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Credential Templates – Republic of India

Secondary School Certificate.....................................................................................2


Higher Secondary School Certificate ........................................................................6
University-Level Certificates and Diplomas ...........................................................11
Technical-Professional Certificates and Diplomas ..................................................14
Bachelor’s Degree (3 years).....................................................................................19
Bachelor’s Degree (4 years).....................................................................................22
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) and Master of Education (M.Ed) ............................26
Bachelor’s Degree – Medicine and Dentistry ..........................................................30
Bachelor of Law(s) (LLB or BL) .............................................................................34
Master’s Degree (3+2 years)....................................................................................39
Master’s Degree (4+1.5/2 years) .............................................................................42
Postgraduate Certificates and Diplomas ..................................................................46
Master of Philosophy (M.Phil) ................................................................................51
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. or D.Phil) ..................................................................55

© 2016 the Crown in right of the Province of Alberta, Government of Alberta, International
Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), 9th Floor, 108 Street Building, 9942 - 108 Street,
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T5K 2J5

Revised: December 2016

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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Country: INDIA (Republic of India)
Secondary School Certificate

Category: Secondary

Credential Actual Name:


Secondary School Certificate

Credential Alternate Actual Name(s):


All India Secondary School Certificate
Delhi Secondary School Certificate
Matriculation Examination
Indian Certificate of Secondary Education
Secondary School Leaving Certificate
Secondary School Examination
Anglo-Indian High School Examination
Certificate
Note: These are just examples and do not
constitute a complete list of (lower) secondary
level credentials. Some of the names may no
longer be current.

Time Period Credential Offered: Current

Issuing Body:
Three All India Boards:
– Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)
– Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE)
– National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)
– State Boards of Secondary Education (http://education.nic.in/boards.asp)

Admission Requirements:
•Graduation from elementary/upper primary school (representing 8 years of schooling)

Program Description:
•Ten-year combined primary and lower secondary education program (current structure)

(Lower) secondary schools in India provide two years of general education. Upon completion of
secondary education, students receive a certificate by passing an external examination given by
either the State Board of Secondary Education or one of the three All-India boards.

Provides Access to in the Home Country:


•Employment

• Admission into higher secondary school and further vocational and technical training

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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IQAS Recommendations:
Generally compares to the completion of Grade 10.

Course Equivalencies:
Grade 10 level courses.

IQAS Rationale:

Program Description
Secondary education (also called lower secondary or high school) is not compulsory. In most
states it lasts two years from Class 9 to Class 10 following the completion of elementary school
(Class 8) and represents 10 years of schooling (8+2). Some older certificates represent the
completion of 11 years of schooling (9+2).

The curriculum includes subjects such as languages, math, science, and the arts. Secondary
school teachers generally hold a one-year postgraduate Bachelor of Education (B.Ed), with entry
based on completion of a first bachelor’s degree.

The following table shows the subjects and time allocations for secondary education as
recommended by the Ishwarbhai Patel Committee in 1977. The committee indicated that the
scheme was illustrative only, leaving it to the state boards to decide whether to make some
subjects compulsory and others elective.
Secondary (Classes 8/9-10) Subjects, 1977
Subjects Hours
(per week)
Languages 8
Math 4
Science 5
History, civics, and geography (as one course) 3
One of the following: the arts (music, dancing, painting, etc.), 2
home science, agriculture, commerce, economics, social
reconstruction, classical languages, etc.
Socially useful productive work (SUPW) and community service 6
Games, physical education, and supervised study 4
Total 32

The 2000 National Curriculum Framework lists the following subjects for secondary education:
Secondary (Classes 9-10) Subjects, National Curriculum Framework, 2000
Stage Subject
Three languages – mother tongue/regional language, modern Indian
language, and English
Math
Secondary
Science and technology
Social sciences
Work education

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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Art education
Health and physical education

While following the National Curriculum Framework in terms of educational structure and
general course patterns, the state boards prescribe specific subjects and syllabi for schools under
their jurisdiction and for their secondary school certificate examinations. The following table
lists the subjects and time allocation for secondary education in the state of Tamil Nadu.

Secondary (Classes 9-10) Subjects, Tamil Nadu


Hours
Stage Subject
(per week)
English 6
Tamil/regional language 7
Math 7
Science and technology 7
Social sciences 6
Secondary
Scientific Tamil 2
Computer education 2
Life oriented education 1
Health and physical education 2
Total 40

Upon completion of secondary education, students receive a certificate by passing an external


examination given by either the state board or one of the three All-India boards. With the
certificate, they may seek employment or admission into higher secondary school. They may
also pursue vocational and technical education, such as trade programs of various lengths offered
by industrial training institutes (ITIs) and three-year engineering and technology diploma
programs offered by polytechnics.

Conclusion
Secondary education in the Republic of India requires graduation from elementary school for
admission and takes two years to complete, representing a total of 10 years of schooling. Earlier
programs in some states may have represented a total of 11 years of schooling. Upon completion
of their study, students must sit external examinations administered by the State Board of
Secondary Education or one of the three All-India Boards to receive the Secondary School
Certificate or equivalent. The certificate allows an individual to seek employment or admission
into higher secondary school, industrial training institute (ITI) or polytechnic. Based on the
above information and placement recommendations of other evaluation resources, IQAS
compares the Secondary School Certificate or equivalent (from the current structure) to the
completion of Grade 10.

Grading:
The percentage system is predominantly used. The Indian system is low marking, and the
minimum pass mark generally ranges between 30 and 35%. Grades above 80% are rarely
awarded. Grading scales adopted by the state boards and the three All India boards vary and may
have changed over time. A common grading scale at the secondary and higher secondary levels
is given below:

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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School Education Grading Scale
Mark (%) Descriptor
60-100 First Class or First Division
50-59 Second Class or Second Division
35-49 Third Class, Third Division or Pass
<35 Fail

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) puts all the candidates who passed the Class
10 or Class 12 examination in a ranking order to award the grades. The top 0.1% of candidates
will receive Merit Certificates. The minimum pass mark for each subject is 33%.

CBSE Grading Scale


Grade Mark (%) Description
A1 Top 1/8 of passed candidates
A2 Next 1/8 of passed candidates
B1 Next 1/8 of passed candidates
B2 Next 1/8 of passed candidates
33-100
C1 Next 1/8 of passed candidates
C2 Next 1/8 of passed candidates
D1 Next 1/8 of passed candidates
D2 Next 1/8 of passed candidates
E <33 Fail

The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) adopts a nine-point scale.
Grades 1-6 indicate “pass with credit”, with 1-2 as “very good”. Grades 7-8 indicate “pass”, and
grade 9 “failure”. The minimum pass mark for each subject is 40%.
CISCE Grading Scale
Grade Descriptor
1
2
3
Pass with Credit
4
5
6
7
Pass
8
9 Failure

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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Country: INDIA (Republic of India)
Higher Secondary School Certificate

Category: Secondary

Credential Actual Name:


Higher Secondary School Certificate

Credential Alternate Actual Name(s):


All India Senior School Certificate
Delhi Senior School Certificate
(All India) Higher Secondary Examination –
Part II
Indian School Certificate
Senior Secondary Certificate
Higher Secondary Certificate
Pre-University Examination
Intermediate Examination
Note: These are just examples and do not
constitute a complete list of higher secondary
level credentials. Some of the names may no
longer be current.

Time Period Credential Offered: Current

Issuing Body:
Three All India Boards:
– Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)
– Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE)
– National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)
State Boards of Higher Secondary Education (http://education.nic.in/boards.asp)

Admission Requirements:
•Secondary School Certificate or equivalent

Program Description:
•Two-year higher/senior secondary education program (current structure)

Higher/senior secondary schools in India provide two years of education in the academic or
vocational stream. Upon completion of higher secondary education, students receive a certificate
by passing an external examination given by either the State Board of Secondary Education or
one of the three All-India boards.

Provides Access to in the Home Country:


•Employment

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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• Admission into university and other postsecondary programs such as further vocational and
technical training

IQAS Recommendations:
Generally compares to the completion of a High School Diploma.

Course Equivalencies:
30-level (Grade 12) courses.

IQAS Rationale:

Program Description
Higher secondary (also called senior secondary) education lasts two years from Class 11 to Class
12. It is divided into the academic/general stream, which prepares students for higher education,
and the vocational stream, which prepares students for employment and may lead to further
education in vocational and technical fields. More than 90 percent of students choose the
academic stream, which is often divided into subject groups such as science, arts, and commerce.
Earlier higher secondary programs in some states may have represented a total of 11 years of
schooling.

Higher secondary education is provided mostly by schools and also by some colleges. Senior
secondary school teachers generally hold a one-year postgraduate Bachelor of Education degree,
with entry based on completion of a first bachelor degree, plus a master’s degree.

The National Review Committee on Higher Secondary Education of 1978 recommends the
following course pattern for both the academic and vocational streams:

Higher Secondary (Classes 11-12) Subjects, 1978


Subject Time Allocation
Languages 15%
Socially useful productive work (SUPW) 15%
Electives 70%

The 2000 National Curriculum Framework prescribes the following course groups for higher
secondary education. In the academic stream, foundation and elective courses should take up
about 40% and 60% of instructional time respectively. In the vocational stream, language,
general foundation courses and health and physical education take up about 30% of instructional
time, with the remaining 70% devoted to vocational electives.

Higher Secondary (Classes 11-12) Subjects, National Curriculum Framework, 2000


Stream Subject
Foundation Language and literature
Courses Work education
(compulsory) Health and physical education, games, and sports
Academic
Choose three of the subjects provided by the relevant state or All-India
Electives boards: Modern Indian languages and their literature, Sanskrit and its
literature, classical languages and their literature, English (academic

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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and specialised), other foreign languages, physics, chemistry, biology,
mathematics, computer science, geology, political science, geography,
economics, history, sociology, psychology, philosophy, fine arts,
sculpture, instrumental music, vocal music, home science, accountancy,
business studies, engineering drawing, etc.
Language (compulsory)
General General studies, entrepreneurship development, environmental
Foundation education, rural development, and information and communication
Courses technology
Health and Physical Education (compulsory)
Vocational Choose from a large number of subjects based on local needs,
employment opportunities, students’ interest, and the geographical
Vocational location of the school. A number of courses for developing specific
Electives competencies may be chosen for each broad area of study such as
agriculture, engineering and technology, business and commerce, home
science, health and paramedical services, and humanities.

While following the National Curriculum Framework in terms of educational structure and
general course patterns, the state boards prescribe specific subjects and syllabi for schools under
their jurisdiction and for their higher secondary certificate examinations. In some states, students
in Classes 11-12 opt for a subject group such as science, arts and commerce. The following
tables give examples of higher secondary subjects of three states, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya
Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. The information is obtained from the official websites of educational
authorities of these states; please refer to the websites for further details.

