan
Pemuda, seprang Sarjana Hukum yang menaruh minat kepada beberapa cabang ilmu, berhasil
diakui masyarakat sebagai seorang pujangga, filsuf, ahli bahasa , ahli sejarah dan negarawan.
Mohammad Yamin dilahirkan di desa kecil Talawi, di dekat Sawahlunto, Sumatera Barat.
Tanggal kelahirannya ialah 23 Agustus 1903. Mohammad Yamin adalah anak ketiga dari lima
orang bersaudara.
M. Yamin memiliki pendidikan yang lengkap. Pendidikannya dimulai ketika ia
bersekolah di Hollands Indlandsche School (HIS). Ia juga mendapat pendidikan di sekolah
guru. M. Yamin juga mengenyam pendidikan di Sekolah Menengah Pertanian Bogor, Sekolah
Dokter Hewan Bogor, AMS, hingga sekolah kehakiman (Reeht Hogeschool) Jakarta.
Karir M. Yamin dalam dunia politik dimulai ketika ia diangkat sebagai ketua Jong
Sumatera Bond pada tahun 1926 sampai 1928. Setelah itu pada tahun 1931, ia bergabung ke
Partai Indonesia. Tetapi partai tersebut dibubarkan. Karir politiknya berlanjut ketika M. Yamin
mendirikan partai Gerakan Rakyat Indonesia bersama Adam Malik, Wilipo, dan Amir
Syarifudin.
Setelah Indonesia merdeka, Yamin banyak duduk di jabatan-jabatan penting negara, di
antaranya adalah menjadi anggota DPR sejak tahun 1950, Menteri Kehakiman (1951-1952),
Menteri Pengajaran, Pendidikan, dan Kebudayaan (1953–1955), Menteri Urusan Sosial dan
Budaya (1959-1960), Ketua Dewan Perancang Nasional (1962), dan Ketua Dewan Pengawas
IKBN Antara (1961–1962).
M. Yamin meninggal pada tanggal 17 Oktober 1962. Ia wafat di Jakarta dan dimakamkan
di desa Talawi, Kabupaten Sawahlunto, Sumatera Barat. Ia meninggal ketika ia menjabat
sebagai Menteri Penerangan. M. Yamin dianugerahi gelar pahlawan nasional pada tahun 1973
sesuai dengan SK Presiden RI No. 088/TK/1973.

BIOGRAFI KI HAJAR DEWANTARA

Salah seorang tokoh Indonesia yang berjasa memajukan dunia pendidikan adalah Ki
Hajar Dewantara. Beliau di lahir di Yogyakarta, 2 Mei 1889, meninggal di Yogyakarta, 26
April 1959 pada umur 69 tahun; selanjutnya disingkat sebagai "Soewardi" atau "KHD") adalah
aktivis pergerakan kemerdekaan Indonesia, kolumnis, politisi, dan pelopor pendidikan bagi
kaum pribumi Indonesia dari zaman penjajahan Belanda. Ia adalah pendiri Perguruan Taman
Siswa, suatu lembaga pendidikan yang memberikan kesempatan bagi para pribumi jelata untuk
bisa memperoleh hak pendidikan seperti halnya para priyayi maupun orang-orang Belanda.
Tanggal kelahirannya sekarang diperingati di Indonesia sebagai Hari Pendidikan
Nasional. Bagian dari semboyan ciptaannya, tut wuri handayani, menjadi slogan Kementerian
Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia. Namanya diabadikan sebagai salah sebuah nama kapal perang
Indonesia, KRI Ki Hajar Dewantara. Potret dirinya diabadikan pada uang kertas pecahan 20.000
rupiah tahun emisi 1998.
Ia dikukuhkan sebagai pahlawan nasional yang ke-2 oleh Presiden RI, Soekarno, pada 28
November 1959 (Surat Keputusan Presiden Republik Indonesia No. 305 Tahun 1959, tanggal
28 November 1959)
Dalam kabinet pertama Republik Indonesia, KHD diangkat menjadi Menteri Pengajaran
Indonesia (posnya disebut sebagai Menteri Pendidikan, Pengajaran dan Kebudayaan) yang
pertama. Pada tahun 1957 ia mendapat gelar doktor kehormatan (doctor honoris causa, Dr.H.C.)
dari universitas tertua Indonesia, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Atas jasa-jasanya dalam merintis
pendidikan umum, ia dinyatakan sebagai Bapak Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia dan hari
kelahirannya dijadikan Hari Pendidikan Nasional (Surat Keputusan Presiden RI no. 305 tahun
1959, tanggal 28 November 1959).

