Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 176

MR Glossary

A Dictionary of Magnetic Resonance


MR Glossary
MR Glossary
A Dictionary of Magnetic Resonance
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

AC map acquisition time (TA) acquisition window


attenuation correction (AC) MR measurement: Measure- MR measurement: The time
ment time for an entire data frame in a pulse sequence
set. TA does not include the during which the MR signal
acquisition
time needed for image recon- is acquired.
data acquisition struction.
ACRIN
acquisition matrix
The American College of
raw-data matrix Radiology Imaging Network
(ACRIN) is a U.S. American
cooperative group that
performs multi-institutional,
interdisciplinary clinical trials
of diagnostic imaging and
imaging-guided therapeutic
technologies.

6
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

active shielding (AS) active shim adaptive combine


Magnetic field: For strong Magnetic field: Shimming Measurement parameters:
magnets, the stray field has by adjusting the shim coil Algorithm for combining
to be actively shielded to currents. Field inhomogeneity, the channels of MR signals
increase the safety zone. which is partly disturbed by from several receiver coil
For this purpose, secondary the patient, is improved. elements. Adaptive combine
compensating coils are improves the SNR for most
wound around the magnet, measurement protocols.
activity-time course
in opposite direction to the
primary field-generating coils. Neuroimaging: The activity-
time course is a temporal plot
Gradients: Gradient systems
of a given activation task,
with opposed coils used to
used in, for example, BOLD
reduce eddy currents.
evaluations.

7
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

ADC map aliasing artifact

Diffusion-weighted imaging: Image quality: Overfolding Remedied primarily through


Parameter map visualizing the artifacts are generated when oversampling, but regional
spatially distributed apparent the measured tissue is outside presaturation may be used as
diffusion coefficients of the the FOV but still within the well.
acquired tissue. The contrast sensitive volume of the coil.
does not contain any T1 or Signals from outside the FOV
T2* contributions. ADC maps overlap the image, but on the
can be reconstructed from opposite side. Caused by the
diffusion-weighted images sampling and subsequent
with at least 2 b-values. Fourier transform of signal
components above the Nyquist
frequency.

8
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

alpha image analog-to-digital converter array coil


(ADC)
Postprocessing: An alpha MR components: Part of MR components: An array
image is a fused image created the receiver system which coil combines the advantages
by overlaying two images with converts the analog MR signal of smaller coils (high signal-
“alpha blending”, that is, into a digital signal. to-noise ratio) with those of
manual setting of opacity. larger coils (large field of
In BOLD imaging, an alpha view). It consists of multiple
apparent diffusion
image is created by overlaying independent coil elements
coefficient (ADC)
an anatomical image with a that can be combined depend-
parameter map. Diffusion imaging: The ing on the requirements of the
apparent diffusion coefficient examination.
measures the magnitude of
Tim (total imaging matrix)
diffusion of water molecules
in tissue and is spatially
visualized in ADC maps.

9
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

array processor arterial spin labeling (ASL) artifact


MR components: An array Perfusion imaging: Arterial Image quality: Artifacts are
processor comprises multiple spin labeling uses the water signal intensities in an
computer and storage units, in arterial blood as an endo- MR image that do not
which can be connected in genous contrast agent by correspond to the spatial
series as well as in parallel, marking a specific vessel distribution of tissue in the
performing a computing task segment with an RF pulse. By image plane. They result
simultaneously. Core of the subtracting images with and mainly from physiological as
image reconstruction system. without markings, statements well as system-related effects.
about the relative blood flow
overfolding artifact
can be made. This technique
arterial input function (AIF)
provides insight into perfusion distortion artifact
Perfusion imaging: Needed and the functional physiology
flow artifact
to calculate perfusion maps. of the brain.
The arterial input function is motion artifact
taken from the signal time
course of the contrast agent
concentration in an artery.

10
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

attenuation correction (AC) AutoAlign (AA) autocalibration


MR-PET examination: The Slice positioning: Feature MR measurement: When
signal of emitted photons is that facilitates the workflow using Parallel Acquisition
weakened by material or tissue for the preparation of an Techniques (PAT), coil profile
that it has to pass through. MR scan. The idea of AutoAlign information, which is required
For example, coils, the patient is to assist the user in perform- for reconstruction, is obtained
table, or the patient weaken ing graphical slice positioning by a calibration measurement.
the PET signal. Therefore, for MR examinations, mostly
Autocalibration is integrated in
acquired PET data must be automated and with a
the measurement and is both
corrected for artifact-free reproducible precision in
faster (approx. 1 second) and
quantitative PET imaging. repeated scans, and scans for
in many cases more exact than
This is done with specifically follow-up examinations.
a separate calibration. It is per-
postprocessed MR images, All MR applications, such as
formed with sequence charac-
so-called AC maps. These spine, neuro, muscular-
teristics that are identical to
AC maps are used to create skeletal, and cardiac imaging
those of the acquisition for the
corrected PET images. benefit from automatic slice
current patient position
positioning, however, the
(including possible motions).
specific requirements differ
between the anatomical
regions. Each region may need
a specific alignment algorithm.
The names for these region-
specific AutoAlign features are,
for example, AutoAlign Knee,
AutoAlign Spine, etc.

11
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

automated bolus detection average


Contrast-enhanced MRA: Measurement parameters:
Automated functionality that Average value of measured
can be activated as part of signals in a slice used to
exam planning. improve the signal-to-noise
ratio (SNR). Averaging is
Automatically detects arrival
performed, for example,
of contrast bolus in the region
on a measurement with
of interest and starts arterial-
2 acquisitions, that is, number
phase measurement.
of acquisitions (NA) = 2.
The SNR increases with the
root mean square of the
number of averages.

axial
transverse plane

12
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

bandwidth baseline baseline image


Measurement parameters: MR spectroscopy: Background BOLD imaging: Nonactivated
Frequency range (minimum signal from which the peaks image, in contrast to activated
to maximum processed rise. image, see also paradigm.
frequency) used for slice selec-
tion (transmission bandwidth)
baseline correction body coil
or image sampling (readout
bandwidth). MR spectroscopy: Postprocess- MR components: The body
ing of the spectrum used to coil is an integral part of the
The bandwidth describes
suppress baseline deviations magnet. It functions as a
which frequency range from
from the zero line. transceiver coil. It has a large
the analyzed echo signal is
measurement field, but does
transferred into one pixel
not have the high signal-to-
(unit: Hz/pixel).
noise ratio of dedicated coils.
Increasing the bandwidth
allows for shorter echo times
and reduces the chemical shift
artifacts. The disadvantage
of a higher bandwidth is
the larger amount of noise
which is sampled due to larger
frequency range. This trans-
lates into a lower signal-to-
noise-ratio (SNR).

13
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

BOLD effect BOLD imaging breath-hold technique


BOLD imaging: During fMRI MRI measurement technique:
increased neuronal activity, To avoid respiratory artifacts,
oxygen concentration the patients hold their breath
bolus tracking
increases in the venous blood during the measurement.
volume due to locally MR angiography: Technique Suitable for use in abdominal
increased blood flow. for visualizing vessels. A small and cardiac examinations.
volume of spins is tagged Not suitable for use with
As oxygen increases, the
altering its magnetization by uncooperative patients,
magnetic characteristics of
injecting contrast agent. small children, or anesthetized
erythrocytes approximate
This volume of contrast agent patients.
those of the surrounding blood
(bolus) can be tracked by fast
plasma. Transverse magnetiza-
imaging while it moves
tion in blood vessels decays
through blood vessels.
more slowly. This BOLD effect
extends T2 and T2*, measur-
able as a signal increase in the
blood volume under examina-
tion.

14
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

bright-blood effect b-value B1 field


Image quality: Brightly Diffusion imaging: MR physics: The alternating
displayed blood, as an effect Diffusion-weighting factor magnetic field of RF radiation
of slow flow. Vascular spins (unit: s/mm2). The higher the generated by a transmit coil.
are completely replaced by b-value, the stronger the
unsaturated spins during diffusion weighting.
repetition time TR. In gradient-
echo sequences, the signal is
B0 field
maximum, and blood is
displayed bright in the MR physics: The static main
MR image. magnetic field of a magnetic
resonance system.
This effect is used in bright-
blood imaging of the heart for
dynamic display of the blood
flow.

15
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

CAIPIRINHA cardiac triggering


MRI measurement technique: Physiologically controlled ECG and pulse triggering
Parallel imaging technique, imaging: Cardiac triggering provide for precise functional
which modifies the appear- prevents or reduces motion examinations of the cardio-
ance of aliasing artifacts artifacts in the MR image vascular system and the CSF
during data acquisition to caused by the heartbeat or in the head and spine.
improve the subsequent pulsating blood flow. This way, major vessels, the
parallel image reconstruction Triggering allows MR images to myocardium, and blood flow
procedure (see also PAT). be acquired synchronized to can be accurately displayed.
CAIPIRINHA significantly cardiac movement.
reduces the measurement time
of breath-hold measurements
without affecting image reso-
lution, coverage, or contrast.

16
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

CARE Bolus CE MRA


Contrast-enhanced MRA: contrast-enhanced Unit: in ppm (parts per million)
With CARE Bolus, the center MR angiography (CE MRA) of the resonance frequency.
of the k-space is measured The resonance frequencies
as quickly as possible when for fat and water are separated
chemical shift
the contrast agent reaches by approximately 3.5 ppm,
the region to be examined. MR physics: Shift in the which corresponds to an
This ensures optimal contrast resonance frequency of an absolute frequency difference
of arterial vessels. atomic nucleus depending on of about 225 Hz for 1.5 tesla
the chemical bonds of the and 450 Hz for 3 tesla.
atom or structure of the
center
molecule. Caused primarily by
windowing a weakening of the applied
magnetic field by the electron
shell, and proportional to the
magnetic field strength.

17
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

chemical-shift artifact chemical-shift imaging (CSI) cine


Image quality: With gradient- MR spectroscopy: In contrast movie mode
echo sequences, the chemical to single-voxel spectroscopy,
shift may lead to “phase the CSI methods map the met-
circularly polarized coil
cancellation” in the image. abolic information from a vol-
This effect is caused by ume of interest (VOI) in a spec- CP coil
slightly different resonance tral matrix.
frequencies of fat and water
(approx. 3.5 ppm), which lead
to a phase shift in voxels
containing fat and water. In an
opposed-phase image, fat and
water images are shifted
mutually. The magnitude of
the shift depends on the field
strength and the bandwidth.

18
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

CISS sequence coil


MRI measurement technique: MR components: Antennas, As receiver coils, they receive
Strongly T2/T1-weighted called coils in the language of the MR signal with as little
3D gradient-echo technique MR, are used to send RF pulses, noise as possible. The signal
with high resolution, where or to receive MR signals, or strength depends among other
two acquisitions with different both. things on the volume of
excitation levels are performed excitation in the coil and the
As transmit coils, they excite
internally and are subse- distance to the object to be
the nuclei in the volume of
quently combined. Prevents measured. The noise, however,
interest as homogeneously
streaks, for example, in the depends primarily on the size
as possible, so that all nuclei
inner ear. Postprocessing with of the coil.
receive the same level of
MPR or MIP.
excitation.

19
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

coil profile column contour artifact

MR physics: Receiver signal Fourier column chemical-shift artifact


characteristics of an RF coil,
also known as coil sensitivity
concatenation contrast agent
profile. The strength of the
MR signal received from a Measurement parameters: Image quality: Chemical
voxel depends on the voxel Distribution of the slices to compounds that are used
location relative to the coil. In be measured over multiple to improve contrast.
general, the signal is greatest measurements. Possible MRI examinations typically use
in the vicinity of the coil. The applications: paramagnetic contrast agents
further away the voxel is from such as gadolinium DTPA or
• For a short TR, increase the
the coil, the weaker the signal. other Gadolinium compounds.
number of concatenations
Coil profiles can be obtained to be able to measure more In contrast to X-ray techniques,
either from a separate calibra- slices. where contrast agent is
tion measurement or by directly visible, in MRI, contrast
• To prevent crosstalk when
autocalibration integrated in agents only have an indirect
the slice distance is short,
the measurement. effect as they reduce the relax-
set concatenations to 2 and
ation times for water in tissue.
measure the slices in an
interleaved fashion.

20
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

contrast bolus contrast-enhanced contrast medium


MR angiography (CE MRA)
MR angiography: A small MR application: Contrast- contrast agent
volume of spins, which are enhanced MR angiography
tagged by a contrast agent, makes use of the T1 reduction
contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR)
propagating through a vessel. of blood by means of gadolin-
Used for bolus tracking. ium-based contrast agents. Image quality: The contrast-to-
CE MRA is not limited by noise ratio in an MR image is
saturation effects, therefore, the difference in the signal-to-
large measurement fields and noise ratios between two
all orientations are possible. tissue types, A and B.
CNR = SNRA – SNRB

21
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

coronal plane CP coil cross calibration

Slice orientation: Orthogonal MR components: Circularly MR-PET examination:


plane dividing the body into polarized transmit or receiver To ensure reliability of the
back (dorsal, posterior) and coil with two orthogonal PET data, a correlation with
front (ventral, anterior) parts. transmission or receiver some external measure of
channels, or both. A CP coil radioactivity is required. In
has a better signal-to-noise research settings, the external
ratio than a linearly polarized measuring device may be a
coil. well counter; in clinical PET,
a dose calibrator is used.
CPR
curved planar
reconstruction

22
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

crosstalk cryogen curved planar reconstruction


(CPR)
Image quality: If slices Magnet technology: Cooling Postprocessing: CPR is similar
distances are too small, the agent such as liquid helium or to MPR, but can generate
signals from adjacent slices nitrogen. In MR, cooling planar cross-sections through
affect one another, especially agents are used to maintain volume data that are ortho-
when the slice distance equals the superconductivity of the gonal or tangential to a user-
0. Crosstalk is caused by a non- magnet. defined curve along an
ideal slice profile which results anatomic structure.
from constraints of the
measurement technology.
Crosstalk also affects
T1 contrast.
Crosstalk can be avoided by
using an interleaved slice
sequence.