Higher Secondary (Intermediate) Subjects, Andhra Pradesh


Group Subject
English
Second Languages Telugu, Hindi, Sanskrit, Urdu, Arabic, French, Tamil, Kannada, Oriya and Marathi
Optional Subjects Mathematics, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, commerce, economics, civics,
history, psychology, public administration, logic, sociology, geography and geology
Modern Language
English, Telugu, Hindi and Urdu
Subjects

Higher Secondary Subjects, Madhya Pradesh


Group Subject
Group A – First language
Language Second language
Humanities group: history, geography, political science, languages, etc.
Science group: physics, chemistry, biology, higher math, agriculture, etc.
Commerce group: elements of commerce & management, bookkeeping
& accountancy, computer application, business math, etc.
General
Agriculture group: elements of science & math useful for agriculture,
Group B – education
crop production & horticulture, etc.
Diversified Subjects courses
Fine arts group: drawing and painting, still life and paint making, history
of Indian art and world art, etc.
Home science group: home management & nutrition, mother-craft, health
& hygiene, elements of science, etc.
Vocational courses
Socially useful productive work (SUPW) or vocational training of a trade
Group C
Physical education or National Cadet Cores/National Social Service/ Boy Scout & Girl

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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Guide or co-curricular & other activities

Higher Secondary Subjects, Tamil Nadu


Group Subject
Tamil, Hindi, Kannada, Telugu, Malayalam, Urdu, Gujarati,
Part I – Language
Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, French, German, and Latin
Part II – English
Part III – Optional Subjects Math, physics, chemistry, biology-zoology, biology-botany,
(Students choose a combination of four history, geography, accountancy, commerce, economics, etc.
subjects for the higher secondary
examination.)

Upon completion of higher secondary education, students take an external examination


administered by either the state board or one of the All-India boards. The higher secondary
education certificates may lead to employment and admission into university programs. The
names of the higher secondary education certificates vary across the states and over time, and
some older certificates issued before the implementation of the 10+2 structure may represent 11
years of schooling.

Conclusion
Higher/senior secondary education in the Republic of India requires a Secondary School
Certificate or equivalent for admission and takes two years to complete, representing a total of 12
years of schooling. Upon completion of their study, students must sit external examinations
administered by the State Board of Higher Secondary Education or one of the three All-India
Boards to receive the Higher Secondary School Certificate or equivalent. The certificate allows
an individual to seek employment or admission into universities. Based on the above information
and placement recommendations of other evaluation resources, IQAS compares the Higher
Secondary School Certificate or equivalent from the Republic of India to the completion of a
High School Diploma.*

* The comparison also applies to some earlier higher secondary school certificates that
represented 11 years of schooling. This is based on the following factors:
– Such certificates were exit credentials representing the completion of higher secondary
school;
– Such certificates gave access to university programs;
– When a state switched from the 11-year to the 12-year system, students who graduated from
the 11-year system were eligible for admission into university programs without additional
upgrading;
– Students from a state with the 11-year system were eligible for admission, without additional
upgrading, into university programs in another state that had the 12-year system.

Grading:

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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The percentage system is predominantly used. The Indian system is low marking, and the
minimum pass mark generally ranges between 30 and 35%. Grades above 80% are rarely
awarded. Grading scales adopted by the state boards and the three All India boards vary and may
have changed over time. A common grading scale at the secondary and higher secondary levels
is given below:

School Education Grading Scale


Mark (%) Descriptor
60-100 First Class or First Division
50-59 Second Class or Second Division
35-49 Third Class, Third Division or Pass
<35 Fail

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) puts all the candidates who passed the Class
10 or Class 12 examination in a ranking order to award the grades. The top 0.1% of candidates
will receive Merit Certificates. The minimum pass mark for each subject is 33%.

CBSE Grading Scale


Grade Mark (%) Description
A1 Top 1/8 of passed candidates
A2 Next 1/8 of passed candidates
B1 Next 1/8 of passed candidates
B2 Next 1/8 of passed candidates
33-100
C1 Next 1/8 of passed candidates
C2 Next 1/8 of passed candidates
D1 Next 1/8 of passed candidates
D2 Next 1/8 of passed candidates
E <33 Fail

The Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE) adopts a nine-point scale.
Grades 1-6 indicate “pass with credit”, with 1-2 as “very good”. Grades 7-8 indicate “pass”, and
grade 9 “failure”. The minimum pass mark for each subject is 40%.
CISCE Grading Scale
Grade Descriptor
1
2
3
Pass with Credit
4
5
6
7
Pass
8
9 Failure

For more information on Indian grading scales, please refer to the chapter Grading Scale in
International Education Guide for the Assessment of Education from the Republic of India.

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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Country: INDIA (Republic of India)
University-Level Certificates and Diplomas

Category: University

Credential Actual Name:


University-level Certificates and Diplomas

Credential Alternate Actual Name(s):


Certificate in xxx
Diploma in xxx
Post Diploma in xxx
Advanced Diploma in xxx
Note: The above names are just examples and
do not constitute a complete list of such
programs.

Time Period Credential Offered: Current

Issuing Body: Universities and university-level institutions

Admission Requirements:
•Certificates/diplomas: Higher Secondary School Certificate or equivalent (usually representing
12 years of schooling)
•Post diplomas: Completion of a university-level diploma

Program Description:
•University certificate/diploma program [usually one year, though length varies from six months
to three years]

Provides Access to in the Home Country:


•Employment

•Further education
Advanced standing or credit transfer may be awarded for admission into undergraduate
programs.

IQAS Recommendations:
A university-level Certificate or Diploma generally compares to the completion of a
postsecondary Certificate/Diploma with a focus in xxx.

Or assessed individually, depending on admission requirements, fulltime duration of study and


general content of the program.

IQAS Rationale:

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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Program Description
This credential template applies to certificate and diploma programs provided by universities and
university-level institutions. Entry is normally based on the completion of higher secondary
school (Class 12), though post diploma and advanced diploma programs require a previous
diploma, usually in the same field of study, for admission. Length of study varies from six
months to three years. Typical fields of study include foreign languages, fine arts, business, and
management.

Many certificate/diploma courses are vocational in nature and do not give access to further
education. However, in some cases, certificate/diploma holders may be admitted into a
bachelor’s degree program with advanced standing.

Other than universities, a lot of institutions also offer certificate/diploma programs. For example,
three-year diplomas in a range of engineering and technological fields, with entry usually based
on the completion of secondary school, are available at polytechnics. Certificate and diploma
courses in nursing and midwifery are mostly offered at institutions attached to hospitals. Please
refer to other credential templates for more information.

Conclusion
Certificate/diploma programs involve six months to three years of fulltime study, with entry
usually based on the completion of higher secondary school. The certificate/diploma allows an
individual to seek employment and, in some cases, admission into a bachelor’s degree program
with advanced standing. Based on the above information and placement recommendations of
other evaluation resources, IQAS compares the university-issued certificate/diploma from the
Republic of India to the completion of a postsecondary Certificate/Diploma with a focus in xxx
(or assessed individually, depending on admission requirements, fulltime duration of study and
general content of the program).

Grading:
Most bachelor’s and master’s degrees are classified into divisions or classes based on the marks
students obtain in the major examinations at the end of each year or semester. Other programs
such as certificates, diplomas and research-based degrees (M.Phil and Ph.D) are usually awarded
without classification. Grading scale varies from institution to institution. The Indian system is
low marking, with minimum pass mark generally ranging between 33 and 40%, though some
institutions or programs adopt a 50% pass. Students who have failed in one or more subjects in a
major examination but who have achieved institution-designated minimum marks (e.g. 25%) in
the aggregate may be allowed to proceed with their study and make up the failed subjects at a
subsequent examination. The following table shows a common grading scale along with
conversion to Alberta grades.

Higher Education Grading Scale


Indian Marks (%) Descriptor IQAS (%)
87-100 96
First
74-86 88
Class/Division
60-73 82
57-59 Second 77

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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53-56 Class/Division 74
51-52 70
47-50 66
45-46 Third 62
40-44 Class/Division 58
33-39 52
<33 Fail <50

For more information on Indian grading scales, please refer to the chapter Grading Scale in
International Education Guide for the Assessment of Education from the Republic of India.

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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Country: INDIA (Republic of India)
Technical-Professional Certificates and Diplomas

Category: Technical/Professional/Vocational

Credential Actual Name:


Technical-Professional Certificates and
Diplomas

Credential Alternate Actual Name(s):


Diploma in Computer Science and Engineering
Diploma in Engineering
Diploma in Hotel Management (and Catering
Technology)
Diploma in Management
Diploma in Modern Office Practice
Diploma in Pharmacy
Diploma in Radiation Technology
Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology
Diploma in Rehabilitation Therapy
Note: The above names are just examples and
do not constitute a complete list of such
programs.

Time Period Credential Offered: Current

Issuing Body: State Boards of Technical Education

Admission Requirements:
•[Diploma in Engineering (in most states)/Pharmacy (pre-1994)]: Secondary School Certificate
or equivalent (10 years of schooling)
•[Diploma in Engineering (in a few states)/Hotel Management (and Catering
Technology)/Management/Medical laboratory Technology/Modern Office Practice/Pharmacy
(1994-)]: Higher Secondary School Certificate or equivalent (12 years of schooling)

Program Description:
Three-year (or two-year, etc.) diploma program

Provides Access to in the Home Country:


•Employment

•Further education
Advanced standing or credit transfer may be awarded for admission into undergraduate
programs.

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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IQAS Recommendations:

Diplomas
A Diploma (2-3 years duration) requiring 10+2 for admission generally compares to the
completion of a postsecondary Diploma.

A Diploma (at least 3 years duration) requiring 10 years of secondary school for admission
generally compares to the completion of postsecondary Certificate.

A Diploma (2 years or less duration) requiring 10 years of secondary school for admission
generally compares to the completion of a High School Diploma including xx years of vocational
training in xxx.

[Note: Engineering technology diplomas should be awarded by the State Boards of Technical
Education.]

Diploma Programs in Pharmacy


A Diploma in Pharmacy (D. Pharm.) [awarded prior to 1994] generally compares to the
completion of a postsecondary Pharmacy Technician Certificate.

A Diploma in Pharmacy (D. Pharm.) [awarded in or after 1994] generally compares to the
completion of a postsecondary Pharmacy Technician Diploma.

Certificates
Certificates are assessed individually, depending on admission requirements, fulltime duration of
study and general content of the program.

IQAS Rationale:

Program Description
Technical education at the sub-degree level, mainly conducted by polytechnics, includes
diploma/certificate programs in a wide range of fields under the purview of the AICTE, such as
engineering and technology, architecture, computer applications, applied arts and craft, and
pharmacy. The AICTE provides a broad framework of norms and standards for polytechnic
education regarding program structure, facilities, human and financial resources, etc. However,
program structure and entry requirements may vary from state to state.

Diploma courses generally last two to three years, with entry based on the completion of
Secondary School (Class 10) or Higher Secondary School (Class 12). They aim to train
supervised technicians and other middle level technical personnel for a range of professional
duties. Successful completion of the programs leads to a diploma awarded by the State
Board/Council of Technical Education. Certificate courses are one year, six months, or even
shorter in duration. Following is a description of some of the common diploma programs.

The diploma in engineering and technology generally involves three years of fulltime study,

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with entry based on the completion of Class 10. Examples of exceptions: Rajasthan requires
Class 12 for admission. In Assam and Tamil Nadu, applicants may enter a three-year program
after Class 10 or two-year program after Class 12.

In addition to three-year fulltime programs, part-time programs lasting up to four years through
evening school or distance learning are also available for students already in the workforce.
Some fulltime courses are available in the sandwich pattern, which incorporates industrial
training between semesters and lasts three and a half to four years.