BIOGRAFI MUHAMMAD TOHA

Muhammad Toha atau Mohammad Toha (Bandung, 1927 - Bandung, 24 Maret 1946) adalah
seorang komandan Barisan Rakjat Indonesia, sebuah kelompok milisi pejuang yang aktif dalam
masa Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia. Dia dikenal sebagai tokoh pahlawan dalam peristiwa
Bandung Lautan Api di Kota Bandung, Indonesia tanggal 24 Maret 1946. Toha meninggal
dalam kebakaran dalam misi penghancuran gudang amunisi milik Tentara Sekutu bersama
rekannya, Ramdan, setelah meledakkan dinamit dalam gudang amunisi tersebut.
Toha dilahirkan di Jalan Banceuy, Desa Suniaraja, Kota Bandung pada tahun 1927. Ayahnya
bernama Suganda dan ibunya yang berasal dari Kedunghalang, Bogor Utara, Bogor, bernama
Nariah. Toha menjadi anak yatim ketika pada tahun 1929 ayahnya meninggal dunia. Ibu Nariah
kemudian menikah kembali dengan Sugandi, adik ayah Toha. Namun tidak lama kemudian,
keduanya bercerai dan Muhammad Toha diambil oleh kakek dan neneknya dari pihak ayah
yaitu Bapak Jahiri dan Ibu Oneng. Toha mulai masuk Volk School (Sekolah Rakyat) pada usia
7 tahun hingga kelas 4. Sekolahnya terhenti ketika Perang Dunia II pecah.
Saat masa pendudukan Jepang, Toha mulai mengenal dunia militer dengan memasuki
Seinendan. Sehari-hari Toha juga membantu kakeknya di Biro Sunda, kemudian bekerja di
bengkel motor di Cikudapateuh. Selanjutnya, Toha belajar menjadi montir mobil dan bekerja
di bengkel kendaraan militer Jepang sehingga ia juga mampu bercakap dalam bahasa Jepang.
Setelah Indonesia merdeka, Toha terpanggil untuk bergabung dengan badan perjuangan Barisan
Rakjat Indonesia (BRI), yang dipimpin oleh Ben Alamsyah, paman Toha sendiri. BRI
selanjutnya digabungkan dengan Barisan Pelopor yang dipimpin oleh Anwar Sutan Pamuncak
menjadi Barisan Banteng Republik Indonesia (BBRI). Dalam laskar ini ia duduk sebagai
Komandan Seksi I Bagian Penggempur. Menurut keterangan Ben Alamsyah, paman Toha, dan
Rachmat Sulaeman, tetangga Toha dan juga Komandannya di BBRI, pemuda Toha adalah
seorang pemuda yang cerdas, patuh kepada orang tua, memiliki disiplin yang kuat serta disukai
oleh teman-temannya. Pada tahun 1945 itu, Toha digambarkan sebagai pemuda pemberani
dengan tinggi 1,65 m, bermuka lonjong dengan pancaran mata yang tajam.

BIOGRAFI RA KARTINI

Raden Adjeng Kartini, lahir di Jepara Jawa Tengah tanggal 21 April 1879. Atau lebih
tepatnya ia dipanggil dengan nama Raden Ayu Kartini, karena pada dasarnya gelar Raden
Adjeng hanya berlaku ketika belum menikah, sedangkan Raden Ayu adalah gelar untuk
wanita bangsawan yang menikah dengan pria bangsawan dari keturunan generasi kedua
hingga ke delapan dari seorang raja Jawa yang pernah memerintah. Kartini sendiri menikah
dengan bupati Rembang, K.R.M. Adipati Ario Singgih Djojo Adhiningrat pada tanggal 12
November 1903 yang telah mempunyai tiga istri. Dari pernikahannya tersebut ia dikaruniahi
seorang anak perempuan bernama Soesalit Djojoadhiningrat yang lahir pada tanggal 13
September 1904.
R.A. Kartini lahir dari pasangan Raden Mas Adipati Ario Sosroningrat yakni bupati Jepara
dengan M.A. Ngasirah. Kartini adalah anak ke-5 dari 11 bersaudara kandung dan tiri. Dan
dari kesemua saudara sekandung, Kartini adalah anak perempuan tertua.
Oleh karena orang tuanya termasuk orang penting dalam pemerintahan, Kartini sempat
diberikan kebebasan untuk mengenyam pendidikan yang lebih dibandingkan perempuan
lainnya. Ia bersekolah di ELS (Europese Lagere School) walaupun hanya sampai berumur
12 tahun. Disanalah antara lain Kartini belajar bahasa Belanda.
Dengan keterampilannya berbahasa Belanda, Kartini mulai belajar sendiri dan menulis surat
kepada teman-temannya yang berasal dari Belanda. Disitulah ia mencurahkan segala unek-
uneknya tentang ketidakadilan yang dirasakannya akan beberapa hal yang ia anggap
memojokkan wanita pada waktu itu. 17 September 1904, Kartini menghembuskan nafas
terakhirnya pada usia 25 tahun. Kartini dimakamkan di Desa Bulu, Kecamatan Bulu,
Rembang