23
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

dark blood dark-fluid imaging (FLAIR)


Cardiac imaging: Special MRI measurement technique: However, with the dark-fluid
preparation pulse that For example T2 FLAIR, is a technique, lesions can be
saturates the blood, used for turbo inversion recovery made visible. The inversion
displaying cardiovascular technique with long effective pulse is applied in a such a way
anatomy. echo time and long inversion that the T1 relaxation of the
time for suppressing fluids. fluid reaches zero crossing at
Lesions are not visible with time point TI, which results in
conventional T2 contrast, the signal being “erased”.
because they are covered by
bright-fluid signals.

24
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

data acquisition dB/dt dedicated coil


MR measurement: Process of Safety: The ratio between local coil
collecting raw image data the amount of change in
from MR signals. To improve amplitude of the magnetic
defocusing
the signal-to-noise ratio in an field (dB) and the time it takes
image, several acquisitions can to make that change (dt); dephasing
be performed to image a slice. depends on the gradient
Examples for data acquisition system. Because changing
techniques: CISS, CAIPIRINHA, magnetic fields can induce
DESS, FISP, etc. electrical fields, this is one
area of potential concern for
MRI safety limits (see also
peripheral nerve stimulation).
The value of dB/dt is measured
in tesla per second (T/s).

25
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

dephasing DESS sequence diamagnetism


MR physics: After RF excita- MRI measurement technique: MR physics: Effect resulting in
tion, phase differences appear DESS is a 3D gradient- a slightly weakened magnetic
between precessing spins, echo technique where two field when a substance is
resulting in a decay of different gradient echoes introduced into it. Magnetiza-
transverse magnetization. (FISP sequence and tion of a diamagnetic material
Caused primarily by spin-spin PSIF sequence) are acquired is opposite to the main
interaction and inhomogeneity during repetition time TR. magnetic field. The material is
in the magnetic field, can During image reconstruction, considered to have a negative
also be caused by switching the strongly T2-weighted PSIF magnetic susceptibility
specific gradient fields image is added to the FISP (magnetizability).
(flow dephasing). image. Application: joints,
good contrast for cartilage.
rephasing
Postprocessing with MPR.

26
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

DICOM diffusion diffusion contrast


Standard for electronic data Physics: Process by which Diffusion imaging:
exchange of medical images. molecules or other particles The diffusion of water
move from areas of higher molecules along a field
The DICOM standard enables
concentration to areas of gradient reduces the
the transfer of digital medical
lower concentration. When MR signal. The behavior
images and corresponding
concentrations are equal, is exponential:
information, independent of
there is a statistical balance,
device and manufacturer. Signal = S0 exp(b D)
even though the molecules are
In addition, DICOM provides an
constantly subject to thermal In areas of low diffusion
interface to hospital systems
movement (Brownian (pathological tissue),
based on other standards.
molecular movement). signal loss is less intense.
These areas are shown brighter
in the diffusion-weighted
image.

27
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

diffusion direction diffusion map diffusion spectrum imaging


(DSI)
Diffusion imaging: Diffusion- ADC map MR application: DSI is a variant
weighted measurements are of diffusion-weighted imaging,
performed in different which makes it possible to
directions. The number of resolve fine anatomical details
diffusion directions depends of the brain, such as crossing
on the diffusion mode and white-matter fibers, by using
can be selected by the user. multiple diffusion directions
and b-values in a single
measurement.

28
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

diffusion tensor diffusion tensor imaging diffusion tractography


(DTI)
Diffusion imaging: Physical MR application: Method Diffusion tensor imaging:
magnitude which takes into for displaying the directional Method for displaying neural
account the directional dependency of diffusion. pathways (diffusion tracts)
dependency of diffusion. Application: examinations using diffusion tensor
The diffusion tensor displays involving the architecture, measurements.
the mobility of water mole- configuration, and integrity
Tractography supports the
cules in all three coordinates. of nerve fiber bundles
planning of operations and
The tensor data are used as the (neurological research).
supports neurophysiological
basis for computing additional
research regarding the connec-
maps (for example: FA map) or
tivity and pathology of white
diffusion tractography.
matter.

29
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

diffusion-weighted imaging diffusion-weighting factor


(DWI)
MR application: MR imaging Of interest are regions where b-value
is sensitive to motion and diffusion is reduced compared
flow and to the relatively low with its surroundings (such as
distortion artifact
diffusion effect (visualized cell membranes along white
with strong gradients). matter tracts, or in areas of Image quality: Image
Diffusive movements in tissue the brain affected by stroke). distortions are caused by
(for example: natural diffusion Reduced diffusion means the inhomogeneity in the
of water) reduce the signal. reduction in signal is less magnetic field, gradient
intense: the affected regions non-linearity, or ferromag-
are displayed brighter in the netic materials in proximity
diffusion-weighted image. to the examination.

30
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

Dixon technique Dot

MRI measurement technique: By adding the in-phase and MR measurement: Abbrevia-


Dixon is a technique for sepa- opposed-phase, pure water tion used for “Day optimizing
rating fat and water. For this images are generated while throughput”, a concept for
purpose, the technique uses pure fat images optimizing MR workflows.
the different resonance are generated through sub-
frequencies of fat and water traction.
Dot Add-In
protons (chemical shift).
As compared to spectral fat
Essentially an in-phase and an MR measurement: Dot Add-Ins
saturation, a high field homo-
opposed-phase image are are auxiliary software compo-
geneity is less important for
measured. nents for a Dot engine. As a
Dixon.
kind of plug-in to a program
step, they enhance it with
specific features. See also Dot
engine.

31
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

Dot Cockpit Dot engine Dot strategy

MR measurement: MR measurement: Dot engines MR measurement: For Dot


Task-oriented central user provide an optimized MRI engines, several parallel
interface for all protocol workflow with a customizable program paths for a dedicated
management tasks. This framework for patient person- examination can be config-
includes flexible configuration alization, step-by-step user ured. These paths are called
of all Dot engines and non-Dot guidance, and an automated strategies. A strategy is a set
protocols. examination. Dot engines of predefined steps, which
are available for various together create a program
applications, for example, for a specific patient situation.
Dot decision
Brain Dot Engine, Cardiac Dot Prior to and during an exami-
MR measurement: Element Engine, Angio Dot Engine. nation, the measurement
of a Dot engine. Decisions strategy can be changed
Dot engines can comprise
build the structure of an according to the needs of the
AutoAlign for automatic slice
examination by offering measurement and patient
positioning.
different paths. Typical behavior.
decision points are “Contrast
For example, if the patient is
agent” yes/no, or “Diffusion”
not cooperative, you can select
yes/no.
a suitable strategy such as
motion-insensitive BLADE.

32
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

double-echo sequence double inversion recovery double-oblique slice


(DIR)
MRI measurement technique: MRI measurement technique: Slice positioning: Obtained by
Sequence with two echoes. Double inversion recovery MRI rotating an oblique slice about
In addition, proton density employs two non-selective one axis in the image plane.
weighted images are gener- inversion pulses in order to
ated without increasing the suppress the signal from two
measurement time. They are tissues with different longitu-
produced from the first echo dinal relaxation times T1
of a T2-weighted double-echo simultaneously. In the brain,
sequence. DIR is used to image the gray
matter selectively by nulling
the signal from white matter
and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
See also inversion recovery.

33
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

dual-contrast sequence duty cycle


MRI measurement technique: The echoes that determine gradient duty cycle
Example: Dual-contrast with resolution are used in both
echo sharing. raw-data matrices (echo
sharing). This reduces the
TSE counterpart to double-
number of echoes required.
echo sequences, generally
More slices can be acquired
5 times as fast.
for the TR specified, and the
To keep the pulse train as RF stress (SAR) drops.
short as possible, only echoes
for PD- and T2-weighted
images where the phase-
encoding gradient has a small
amplitude are measured
separately.

34
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

ECG triggering echo echo-planar imaging (EPI)


Physiologically controlled MR physics: An echo is the MRI measurement technique:
imaging: ECG triggering refocusing of spin magnetiza- A fast imaging method that
synchronizes the measure- tion by a pulse of resonant acquires multiple k-space lines
ment with the cardiac signal electromagnetic radiation. following a single excitation.
of the patient. The R wave is Most commonly acquiring
The MR signal observed
used as a trigger. This method data for an entire 2D image
following an initial excitation
is particularly useful for (“single-shot” EPI).
pulse decays with time due to
measurements of the heart
both spin relaxation and any
or thorax. Otherwise, images
inhomogeneous effects which
may be blurred due to cardiac
cause different spins in the
contractions.
sample to precess at different
rates.
gradient echo (GRE)
spin echo (SE)

35
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

echo sharing echo train effective echo time (TEeff)

MRI measurement technique: Multiecho sequences: A series Measurement parameters:


For dual-contrast or higher of 180 RF rephasing pulses The contrast and signal-to-
time-resolved sequences. and their corresponding noise ratio of an MR image
Echoes are used in more than echoes for a fast or turbo spin are determined, among others,
one raw-data matrix. echo pulse sequence. by the temporal position of the
echo whose phase-encoding
gradient has the smallest
echo spacing eddy current
amplitude (corresponds to the
Measurement parameters: Image quality: Electrical central k-space line). In this
Distance between two echoes. currents generated in a case, the echo signal under-
Echo spacing is used in TSE or conductor by changing goes minimal dephasing and
EPI sequences, for example. magnetic fields or by a has the strongest signal.
A short echo spacing produces movement of the conductor The effective echo time is the
compact sequence timing and within the magnetic field. time between the excitation
less image artifacts. Can be reduced using shielded pulse and this echo.
gradients. Eddy currents are a
source of artifacts.
echo time (TE)
Measurement parameters:
edge oscillation
The time between the excita-
tion pulse of a sequence and truncation artifact
the resulting echo, which is
used as MR signal. Determines
image contrast.

36
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

effective repetition time electromagnetic induction Ernst angle


(TReff)
Physiologically controlled Physics: The electrical voltage Measurement parameters:
imaging: In prospective cardiac in a receiver coil created by a The flip angle (< 90) of a
triggering, the repetition time temporal change in the gradient-echo sequence where
TR is predetermined by the magnetic field. a tissue type with a specific T1
interval between the trigger generates the maximum
events. Therefore, TR cannot signal. Depends on the
EPI factor
be freely set. The effective repetition time TR.
repetition time TReff estab- Echo-planar imaging:
Ernst = arccos (e–TR/T1)
lished by the trigger interval Number of gradient echoes
fluctuates with the physio- of an EPI sequence acquired
logical rhythm. after a single excitation pulse
(typically 64 to 128).
For example, EPI factor 128
effective stimulus duration
results in a measurement time
(tseff)
that is 128 times faster than
Safety: Duration of any period that of a normal gradient-echo
of the monotonic increasing or sequence.
decreasing gradient, used to
describe its limits for cardiac or
EPI technique
peripheral nerve stimulation.
It is defined as the ratio of the echo-planar imaging (EPI)
peak-to-peak field variation
and the maximum value of the
time derivative of the gradient
during that period.

37
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

event excitation pulse


MR-PET examination: The technique depends on MRI measurement technique:
An event refers to the simultaneous or coincident Rotation of magnetization
positron annihilation event. detection of the pair of out of alignment with the
The positron emitted by the photons moving in approxi- longitudinal axis, caused by
radioactive tracer travels mately opposite direction. the application of an RF pulse.
through tissue, decelerating Types of events are true, The higher the energy of an
until it can interact with an random, and scatter events. excitating RF pulse, the greater
electron. the deflection of the net
This encounter annihilates magnetization. The deflection
the electron and positron, of the magnetization at the
producing a pair of annihi- end of the RF pulse is known
lation (gamma) photons as the flip angle.
moving in approximately
opposite directions.

38
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

FA map fast Dixon


Diffusion imaging: An FA Isotropic diffusion is displayed MRI measurement technique:
(fractional anisotropy) map dark, anisotropic diffusion is A dual-echo Dixon technique
displays the degree of aniso- displayed bright. The color where in- and opposed-phase
tropy of the diffusion relative encodes the orientation of echoes are acquired consecu-
to the average overall diffu- diffusion. The FA map is one of tively within one echo train,
sion. the parameter maps for providing reduced sensitivity
diffusion tensor imaging. to motion. An asymmetric
Isotropic diffusion: Water
echo mode is possible,
molecules move the same way
increasing the distance
in every direction.
between in- and opposed-
Anisotropic diffusion: Water phase echoes.
molecules clearly move in a
See also Dixon technique.
preferred direction.