Holders of the diploma in engineering and technology may seek employment, e.g. by
undertaking a one-year “technician apprentice” training through the Apprenticeship Training
Scheme. They can also pursue further education at universities or through professional
associations such as the Institution of Engineers India (IEI). Some universities allow them lateral
entry into the second year/third semester of a Bachelor of Engineering (BE/B.Engg.) or Bachelor
of Technology (B.Tech.) program in the same field.

The Diploma in Hotel Management and Catering Technology involves three years of fulltime
study following the completion of Class 12. The program is available at some polytechnics and
24 affiliated institutions of the National Council for Hotel Management and Catering
Technology.

The Diploma in Modern Office Practice involves three years of fulltime study, including six
months of industrial training, following the completion of Class 12.

As prescribed by the Pharmacy Council of India (PCI), the Diploma in Pharmacy (D.Pharm.)
involves two years of fulltime study followed by 500 hours of practical training. Entry is based
on the completion of higher secondary school (Class 12) with Physics, Chemistry, Biology or
Math as required subjects. The entry requirement of Class 12, as per PCI education regulations
of 1991, applies to pharmacy students graduating in 1994 or later. Previous programs required
Class 10 for admission. D.Pharm. holders may register with the state pharmacy council to stock,
sell, and dispense medicine according to doctor’s prescription. They may be admitted directly
into the second year of the four-year Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm.) program but must pass
the first year subjects that are not covered in the diploma program. In Canada, examples of
comparable sub-degree programs in pharmacy include the one-year Pharmacy Technician
Certificate and two-year Pharmacy Technician Diploma, both requiring Grade 12 for admission.

Conclusion
Technical-professional diploma programs generally involve two to three years of fulltime study,
with entry based on the completion of Class 10 or Class 12. They provide access to employment
and, in some cases, advanced standing for admission into undergraduate programs. In Canada,
postsecondary certificate and diploma programs require Grade 12 for admission, with diploma
programs generally involving at least two years of fulltime study and certificate programs less
than two years; they provide access to employment and possible transfer of credit for admission
into undergraduate programs. Based on the above information and placement recommendations
of other evaluation resources, IQAS compares the technical-professional certificate/diploma to:

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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Diplomas
A Diploma (2-3 years duration) requiring 10+2 for admission generally compares to the
completion of a postsecondary Diploma.

A Diploma (at least 3 years duration) requiring 10 years of secondary school for admission
generally compares to the completion of postsecondary Certificate.

A Diploma (2 years or less duration) requiring 10 years of secondary school for admission
generally compares to the completion of a High School Diploma including xx years of vocational
training in xxx.

[Note: Engineering technology diplomas should be awarded by the State Boards of Technical
Education.]

Diploma Programs in Pharmacy


A Diploma in Pharmacy (D. Pharm.) [awarded prior to 1994] generally compares to the
completion of a postsecondary Pharmacy Technician Certificate.

A Diploma in Pharmacy (D. Pharm.) [awarded in or after 1994] generally compares to the
completion of a postsecondary Pharmacy Technician Diploma.

Certificates
Certificates are assessed individually, depending on admission requirements, fulltime duration of
study and general content of the program.

Grading:
Most bachelor’s and master’s degrees are classified into divisions or classes based on the marks
students obtain in the major examinations at the end of each year or semester. Other programs
such as certificates, diplomas and research-based degrees (M.Phil and Ph.D) are usually awarded
without classification. Grading scale varies from institution to institution. The Indian system is
low marking, with minimum pass mark generally ranging between 33 and 40%, though some
institutions or programs adopt a 50% pass. Students who have failed in one or more subjects in a
major examination but who have achieved institution-designated minimum marks (e.g. 25%) in
the aggregate may be allowed to proceed with their study and make up the failed subjects at a
subsequent examination. The following table shows a common grading scale along with
conversion to Alberta grades.

Higher Education Grading Scale


Indian Marks (%) Descriptor IQAS (%)
87-100 96
First
74-86 88
Class/Division
60-73 82
57-59 77
Second
53-56 74
Class/Division
51-52 70
47-50 Third 66
45-46 Class/Division 62

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40-44 58
33-39 52
<33 Fail <50

For more information on Indian grading scales, please refer to the chapter Grading Scale in
International Education Guide for the Assessment of Education from the Republic of India.

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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Country: INDIA (Republic of India)
Bachelor’s Degree (3 years)

Category: University

Credential Actual Name:


Bachelor’s Degree (3 years)

Credential Alternate Actual Name(s):


Bachelor of Arts (BA)
Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com)
Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.)
Note: These are the most common three-year
bachelor’s degrees and do not constitute a
complete list of such programs.

Time Period Credential Offered: Current

Issuing Body: Universities and university-level institutions

Admission Requirements:
•Higher Secondary School Certificate or equivalent (usually representing 12 years of schooling)

Program Description:
• Three-year undergraduate degree program

Provides Access to in the Home Country:


•Employment

• Admission into university graduate programs, postgraduate bachelor’s degree programs,


diploma programs and professional programs

IQAS Recommendations:
Generally compares to the completion of a three-year Bachelor’s degree.

IQAS Rationale:

Program Description
From independence in 1947 to the early 1970s, undergraduate education in most states
represented a total of 14 years of schooling. Until 1960, a bachelor’s degree usually involved two
years of fulltime study following 10 years of schooling and two years of intermediate study.
From then on to the early 1970s, most states adopted the 10+1+3 system, with 11 years of
schooling (10 years of school education plus one year of higher secondary or pre-university
study) followed by a three-year bachelor’s degree.

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The current 10+2+3 system, with 12 years of school education followed by a three-year
bachelor’s degree, evolved in the 1970s and was implemented across the country, with some
exceptions, in the late 1980s. One such exception was the two-year pass bachelor’s degrees in
arts, science and commerce offered by a number of universities in the state of West Bengal until
the 1999-2000 academic year. These two-year pass degrees do not give access to further
education in master’s degree programs.

The most common three-year bachelor’s degrees are the Bachelors of Arts (BA), Bachelor of
Science (B.Sc.) and Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com). The courses are usually listed as “papers”,
for which the students must attend a number of lecture hours per week and pass the annual
examinations. The BA, B.Sc. and B.Com are usually offered as pass or general degrees, though
some universities offer honours or special bachelor degrees. Honours or special programs do not
involve a longer duration of study but have more academic depth and tend to attract high
performing students. They are either similar to the pass degree with a few additional papers, or
designed as a separate course that emphasizes specialization in the chosen subject.

Annual examinations are usually conducted by universities at the end of the academic year,
between March and May. Internal assessment by the colleges accounts for a small percentage of
the total marks. Minimum pass mark is normally 33-35%. Students who have failed some papers
in a given year but who have achieved a minimum mark designated by the university (e.g. 25%
in the aggregate) may be allowed to proceed to the next year of study but must make up the
failed papers in the following annual examination.

One can study for a bachelor’s degree on a part-time basis or externally through distance
learning programs, and sit the annual examinations as an external or private candidate.
Universities usually prescribe a time limit (e.g. seven years) in which students must complete all
coursework and pass the examinations to qualify for the award of the degree. After completing a
bachelor’s degree, students may pursue further education in master’s degree, postgraduate
bachelor’s degree (e.g. Bachelor of Education), or postgraduate certificate or diploma programs.

In addition to the BA, B.Sc. and B.Com, several other bachelor’s degrees also involve three
years of fulltime study. Examples include Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA), Bachelor
of Business Management (BBM), Bachelor of Computer Applications (BCA), and Bachelor of
Physical Education (BPE).

After completing a bachelor’s degree programs, students receive degree certificates and marks
sheets (also known as marks card, marks certificate, statement of marks, etc.). Format of the
documents may vary depending on the issuing body and time period. Documents are usually
issued in English, English and Hindi, or English and a regional language (e.g. Bengali, Punjabi,
Tamil, etc.). Universities issue the degrees, regardless of whether the program is conducted by a
university department or an affiliated college. If the program is conducted by an autonomous
college, the name of the college also appears on the degree certificate. Marks sheets are normally
issued by universities. Marks sheets issued by autonomous colleges are also acceptable.

Conclusion

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The three-year bachelor’s degree (BA, B.Com or B.Sc.) requires a Higher Secondary School
Certificate or equivalent (generally representing 12 years of schooling) for admission. The
degree allows an individual to seek employment or admission into master’s degree, postgraduate
bachelor’s degree, postgraduate diploma, and professional programs. Based on the above
information and placement recommendations of other evaluation resources, IQAS compares the
three-year Bachelor’s degree from the Republic of India to the completion of a three-year
Bachelor’s degree.

Grading:
Most bachelor’s and master’s degrees are classified into divisions or classes based on the marks
students obtain in the major examinations at the end of each year or semester. Grading scale
varies from institution to institution. The Indian system is low marking, with minimum pass
mark generally ranging between 33 and 40%, though some institutions or programs adopt a 50%
pass. Students who have failed in one or more subjects in a major examination but who have
achieved institution-designated minimum marks (e.g. 25%) in the aggregate may be allowed to
proceed with their study and make up the failed subjects at a subsequent examination. The
following table shows a common grading scale along with conversion to Alberta grades.

Indian Marks (%) Descriptor IQAS (%)


87-100 96
First
74-86 88
Class/Division
60-73 82
57-59 77
Second
53-56 74
Class/Division
51-52 70
47-50 66
45-46 Third 62
40-44 Class/Division 58
33-39 52
<33 Fail <50

For more information on Indian grading scales, please refer to the chapter Grading Scale in
International Education Guide for the Assessment of Education from the Republic of India.

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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Country: INDIA (Republic of India)
Bachelor’s Degree (4 years)

Category: University

Credential Actual Name:


Bachelor’s Degree (4 years)

Credential Alternate Actual Name(s):


Bachelor of Engineering/Technology (BE or
B.Engg./B.Tech.)/Bachelor of Science in
Engineering (B.Sc. Engg.)
Bachelor of Pharmacy (B.Pharm.)
Bachelor of Science in Agriculture (B.Sc.
Agri.)
Bachelor of Science in Horticulture (B.Sc.
Hort.)
Note: These are examples of the four-year
bachelor’s degrees and do not constitute a
complete list of such programs.

Time Period Credential Offered: Current

Issuing Body: Universities and university-level institutions

Admission Requirements:
•Higher Secondary School Certificate or equivalent such as Pre-University Examination, etc.
(usually representing 12 years of schooling) with required courses (e.g. Math, Physics,
Chemistry for programs in engineering and technology)

Program Description:
• Four-year undergraduate degree program

Provides Access to in the Home Country:


•Employment

• Admission into university graduate programs, postgraduate bachelor’s degree and diploma
programs

IQAS Recommendations:
Generally compares to the completion of a four-year Bachelor degree with a focus in xxx.

IQAS Rationale:

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Program Description
The 10+2+3 system, first introduced in the 1970s, has been implemented in most of the country
since the late 1980s. This represents 10 years of elementary and secondary education + 2 years of
higher/senior secondary education + 3 years of undergraduate education (general bachelor’s
degree).

While a general bachelor’s degree such as Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of
Commerce involves three years of fulltime study, there are a lot of four-year bachelor’s degrees
offered in specialized and professional fields. Entry is based on the completion of higher
secondary education with certain required subjects as designated by the program, e.g. physics,
chemistry and mathematics for engineering courses. Some applicants may hold a first bachelor’s
degree. Most programs involve four years of fulltime study. The Bachelor of Physiotherapy
(BPT) may be three and a half years or four and a half years, including a six-month clinical
internship.