39
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

fast Fourier transform (FFT) fat saturation (FatSat) fat suppression


Image reconstruction: Image quality: To suppress Image quality: The MR signal
Algorithm for fast MR image the fat component in the comprises the sum of signals
reconstruction from raw data. MR signal, fat protons are from water and fat protons.
saturated by frequency- Various techniques can be
selective (“spectral”) RF pulses. used to suppress the fat signal.
fat image
Fat saturation depends on
Dixon technique
Image quality: A pure fat the chemical shift between fat
image displays only the signals and water of approx. 3.5 ppm. STIR sequence
from fat protons in the image Spectral fat saturation is
and suppresses signals from sensitive to magnetic-field
feet first
water protons. Fat images are inhomogeneities.
generated with the Dixon Positioning: The patient is
presaturation
technique, for example. positioned feet first in the
See also water image. magnet bore.

40
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

ferromagnetism field map field of view (FOV)


Physics: Effect where a Neuroimaging: A field map Measurement parameters:
material, for example, iron, displays local distortions Square image area to be
is drawn toward a magnetic and local signal loss in the measured (in mm  mm).
field. Relevant to safety for images resulting from the For a fixed matrix size, the
MR imaging. measurement technique used spatial resolution increases
to acquire the images. The with a smaller field of view,
field map masks areas where because of smaller voxels
FID signal
functional information is (pixel size = FOV/matrix).
MR physics: Signal that is ambiguous. However, smaller voxels yield
induced by the RF excitation lower signals.
of the nuclear spins and
that decreases exponentially
field strength
without external influence at
a characteristic time constant magnetic field strength
T2*.

41
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

FISP sequence FLAIR technique FLASH sequence


MRI measurement technique: dark-fluid imaging (FLAIR) MRI measurement technique:
With the FISP gradient-echo The FLASH gradient-echo
sequence, the remaining sequence uses the equilibrium
transverse magnetization is of longitudinal magnetization.
not eliminated before the next The remaining transverse
RF pulse. Instead, it contrib- magnetization is eliminated
utes to the signal along with by a strong gradient (spoiler
the longitudinal magnetiza- gradient). T1-weighted and
tion. The strength of the T2*-weighted contrast can be
longitudinal magnetization set with the FLASH sequence.
depends on T1; the amplitude
of transverse magnetization
depends on T2*. Contrast is a
function of T1/T2* and is gen-
erally not dependent on TR.

42
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

flip angle flow artifact


Measurement parameters: Flip angles between 0 and 90 Image quality: Motion artifacts
The flip angle a is used to are typically used in gradient- caused by local signal changes
define the angle of excitation echo sequences, 90 and during a measurement. For
for a pulse sequence. a series of 180 pulses in spin- example, the inflow intensity
It is the angle to which the net echo sequences and an initial of a vessel perpendicular to
magnetization is rotated 180 pulse followed by a 90 the image plane changes
relative to the main magnetic and a 180 pulse in inversion periodically due to pulsatile
field direction via the applica- recovery sequences. blood flow. In transverse body
tion of a RF excitation pulse at images, for example, ghost
the Larmor frequency. images appear in the aorta.
Nonperiodic inflow enhance-
ment as it occurs with the
turbulent blood flow in the
heart results in smearing
artifacts in the image.

43
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

flow compensation flow effect flow encoding


MRI measurement technique: Image quality: Flow effects MRI measurement technique:
To override the signal loss play two conflicting roles in Use of phase-encoding or
caused by spin movement, MR imaging: other techniques intended to
both moved and unmoved obtain information regarding
• They are a source of
spins can be rephased. For this the direction and velocity of
undesired image artifacts
purpose, gradient pulses of a moving material.
suitable size and duration are flow artifact
switched.
• In MR angiography, they are flow quantification
gradient motion rephasing used to display blood vessels
MR application: Quantitative
(GMR) and to provide quantitative
flow measurements that use
information on the velocity
phase contrast to examine
of the blood flow.
flow dephasing pathologies in large vessels or
bright-blood effect as part of an extensive
MRI measurement technique:
cardiovascular MRI examina-
Exclusion of signals from jet effect
tion. Flow measurements
flowing substances such as
signal elimination allow for noninvasive evalua-
blood by applying specifically
tion of the blood flow.
applied gradient fields that wash-out effect
dephase moving spins while
maintaining the signal of flow rephasing
stationary spins.
rephasing
dephasing

44
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

flow sensitivity fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) fMRI


Phase-contrast angiography: MR-PET examination: Functional MRI uses magnetic
The flow sensitivity of a phase- Fluorodeoxyglucose, properties of blood to analyze
contrast sequence refers to the commonly abbreviated to brain activity in specific areas.
18F-FDG or FDG, is a radio-
flow velocity where the phase The technique is based on
difference between flow-com- pharmaceutical used in small changes in the blood
pensating and flow-encoding positron emission tomography flow and is referred to as BOLD
scans is 180 degrees. See also (PET). Chemically, it is a imaging.
velocity encoding. glucose analog, with the
positron-emitting radioactive
Fourier column
isotope fluorine-18 substi-
fluid-attenuated inversion
tuted for the normal hydroxyl Measurement parameters:
recovery
group in the glucose molecule. In the raw-data set (k-space),
dark-fluid imaging (FLAIR) After FDG is injected into a the rows of the raw-data
patient, an MR-PET scanner matrix represent the phase-
can form images of the encoded portion of the mea-
distribution of FDG in the sured signals.
body.
tracer Fourier line
Measurement parameters:
In the raw-data set (k-space),
the columns of the raw-data
matrix represent the
frequency-encoded portion of
the measured signals.

45
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

Fourier space frame of reference (FOR) frequency


k-space DICOM standard: The frame of Physics: The number of
reference controls compatibil- repetitions of a periodic
ity of images within a series process per unit of time
Fourier transform (FT)
and in relation to other series. (unit: hertz).
Imaging: Mathematical Series with identical FOR
procedure for reconstructing belong to the same coordinate
frequency adjustment
images from raw data. system and are compatible.
MR measurement: Setting
MR spectroscopy: Method for
the RF system frequency to
calculating MR spectra from free induction decay signal
the resonance frequency of
time-resolved MRI data.
FID signal the main magnetic field
(Larmor frequency).
FOV
field of view (FOV)

fractional anisotropy map


FA map

46
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

frequency encoding frontal plane fusion


MR measurement: During coronal plane Postprocessing: Fusion mode is
data acquisition, a magnetic a function for image fusion of
field gradient is applied in one multiple 2D/3D data sets with
functional imaging
spatial direction providing alpha blending, that is, overlay
nuclear spins with linearly As opposed to imaging the of two images and setting the
increasing precessional anatomy and morphology of opacity manually.
frequencies. The readout parts of the body and organs,
MR signal is a mix of all functional imaging visualizes
these frequencies. These physiological activities such as
various frequencies can be the myocardial function of the
filtered individually. In the heart.
row direction, the location of
For functional neuroimaging
the nuclear spin can be recon-
see fMRI.
structed from the frequency.
This axis is called the
functional magnetic
frequency-encoding axis.
resonance imaging
The perpendicular axis to it
fMRI
is the direction of the phase
encoding.

fringe field
stray field

47
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

gadolinium DTPA gating gauss


Contrast agent: The uptake Physiologically controlled MR physics: Old unit for
of gadolinium-containing imaging: Synchronization of magnetic field strength.
contrast agent reduces the imaging with a time window Today, the unit tesla (T) is
T1 and T2 values of tissues, so that a particular event or used (1 tesla = 10 000 gauss).
depending on the concentra- signal from among many will
tion. The T1 effect is the more be selected and others will be
general linear model
relevant in clinical routines. eliminated or discarded.
A variety of means for detect- GLM
ing these time windows can
be used, such as the ECG,
peripheral pulse, and chest
motion (see also PMU).
The synchronization can be
prospective or retrospective.

48
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

ghost image Gibbs artifact


Image quality: During Signal-rich structures such truncation artifact
movement such as breathing, as subcutaneous fat are
some phase-encoding steps particularly susceptible to
GLM
are acquired during inspira- ghost images due to move-
tion (for example: inspiration ment. The distance between BOLD imaging: GLM calculates
phase), and others during the ghost images depends on BOLD images by adjusting a
expiration (for example: the movement period and linear combination of different
expiration phase). This quasi- relaxation time TR. signal portions. In addition,
periodic misencoding results in interferences such as slow
In echo-planar imaging, ghost
a displaced false image of the signal fluctuation are success-
images may occur at a distance
body region. fully suppressed and reliable
of half the FOV.
activation maps are obtained.
GLM also allows a detailed
evaluation of the measure-
ment data.

49
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

global bolus plot (GBP) gradient gradient coil

global time-intensity curve MR physics: A gradient defines MR components: Coils


the strength and orientation used to generate magnetic
of a magnitude changing in gradient fields. Gradient coils
global shim
space. A magnetic field are operated in pairs in the
Magnetic field: For several gradient is a change in the magnet, at the same current,
techniques such as fat satura- magnetic field of a certain however, of opposite polari-
tion, EPI or spectroscopy, orientation, a linear increase ties.
especially high magnetic field or decrease. The magnetic
One of the coils increases
homogeneity is required. gradient fields are generated
the static magnetic field by a
In this case, shim coils can be with gradient coils.
certain amount, the opposite
used to optimize homogeneity. They determine the spatial
coil reduces it by the same
resolution in an image, for
amount. This changes the
example.
global time-intensity curve magnetic field overall. The
change is the linear gradient.
Perfusion imaging: Diagram
According to the coordinate
for evaluating successful bolus
axes, there are x, y, and z
transport.
gradient coils.

50
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

gradient duty cycle gradient motion rephasing gradient slew rate


(GMR)
Gradient technology: Time MRI measurement technique: Gradient technology: Gradient
permitted during which the A method for achieving flow field increase by unit time
gradient system can be run at compensation. Additional (unit: T/m/s).
maximum power. It is based on gradient pulses of a suitable
Slew rate = gradient strength/
the total time (in %), including size and duration are switched.
rise time
the cool-down phase. They correct for phase shifts
experienced by moving spins,
thus reducing flow artifacts. gradient strength
gradient echo (GRE)
Gradient technology:
MR physics: Echo created by
gradient offset Amplitude of the gradient
switching a pair of dephasing
field, measurement unit mT/m
and rephasing gradients, with- Gradient technology:
(millitesla per meter).
out a rephasing 180 pulse as Gradient offsets are used to
with the spin-echo technique. compensate linear magnet
inhomogeneities by current
offsets applied to the different
gradient field
gradient axes (first order
gradient shim).

gradient rise time


Gradient technology: The time
required by the gradient field
to rise from zero to the
maximum value.

51
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

gradient swap gradient system gradient unit

Measurement parameters: MR components: In order to MR components: All gradient


Exchange of phase-encoding precisely localize the requested coils and amplifiers that
and readout directions in the slice positions in MR imaging, together generate a magnetic
image. As a result, interfering the gradient system, consist- field gradient along one of the
flow and motion artifacts are ing of three sets of gradient axes of the coordinate system
rotated by 90. Prevents units (one for each direction), of the MR equipment.
artifacts from covering creates defined pulsed alter-
structures of interest. ations of the main magnetic
field, referred to as gradients.
For example, a whole-body
gradient system is suitable for
use in whole-body MR equip-
ment.

52
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

graphical slice positioning GRAPPA grid tagging


(GSP)
Slice positioning: Graphical MRI measurement technique: Cardiac imaging: Technique of
positioning of the slices and Further development of myocardial tagging, applying a
saturation regions to be SMASH with autocalibration grid of saturation lines across
acquired on localizer images. and a modified algorithm for cardiac MR images. Used to
Relevant measurement para- image reconstruction. view myocardial motion.
meters may be conveniently
adjusted on-screen via the
GSP
mouse.
graphical slice positioning
(GSP)

53
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

half-Fourier matrix HASTE technique


MRI measurement technique: However, unavoidable phase MRI measurement technique:
The raw-data matrix has a errors due to minor magnetic HASTE is a turbo spin-echo
specific symmetry which field inhomogeneity require a technique and is used for
theoretically makes sampling phase correction. For this sequential acquisition of high-
of only half the matrix suffi- reason, slightly more than half resolution T2-weighted
cient. The other half can be of the raw data are acquired. images.
symmetrically reconstructed; Measurement time is reduced
All image information is
mathematically, the matrices by just under 50 %.
obtained after a single
are conjugate complex.
excitation pulse. Echoes are
Hamming filter generated by subsequent
180 pulses. The image is
Type of raw-data filter
obtained after a half-Fourier
reconstruction.

54
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

head coil head SAR HIPAA


MR components: Volume coil Safety: Specific absorption rate The Health Insurance
suitable for MRI examination (SAR) averaged over the mass Portability and Accountability
of the patient’s head. of the patient’s head and over Act (HIPAA) was enacted by
a specified time. the United States Congress
and sets the standard for
head first
protecting sensitive patient
hertz
Positioning: The patient is data.
positioned head first in the Physics: SI unit of frequency
magnet bore. (1 Hz = 1 s1).

55
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

homogeneity hybrid spectroscopy


Image quality: A magnetic MR application: Combination
field is considered homo- of single-voxel spectroscopy
geneous when it has the same and chemical-shift imaging.
field strength across the entire The CSI measurement is
volume. With MR, the homo- performed across a selectively
geneity of the static magnetic excited volume of interest.
field is an important criterion Via volume selection, areas
for magnet quality. High with strong distorting signals
homogeneity is important for (for example: fat) are not
spectral fat saturation, a large stimulated. For this reason,
field of view (FOV), off-center they do not contribute signal
imaging, echo-planar imaging, to the spectra.
and MR spectroscopy.

56
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

image contrast image filter


Image quality: The contrast Contrast can be affected Measurement parameters:
in the image is the relative by the sequence used (spin During measurement, the
difference in the signal echo, inversion recovery, image filter is used to set the
strength between two gradient echo, TSE etc.), intensity, edge enhancement,
adjacent tissue types. the measurement parameters and smoothing.
It depends primarily on the (TR, TE, TI, flip angle) and the
Reconstruction parameters:
existing tissue parameters use of contrast agent.
Filters of various strengths
(T1, T2, proton density), as
(strong, medium, soft) can
well as flow, diffusion, etc.
subsequently be applied to
MR images to reduce noise.
High-pass and low-pass filters
are used with different shapes
to the characteristic curves.
Other filter types include
smoothing filters, for example.

57
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

image fusion image matrix image noise


fusion Image display: The MR image Image quality: Noise in
consists of a multitude of the image is a statistical
picture elements (pixel). Pixels fluctuation in signal intensity
are allocated to a matrix in a that does not contribute to the
checkered pattern. Every pixel image information. It appears
in the image matrix displays a in the image as a granular,
specific gray scale level. irregular pattern. In principle,
Viewed as a whole, the matrix the effect is unavoidable and is
of gray levels constitutes the physically based. The noise of
image. the image is a function of the
field strength, coil size (body
Not to be confused with a
coil, local coil, array coil), the
measurement matrix.
pulse sequence used, and the
spatial resolution.

58
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

image orientation image reconstruction image registration


slice orientation The process of creating Postprocessing: To register
images from a set of raw data two images means to align
measured. With MRI, the them, so that common
image quality
Fourier transform is used for features overlap and differ-
The diagnostic quality of an reconstruction. ences between the two,
MR image. Characteristics should there be any, are
include: emphasized and readily visible.
image reconstruction system
artifact
MR component: The part of
image resolution
image contrast (contrast- the computer system that
to-noise ratio) reconstructs images from the spatial resolution
acquired raw data.
image noise (signal-to-
noise ratio)
spatial resolution

59
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

image subtraction imaging protocol inflow technique


Postprocessing: In contrast- measurement protocol time-of-flight angiography
enhanced studies, image (TOF)
subtraction is a simple post-
imaging sequence
processing technique that
infolding artifact
enables digital subtraction of pulse sequence
precontrast and postcontrast overfolding artifact
images without an additional
scan. Subtraction images allow
for better visualization of the
contrast enhancement.

60
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

inline display in-phase image in-plane resolution


Image display: Immediate MR measurement: An in-phase Image quality: In-plane resolu-
display of reconstructed image is generated with a tion is determined by the size
images. Frequently used measurement at a time when of the pixels. The smaller the
to display dynamic changes two components in the tissue pixel, the better the in-plane
(for example, CARE Bolus and (usually fat and water) are in resolution.
BOLD imaging). the same phase, that is, the
transverse magnetizations
have the same orientation and
add up. The cause for different
phase-velocities is the
chemical shift between fat and
water protons.

61
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

interactive real-time imaging interactive real-time tip


tracking (IRTTT)
MR measurement: MR-guided Interactive real-time MRI MR measurement technique:
interventional procedures, supports such interventional Software-based tracking
such as biopsies, thermal examinations as the user can of devices that have receive
ablations, and intravascular interactively change the scan microcoils embedded
procedures, require real-time plane positions and orienta- (for example, a catheter).
monitoring of the procedure tions during data acquisition, The user can attach slices to
and interactive slice position- that is, in real time. the microcoil-equipped part
ing based on the path plan- of the device and follow its
See also interactive real-time
ning. movements. Moreover, slices
tip tracking.
can be automatically oriented
(perpendicular, parallel, three-
point plane) according to the
detected position and orienta-
tion of the device.

62
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

interactive shim interpolation interventional MRI (iMRI)

Magnetic field: Manual adjust- MR measurement: Calculation MRI-guided minimally


ment of the shim coils used to of values that lie between invasive procedures. Generally,
improve magnetic field homo- known values; for example, “Interventional” MRI refers to
geneity. Shim currents can be enlarging the image matrix less invasive procedures such
set and optimized individually from 256  256 to 512  512. as biopsies, thermal ablations,
for a selected pulse sequence. The measurement time is not and intravascular stent place-
increased, but interpolated ments. The acronym iMRI is
images require more storage commonly used to include
interleaved slices
space. “Intraoperative” applications,
slice sequence that is, surgical interventions
such as craniotomy for tumor
resection.

63
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

inversion recovery (IR) inversion time (TI)


MRI measurement technique: For example, fat returns back Measurement parameters:
Inversion recovery pulse very quickly compared to that Interval between a 180
sequences are used to give of water making it possible to inversion pulse and a 90
strong T1 weighting. The basic perform STIR (fat suppressed) excitation pulse in an inversion
part of an inversion recovery and FLAIR (fluid suppressed) recovery sequence.
sequence is a 180 pulse that imaging by selecting the
is applied before the normal appropriate null point for the
pulse sequence in order to fat and water atoms.
null the signal from a specific
tissue. The inversion time TI
between the inversion pulse
and the start of the normal
pulse sequence affects what
tissue will be nulled.

64
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

iPAT iPAT2 isocenter


MRI measurement technique: 3D imaging: 3D sequences Image quality: The main
iPAT stands for integrated include two phase-encoding magnetic field is only
Parallel Acquisition Tech- directions: the conventional homogeneous within a
niques. iPAT is Siemens’ 2D (PE) direction and the roughly spherical region
implementation of Parallel additional phase encoding in about the isocenter of the
Acquisition Techniques (PAT) the partitions direction (3D). magnetic field. In this area,
on MAGNETOM systems. the examination region is
The acceleration in the 3D
positioned to ensure the best
iPAT includes the mSENSE direction is known as “iPAT2”.
possible image quality.
and GRAPPA measurement
techniques as well as
autocalibration and
CAIPIRINHA.

65
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

isotope
MR-PET examination: Isotopes are atoms with Commonly used isotopes
An important property of identical atomic numbers include:
atoms is their atomic number but different atomic masses.
• carbon-11 or 11C
(number of protons in the Although isotopes have the
nucleus). An atom's atomic same chemical properties as • nitrogen-13 or 13N
number determines its other atoms of their element,
• oxygen-15 or 15O
chemical properties. Similarly, they have very different
an atom's atomic mass number nuclear properties. • fluorine-18 or 18F (see also
is defined as the total number For example, although many fluorodeoxyglucose)
of nucleons (protons and isotopes are stable, some
neutrons) in the atom. isotopes have unstable nuclei
and are radioactive. The
isotopes used in PET scans
are all radioactive and decay
rapidly.

66
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

jet effect
Image quality: Spin dephasing
for complex flow patterns such
as turbulences. The degree of
signal loss and the size of low-
signal regions depend on the
flow patterns and pulse
sequence used. This effect
must be taken into account
when evaluating the extent of
vascular stenosis.

67
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

k-space k-space trajectory


k-space is the 2- or 3-dimen- MR measurement: The path
sional data model holding traced in the spatial-frequency
the digitized raw data for an domain during k-space
image measured. Usually, sampling as determined by the
k-space is identical to the applied gradients. Common
raw-data matrix, which is filled k-space trajectories used in
line by line by conventional MRI comprise the following
measurement techniques. methods: Cartesian, radial,
spiral, zig-zag, and BLADE.
The axes of k-space are
known as kx (horizontal axis)
and ky (vertical axis). The data
points of the plane spanned
by these axes represent
spatial frequencies. A Fourier
transform converts these
spatial-frequency data into
the final image data to be
visualized.

68
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

Larmor frequency line of response (LOR) local coil


MR physics: Frequency at MR-PET examination: The axis MR components: Local
which the nuclear spins of the projection beam. coils are RF receiver coils for
precess around the direction Please note: In PET, it is the line individual parts of the body.
of the outer magnetic field connecting the centers of two Local coils have a high signal-
(also known as precession opposing detector elements to-noise ratio.
frequency). The Larmor operated in coincidence.
frequency depends on
local SAR
the type of nucleus and the
list mode data
strength of the magnetic field. Safety: Specific absorption rate
MR-PET examination: (SAR) averaged over any 10 g
At 1.0 tesla, the Larmor
List mode data are the raw of tissue of the patient’s body
frequency of protons is approx.
data of a PET examination. and over a specified time.
42 MHz; at 1.5 tesla, it is
In addition to sinograms, list
approx. 63 MHz.
mode data contains exact
local shim
precession temporal information on every
event, including trigger infor- Magnetic field: The shim is
mation. List mode data are limited to a previously selected
lattice
converted to sinograms prior local volume.
MR physics: Magnetic and to reconstruction.
3D shim
thermal environment where
the nuclei exchange energy
during longitudinal relaxation.

69
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

localized MIP logical gradient longitudinal relaxation


MR angiography: Localized MR measurement: MR physics: Return to equilib-
“MIPing” improves image For orthogonal slices, each of rium of the longitudinal
quality. Only a partial data the 3 physical gradients has magnetization after excitation,
volume is used which exactly one “logical” task: due to the energy exchange
contains the voxels of the slice selection, frequency between the spins and
vessel of interest. As a result, encoding, and phase encod- surrounding lattice (also
the projection includes fewer ing. For oblique slices, the called spin-lattice relaxation).
background noise pixels and logical gradients are a mix of
displays less bright fat signal. the physical gradients.
longitudinal relaxation time
Individual vessels can be
selected as well for reconstruc- T1 constant (longitudinal
longitudinal magnetization
tion used to maintain a relaxation time)
(Mz)
comprehensive image.
MR physics: Longitudinal
LOTA technique
magnetization Mz is the
localizer
portion of the macroscopic MRI measurement technique:
Measurement: Image acquired magnetization vector in the Data averaging used to reduce
as the basis for slice position- direction of the z-axis, that is, motion artifacts. During
ing. Synonym: scout. along the outer magnetic field. measurement, a complete
After excitation by an RF pulse, raw data set is measured for
Mz returns to equilibrium M0 each data acquisition. At the
with a characteristic time end of the measurement,
constant T1. several complete raw data sets
are available and averaged.
Mz(t) = M0 (1–exp(–t/T1))

70
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

magnet magnet ramp time magnetic field gradient


A magnet is a material or Magnet technology: Time gradient system
object that produces a required for the magnetic field
stray field
magnetic field. For details strength to change, measured
about specific types of in T/min. Depends on the
magnets see: construction of the magnet magnetic field homogeneity
and the design of the magnet
permanent magnet homogeneity
power supply.
resistive magnet
superconductive magnet magnetic field
MR physics: The space
magnet bore surrounding a magnet
(or a conductor with current
MR components: The magnet
flowing through it) has special
bore is the opening in the
characteristics. Every magnetic
main magnet where the
field exercises a force on
patient is placed for examina-
magnetizable parts aligned
tion.
along a primary axis
(magnetic north or south
pole). The effect and direction
of this force is symbolized by
magnetic field lines.

71
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

magnetic field strength magnetic resonance imaging magnetic shielding


(MRI)
MR physics: The strength of Images of objects, for In space: Active shielding (AS)
the magnetic field force on example, the human body,
Through tissue: Weakening of
magnetizable parts. In physics, are displayed with magnetic
the applied magnetic field at
the effect is called magnetic resonance using magnetic
the nucleus by the counter
induction. In MR, it is referred gradient fields. In practical
field induced in the electron
to as magnetic field strength. application, the distribution
shell of the surrounding tissue.
Units: tesla (T), 1 tesla is of protons in the body is
approximately 20 000 times displayed. chemical shift
the strength of the earth's
The clinically relevant
magnetic field.
objective of MR imaging is magnetizability
the differentiation between
susceptibility
magnetic resonance (MR) pathological and healthy tissue
(magnetizability)
(image contrast).
MR physics: Absorption or
emission of electromagnetic
energy by atomic nuclei in a
static magnetic field, after
excitation by electromagnetic
RF radiation at resonance
frequency.

72
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

magnetization magnetization preparation magnetization transfer


contrast (MTC)
MR physics: Magnetization MRI measurement technique: MRI measurement technique:
is a quantity measuring the Technique to improve or Indirect observation of fast
magnetic force a material can modify the image contrast. relaxing magnetization
exert on its environment. Additional RF pulses (magneti- through presaturation.
In MRI, the macroscopic zation preparation pulses) are Through magnetization
magnetic net effect of spin used to preset the net magne- transfer contrast, the signal
ensembles is measured. This tization to a given state prior from specific “solid” tissue (for
net magnetization of tissue to the execution of the spatial example: brain parenchyma)
voxels of interest determines localization. Example of a is reduced, and the signal from
the potential strength of the magnetization-prepared (MP) a more fluid component (for
MR signal. sequence: MPRAGE. example: blood) is retained.
With MTC, the saturation
of bound protons is transferred
to adjacent free protons.
This reduces the visible
MR signal in these areas.