Engineering and Technology


Bachelor’s degrees in engineering and technology such as Bachelor of Engineering (BE or
B.Engg.), Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.), Bachelor of Science in Engineering (B.Sc.
Engg.) and Bachelor of Science in Technology (B.Sc. Tech.) involve four years of fulltime
study. Entry is based on the completion of higher secondary school, with physics, chemistry and
mathematics as required subjects. Holders of three-year diplomas in engineering and technology
or a general B.Sc. may be allowed lateral entry into the second year/third semester of the
program. Students take about ten courses each semester, including both theoretical subjects and
their lab components. They participate in practical training starting from the third year and must
complete a major project in the last semester. A minimum of about 200-220 credits are required
for the awarding of the degree. The AICTE prescribes the following course structure for the
BE/B.Tech. degree:
– General 5-10%
– Basic science 15-25%
– Engineering sciences and technical arts 15-25%
– Professional subjects 55-65%

The seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), designated as “Institutions of National


Importance” by the Government of India, have an international reputation for offering high
quality undergraduate and graduate programs in engineering and technology.
– Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati
– Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
– Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (Mumbai)
– Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (Chennai)
– Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
– Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
– Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Agriculture
Bachelor’s and graduate degree programs in agriculture are available at over 100 institutions,
including non-agricultural institutions and 45 central and state agricultural universities and

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agricultural research institutes (deemed universities). The US has played an important role in
helping India establish a system of agricultural universities, which tend to show strong American
influence such as adoption of the credit system. Agricultural universities are mostly non-
affiliating.

A bachelor’s degree in agriculture and related disciplines involves four years of fulltime study.
Examples include Bachelor of Science in Agriculture (B.Sc. Agri.), Bachelor of Agriculture
(B.Agri.), Bachelor of Science in Horticulture (B.Sc. Hort.), Bachelor of Science in
Sericulture (B.Sc. Sericulture), and Bachelor of Technology in Agricultural Engineering
(B.Tech. Agri. E.). The Bachelor of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry (B.V.Sc. &
A.H) involves five years of fulltime study. Total credits required for four-year programs range
between 140 and 180, and there is also great variation of credit distribution among different
disciplines. In 2000 the Agricultural Education Division of the Indian Council of Agricultural
Research published a model curriculum for undergraduate program in agriculture that prescribes
a minimum of 161 credits, including physical education but excluding the regional language
course. The content of the model curriculum must be followed, allowing 25% regional variation.

Conclusion
The four-year bachelor’s degree, offered in specialized and professional fields, requires a Higher
Secondary School Certificate or equivalent (generally representing 12 years of schooling) with
relevant subjects for admission. The degree allows an individual to seek employment or
admission into professional master’s degree, after degree, and postgraduate diploma programs.
Based on the above information and placement recommendations of other evaluation resources,
IQAS compares the four-year Bachelor’s degree to the completion of a four-year Bachelor
degree.

Grading:
Most bachelor’s and master’s degrees are classified into divisions or classes based on the marks
students obtain in the major examinations at the end of each year or semester. Grading scale
varies from institution to institution. The Indian system is low marking, with minimum pass
mark generally ranging between 33 and 40%, though some institutions or programs adopt a 50%
pass. Students who have failed in one or more subjects in a major examination but who have
achieved institution-designated minimum marks (e.g. 25%) in the aggregate may be allowed to
proceed with their study and make up the failed subjects at a subsequent examination. The
following table shows a common grading scale along with conversion to Alberta grades.

Higher Education Grading Scale


Indian Marks (%) Descriptor IQAS (%)
87-100 96
First
74-86 88
Class/Division
60-73 82
57-59 77
Second
53-56 74
Class/Division
51-52 70
47-50 66
45-46 Third 62
40-44 Class/Division 58
33-39 52

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<33 Fail <50

A number of institutions such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), the central and state
agricultural universities, and Jawaharlal Nehru University adopt a 10-point system. The grading
scale may vary from institution to institution. The points can be converted to letter grades and are
sometimes divided into divisions or classes.

Grading Scale, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi


Grade Point Letter Grade Description
10 A Outstanding
9 A- Excellent
8 B Very Good
7 B- Good
6 C Average
5 C- Below Average
4 D Marginal
2 E Poor
0 F Very Poor

For more information on Indian grading scales, please refer to the chapter Grading Scale in
International Education Guide for the Assessment of Education from the Republic of India.

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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Country: INDIA (Republic of India)
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) and Master of Education (M.Ed)

Category: University-level teaching credentials

Credential Actual Name:


Bachelor of Education (B.Ed)
Master of Education (M.Ed)

Credential Alternate Actual Name(s):


Bachelor of Elementary Education (B.El.Ed)
Note: This is just an example of possible
alternative names for the B.Ed.

Time Period Credential Offered: Current

Issuing Body: Universities and university-level institutions

Admission Requirements:

•B.Ed (1 year): Bachelor’s degree (e.g. BA, B.Com, or B.Sc.)


•B.Ed (4 years): Higher Secondary School Certificate or equivalent (usually representing 12
years of schooling)
•M.Ed (1 year): B.Ed
•M.Ed (2-year integrated): Bachelor’s degree (e.g. BA, B.Com, or B.Sc.)

Program Description:
B.Ed (1-year): One-year university after-degree program
•B.Ed (4-year): Four-year undergraduate degree program
•M.Ed (1-year): One-year university graduate degree program
•M.Ed (2-year integrated): Two-year university graduate degree program

Provides Access to in the Home Country:


•Employment
A B.Ed is required for teaching at both (lower) secondary and higher secondary schools. Higher
secondary school teachers must also hold a master’s degree (M.Ed, MA, M.Com, or M.Sc.).

• Admission into university graduate degree programs


A B.Ed is required for admission into the one-year M.Ed program.
An M.Ed holder may apply for admission into doctoral programs such as Ph.D. in Education.

IQAS Recommendations:
B.Ed (1 year): Generally compares to the completion of a one-year Bachelor of Education after-
degree.

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B.Ed (4 years): Generally compares to the completion of a four-year Bachelor of Education
degree.
M.Ed: Generally compares to the completion of a one-year Master’s degree in Education.

IQAS Rationale:

Program Description: B.Ed


A Bachelor of Education (B.Ed), in the form of a one-year postgraduate bachelor’s degree
(Indian terminology for after-degree) or four-year integrated degree, is required for teaching at
(lower) secondary (Classes 9-10) and higher secondary (Classes 11-12) schools. Higher
secondary school teachers must also hold a master’s degree (e.g. M.Ed, MA, M.Com, or M.Sc.).
There is no separate professional certification process for teachers in the Republic of India.

B.Ed programs are offered at universities and five Regional Institutes of Education (RIEs),
which are university-affiliated.

The B.Ed is usually earned as a one-year postgraduate bachelor’s degree, with entry based on the
completion of a first bachelor’s degree (e.g. BA, B.Sc. or B.Com). One may also obtain a B.Ed
after completing the first year of a two-year Master of Education (M.Ed) program.

According to NCTE (National Council for Teacher Education) regulations, the postgraduate
B.Ed in Secondary Education involves one year of fulltime study, including 150 days of
instruction plus at least 30 days of internship, following the completion of a bachelor’s or
master’s degree with at least 45% marks. Where the postgraduate B.Ed is offered through
correspondence or other distance learning mode, the length of study is usually two years.

Institutions currently offer the same B.Ed program for training secondary and higher secondary
teachers. The most recent Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (2006) proposes
separate curricula for secondary teacher education and higher secondary teacher education,
which is further divided into the academic and vocational streams. NCTE also envisages
increasing the duration of the postgraduate B.Ed. program from one year to two years of fulltime
study.

The B.Ed may also be earned as a four-year integrated course, with entry based on the
completion of higher secondary school (Class 12).

The minimum qualification for teaching at elementary schools (Classes 1-8) is a two-year
certificate/diploma following the completion of higher secondary school. However, elementary
teacher education at the university level is also available through the one-year postgraduate B.Ed
with specialization in elementary education or the newer four-year integrated Bachelor of
Elementary Education (B.El.Ed).

According to NCTE regulations, the integrated Bachelor of Elementary Education (B.El.Ed)


involves four years of fulltime study, including 16 weeks of internship in the fourth year,
following the completion of Class 12 with at least 50% marks.

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Program Description: M.Ed
The Master of Education (M.Ed) requires one year of fulltime study following the completion of
a B.Ed, or two years of fulltime study following the completion of a bachelor’s degree (e.g. BA,
B.Sc., or B.Com). The completion of the first year of the two-year M.Ed program leads to the
award of a postgraduate B.Ed.

According to NCTE regulations, the M.Ed program involves one year of fulltime study
following the completion of the B.Ed with at least 55% marks. There shall be at least 180
working days, including internship and four weeks of field visit for dissertation. Only university
departments and institutions offering B.Ed programs are eligible to run the M.Ed program. Two-
year part-time M.Ed programs for in-service teachers and educational administrators with at least
two years of related work experience are also offered by some university departments and
Institutes of Advanced Studies in Education (IASEs), which are university-affiliated.

Conclusion
The one-year B.Ed, with entry based on the completion of a first bachelor’s degree, and the four-
year B.Ed, with entry based on the completion of higher secondary school, represent at least four
years of university study following the completion of school education (12 years). The B.Ed
allows an individual to teach at (lower) secondary schools and is also a prerequisite for teaching
at higher secondary schools. It also gives access to further education in M.Ed programs.

Based on the above information and placement recommendations of other evaluation resources,
IQAS compares the B.Ed (1 year) to the completion of a one-year Bachelor of Education after-
degree, and the B.Ed (4 years) to the completion of a four-year Bachelor of Education degree,

The one-year M.Ed, with entry based on the completion of a B.Ed, and the two-year M.Ed, with
entry based on the completion of a first bachelor’s degree, represent at least five years of
university study following the completion of school education (12 years). An individual must
have an M.Ed, or a B.Ed plus a master’s degree (e.g. MA, M.Com or M.Sc.), in order to teach at
higher secondary schools. An M.Ed also gives access to further education in doctoral programs.

Based on the above information and placement recommendations of other evaluation resources,
IQAS compares the M.Ed to the completion of a one-year Master’s degree in Education.

Grading:
Most bachelor’s and master’s degrees are classified into divisions or classes based on the marks
students obtain in the major examinations at the end of each year or semester. Grading scale
varies from institution to institution. The Indian system is low marking, with minimum pass
mark generally ranging between 33 and 40%, though some institutions or programs adopt a 50%
pass. Students who have failed in one or more subjects in a major examination but who have
achieved institution-designated minimum marks (e.g. 25%) in the aggregate may be allowed to
proceed with their study and make up the failed subjects at a subsequent examination. The
following table shows a common grading scale along with conversion to Alberta grades.

Higher Education Grading Scale


Indian Marks (%) Descriptor IQAS (%)
87-100 First 96

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74-86 Class/Division 88
60-73 82
57-59 77
Second
53-56 74
Class/Division
51-52 70
47-50 66
45-46 Third 62
40-44 Class/Division 58
33-39 52
<33 Fail <50

For more information on Indian grading scales, please refer to the chapter Grading Scale in
International Education Guide for the Assessment of Education from the Republic of India.