73
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

magnitude image matrix matrix size

Image reconstruction: Normal image matrix Measurement parameters:


image display. In a magnitude Size of the raw-data matrix;
raw-data matrix
image, the gray value of a pixel influences not only the
corresponds to the magnitude spatial resolution, but also
of the MR signal at that loca- the measurement time and
tion. signal-to-noise ratio.
Alternative: phase image With a square raw-data matrix,
the number of rows equals the
number of columns.

74
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

maximum intensity MDDW


projection (MIP)
Postprocessing: Maximum MIP exploits the fact, that Diffusion imaging: To compute
intensity projection is a within MRI data sets the the diffusion tensor, the tech-
volume rendering technique intensity values of vascular nique provides multidirectional
for 3D images that projects structures are higher than diffusion weighting (MDDW)
in the visualization plane the the intensity values of the measurements in at least
voxels with maximum intensity surrounding tissue. By depict- 6 spatial directions. One
that fall in the way of parallel ing the maximum intensity diffusion-weighted image each
rays traced from the viewpoint value seen through each pixel, is generated per slice position,
to the plane of projection. At the structure of the vessels b-value, and direction of
each pixel the highest data contained in the image can be diffusion (for b > 0).
value encountered along the captured.
corresponding viewing ray is
determined.

75
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

measurement field measurement matrix measurement sequence

Image quality: Spherical Raw-data matrix, not to be pulse sequence


volume in the center of the confused with the image
magnetic field where the field matrix.
measurement time
has a defined homogeneity.
For MRI examinations, objects MR measurement:
measurement protocol
to be measured have to be The measurement time for a
positioned at all times in the MRI measurement technique: 2D measurement is as follows:
measurement field (to prevent A measurement protocol is a
Measurement time =
signal distortions). pulse sequence with a full set
no. of scans (phase-encoding
of optimized parameters
steps)  repetition time (TR) 
chosen for performing a
no. of acquisitions (NA)
specific type of examination.

76
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

MEDIC millitesla per meter (mT/m) modality performed


procedure step (MPPS)
MRI measurement technique: Gradient technology: DICOM service: The modality
Multiple echoes acquired Measurement unit for the performed procedure step
in one measurement are gradient strength. service, commonly known as
combined into an image. MPPS, provides a mechanism
The advantage: higher receiver for image modalities to pass
MIP
bandwidth, fewer artifacts. information about the imaging
Application: cervical spine, maximum intensity they are performing back to
joints. projection (MIP) the RIS and/or PACS.
For example, information of
images acquired, duration of
the study, beginning time and
end time of the examination,
etc.

77
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

mosaic image motion artifact motion correction


BOLD imaging: The whole Image quality: Results from Image quality: Motion
volume, between 16 to 64 random or involuntary move- correction is a class of
EPI images, are compiled into ment: breathing, heartbeat, procedures for eliminating
a mosaic image. This increases blood flow, eye movement, motion artifacts during
the clarity of BOLD displays. swallowing, and patient measurement (prospective)
movement. The effect appears or after measurement
as ghost images or smearing (retrospective).
artifacts in the images. In the
syngo BLADE
phase-encoding direction only.
syngo BRACE
PACE

78
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

movie mode MPRAGE MR angiography (MRA)


Image display: To display MRI measurement technique: MR application: Depiction of
dynamic processes such as MPRAGE is a 3D extension of vessels with MR. However,
cardiac movement. The MR the TurboFLASH technique MRA does not really display the
images run automatically with inversion preparation blood volume, but rather a
through the active screen pulses. Only one segment or specific physical characteristic
segment, either in a cycle or partition of a 3D data record is of the blood; for example, the
forward and backward (yoyo). obtained per preparation magnetization status or local
pulse. velocity. This is perceived as
blood volume. MRA does not
MPR
display a single vessel, but
multiplanar reconstruction rather all vessels in the
(MPR) measured volume. Various
views can be subsequently
reconstructed (MIP) from
3D data volumes.

79
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

MR cardiology
MR application: The advan- Data records acquired across • Manual or semi-automatic
tages of cardiac MR include: cardiac phases enable movie segmentation of the inner
display of the heartbeat. and outer cardiac walls of the
• free selection of image
left ventricle, and the inner
planes and FOVs Subsequent quantitative
wall of the right ventricle:
evaluation of cardiac studies
• high tissue contrast ED and ES images or the
enables, for example, the
complete cardiac cycle.
• temporal and spatial following:
resolution • Evaluation of myocardial wall
• Calculation of ventricular
thickness; changes in wall
Multiple cardiac slices can be volume, myocardial mass,
thickness (between the ED
acquired along the respective and functional parameters
and ES phase or during the
slice plane. In this way,
cardiac cycle) are evaluated
complete anatomical display of
for each sector
the heart in all three dimen-
sions is provided.

80
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

MR contrast agent MR imaging


contrast agent The gray scale of a pixel magnetic resonance
mirrors the measured signal imaging (MRI)
intensity of the corresponding
MR image
volume element (voxel). In
MR-PET examination
The MR image consists of a turn, the signal intensity of a
multitude of image elements, voxel depends on the respec- Process of acquiring data
also known as pixels. Pixels tive transverse magnetization. using a dual-modality imaging
are allocated to a matrix in a system MR plus PET scanner.
checkered pattern. Every pixel
in the image matrix displays a
specific gray scale. Viewed as a
whole, this gray scale matrix
provides the image.

81
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

MR sensitivity MR sequence MR spectroscopic imaging


(MRSI)
MR physics: Atomic nuclei for pulse sequence MR spectroscopy (MRS)
MR examinations have to be
“MR sensitive”; that is, they
MR signal
must have a nuclear spin.
This condition excludes all MR physics: Electromagnetic
atomic nuclei with an even signal in the RF range. Caused
number of protons and by the precession of transverse
neutrons. magnetization created by a
variable voltage in a receiver
Since the hydrogen isotope 1H
coil (dynamo principle).
is the most sensitive, it is used
The temporal progression of
as a reference in relationship
this voltage is the MR signal.
to other atom nuclei. Its rela-
Different MR signals in differ-
tive sensitivity is 1 or 100 %.
ent tissue voxels generate the
image contrast.

82
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

MR spectroscopy (MRS) mSENSE

MR application: MR spectros- In MR spectroscopy, the MRI measurement technique:


copy provides the noninvasive MR signal is measured as a Further development of SENSE
measurement of cellular function of time: a rapidly with autocalibration and a
metabolic relationships. decreasing high-frequency modified algorithm for image
An MR spectrum shows the oscillation. Using a Fourier reconstruction.
dependence of the signal transform, the oscillation is
intensity on the chemical shift converted into a display of its
for a measurement volume frequency components, the
(voxel). The concentration of spectrum.
metabolites contributing to
In the area of intermediary
the spectrum can then be
metabolism, MR spectroscopy
inferred.
is an important method for in-
vitro and in-vivo examination
of tissue and organs.

83
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

mu map multiecho sequence

MR-PET examination: MRI measurement technique: Potential applications are


In order to obtain quantitative Pulse sequence that acquires imaging of low-contrast
PET information, MR-PET imag- multiple echoes with different structures such as lungs and
ing relies on MR information degrees of T2 weighting. bones and functional imaging.
that is processed into an Signal height reduces with The Siemens Multinuclear
MR-derived attenuation map transverse relaxation. This Option allows transmit and
(mu map), which in turn can drop in signal can be used to receive experiments with the
be used for attenuation calculate a pure T2 image. nuclei 3He, 7Li, 13C, 19F, 23Na,
31P, and 129Xe.
correction of PET data.
multinuclear imaging
multibed/multistep multinuclear spectroscopy
MR application: Primarily
examination (MNS)
a research technique for imag-
MR-PET examination: ing other nuclear spins than MR spectroscopy:
A whole-body MR-PET exami- hydrogen protons, such as Spectroscopic investigations
nation acquires data in sec- sodium and phosphorus. using other nuclear spins
tions, which are called beds or besides hydrogen protons,
Alternative contrast agents
steps. MR-PET examinations such as carbon and
such as hyperpolarized helium
that cover large examination phosphorus. Used to study
can be used as well.
regions are divided into several metabolism and intracellular
beds and multiple steps. pH levels, particularly of the
liver.
multidirectional diffusion
weighting
MDDW

84
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

multiplanar reconstruction multistation MRA


(MPR)
Postprocessing: Enables MR angiography:
the calculation of images For peripheral or whole-body
of any orientation to be angiography, multistation MRA
reconstructed based on a 3D allows the measurement of
or gapless multislice large areas extending the FOV
measurement. of the MR system.
The area to be examined is
measured at individual
multislice imaging
sections (stations), during
MRI measurement technique: automatic table feed. The data
Variant of sequential imaging. obtained are subsequently
The recovery period of the combined into an overall
first slice excited is used to image.
measure additional slices
(time-savings). The slices are
interleaved.

85
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

multistep angio myocardial mapping myocardial tagging


multistation MRA Cardiac imaging: Technique Cardiac imaging: A noninva-
to generate pixel-based para- sive technique for imposing
metric maps for myocardial grids or stripes on myocardial
multivenc sequence
relaxation times (T1 map, images, useful for assessing
Phase-contrast angiography: T2 map, and T2* map). intramyocardial motion and
A sequence that is equally deformation. The noninvasive
sensitive to various flow tags are created within the
velocities. Used to acquire tissue by local modulations
wide variations in flow of the magnetization which
velocity, for example, in produce regions of reduced
the peripheral arteries. signal intensity.
The standard tagging method
for producing grids is known as
complementary spatial
modulation of magnetization
(CSPAMM).
grid tagging
stripe tagging

86
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

native image NEMA nonselective pulse


Contrast-enhanced The Assocation of Electrical MRI measurement technique:
examination: MR image with- Equipment and Medical When data are acquired with
out the use of contrast agent, Imaging Manufacturers in the a nonselective pulse, a longer
for example, as a precontrast United States. The Medical TR is required for multislice
study. Imaging & Technology Alliance measurements or repeated
(MITA), which is a division of measurements of the same
NEMA, represents manufac- slice. The longer TR is required
navigator sequence
turers of medical diagnostic to ensure that magnetization
MRI measurement technique: imaging equipment including between consecutive measure-
Additional spin or gradient MRI, CT, x-ray, and ultrasound ment recovers sufficiently and
echoes for detecting changes products. that the individual measure-
in object position in a mea- ments do not interfere with
surement volume, or other one another.
neuroimaging
changes. Suitable for use with
Use with 3D volume measure-
interventional procedures or MR application: General term
ments and presaturation
respiratory gating. for brain and nervous-system
techniques (for example: mag-
applications, such as BOLD
netization transfer contrast).
imaging.

87
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

normalization filter nuclear spin number of partitions


Image quality: Equalizes signal MR physics: Atomic nuclei partition
intensity when using surface with an odd number of
coils. Using the filter, the neutrons and protons have
number of slices
signal intensity of areas close what is called nuclear spin.
to the coil is reduced; the For MR imaging, mainly Measurement parameters:
signal intensity is increased hydrogen protons are used. Multiple slices are usually
in areas farther from the coil. For MR spectroscopy, other acquired during an MR
nuclei are used as well, such measurement. The maximum
Used primarily with array coils.
as phosphorus, fluorine, and number of slices of a pulse
carbon. sequence or measurement
protocol depends on the
repetition time TR.
number of acquisitions (NA)
multislice imaging
average

88
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

oblique slice opposed-phase image orthogonal slice


Measurement parameters: MR measurement: Slice positioning: Slices
Obtained by rotating an An opposed-phase image is oriented perpendicular to one
orthogonal slice (sagittal, acquired at a time when two another. Three basic orienta-
coronal, or transverse) about components in the tissue tions are available: sagittal,
a coordinate axis in the image (usually fat and water) have coronal, and transverse (axial)
plane. opposite phases, that is,
slice orientation
the transverse magnetizations
of the two components have
off-center
opposite orientations and out-of-phase image
Slice positioning: Shifting partially cancel one another.
MR measurement: An out-of-
the center of a slice group Cause for the difference in
phase image is generated with
from the center of the phase is a chemical shift
a measurement at a time when
magnetic field within the between fat and water
two components in the tissue
slice plane. protons.
(usually fat and water) are not
in the same phase.

89
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

overfolding artifact oversampling


aliasing artifact Measurement parameters: Phase oversampling:
Method for preventing aliasing Measurement data acquisition
artifacts. beyond the FOV in the phase-
encoding direction. Increases
Readout oversampling:
the SNR. The measurement
Doubling the sampling points
time increases accordingly.
in the frequency-encoding
100 % phase oversampling
direction without prolonging
has the same effect as double
the measurement time.
the number of acquisitions.
The additional part is discarded
after reconstruction.

90
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

PACE paradigm parallel saturation


Image quality: During the BOLD imaging: Planned Slice positioning:
measurement, PACE corrects sequence of the functional By saturating areas parallel to
respiratory and motion arti- measurement, for example: the slice plane but outside the
facts in real time by reducing 10 nonactivated images slice stack, blood flowing to
the offset between the slices. (baseline), 10 active images. the measurement area pro-
This allows for multiple breath- duces almost no signal at the
hold examinations a well as beginning of the measure-
parallel acquisition
free breathing during a ment. This eliminates the
techniques
measurement, for example. vascular intraluminal signal,
PAT and prevents ghost images in
1D PACE
the phase-encoding direction.
2D PACE
parallel imaging This presaturation can be
performed on both sides of the
PAT
slice. Parallel saturation slices
shift with the slices of interest,
simplifying planning.

91
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

parameter map partial-body SAR


Postprocessing: A parameter Diffusion imaging: Parameter Safety: Specific absorption
map is a graphical representa- maps in diffusion imaging can rate (SAR) averaged over the
tion of functional information, be created by measuring the mass of the patient’s body
generated by a postprocessing diffusion tensor. They may be that is exposed to the volume
protocol from the measured used to display, for example, RF transmit coil and over a
data. anisotropic diffusion charac- specified time.
teristics of the brain(example:
Parameter maps display the
FA map). See also ADC map.
T1, T2, or T2* characteristics
of the acquired tissue, Perfusion imaging: To display
enabling early detection of interferences in perfusion
arthritis, for example. (example: time-to-peak map
(TTP)).

92
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

partial Fourier partition parts per million (ppm)


MRI measurement technique: 3D imaging: During 3D imag- Dimensionless unit compara-
To reduce the phase-encoding ing, entire volumes and not ble to percent. While percent
steps during the measurement just individual slices are means out of one hundred,
so that the raw-data matrix is excited. A 3D slab comprises ppm means out of one million.
filled with fewer rows. Allows multiple gapless partitions. Used to measure chemical shift
for shorter echo times. Special The number of partitions in MR spectroscopy examina-
case: half-Fourier matrix corresponds to the number of tions. Deviations of the main
slices during 2D imaging. magnet field B0 from the
normal value are also stated
partial parallel acquisition
in ppm.
(PPA) partition thickness
PAT 3D imaging: The effective
slice thickness of individual
partitions in a 3D slab is the
slab thickness divided by the
number of partitions.

93
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

PAT
MRI measurement technique: With the k-space-based A prerequisite for PAT is the
PAT is the generic term for methods (for example: use of array coils as well as the
parallel imaging techniques. SMASH, GRAPPA), the PAT calculation of the coil profile of
Other terms for PAT include reconstruction is performed all array coil elements (for
“Parallel Imaging” and “Partial prior to the Fourier transform. example: via autocalibration).
Parallel Acquisition”.
PAT shortens the measurement The most important advan-
Two groups of PAT are differen- time without degrading image tages of PAT: shorter breath-
tiated: with the image-based resolution. The lower number hold times, higher temporal
methods (for example: SENSE, of measurement lines reduces resolution of dynamic mea-
mSENSE), the PAT reconstruc- the signal-to-noise. surements and sharper images
tion is performed following the with echo-planar imaging
Fourier transform. (by reducing the echo train).
iPAT
iPAT2

94
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

PAT factor
Measurement parameters: For iPAT2, the PAT factor is the
The PAT factor is a measure of product of the two PAT factors
the phase-encoding steps in the phase-encoding and the
reduced through PAT. partitions direction. Example:
Example: for a PAT factor of 2, a PAT factor of 4 in the phase-
every other step is skipped. encoding direction and a PAT
This cuts the measurement factor of 3 in the partitions
time in half. direction results in a total PAT
factor of 12.

95
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

patient coordinate system


In syngo MR clinical images, This system indicates the Coordinate axes are feet to
the orientation is stated by a direction from which a user is head, right to left, and anterior
patient-related coordinate looking at the patient and how to posterior.
system. a slice is positioned.

²&RURQDO
 $QWHULRU $

7UDQVYHUVH
 +HDG +

²6DJLWWDO 6DJLWWDO
 5LJKW 5  /HIW /

&RURQDO
 3RVWHULRU 3

²7UDQVYHUVH
 )HHW )

96
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

patient registration PBP map PC Angio


Measurement preparation: Perfusion imaging: A percent- phase-contrast
Prior to an MR examination, age of baseline at peak map angiography (PCA)
the patient has to be regis- can be reconstructed for the
tered. The patient data are slice. The gray scale displays
entered, providing for a clear the signal change relative to
allocation between the patient a baseline image prior to
and the MR image. administering contrast agent.

97
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

peak percentage of baseline at perfusion-weighted image


peak
MR spectroscopy: Theoreti- PBP map Perfusion imaging: Perfusion-
cally, the frequency display of weighted images visualize the
a pure sine wave is a single diagnostically relevant para-
perfusion imaging
spectral line at the point of the meters of tissue perfusion.
resonance frequency. In reality,
the spectral line spreads into a MR application: Perfusion
blurred peak. The cause are the is one of the most important
spin-spin effects and the field physiologic and pathophysio-
inhomogeneity (magnet and logic parameters and can be
patient). assessed non-invasively with
MRI. There are several tech-
Peak characteristics:
niques to derive perfusion-
resonance frequency (0),
related parameters using
peak height (h), peak width at
endogenous contrast methods
half height (b) (full width half
(for example, arterial spin
maximum FWHM), area.
labeling), or exogenous con-
trast agent dynamic methods.

98
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

peripheral angiography peripheral nerve stimulation permanent magnet


(PNS)
MR application: MR angiogra- MR safety: Effect on the MR components:
phy of the peripheral vascular human body caused by Permanent magnets consist
system; has special require- time-varying magnetic fields. of large blocks of magnetic
ments: If the electrical fields gener- material, usually horseshoe-
ated exceed a specific thresh- shaped. They have a perma-
• arterial flow is often
old, electrical currents can be nent magnetic field. As a
pulsating
induced in the patient’s body result, they do not need to
• large volumes have to be and stimulate nerves or mus- be supplied with energy or
measured cles. This stimulation may be cooling.
considered uncomfortable for
• images must clearly distin-
the patient and is an important
guish between arteries and PETRA sequence
value for establishing safety
veins
limits. MRI measurement technique:
Most often, 3D gradient-echo Sequence for 3D T1 imaging,
protocols with or without con- requiring very limited gradient
trast agent (NATIVE, QISS) are activity. Part of the Quiet Suite
being used. Measurements are for reducing noise levels
performed with tabletop during MR examinations.
movement in several stations.
They require an optimized
timing sequence.

99
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

phantom phase cancellation


(chemical shift)
Quality assurance: Synthetic Image quality: Fat and water The strength of the oscillation
item with known dimensions protons have only slightly dif- depends on the relative
and measurement characteris- ferent resonance frequencies. proportion of fat and water
tics. Usually a container filled This results in phase cycling. protons in the tissue.
with fluid and a built-in plastic After an excitation pulse, the This effect occurs only with
structure of various sizes and fat and water spins of a gradient-echo sequences.
shapes. Phantoms are used to 1.5 tesla magnet are alterna-
test the system and the quality tively in and out of phase every
features of imaging systems. 4.5 ms. For this reason, the
signal intensity of a voxel
containing fat and water
oscillates with an increasing
echo time.

100
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

phase-contrast angiography phase encoding


(PCA)
MR application: Method for 2D and 3D PCA protocols have MR measurement: Method for
displaying vascular flow. established flow sensitivity for defining the rows in the
With PCA, the phase change all three spatial directions. This measurement matrix. Between
of the spins in flowing blood allows the display of various the RF excitation pulse and the
induced by velocity is used to flow velocities. MR readout signal, a magnetic
distinguish the blood from field gradient is switched
Applications: slow flow, “bent”
stationary tissue. Only flowing briefly, applying a phase shift
vessels with variable flow
spins contribute to the signal. to the spins from line to line.
direction, overview projection
The blood contrast in the phase-encoding steps are
images.
image is proportional to the required to fully scan the slice
local flow velocity. This technique is also the basis depending on the matrix
for flow measurements. (for example, 256 or 512). The
subsequent Fourier transform
allocates the various phasings
to the respective lines.

101
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

phase-encoding gradient
MR measurement: Magnetic The amplitude of the phase- In a magnitude image,
field gradient switched in the encoding gradient changes the gray scale of a pixel
phase-encoding direction. incrementally from excitation corresponds to the magnitude
to excitation. of the MR signal at that
For this reason, each row of location. In the phase image,
phase-encoding step
raw data has different phase each pixel gray scale repre-
MR measurement: Phase information. sents the respective phase
encoding of an MR image between 180 and 180.
normally requires that there
phase image Spin ensembles can be
are as many excitations and
distinguished from stationary
signal acquisitions as there Image reconstruction: In
tissue in phase images.
are image matrix rows addition to regular magnitude
Stationary spins have the same
(for example, 256 or 512). images, phase images can also
phase, moving spins have
be reconstructed from the raw
differing phases depending on
data measured.
their velocity.

102
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

phase oversampling physical gradient physiological measurement


unit
oversampling gradient coil
PMU
phase shift
MR physics: Loss of phase
coherence in precessing spins
(signal reduction). In most
physiological situations,
vascular spins move at variable
velocities. Faster flowing spins
are subject to a stronger phase
shift than slower flowing
spins.

103
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

physiologically controlled pixel PMU


imaging
MRI measurement technique: Image quality: Smallest picture MR components: Device for
Physiological movements such element of a digital image. physiologically controlled
as the heartbeat, breathing, To display the MR image, every imaging, which acquires a
blood flow, or fluids generally pixel in the image matrix patient's physiological signals
cause artifacts that make an contains a specific gray value. (ECG, respiration and pulse).
accurate interpretation of an The PMU consists of the
Pixel size = FOV / matrix size
MR image difficult, if not following components:
impossible. Physiologically
• PERU (physiological ECG
controlled imaging suppresses pixel intensity
and respiratory unit),
these artifacts.
Image quality: The gray value
• PPU (peripheral pulse unit),
cardiac triggering assigned to pixels in the image
(ECG triggering, data, depending on tissue and • external trigger input.
pulse triggering), measurement parameters.
The physiological signals are
respiratory triggering,
acquired with receptors,
respiratory gating
for example, ECG electrodes,
respiratory cushion, and pulse
sensor.

104
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

positron emission postprocessing precession frequency


tomograph (PET)
MR-PET examination: Image evaluation: MR images Larmor frequency
Tomographic device, which can be manipulated in various
detects the annihilation ways for evaluation, for
precontrast image
radiation of positron-emitting example, image subtraction,
radionuclides by coincidence averaging, rotation, inversion, Contrast-enhanced
detection. multiplanar reconstruction examination: In a contrast-
(MPR), maximum intensity enhanced examination, the
projection (MIP), etc. precontrast images are the
postcontrast image
images measured before the
Contrast-enhanced injection of contrast agent,
precession
examination: In a contrast- that is, native images.
enhanced examination, MR physics: Gyration of the
the postcontrast images are rotation axis of a spinning
the images measured after body around another line
injection of contrast agent. intersecting it so as to describe
a cone.

105
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

presaturation PRESS technique

Image quality: Regional An additional saturation pulse MR spectroscopy: Multiecho


presaturation, presaturation is applied at the beginning of single-shot technique to obtain
with inversion pulses the pulse sequence to saturate spectral data. The PRESS
(for example: dark blood the spins within the saturation sequence uses 90–180–180
techniques). slice. The saturated region slice-selective pulses.
produces almost no signal and
Regional presaturation can be The long echo times used in
appears black in the image.
used to reduce the signal from PRESS allow a better visualiza-
unwanted tissue. For example, tion of metabolites with longer
to minimize artifacts caused by relaxation times.
movement of the thorax. PRESS is less susceptible to
motion, diffusion, and quan-
tum effects and has a better
SNR than the stimulated echo
acquisition method (STEAM).

106
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

projection onto convex sets prospective triggering proton density


(POCS)
Measurement parameters: Physiologically controlled MR physics: Number of hydro-
Mathematical procedure for imaging: Prospective trigger- gen protons per unit of volume
reconstructing images from ing is used to position the data (generally: spin density).
raw data. This parameter acquisition window into a
improves the edge sharpness specific cardiac phase.
proton density weighting
for partial Fourier sampling.
Missing k-space data points Image quality: In a proton
protocol
are not set to zero but are density-weighted MR image,
extrapolated. measurement protocol contrast is affected primarily
by the proton density of the
tissue to be displayed. T1 and
T2 effects are suppressed.

107
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

PSIF sequence pulse sequence pulse triggering


MRI measurement technique: MR measurement: Chrono- Physiologically controlled
The PSIF sequence is a time- logical order of RF pulses and imaging: Pulse triggering
inverted FISP sequence. It gradient pulses used to excite suppresses motion and flow
produces a strong T2-weighted the volume to be measured, artifacts, as a result of pulsat-
contrast in a short measure- generate the signal, and ing blood and fluid. The pulse
ment time. provide spatial encoding. wave obtained with a finger
sensor, for example, is used as
Typical pulse sequences: spin
the trigger.
pulsed ASL echo, gradient echo, TSE,
Inversion Recovery, EPI, etc. Although pulse sensors are
Perfusion imaging: Pulsed ASL
easier to apply than ECG elec-
is an arterial spin labeling
trodes, they are less accurate
technique which has the
and not suitable for cardiac
advantage of not requiring
imaging.
a contrast agent such as
gadolinium-based agents.