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


Page 29 of 56
Country: INDIA (Republic of India)
Bachelor’s Degree – Medicine and Dentistry

Category: University

Credential Actual Name:


Bachelor’s Degree – Medicine and Dentistry

Credential Alternate Actual Name(s):


Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
(MBBS/BMBS)
Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery
(BAMS)
Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS)
Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and Animal
Husbandry (B.V.Sc. & A.H.)
Note: These are examples of bachelor’s
degrees in medicine and dentistry and do not
constitute a complete list of such programs.

Time Period Credential Offered: Current

Issuing Body: Universities and university-level institutions

Admission Requirements:
1. Higher Secondary School Certificate or equivalent (usually representing 12 years of
schooling) with required courses (Physics, Chemistry and Biology), or Pre-Professional
Certificate
2. Entrance examinations

Program Description:
• MBBS: Five-and-one-half-year professional university degree program, including a one-year
clinical internship
•BAMS: Five-and-one-half-year professional university degree program, including a six-
month/one-year clinical internship
•BDS: Five-year professional university degree program, including a one-year clinical internship
•B.V.Sc. & A.H.: Five-year professional university degree program, including a six-month
clinical internship

Provides Access to in the Home Country:


•Employment
A bachelor’s degree in medicine and surgery/Ayurvedic medicine and
surgery/dentistry/veterinary medicine and animal husbandry allows an individual to register with
the appropriate council and practice professionally.
•Admission into professional graduate programs

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IQAS Recommendations:
MBBS/BMBS: Generally compares to the completion of a first professional university degree in
medicine.

BAMS: Generally compares to the completion of a Bachelor’s degree with a focus in Ayurvedic
medicine.

BDS: Generally compares to the completion of a first professional university degree in dentistry.

B.V.Sc. & A.H.: Generally compares to the completion of a first professional university degree
in veterinary medicine.

IQAS Rationale:

Program Description
The Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS or BMBS) programs last five and a half
years, including a one-year internship. Applicants must pass the higher secondary certificate
examination with Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English as required subjects. Those lacking
the required subjects may attend a one-year pre-medical course provided by a medical or science
college. Applicants must also sit a separate pre-medical examination, such as the All-India Pre-
Medical/Pre-Dental Entrance Examination (AIPMT), conducted by CBSE (Central Board of
Secondary Education) for admission into MBBS or BDS courses at central and state medical and
dental colleges except in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir.

The Medical Council of India prescribes the structure and time allocation for medical courses.
MBBS coursework lasts four and a half years or nine semesters, divided into three phases. The
first phase (1st to 2nd semesters) consists of pre-clinical subjects such as anatomy, physiology,
and biochemistry. The second phase (3rd to 5th semesters) consists of para-clinical subjects such
as pathology, pharmacology and microbiology, and clinical subjects. The third phase (6th to 9th
semesters) is the continuation of clinical subjects, including medicine and its allied specialties,
surgery and its allied specialties, obstetrics, gynaecology and community medicine. A total of
three examinations are held: 1st professional examination (2nd semester), 2nd professional
examination (5th semester), 3rd professional examination part I (7th semester), and 3rd professional
examination part II (9th semester). After passing the last part of the professional examination,
students must undergo a 12-month compulsory rotational internship to be eligible for the award
of the MBBS degree and full registration with the medical council to practice professionally. In
order to become a specialist or medical teacher, one must pursue further study in postgraduate
medical programs.

Postgraduate diplomas in medicine approved by the Indian Medical Council involve two years of
fulltime study following the completion of a Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS
or BMBS). Students can choose from 28 fields of specialization such as clinical pathology,
obstetrics & gynaecology, ophthalmology, orthopaedics, paediatrics, psychiatry, and radio
therapy.

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The Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) and Master of Surgery (M.S.) both involve three years of
fulltime study following the completion of a Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS
or BMBS). Holders of a postgraduate diploma in medicine in the same area of specialization
receive one year’s advanced standing. Students enrolled in the M.D. program can choose from
29 fields of specialization such as geriatrics, pathology, paediatrics, and radio therapy. Students
enrolled in the M.S. program can choose from five fields of specialization including
otorhinolaryngology, general surgery, ophthalmology, orthopaedics, and obstetrics &
gynaecology.

The Doctor of Medicine (D.M.) program involves three years of fulltime study following the
completion of an M.D. Students can choose from 12 fields of specialization such as cardiology,
immunology, medical oncology and neurology. The Master of Chirurgie (M.Ch.) program
involves three years of fulltime study following the completion of an M.S. (or an M.D. in some
cases). Students can choose from ten fields of specialization such as cardiovascular and thoracic
surgery, urology, neurosurgery, and surgical oncology.

The Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) involves five years of fulltime study, including a one-
year internship. Individuals with an MBBS may be able to complete the program in three years.
The Dental Council of India prescribes the curriculum structure, syllabi, and examination scheme
for the BDS program. Students take a professional examination at the end of each of the first four
years. These are known as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and final BDS examinations. After passing the final
BDS examination, students must undergo a one-year rotating internship. The BDS degree entitles
an individual to work in general dental practice. Postgraduate study is required for specialization.

There are extensive programs for teaching the Indian systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Siddha,
and Unani Tibb) at both undergraduate and graduate levels. The Central Council of Indian
Medicine advises the central government on matters relating to the recognition of such programs
and prescribes the curricula and syllabi. Many institutions offer the “Ayurvedacharya”, or
Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) degree, which involves five and a half
years of fulltime study, including a clinical internship of 6 or 12 months. BAMS holders may
have their names entered in the Central Register of Indian Medicine and are entitled to practice
Indian medicine in any part of India according to their qualifications.

The Bachelor of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry (B.V.Sc. & A.H.) is the minimum
educational qualification to become a veterinary doctor. The Veterinary Council of India (VCI),
a statutory body established under the Ministry of Agriculture, prescribes the program structure
and syllabus for the B.V.Sc. & A.H. The program involves five years of fulltime study, including
a six-month internship, with a total of 188 credits. Earlier programs may have been four and a
half years. Entry is based on the completion of higher secondary school or equivalent with
Physics, Chemistry and Biology. After completing both coursework and internship, students are
eligible for the award of the B.V.Sc. & A.H. degree and full registration with the VCI or state
veterinary council to practice as a veterinary doctor. Postgraduate programs such as the two-year
Master of Veterinary Science (M.V.Sc.) provide options of specialization.

Conclusion

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Admission into the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS/BMBS), Bachelor of
Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) and Bachelor of
Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry (B.V.Sc. & A.H.) programs requires Higher
Secondary School Certificate or equivalent with Physics, Chemistry and Biology, plus entrance
examinations. The length of the programs is five or five and a half years, including a clinical
internship. The degrees allow individuals to enter professional practice in medicine/ Indian
medicine/dentistry/veterinary medicine. Based on the above information and placement
recommendations of other evaluation resources, IQAS compares the MBBS/BMBS, BDS and
B.V.Sc. & A.H. to the completion of a first professional university degree in
medicine/dentistry/veterinary medicine. A note is appended to highlight the differences from
comparable Canadian programs. The BAMS is compared to the completion of Bachelor’s degree
with a focus in Ayurvedic medicine.

Grading:
Most bachelor’s and master’s degrees are classified into divisions or classes based on the marks
students obtain in the major examinations at the end of each year or semester. Grading scale
varies from institution to institution. The Indian system is low marking, with minimum pass
mark generally ranging between 33 and 40%, though some institutions or programs adopt a 50%
pass. Students who have failed in one or more subjects in a major examination but who have
achieved institution-designated minimum marks (e.g. 25%) in the aggregate may be allowed to
proceed with their study and make up the failed subjects at a subsequent examination. The
following table shows a common grading scale along with conversion to Alberta grades.

Higher Education Grading Scale


Indian Marks (%) Descriptor IQAS (%)
87-100 96
First
74-86 88
Class/Division
60-73 82
57-59 77
Second
53-56 74
Class/Division
51-52 70
47-50 66
45-46 Third 62
40-44 Class/Division 58
33-39 52
<33 Fail <50

For more information on Indian grading scales, please refer to the chapter Grading Scale in
International Education Guide for the Assessment of Education from the Republic of India.

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


Page 33 of 56
Country: INDIA (Republic of India)
Bachelor of Law(s) (LLB or BL)

Category: University

Credential Actual Name:


Bachelor of Law(s) (LLB or BL)

Credential Alternate Actual Name(s):


Bachelor of Law(s) (Special/Professional)
Bachelor of Law(s) (General/Academic)
Bachelor of Law(s) (integrated program)
Note: These are examples of the Bachelor of
Law(s) degrees and do not constitute a
complete list of such programs.

Time Period Credential Offered: Current

Issuing Body: Universities

Admission Requirements:
• LLB (Special/Professional) and LLB (General/Academic): Completion of a first bachelor’s
degree (e.g. BA, B.Com or B.Sc.)
• LLB (integrated program): Completion of higher secondary school (generally representing 12
years of schooling)
Program Description:

• LLB (Special/Professional): Three-year university after-degree program


• LLB (General/Academic): Two-year university after-degree program
• LLB (integrated program): Five-year undergraduate degree program

Provides Access to in the Home Country:


•Employment
An LLB (Special/Professional or integrated program) holder may apply to the Bar Council of
India to practice law as an Advocate.
An LLB (General/Academic) holder may work in an allied legal profession.

• Admission into university graduate degree programs


An LLB (Special/Professional or integrated program) holder may seek admission into two-year
Master of Law(s) (LLM) programs.

IQAS Recommendations:
LLB (Special/Professional): Generally compares to the completion of a first professional
university degree in law.

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LLB (General/Academic): Generally compares to the completion of a two-year Bachelor’s after-
degree with a focus in law.
Note: In India, the LLB (Academic/General) does not give access to professional practice as a
lawyer or admission into university graduate degree programs in law (LLM). It allows an
individual to work in an allied legal profession.

LLB (integrated program): Generally compares to the completion of a first professional


university degree in law.

IQAS Rationale:
The Bar Council of India (BCI) maintains a list of approved law colleges that provide law
education in the form of either the newer five-year integrated program or the traditional three-
year postgraduate bachelor’s degree, or both.

The postgraduate Bachelor of Law or Bachelor of Laws (LLB/BL) involves three years of
fulltime study after a first bachelor’s degree. According to BCI rules, a three-year LLB
(Special/Professional) program must include the following:

I. 21 Compulsory Courses
1. Jurisprudence
2. Contract-I(General Principle of Contract-Section 1-75 and Specific Relief)
3. Contract-II (Indian Contract Act, Indian Partnership Act, Sale of Goods Act and other
Specific contracts)
4. Tort and Consumer Protection Laws
5. Family Law-I
6. Family Law-II
7. Law of Crimes
8. Criminal Procedure Code, Juvenile Justice Act and Probation of Offenders Act.
9. Constitutional Law
10. Property Law including Transfer of Property Act and Easement Act
11. Law of Evidence
12. Civil Procedure Code and Limitation Act
13. Legal Language/Legal Writing including General English
14. Administrative Law
15. Company Law
16. Human Rights and International Law
17. Arbitration, Conciliation and Alternate Dispute Resolution Systems
18. Environmental Law including laws for the protection of the wild life and other living
creatures including animal welfare
19. Labour Law.
20. Interpretation of Statutes
21. Land Laws including ceiling and any other local laws

II. No less than three subjects chosen from the following:


1. International Economic Law

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


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2. Bankruptcy Laws
3. Taxation Laws
4. Comparative Law/Legal History
5. Insurance Law
6. Conflict of Laws
7. Banking law including Negotiable Instruments Act
8. Investment and Security Law
9. Trusts, Equity and Fiduciary Relationships
10. Criminology and Penology
11. Air and space Law
12. Law and Medicine
13. Women and Law and Law Relating to Child/Law, Poverty and Development
14. Intellectual Property Law
15. Maritime Law
16.
III. Six months of practical training including the following compulsory papers:
1. Moot Court, Pre-Trail Preparations and Participation in Trial proceedings
2. Drafting, Pleading and Conveyancing
3. Professional Ethics, Accountancy for Lawyers and Bar Bench Relations
4. Public Interest Lawyering, Legal Aid and Para Legal Services

After completing the three-year LLB, students may apply to the Bar Council of India to practice
law as Advocates. They may also seek admission into two-year Master of Law(s) (LLM)
programs.