108
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

QISS quality assurance Quiet Suite


MR angiography: Quiescent Method for adjusting the com- MR application: The main
interval single-shot (QISS) ponents and parameters of an source of MRI acoustic noise
imaging is a non-contrast MRA MR system, for determining is the rapid switching of the
technique for peripheral MRA. spatial resolution, contrast gradient coils, which gener-
resolution, signal-to-noise ates significant mechanical
• ECG-triggered, single-shot
ratio, and other quality- vibrations.
2D acquisition of one slice
relevant parameters.
per heartbeat. Quiet Suite includes QuietX
and PETRA for reducing noise
• In-plane saturation to sup-
quench levels during MR examinations
press background tissue and
and provides optimized proto-
a tracking saturation pulse to Super-conductive magnet:
cols for neurological and
suppress venous signal prior Rapid expulsion of liquid
orthopedic examinations.
to a quiescent inflow period. cryogen used to maintain
the MR magnet in supercon-
• ECG triggering ensures that
ducting state. QuietX
the quiescent inflow period
coincides with rapid systolic MRI measurement technique:
flow to maximize inflow of Algorithm of Quiet Suite for
unsaturated spins into the reducing noise levels during
imaging slice. MR examinations. Optimizes
the gradient trajectory for
• Images are acquired with
noise reduction through
a series of imaging stations
summation of gradients and
around the magnet
reduction of the slew rate,
isocenter. The stations use
while maintaining image
a series of breath-hold
quality and measurement
concatenations to minimize
times.
respiratory motion.

109
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

RADIANT radio frequency (RF) radiopharmaceutical


MR mammography: MR physics: Portion of the tracer
3D reconstruction similar to electromagnetic spectrum
ultrasound for breast imaging, in which electromagnetic
ramp time
generates a 360 view with the waves can be generated by
nipple as the center. alternating current fed to an magnet ramp time
antenna. The RF pulses used
in MRI are commonly in the
1–100 megahertz range. Their
primary effect on the human
body is energy dissipation in
the form of heat, usually on
the surface of the body.
Energy absorption is an impor-
tant value for establishing
safety thresholds.
specific absorption rate
(SAR)

110
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

random RARE technique raw-data filter


MR-PET examination: Result of HASTE technique Measurement parameters:
coincidence detection in which Raw data can be filtered prior
both participating photons to image reconstruction.
raw data
arise from different positron The Hamming filter is provided
annihilations. MR measurement: The with various weightings.
MR measurement does not The filter is able to reduce edge
directly obtain the image. oscillations, for example.
Instead, raw data are gener-
ated that are subsequently
reconstructed into an image.

111
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

raw-data matrix readout bandwidth

MR measurement: As with a The outer region of the raw- Measurement parameters:


hologram, every point in the data matrix provides informa- A pulse sequence's received
raw-data matrix contains part tion regarding the borders and bandwidth in the readout
of the information for the contours of the image, direction (unit: Hz/pixel).
complete image. This is why a detailed structures, and also
point in the raw-data matrix determines the resolution.
readout direction
does not correspond to a point
Using the two-dimensional
in the image matrix. MR measurement: The direc-
Fourier transform, the
tion in which the MR signal
The region around the center raw-data matrix is converted
is read out. It corresponds to
of the raw-data matrix deter- into the image matrix. For this
the direction of frequency
mines the basic structure and reason, raw-data lines are also
encoding.
contrast in the image. referred to as Fourier lines.

112
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

receiver bandwidth rectangular FOV


(RecFOV)
readout bandwidth Measurement parameters: The rectangular FOV can be
When the object of interest is combined with a reduced
oval, a rectangular field of measurement matrix.
receiver coil
view can be selected. For example, a rectangular
MR components: A local coil This applies, for example, FOV is sampled with an
that receives signals. to examinations of the adjusted matrix. A rectangular
Ecxitation is applied via the abdominal and spinal regions. image is obtained with fewer
body coil, the measured signal rows than columns.
is the patient-specific signal
The full-resolution raw-data
response.
space is sampled less densely,
so resolution is not lost.
Measurement time is reduced,
but so is the signal-to-noise
ratio.

113
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

reduced matrix reference image region of interest (ROI)

Measurement parameters: Postprocessing: Base image Postprocessing: An ROI is the


When you select fewer lines selected for defining the range area in the MR image singled
than columns for the measure- and orientation of reconstruc- out for evaluation.
ment matrix, a reduced matrix tion methods such as MIP or
results. The high spatial MPR.
relative cerebral blood flow
frequencies are no longer mea-
sured. This reduces the mea- Perfusion imaging: The
refocusing
surement time. The lines not relative cerebral blood flow
measured are filled with zeroes rephasing (relCBF) is the amount of
prior to image reconstruction flow corresponding to the
(zero filling). This corresponds relative cerebral blood volume
to an interpolation in the (relCBV).
phase-encoding direction;
therefore, a square image is
still displayed on screen.

114
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

relative cerebral blood relaxation relaxation rate


volume R1, R2, R2*
Perfusion imaging: The MR physics: Dynamic, MR physics: Reciprocals of the
relative cerebral blood volume physical process where a relaxation times, T1, T2, and
(relCBV) is the relative volume system returns from a state T2*.
taken up by the capillary bed of imbalance to equilibrium.
• R1: longitudinal relaxation
within a voxel, based on the
longitudinal relaxation rate (1/T1)
mass of tissue supplied.
transverse relaxation • R2: transverse relaxation
rate (1/T2)
relative mean transit time
• R2*: apparent transverse
Perfusion imaging: The
relaxation rate (1/T2*)
relative mean transit time
(relMTT) is the mean duration Relaxation rates provide
of the bolus passage through a information about tissue
voxel. Its pixel-by-pixel display microstructure. Application:
results in a relMTT map. quantitative MRI, for example,
noninvasive measurement and
imaging of liver iron concen-
trations.

115
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

relief artifact repetition time (TR)


Image quality: Relief-like The cause is a chemical shift: Measurement parameters:
structures along the transitions the signals of the fat and water In general, the time between
between tissue with significant protons in a voxel are allocated two excitation pulses. Within
differences in fat and water to different image pixels the TR interval, signals may
content (for example, spleen, during image reconstruction. be acquired with one or more
kidneys, eye sockets, spine, At transitions of fat and water, echo times, or one or more
and spinal disks). these incorrect encodings lead phase encodings (depending
to a higher signal (dark surface on the measurement tech-
area) or to an invalid signal nique). TR is one of the
(bright areas) in the respective measurement parameters
frequency-encoding direction. that determines contrast.
The acquisition time (TA) is
directly proportional to TR.
relMTT map
relative mean transit time

116
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

rephasing resistive magnet RESOLVE


MR physics: Reversal of MR components: Resistive MRI measurement technique:
dephasing; the spins go back magnet. A magnet whose With the RESOLVE method, a
into phase. Obtained through magnetic field is generated multi-shot diffusion-weighted
a 180 pulse that creates a spin using a normally conductive imaging sequence is used
echo, or a gradient pulse in the coil system. When used with which provides an improved
opposite direction. copper or aluminum conduc- image quality compared to
tors, this system creates a standard single-shot echo-pla-
maximum field strength of nar imaging (ss-EPI).
up to 0.6 tesla. Disadvantage: RESOLVE supports all the
high electric costs. standard acquisition and data
processing features for
diffusion imaging (DWI) and
resolution
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).
spatial resolution
temporal resolution

117
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

resonance respiratory gating restore pulse


Physics: Exchange of energy Physiologically controlled MRI measurement technique:
between two systems at a imaging: Technique for A 90 RF flip-back pulse at
specific frequency. In musical reducing respiratory artifacts. the end of the echo train
instruments, for example, Respiratory gating acquires of a TSE sequence. This rotates
strings at the same pitch will data only within a predefined the momentary transverse
resonate. window during which the magnetization into the longi-
respiratory motion is minimal, tudinal axis. This technique
for example, in the end- allows for a shorter TR with
resonance frequency
expiration phase. Diaphragm comparable contrast as well as
MR physics: The frequency movement may be detected a shorter acquisition times.
at which resonance occurs. with the navigator sequence.
In MR, this frequency is used
for the RF pulse in order to
respiratory triggering
affect the spin equilibrium,
that is, it matches the Larmor Physiologically controlled
frequency of the spins. imaging: Technique for
reducing respiratory artifacts.
Data acquisition is triggered at
a fixed point in the respiratory
cycle. Unlike gating, images
can be created at any phase of
the respiratory cycle.
A respiratory signal acquired
with suitable sensors or MR
methods (navigator sequence)
is used as the trigger signal.

118
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

retrospective gating RF adjustment RF shielding


Physiologically controlled MRI measurement technique: Image quality: The radio-
imaging: Simultaneous Adjustment of components frequency pulses used in MR
acquisition of untriggered data prior to the measurement, are in the radio frequency
and the ECG signal. The data usually automatic. range. They have to be
acquisition windows, each shielded for two reasons:
frequency adjustment
covering a specific cardiac
• external electromagnetic
phase of limited duration, transmitter adjustment
waves (for example, radios,
are spread equidistantly across
electrical machines) would
the entire R-R interval. The
RF coil distort the measurement and
ECG signal is used during
generate image artifacts
subsequent postprocessing coil
to assign the images to the • to avoid interference
correct phase in the cardiac with other receivers, the
RF energy
cycle. RF signals of the system
radio frequency (RF) should not extend beyond
May also be used for pulsatile
the system
flow.
RF pulse RF shielding is provided by
installing the magnet and
excitation pulse
receiver coils in a Faraday
cage (a space that cannot be
penetrated by high-frequency
waves). For that purpose, the
magnet room is, for example,
shielded with copper, and
windows are covered with
electrically conductive screens.

119
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

RF spoiling rise time RX coil


MRI measurement technique: gradient rise time receiver coil
Technique for destroying
any remaining transverse
row R1, R2, R2*
magnetization after the read-
out of the echo and prior to Fourier line relaxation rate R1, R2, R2*
the next excitation.
spoiler gradient

120
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

sagittal plane SAR saturation recovery (SR)


Slice orientation: Orthogonal specific absorption rate MRI measurement technique:
plane dividing the body into (SAR) Technique for generating
left (sinister) and right (dexter) primarily T1-dependent
parts. contrast through a series of
saturation
90 excitation pulses. Immedi-
MR physics: The state in which ately after the first pulse,
spins have no net longitudinal longitudinal magnetization is
or transverse magnetization. zero because the tissue is
It is not possible to obtain a saturated. The next 90 pulse
MR signal from saturated is not applied until longitudinal
tissue. magnetization has partially
recovered (recovery).
The recovery time depends on
the T1 constant of the tissue.

121
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

saturation slice scatter segmented HASTE


Slice positioning: Regional MR-PET examination: MRI measurement technique:
presaturation used to suppress A detected pair of photons, Variant of the standard HASTE
undesired signals for specific at least one of which was technique. With segmented
areas, either within the slice or deflected from its original path HASTE, half the image infor-
parallel/perpendicular to it. by interaction with matter in mation is acquired after the
the field of view, leading to first excitation pulse, and the
parallel saturation
the pair being assigned to an other half after the second
presaturation incorrect line of response excitation pulse. The raw data,
(LOR). acquired after the first and
tracking sat
second excitation pulse, are
then interleaved into the
scatter correction
scan raw-data matrix. A long
MR-PET examination: Scatter repetition time TR is selected
MR measurement:
correction suppresses effects used to allow the spin system
1. Acquiring one or several MR from scattered coincidences. to recover between excitation
signals after a single excitation pulses. Any dead time can be
pulse used to excite additional slices.
scatter fraction (SF)
2. Acquiring a complete Advantage: The length of the
MR-PET examination: Ratio
raw-data record multiecho pulse train is cut in
of scattered true coincidences
half. HASTE sequences may
to the sum of scattered plus
also be divided into more than
unscattered true coincidences.
2 segments.

scout
localizer

122
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

selective excitation SENSE shim


MR measurement: Limits MRI measurement technique: Magnetic field: Correction
excitation to the region Image-based parallel acquisi- of magnetic field inhomo-
selected. Magnetic field tion technique (PAT). With geneities caused by the
gradients are combined with SENSE, PAT reconstruction is magnet itself, ferromagnetic
a narrow-band RF pulse. performed after the Fourier objects, or the patient's body.
Selective excitation is also transform. The basic shim usually involves
used with fat and water the introduction of small iron
suppression. pieces in the magnet.
sensitivity
The patient-related fine shim is
MR sensitivity software-controlled and
SEMAC
performed using a shim coil.
MRI measurement technique:
sequence active shim
Technique to correct for
through-plane distortions pulse sequence global shim
caused by MR Conditional
interactive shim
metal implants by applying
sequential multislice
additional phase-encoding local shim
imaging
steps in the slice direction.
3D shim
Image quality is improved, MRI measurement technique:
for example, near large metal The slices in the area under
structures such as full joint examination are measured
replacement of the hip or sequentially.
knee.
slice sequence

123
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

shim coil signal elimination signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)