Some universities offer a two-year LLB (General/Academic), which does not give access to
professional practice or admission into two-year LLM programs; graduates may seek
employment in the allied legal professions. Students enrolled in a three-year LLB may choose to
exit the program after two years with an LLB (General/Academic).

The Bachelor of Law or Bachelor of Laws (LLB/BL) integrated program lasts five years,
including two years of pre-law study (part I) followed by three years of professional training in
law (part II). Applicants who have already completed a first bachelor’s degree (e.g. BA, B.Sc. or
B.Com) may be admitted into part II of the five-year integrated program. According to BCI
rules, part II of the program is identical to the three-year LLB; part I should include the
following 6 compulsory subjects:
1. General English - 2 Papers (Part I and Part II)
2. Political Science - 3 Papers (Part I , Part II and Part III)
3. Economics - 1 Paper
4. Sociology - 1 Paper
5. History - 1 Paper
6. History of Courts, Legislature and Legal Profession in India - 1 Paper

After completing the five-year integrated LLB program, students may apply to the Bar Council
of India to practice law as Advocates. They may also seek admission into two-year Master of
Law(s) (LLM) programs.

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According to BCI rules, students who have completed part I of the five-year integrated program
are eligible to enrol in the final year of a three-year Bachelor’s degree (e.g. BA, B.Com or
B.Sc.), and those who have completed the first three years of the five-year integrated program
may receive a degree such as BA (Law) by passing the relevant university examinations. This
enables some law colleges to offer combined integrated degrees such as a combined Bachelor of
Arts and Bachelor of Law(s) (BA & LLB/BL), a combined Bachelor of Business Administration
and Bachelor of Law(s) (BBA & LLB/BL), or a combined Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of
Law(s) (B.Sc. & LLB/BL).

Conclusion
The LLB (Special/Professional) involves three years of professional studies in law, with entry
based on a first bachelor’s degree (e.g. BA, B.Com or B.Sc.). This is similar in structure to LLB
programs in Canada, which generally require at least two or three years of university study
(though most applicants already hold a bachelor’s degree), followed by three years of
professional studies in law. An LLB (Special/Professional) holder may apply to the Bar Council
of India to practice law as Advocates and may also seek admission into two-year Master of
Law(s) (LLM) programs. Based on the above information and placement recommendations of
other evaluation resources, IQAS compares the LLB (Special/Professional) to the completion of
a first professional university degree in law.

The LLB (integrated program) involves three years of professional studies in law, preceded by
two years of prerequisite university study. An LLB (integrated program) holder may apply to the
Bar Council of India to practice law as Advocates and may also seek admission into two-year
Master of Law(s) (LLM) programs. Based on the above information and placement
recommendations of other evaluation resources, IQAS compares the LLB (integrated program)
to the completion of a first professional university degree in law.

The LLB (General/Academic) involves two years of professional studies in law, with entry based
on a first bachelor’s degree (e.g. BA, B.Com or B.Sc.). An LLB (General/Academic) holder may
work in an allied legal profession but cannot practice professionally as a lawyer or seek
admission into two-year LLM programs. Based on the above information and placement
recommendations of other evaluation resources, IQAS compares the LLB (General/Academic) to
the completion of a two-year Bachelor’s after-degree with a focus in law.

Grading:
Most bachelor’s and master’s degrees are classified into divisions or classes based on the marks
students obtain in the major examinations at the end of each year or semester. Grading scale
varies from institution to institution. The Indian system is low marking, with minimum pass
mark generally ranging between 33 and 40%, though some institutions or programs adopt a 50%
pass. Students who have failed in one or more subjects in a major examination but who have
achieved institution-designated minimum marks (e.g. 25%) in the aggregate may be allowed to
proceed with their study and make up the failed subjects at a subsequent examination. The
following table shows a common grading scale along with conversion to Alberta grades.

Higher Education Grading Scale

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Indian Marks (%) Descriptor IQAS (%)
87-100 96
First
74-86 88
Class/Division
60-73 82
57-59 77
Second
53-56 74
Class/Division
51-52 70
47-50 66
45-46 Third 62
40-44 Class/Division 58
33-39 52
<33 Fail <50

For more information on Indian grading scales, please refer to the chapter Grading Scale in
International Education Guide for the Assessment of Education from the Republic of India.

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


Page 38 of 56
Country: INDIA (Republic of India)
Master’s Degree (3+2 years)

Category: University

Credential Actual Name:


Master’s Degree (3+2 years)
Note: Two-year master’s degrees that require
a four-year bachelor’s degree for admission
are assessed differently.

Credential Alternate Actual Name(s):


Master of Arts (MA)
Master of Commerce (M.Com)
Master of Science (M.Sc.)
Note: These are the most common two-year
master’s degrees following a three-year
bachelor’s degree and do not constitute a
complete list of such programs.

Time Period Credential Offered: Current

Issuing Body: Universities and university-level institutions

Admission Requirements:
•Three-year bachelor’s degree (e.g. BA, B.Com or B.Sc.)

Program Description:
• Two-year university graduate degree program

Provides Access to in the Home Country:


•Employment

• Admission into Master of Philosophy (M.Phil) and doctoral programs

IQAS Recommendations:
A Master’s degree (following the completion of a three-year Bachelor’s degree) generally
compares to the completion of a one-year Master’s degree with a focus in xxx.

Note: The first-year study of a two-year Master’s degree (following the completion of a three-
year Bachelor’s degree) is considered to be at an undergraduate level.

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IQAS Rationale:

Program Description
Master’s degrees in Arts, Commerce and Science (MA, M.Com, and M.Sc.) involve two years of
fulltime study, with entry based on the completion of a three-year bachelor’s degree, usually in
the same field (BA, B.Com, or B.Sc.). The area of specialization is often noted for MA and
M.Sc. degrees, such as MA (English), MA (Linguistics), M.Sc. (Computer Science), and M.Sc.
(Electronics). Universities may set minimum marks for admission, e.g. 50% in the aggregate on
the Indian scale from a bachelor’s (honours) degree, and require applicants to write an entrance
examination.

MA, M.Com and M.Sc. programs usually consist of coursework only, with no thesis
requirement. Examinations are held at the end of each year, generally known as Previous/Part I
(at the end of the first year) and Final/Part II (at the end of second year). Students may be
allowed to reappear in the examinations in one or more courses either to make up for failed
subjects or for the improvement of marks.

One can study for a master’s degree on a part-time basis or externally through distance learning
programs. Universities usually prescribe a time limit (e.g. four years) in which students must
complete all coursework and pass the examinations to qualify for the award of the degree.

In recent years five-year integrated master’s degrees, sometimes called bachelor and master dual
degree programs, are available in a variety of disciplines such as MA, M.Com, M.Sc. and
M.Tech. Entry is based on the completion of higher secondary education (Class 12). Students
may have the option to exit the program with a bachelor’s degree after three years.

The MA, M.Com or M.Sc. degree allows an individual to apply for admission into Master of
Philosophy (M.Phil) programs. While some doctoral programs require an M.Phil for admission,
others admit MA, M.Com or M.Sc. degree holders.

Conclusion
The two-year master’s degree (MA, M.Com or M.Sc.) requires a three-year bachelor’s degree (e.
g. BA, B.Com or B.Sc.) for admission, representing a total of five years of postsecondary
education in the current structure. In Canada, a four-year bachelor’s degree, or a three-year
bachelor’s degree plus at least one year of additional university study, is required for admission
into a master’s degree program, which involves one to two years of fulltime study. The MA,
M.Com or M.Sc. degree allows an individual to seek employment or admission into M.Phil and
doctoral programs. Based on the above information and placement recommendations of other
evaluation resources, IQAS compares the two-year master’s degree from the Republic of India,
in combination with the previous three-year bachelor’s degree, to the completion of a four-year
Bachelor’s degree and a one-year Master’s degree.

Grading:
Most bachelor’s and master’s degrees are classified into divisions or classes based on the marks
students obtain in the major examinations at the end of each year or semester. Grading scale
varies from institution to institution. The Indian system is low marking, with minimum pass

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mark generally ranging between 33 and 40%, though some institutions or programs adopt a 50%
pass. Students who have failed in one or more subjects in a major examination but who have
achieved institution-designated minimum marks (e.g. 25%) in the aggregate may be allowed to
proceed with their study and make up the failed subjects at a subsequent examination. The
following table shows a common grading scale along with conversion to Alberta grades.

Indian Marks (%) Descriptor IQAS (%)


87-100 96
First
74-86 88
Class/Division
60-73 82
57-59 77
Second
53-56 74
Class/Division
51-52 70
47-50 66
45-46 Third 62
40-44 Class/Division 58
33-39 52
<33 Fail <50

For more information on Indian grading scales, please refer to the chapter Grading Scale in
International Education Guide for the Assessment of Education from the Republic of India.

International Qualifications Assessment Service (IQAS), Government of Alberta


Page 41 of 56
Country: INDIA (Republic of India)
Master’s Degree (4+1.5/2 years)

Category: University

Credential Actual Name:


Master’s Degree (4+1.5/2 years)
Note: Two-year master’s degrees that require
a three-year bachelor’s degree for admission
are assessed differently. Refer to the separate
Master’s Degree (3+2) template.

Credential Alternate Actual Name(s):


Master of Agriculture (M.Agri.)
Master of Science in Agriculture (M.Sc. Agri.)
Master of Science in Agronomy
Master of Engineering (ME/M.Engg.)
Master of Technology (M.Tech.)
Master of Science in Engineering (M.Sc.
Engg.)
Master of Computer Science and Engineering
(M.C.S.E.)
Master of Pharmacy (M.Pharm.)
Note: These are just a few examples of two-
year (or one-and-a-half-year) master’s degrees
following a four-year bachelor’s degree and
do not constitute a complete list of such
programs.

Time Period Credential Offered: Current

Issuing Body: Universities and university-level institutions

Admission Requirements:
•Four-year bachelor’s degree in same or related field (e.g. Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of
Technology, Bachelor of Science in Engineering, Bachelor of Agriculture, Bachelor of Science in
Agriculture, Bachelor of Pharmacy, etc.), or
•Master’s degree in a related field (e.g. Master of Science degree following the completion of a
three-year Bachelor of Science degree)

Program Description:
• Two-year (or one-and-a-half-year) university graduate degree program

Provides Access to in the Home Country:


•Employment

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• Admission into Master of Philosophy (M.Phil) and doctoral programs

IQAS Recommendations:
A Master’s degree generally compares to the completion of a Master’s degree with a focus in xxx.

IQAS Rationale:

Program Description
Master’s degrees in a range of specialized and professional fields such as engineering,
technology, agriculture, and pharmacy involve one and a half or two years of fulltime study.
Entry is usually based on the completion of a four-year bachelor’s degree in the same or a related
field; alternatively, some eligible applicants hold a Master of Science degree following the
completion of a three-year bachelor’s degree. Universities set minimum marks for admission, e.g.
60% in the aggregate on the Indian scale from a four-year bachelor’s degree, and require
applicants to write an entrance examination. The master’s degree (4+1.5/2) allows an individual
to apply for admission into Master of Philosophy (M.Phil) and doctoral programs in the same or
related field of study.

The area of specialization may be noted in the name of the degree, e.g. Master of Engineering in
Civil Engineering, Master of Engineering in Computer Technology and Applications, Master of
Technology in Computer Science and Engineering, and Master of Agriculture in Soil Science.
Following is a description of some of the master’s degree (4+1.5/2) programs.

The Master of Engineering (ME or M.Engg.), Master of Technology (M.Tech.) and Master
of Science in Engineering (M.Sc. Engg.) involve one and a half or two years of fulltime study,
or up to four years of part-time study. Entry is based on the completion of a BE/B.Tech. or M.Sc.
in the same or a related field. Examinations are conducted at the end of each semester. In addition
to coursework, students have to complete a major research project. Following is a sample
program structure for the Master of Technology (M.Tech.):

Program Structure: Master of Technology in Microwave Electronics, University of Delhi


Duration: 4 semesters (2 Entry Requirements: M.Sc. Electronics or M.Sc. Physics with
years) of fulltime study specialization in electronics and at least 60% marks, or BE
Electrical/Electronics/Electronics and Communication/Instrumentation
Engineering with at least 60% marks, plus entrance examination.
Grading: The minimum pass mark is 40% for each paper, and 50% in the aggregate for each semester
and for the major project. Students who have successfully completed the program are classified
according to their marks in the aggregate from the four semesters:
First Division with Distinction: 75% or more
First Division: 60% or more but less than 75%
Second Division: All others
Course No. Course Name Mark
Semester I
1.1 Electromagnetic Theory and Transmission Lines 100
1.2 Microwave and MM-Wave Planar Transmission Lines 100
1.3 Microwave Measurement Techniques and Industrial Microwaves 100

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1.4 Microwave Devices 100
1.5 Microwave Measurements Laboratory 100
Subtotal 500
Semester II
2.1 Microwave Passive Components 100
2.2 Antenna Theory and Techniques 100
2.3 Communication theory and Wave Propagation 100
2.4 Computational Electromagnetics 100
2.5 Computational Laboratory 100
Subtotal 500
Semester III
3.1 Microwave Active Circuits 100
3.2 Communication Systems 100
3.3 Microwave Integrated Circuits (CAD, Fabrication and Measurement) 200
Subtotal 400
Semester IV
4.1 Major Project (six months duration) 400
Total 1800

Master’s degrees in agriculture such as Master of Agriculture (M.Agri.) and Master of Science
in Agriculture (M.Sc.Agri.) involve two years of fulltime study following a bachelor’s degree in
agriculture. Agricultural programs in India generally adopt the American-style credit system. The
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) prescribes a minimum of 35 credits of
coursework and 15 credits of thesis for Master’s degrees in agriculture.

The Master of Pharmacy (M.Pharm.) involves two years of fulltime study consisting of both
coursework and the completion and defence of a thesis. Entry is based on a four-year Bachelor of
Pharmacy (B.Pharm.) with minimum marks (e.g. 50%) and an entrance examination. The
M.Pharm. offers various specializations, such as pharmaceutics, pharmacognosy, pharmacology,
pharmaceutical chemistry, etc.

Conclusion
The Master’s degree (4+1.5/2) requires a four-year bachelor’s degree or M.Sc. in the same or a
related field for admission. In Canada, a master’s degree program involves one to two years of
fulltime study, with entry based on a four-year bachelor’s degree, or a three-year bachelor’s
degree plus at least one year of additional university study. The Master’s degree (4+1.5/2) allows
an individual to seek employment or admission into M.Phil and doctoral programs. Based on the
above information and placement recommendations of other evaluation resources, IQAS
compares the master’s degree (4+1.5/2) to the completion of a Master’s degree with a focus in
xxx.

Grading:

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Most bachelor’s and master’s degrees are classified into divisions or classes based on the marks
students obtain in the major examinations at the end of each year or semester. Grading scale
varies from institution to institution. The Indian system is low marking, with minimum pass mark
generally ranging between 33 and 40%, though some institutions or programs adopt a 50% pass.
Students who have failed in one or more subjects in a major examination but who have achieved
institution-designated minimum marks (e.g. 25%) in the aggregate may be allowed to proceed
with their study and make up the failed subjects at a subsequent examination. The following table
shows a common grading scale along with conversion to Alberta grades.

Indian Marks (%) Descriptor IQAS (%)


87-100 96
First
74-86 88
Class/Division
60-73 82
57-59 77
Second
53-56 74
Class/Division
51-52 70
47-50 66
45-46 Third 62
40-44 Class/Division 58
33-39 52
<33 Fail <50

Agricultural universities generally adopt the 10-point system prescribed by the Indian Council of
Agricultural Research. For more information on Indian grading scales, please refer to the chapter
Grading Scale in International Education Guide for the Assessment of Education from the
Republic of India.

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Page 45 of 56
Country: INDIA (Republic of India)
Postgraduate Certificates and Diplomas

Category: University-level and other accredited postgraduate certificate and diploma programs

Credential Actual Name:


Postgraduate Certificate
Postgraduate Diploma

Credential Alternate Actual Name(s):


Postgraduate Certificate in xxx
Postgraduate Diploma in xxx
Certificate in xxx
Diploma in xxx
Note: These are just examples of names for
postgraduate certificates and diplomas and
may not constitute a complete list of possible
terminology.

Time Period Credential Offered: Current

Issuing Body: Universities, university-level institutions and other institutions with appropriate
program accreditation

Admission Requirements:
•Bachelor’s degree (3 or 4 years)

Program Description:
• Postgraduate certificate or diploma program [usually one year but length may vary from six
months to two years]

Provides Access to in the Home Country:


•Employment

• Further education (e.g. admission into university graduate degree programs)

IQAS Recommendations:

Postgraduate Certificate or Diploma from university-level institutions or institutions with


appropriate program accreditation (such as AICTE)
- Generally compares to the completion of a University Diploma or University Certificate [Shorter
programs (e.g. 1 year) are generally compared to certificates while longer programs (e.g. 2 years)
can be compared to diplomas].

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Postgraduate Diploma in Management (PGDM) from institutions whose PGDM is equated
with MBA by the Association of Indian Universities (AIU) [See the list on next page]
- Generally compares to the completion of a Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree.

Postgraduate Diploma in Medicine approved by the Indian Medical Council


- Generally compares to the completion of xx years of postgraduate training in a medical
specialization (e.g. ophthalmology, etc.).

IQAS Rationale:

General Program Description


Postgraduate diploma programs generally require one to two years of fulltime study, with entry
based on the completion of a bachelor’s degree (three or four years) and, in some cases, a
specified period of work experience. Postgraduate certificate programs have similar entry
requirements but are shorter in duration, usually from six months to less than two years.

Postgraduate certificate and diploma programs provide advanced training in a range of technical
and specialized fields. Many of the fields fall under the purview of the AICTE (All India Council
for Technical Education):
– Engineering & Technology
– Management
– Computer Applications
– Architecture & Town Planning
– Pharmacy
– Hotel Management & Catering Technology
– Applied Arts and Craft

Management is one of the most popular fields for postgraduate certificates and diplomas. Such
programs cover a wide range of management areas including general management, financial
management, human resource management, international management, etc. They last one, one
and a half, or two years fulltime or up to three years on a part-time basis. Entry is based on a
bachelor’s degree in any discipline, though some specialized programs such as Postgraduate
Diploma in Agricultural Business Management (PGDABM) and Postgraduate Diploma in
Materials Management (PGDMM) require a bachelor’s degree in a related area of specialization.

Postgraduate certificate and diploma programs are available at universities, university-affiliated


colleges, private institutes, and professional associations. Institutions offering programs in
technical fields must have AICTE approval, which ensures minimum standards have been met.
AICTE also grants program-level accreditation, through its National Board of Accreditation
(NBA). NBA accreditation is voluntary and indicates quality among peers. The NBA website
(http://www.nba-aicte.ernet.in/) contains a list of over 1,000 accredited programs.

Many postgraduate diplomas are for employment purposes and do not provide advanced standing
for further academic studies. Two exceptions, the postgraduate diplomas in medicine approved by
the Indian Medical Council, and postgraduate diplomas in management (PGDM) offered by
institutions whose PGDM is equated with MBA by the Association of Indian Universities (AIU),

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are described below.

Programs in medicine approved by the Indian Medical Council


Postgraduate diplomas in medicine approved by the Indian Medical Council involve two years of
fulltime study following the completion of a Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS
or BMBS). Students can choose from 28 fields of specialization such as clinical pathology,
obstetrics & gynaecology, ophthalmology, orthopaedics, paediatrics, psychiatry, and radio
therapy. Holders of a postgraduate diploma receive one year’s advanced standing when admitted
to the three-year Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Master of Surgery (M.S.) program in the same
area of specialization.

Management programs from institutions whose PGDM is equated with MBA by the
Association of Indian Universities (AIU)
The Association of Indian Universities (AIU) provides a list of institutions (including the
prestigious Indian Institutes of Management) whose two-year Postgraduate Diploma in
Management (PGDM) has been equated with MBA degree for the purpose of admission into
doctoral-level management programs:

1. Amity Business School, Noida (UP)


2. Amrita Institute of Management, Coimbatore
3. Centre for Management Development, Modinagar (UP)
4. Fore School of Business Management, New Delhi
5. Graduate School of Business Administration, Noida (UP)
6. Indian Institutes of Management, Ahmedabad
7. Indian Institutes of Management, Lucknow
8. Indian Institutes of Management, Indore
9. Indian Institutes of Management, Bangalore
10. Indian Institutes of Management, Kolkata
11. Indian Institutes of Management, Kozhikode
12. Indian Institute of Health Management, Jaipur
13. Institute of Public Enterprise, Hyderabad
14. Institute of Management Technology, Ghaziabad
15. Institute of Technology & Science, Mohan Ngr, Ghaziabad
16. Institute for Integrated Learning in Management (IILM), N. Delhi
17. Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal
18. Institute of Rural Management, Anand
19. Institute of Finance and International Management, Bangalore
20. Institute of Management Studies, Ghaziabad
21. International Management Institute, New Delhi
22. Jagan Institute of Management Studies, Delhi
23. Loyala Institute of Business Administration, Chennai
24. Management Development Institute, Gurgaon
25. Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, Mumbai
26. NIILM Centre for Management Studies, New Delhi
27. School of Communication & Management Studies, Cochin
28. S P Jain Institute of Management & Research, Mumbai

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29. T A Pai Management Institute, Manipal
30. Vaikunth Mehta National Institute of Cooperative Mgt, Pune
31. Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar
32. Xavier Labour Relations Institute, Jamshedpur

Note: The above list was from 2006. The updated list (2015) is available on the AIU website at
http://www.aiu.ac.in/evaluation/list_of_Institute_of_PGDM_with_address_as_on_22.12.2015.pdf.

Conclusion
Postgraduate certificate and diploma programs involve six months to two years of fulltime study.
While the general entry requirement is the completion of a bachelor’s degree in any discipline (3
or 4 years), programs in some specialized and professional fields require a bachelor’s degree (4
years) in the same or a related field for admission. The certificate/diploma allows an individual to
seek employment and, in some cases, admission into a master’s degree program with advanced
standing.

In comparison, universities in Canada offer certificate and diploma programs in a variety of


disciplines at both undergraduate and graduate levels. For undergraduate-level programs,
admission is typically based on high school graduation. For graduate-level programs, admission is
typically based on a bachelor’s degree (4 years) and, in some cases, related work experience.
There are also post-baccalaureate programs with entry requirement and program level similar to
those of after degrees. Based on the above information and placement recommendations of other
evaluation resources, IQAS makes the following comparisons:

Postgraduate Certificate or Diploma from university-level institution or institutions with


appropriate program accreditation (such as AICTE)
- Generally compares to the completion of a University Diploma or University Certificate [Shorter
programs (e.g. 1 year) are generally compared to certificates while longer programs (e.g. 2 years)
can be compared to diplomas].

Postgraduate Diplomas in Management (PGDM) offered at institutions on the AIU list involve
two years of fulltime study, with entry based on the completion of a bachelor’s degree. This
translates into a minimum of five years (3+2) of postsecondary study in total. The PGDM,
equated with MBA by the AIU, allows an individual to seek employment and admission into
doctoral-level programs in management. In comparison, MBA programs in Canada usually
involves at least one year of fulltime study, with entry based on the completion of a four-year
bachelor’s degree.

Based on the above information and placement recommendations of other evaluation resources,
IQAS compares the Postgraduate Diploma in Management (PGDM) from the institutions
on the AIU list to the completion of a Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree.

Postgraduate diplomas in medicine approved by the Indian Medical Council involve two years of
fulltime study following the completion of a Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS
or BMBS). Students can choose from 28 fields of specialization. IQAS compares the
Postgraduate Diploma in Medicine approved by the Indian Medical Council to the

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completion of ___years of postgraduate training in a medical specialization (e.g.
ophthalmology etc.).

Grading:
Most bachelor’s and master’s degrees are classified into divisions or classes based on the marks
students obtain in the major examinations at the end of each year or semester. Other programs
such as certificates, diplomas and research-based degrees (M.Phil and Ph.D.) are usually awarded
without classification. Grading scale varies from institution to institution. The Indian system is
low marking, with minimum pass mark generally ranging between 33 and 40%, though some
institutions or programs adopt a 50% pass. Students who have failed in one or more subjects in a
major examination but who have achieved institution-designated minimum marks (e.g. 25%) in
the aggregate may be allowed to proceed with their study and make up the failed subjects at a
subsequent examination. The following table shows a common grading scale along with
conversion to Alberta grades.

Higher Education Grading Scale


Indian Marks (%) Descriptor IQAS (%)
87-100 96
First
74-86 88
Class/Division
60-73 82
57-59 77
Second
53-56 74
Class/Division
51-52 70
47-50 66
45-46 Third 62
40-44 Class/Division 58
33-39 52
<33 Fail <50

For more information on Indian grading scales, please refer to the chapter Grading Scale in
International Education Guide for the Assessment of Education from the Republic of India.

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Country: INDIA (Republic of India)
Master of Philosophy (M.Phil)

Category: University

Credential Actual Name:


Master of Philosophy (M.Phil)

Credential Alternate Actual Name(s):


M.Phil in Chemistry
M.Phil in Commerce
M.Phil in Computer Science
M.Phil in Economics
M.Phil in English
M.Phil in Library Science
M.Phil in Population Studies
M.Phil in Sociology
M.Phil in Statistics
M.Phil in Zoology
Note: These are just examples of possible
majors of master of philosophy degrees and do
not constitute a complete list of such programs.

Time Period Credential Offered: Current

Issuing Body: Universities and university-level institutions

Admission Requirements:
•Master’s degree

Program Description:
• One-year (or one-and-one-half-year, two-year) graduate degree program

Provides Access to in the Home Country:


•Employment
•Admission to doctoral programs

IQAS Recommendations:
A Master of Philosophy (M.Phil) degree [in combination with the previous Master’s degree]
generally compares to the completion of a two-year Master’s degree with a focus in xxx.

Or assessed individually.

IQAS Rationale:

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Program Description
The Master of Philosophy (M.Phil) is a pre-doctoral research degree that involves one to two
years of fulltime study, with entry based on the completion of a master’s degree in at least the
Second Division/Class. Some M.Phil programs consist mainly of directed research leading to the
completion of a thesis, while others require substantial coursework. Following are a couple of
sample program structures for M.Phil:

Sample Program Structure: M.Phil in Statistics, University of Delhi (a central university)


Duration: One year of fulltime study
Entry requirements: First or second high class Master degree in statistics
M.Phil Part I (six months): Choose three from ten courses (with each course worth 100 marks):
1. Stochastic Processes
2. Applied Probability Models
3. Design of Experiments
4. Design and Inference in Survey
5. Bayesian Inference
6. Order Statistics
7. Bio-Statistics
8. Multivariate Analysis
9. Non-Parametric Methods
10. Reliability and Life Testing
M.Phil Part II (six months): Write a dissertation pertaining to one of the three courses completed
in Part I. (Written dissertation: 150 marks; viva voce: 50 marks.)

Sample Program Structure: M.Phil (English Literature), Jamia Millia Islamia (a central
university)
Duration: One and a half years (three semesters) of fulltime study
Entry requirements: Minimum 55% marks in MA (English)
Semester I
(1) Research Methodology (Compulsory)
(2) MP 1: Introduction to Literary Theory (Compulsory)
(3) Choose any one of the following courses:
MP 2: Renaissance Studies
MP 3: Life, Literature and Thought in the Eighteenth Century
MP 4: Texts of Modernism
MP 5: Continental Fiction
MP 6: Indian Writing in English
MP 7: Theory and Practice of Translation
MP 8: Seminar I (a flexible course based on teachers’ academic interests)
Semester II: Choose any two of the following courses:
MP 9: Shakespeare
MP 10: Life, Literature and Thought in the Nineteenth Century
MP 11: Twentieth Century Fiction/Poetry
MP 12: Australian/Canadian Literature
MP 13: Twentieth Century American Literature

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MP 14: Indian Literatures in English Translation
MP 15: English in India
MP 16: Colonial Discourse Theory
MP 17: Readings in Theory
MP 18: Semiotics
MP 19: Texts of Popular Culture
MP 20: Seminar II (a flexible course based on teachers’ academic interests)
Semester III: Dissertation

The M.Phil degree gives access to employment such as lectureship at a higher education
institution, and admission to doctoral programs. Some institutions require an M.Phil for entry
into their doctoral programs. An M.Phil holder may complete a Ph.D. program in a minimum of
two years, compared with three or more years for a master’s degree holder.

Conclusion
The M.Phil program requires a master’s degree for admission and involves at least one year of
fulltime study consisting of coursework, directed research and the completion of a thesis. It
represents a total of six or more years of postsecondary study. In comparison, master’s degrees in
Canada involve one to two years of fulltime study following the completion of a four-year
bachelor’s degree, or a total of five to six years of postsecondary study. The M.Phil degree gives
access to further education in doctoral programs. Based on the above information and placement
recommendations of other evaluation resources, IQAS compares the M.Phil degree from the
Republic of India, in combination with the preceding Master’s degree, to the completion of a
two-year Master’s degree.

Grading:
Most bachelor’s and master’s degrees are classified into divisions or classes based on the marks
students obtain in the major examinations at the end of each year or semester. Research-based
degrees such as M.Phil and Ph.D. are usually awarded without classification. Grading scale
varies from institution to institution. The Indian system is low marking, with minimum pass
mark generally ranging between 33 and 40%, though some institutions or programs adopt a 50%
pass. Students who have failed in one or more subjects in a major examination but who have
achieved institution-designated minimum marks (e.g. 25%) in the aggregate may be allowed to
proceed with their study and make up the failed subjects at a subsequent examination. The
following table shows a common grading scale along with conversion to Alberta grades.

Higher Education Grading Scale


Indian Marks (%) Descriptor IQAS (%)
87-100 96
First
74-86 88
Class/Division
60-73 82
57-59 77
Second
53-56 74
Class/Division
51-52 70
47-50 66
45-46 Third 62
40-44 Class/Division 58
33-39 52

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<33 Fail <50

For more information on Indian grading scales, please refer to the chapter Grading Scale in
International Education Guide for the Assessment of Education from the Republic of India.

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Country: INDIA (Republic of India)
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. or D.Phil)

Category: University

Credential Actual Name:


Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. or D.Phil)

Credential Alternate Actual Name(s):

Time Period Credential Offered: Current

Issuing Body: Universities and university-level institutions

Admission Requirements:
•Master’s degree (e.g. MA, M.Com and M.Sc.) or Master of Philosophy (M.Phil)

Program Description:
• Advanced research-based graduate degree program

Provides Access to in the Home Country:

•Employment
•Post-doctoral studies

IQAS Recommendations:
A Doctor of Philosophy degree generally compares to the completion of a Doctor of Philosophy
(Ph.D.) degree.

IQAS Rationale:

Program Description
The Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. or D.Phil.) involves at least two years of fulltime study
following the M.Phil or three or more years following a master’s degree, and is normally
completed within five years after registration. Entry is based on the completion of a master’s
degree with minimum marks (e.g. 55%), and applicants may be asked to take a qualifying test
such as the National Educational Test (NET) conducted by the University Grants Commission
(UGC). Some programs require applicants to hold an M.Phil or prescribe additional coursework
in research methodology for those who do not have the M.Phil. Ph.D. study consists mainly of
research, though some programs include substantial coursework. Students must complete a
substantial thesis based on original research and undergo evaluation and oral examination by a
board of examiners. Following is a sample Ph.D. program structure:

Program Structure, Ph.D. in International Studies, Jamia Millia Islamia (a central

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university)
Duration: Ten semesters. The candidate shall submit the thesis not earlier than two years and not
later than five years from the date of registration.
Entry Requirements: Minimum 55% marks in M.Phil, and an interview. Individuals with MA
who have done high quality research may also apply.
Coursework: Students with MA must complete one compulsory course and one optional course
in the first two semesters. Students with M.Phil are exempted from coursework.

Conclusion
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. or D.Phil) programs in the Republic of India require applicants to
have an M.Phil or a master’s degree with minimum marks (e.g. 55% on the Indian scale) and
pass an entrance exam and/or an interview. They usually require three or more years of fulltime
study consisting mainly of the completion and defence of a dissertation. A Ph.D. gives an
individual access to academic, research and other employment opportunities as well as post-
doctoral studies. Based on the above information and the placement recommendations of other
evaluation resources, IQAS compares the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. or D.Phil) to the
completion of a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree.

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