MR components: Coils that Image quality: Areas in the Image quality: Relationship
create weak additional image that do not visualize a between the intensity of signal
magnetic fields in various signal, that is, they are black. and noise. Ways to improve
spatial directions. Used to There are different reasons SNR include:
improve the homogeneity in for signal elimination:
• increasing the number of
the main magnetic field. Metal artifacts, susceptibility
averages
artifacts, flow effects, and
• first order shim:
saturation effects. • increasing the measurement
gradient coils are used
volume (although spatial
Flow effects may occur with
• second order shim: resolution degrades)
fast flow when using spin-echo
specific shim coils are used
sequences. After half • using special coils and local
the echo time, the bolus has coils
shim current flown out of the slice com-
• smaller bandwidth
pletely. Since it is no longer
Magnetic field: During shim,
acquired by the slice-selective • shorter echo time
shim currents flowing through
180 pulse, it no longer
the system’s shim coils are • thicker slice
produces a spin echo: blood
changed interactively in order
appears black in the image.
to optimize the shim quality.

signal
MR signal

124
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

simultaneous excitation single single-bed/single-step


examination
MRI measurement technique: MR-PET examination: Singles MR-PET examination:
Special averaging procedure are undesired events, which An MR-PET examination of a
that excites two or more slices occur when only one of the part of the body where the
simultaneously. This enables, two photons is detected. examination region is small
for example, more slices to be Reasons for why singles occur enough to make it unneces-
acquired in the same measure- include: one of the two pho- sary to move the patient table.
ment time. tons leaves the field of view of Bed is the term generally used
the detector ring, one of the in the context of PET (positron-
A simultaneous excitation
two photons is scattered or emission tomography) while
offers the following
absorbed in the volume to be step is the term generally used
advantages:
examined (patient). in the context of MR.
• shorter TR with the same
number of slices, the same
measurement time, and the
same number of concatena-
tions
• double the number of slices
with the same signal-to-
noise ratio at the same TR
and acquisition time

125
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

single-shot technique single-voxel spectroscopy


MRI measurement technique: MR spectroscopy: Currently, clinical 1H spectros-
Uses a single excitation to SVS methods map the copy uses single-voxel tech-
generate all echoes for an metabolic information from niques based on spin echoes
image. The first echoes are the volume of interest (VOI) (SE) or stimulated echoes
encoded via small phase- in a spectrum. Single-voxel (STEAM).
encoding gradients. Each of techniques are advantageous
the subsequent echoes is given in case of pathological
a different phase encoding by changes that cannot be
increasing the gradient spatially limited to a few VOIs:
strengths. to a large extent, local mag-
netic field inhomogeneities
Single-shot techniques
can be compensated for with a
include: EPI, HASTE.
“local volume-sensitive shim”.

126
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

sinogram slab-boundary artifact slice


MR-PET examination: slice-boundary artifact Measurement parameters:
Two-dimensional display of all Thin, three-dimensional
one-dimensional projections of cuboid uniquely defined by
slab thickness
an object slice, depending on slice position, FOV, and slice
the projection angle. The 3D imaging: The slice thick- thickness. The center plane of
projection angle is displayed ness of a 3D slab. the slice is the image plane.
on the ordinate, the linear
projection coordinate is
slew rate
displayed on the abscissa.
gradient slew rate

127
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

slice-boundary artifact slice gap slice orientation


Image quality: Slice-boundary Measurement parameters: Measurement parameters:
artifacts are caused through The gap between the nearest Orthogonal planes are avail-
signal loss at the boundaries edges of two adjacent slices. able for use as the basic slice
between slices (nonideal slice Slice thickness  slice gap = orientation:
profile). They appear typically slice distance.
• sagittal
during conventional 3D multi-
slab measurements and lead to • coronal
slice order
oscillations in signal intensity
• transverse
and staircase phenomena slice sequence
along the vessels. Also known An oblique or double-oblique
as slab-boundary artifact, slice is obtained by rotating
venetian-blind artifact. the slice out of the basic
orientation.
slice distance
slice position
Measurement parameters:
The separation between Measurement parameters:
the center planes of two The position of the slice to
sequential slices or 3D slabs. be measured within the area
under examination.

128
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

slice positioning slice sequence slice thickness


Graphical positioning of the Measurement parameters: Measurement parameters:
slices and saturation regions For multislice measurements, The thickness set for the slice
to be acquired in a localizer the excitation sequence can to be measured. The thicker
image. be selected as needed: the slice, the stronger the
signal and the better the
• ascending
signal-to-noise ratio. However,
slice selection (1, 2, 3, ..., n)
spatial resolution drops.
MR measurement: To display • descending Combined with the number
an MR image of the human (n, n1, ..., 3, 2, 1) of slices, this parameter deter-
body, the slice desired has mines the extension of the
• interleaved
to be selectively excited. For measurement area in the slice-
(1, 3, 5, ..., 2, 4, 6, ...)
orthogonal slices, a magnetic selection direction.
field gradient is applied • freely defined
perpendicular to the desired
SMASH
slice plane (slice-selection
slice shift
gradient). Oblique and double- MRI measurement technique:
oblique slices are excited by Measurement parameters: k-space-based method of
simultaneously applying 2 or Distance between the center Parallel Acquisition Technique
3 gradient fields. of a slice group and the center (PAT) With SMASH, PAT recon-
of the magnetic field in the struction is performed prior to
slice-selection direction. the Fourier transform.

129
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

smearing artifact SPAIR spatial encoding


Image quality: In the case of MRI measurement technique: MR measurement: Definition
nonperiodic movements such Robust fat saturation for body of position and orientation of
as eye movement, the excited imaging due to a frequency- a slice via the frequency and
spins may be at a different selective inversion pulse. phase-encoding gradient.
location in the gradient field at SPAIR uses an adiabatic pulse Thus, the location of the
the time of the echo. This which is less sensitive to signals’ origin is encoded in
results in incorrect phase B1 inhomogeneities. the MR signals and recon-
encoding. This smears the structed in subsequent image
object in the phase-encoding computations.
direction. These artifacts are
more discrete for periodic
movements (respiration,
blood flow).

130
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

spatial filter spatial resolution spatial shift


Reconstruction parameters: Image quality: Is the ability Image quality: Spatial shift
Spatial filter is a parameter for to differentiate neighboring describes an effect that occurs
smoothing images. The spatial tissue structures. The higher when superimposed images
filter leads to an increase in the spatial resolution, the are not registered correctly.
signal-to-noise ratio at the better small pathologies may For example, t-maps may be
expense of spatial resolution. be diagnosed. spatially distorted. As a result,
superimposed images may not
Spatial resolution increases
be aligned correctly and need
spatial frequency with a larger matrix, smaller
to be checked by superimpos-
FOV, and smaller slice thick-
Physics: The number of ing anatomical EPI images or a
ness.
repetitions of a periodic field map.
process in a unit of space
(as opposed to temporal
frequency).

131
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

specific absorption rate specific energy dose (SED)


(SAR)
Safety: The RF energy Unauthorized high local Safety: The specific energy
absorbed per time unit and concentrations of RF energy dose is the value of the
per kilogram. Absorption of can result in burns (local SAR). accumulated whole-body SAR
RF energy can result in When the RF energy is throughout the entire
warming of the body. Energy uniformly distributed, safety examination.
absorption is an important thresholds have to be observed
It is expressed in J/kg (= Ws/kg).
value for establishing safety to avoid, for example, cardiac
thresholds. stress (whole-body SAR).
Remedies: low-SAR RF pulses,
smaller flip angles, lower TR,
fewer slices.

132
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

spectral map spectrum spin

MR spectroscopy: Mapping MR spectroscopy: nuclear spin


of a CSI spectral matrix to an The frequency plot of the
anatomical image. It shows MR signal. The signal intensity
spin density
the regional changes in is displayed as a function of
metabolites as superimposed the chemical shift. Nuclei proton density
contours. with different resonance
frequencies appear as separate
peaks in the spectrum.
spectroscopy
MR spectroscopy (MRS)

133
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

spin echo (SE) spin-echo sequence spin preparation

MRI measurement technique: MRI measurement technique: MRI measurement technique:


The reappearance of an The sequence of an excitation Technique to improve or
MR signal after the decay of pulse (90) and refocusing modify the image contrast by
the FID signal. Dephasing of pulse (180) produces a applying dedicated prepara-
the spins (decay of transverse spin echo. Can be used to tion pulses, for example, an
magnetization) is offset generate T1-weighted, proton- inversion recovery preparation
through the application of a density-weighted or strong pulse.
180 refocusing pulse. The T2-weighted images.
spins rephase, producing the
spin-spin coupling
spin echo at time TE (echo
spin ensemble
time). MR spectroscopy: Interaction
MR physics: Total of all spins between MR-sensitive nuclei
T2* effects (field inhomo-
in a volume element (voxel) in a molecule, resulting in
geneity, susceptibility) are
creating the averaged macro- additional splitting of peaks in
reversed but not T2 effects.
scopic magnetization which the spectrum.
yields the MR signal for this
spin-echo chemical-shift voxel.
spin-spin relaxation
imaging (SE-CSI)
transverse relaxation
MR spectroscopy: Hybrid spin-lattice relaxation
procedure based on the
longitudinal relaxation
spin-echo technique. spin-spin relaxation time
T2 constant (transverse
relaxation time)

134
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

spoiler gradient standardized uptake value steady-state sequence


(SUV)
MRI measurement technique: MR-PET examination: Sequence technique: Class
Gradient pulse with sufficient The standardized uptake of fast imaging techniques
amplitude, or duration, or both value (SUV) is often used in which keep longitudinal and
to completely dephase the PET imaging for a simple semi- transverse magnetization
transverse magnetization. The quantitative analysis of the constant (steady state). This
spoiler gradient is applied after concentration of radioactivity. steady-state magnetization
the echo so that transverse The SUV represents the ratio is achieved by repeated excita-
magnetization is destroyed of: tions with a repetition time TR
prior to the next excitation shorter than the T2 relaxation
• the actual radioactivity
pulse. constant of the tissue to be
concentration found in a
imaged.
Used for presaturation and selected part of the body at
FLASH sequences. a certain time point, and Types of steady-state
sequences include: FISP, CISS,
• the radioactivity concentra-
DESS, TrueFISP.
SSD tion in the hypothetical case
of an even distribution of the
surface-shaded display
injected radioactivity across STEAM technique
(SSD)
the whole body.
MR spectroscopy: With the
STEAM pulse sequence, 3 slice-
StarVIBE selective 90 pulses generate a
stimulated echo.
MRI measurement technique:
A motion-insensitive VIBE
sequence with radial-trajectory
acquisition. Supports free-
breathing measurements.

135
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

STIR sequence stray field stripe tagging


MRI measurement technique: Safety: Magnetic field outside Cardiac imaging: Technique
Inversion recovery sequence the magnet that does not of myocardial tagging, apply-
with a short inversion time Tl, contribute to imaging; also ing parallel stripes in the
used for fat suppression. called fringe field. A specific MR image. Used to view
TI selection depends on the distance has to be kept myocardial motion in the
field strength, for example, between the magnet and primary axis view or four-
typical ranges are approx. various devices and patients chamber view.
150 ms at 1.5 tesla. with cardiac pacemakers
(for example: 0.5 mT line).
The stray field is low with per-
manent magnets because the
system is largely self-shielding.

136
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

superconductive magnet superconductivity surface-shaded display (SSD)


MR components: An electro- Physics: Material characteristic Postprocessing: Three-dimen-
magnet whose strong mag- of various alloys, which at very sional display of surfaces via
netic field (typically at least low temperatures (close to variable threshold values, of
0.5 T) is generated using absolute zero) results in a contrast-enhanced vessels, for
superconductive coils. The complete loss of electrical example.
conductive wires of the coils resistance. Electrical current
are made of a cryogenically can then flow without loss,
susceptibility
cooled niobium titanium alloy, that is, the magnet is “always
(magnetizability)
for example. Liquid helium is on” without any power supply.
used as the cryogen. Physics: Measure for the ability
of a material or tissue to be
surface coil
magnetized in an external
local coil magnetic field.

137
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

susceptibility artifact susceptibility contrast swap


Image quality: Local magnetic T2* contrast gradient swap
field gradients are produced in
all transitions between tissues
susceptibility-weighted SWI
of differing magnetic suscepti-
imaging (SWI)
bility. In transitions between susceptibility-weighted
tissue and air-filled spaces MRI measurement technique: imaging (SWI)
(for example: the temporal Susceptibility-weighted
bone), areas may be present imaging displays venous
that show reduced signal or vessels as well as hemorrhages
no signal at all. in the human brain. The SWI
technique is sensitive to local
The effect is stronger with
changes in magnetic fields
gradient-echo sequences,
caused by desoxygenated
in particular EPI.
blood or local iron deposits.

138
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

syngo syngo BLADE syngo BRACE


Common imaging software for MRI measurement technique: MR mammography: Methods
all Siemens modalities. The BLADE technique helps for motion correction with
reduce the motion sensitivity MR mammography. Eliminates
of MRI examinations: motion artifacts between
syngo BEAT
BLADE is available for the TSE different measurements in
Cardiac imaging: syngo tools sequence. Each echo train of dynamic imaging.
used to optimize cardiac exam- the sequence generates a
inations with a few mouse low-resolution image with a
syngo GRACE
clicks. phase-encoding direction
rotated from one excitation MR spectroscopy: GRACE is
to the next. Subsequently, a SVS procedure in breast
the individual, low-resolution spectroscopy, used to quantify
images are combined into a the cholin signal.
high-resolution image.

139
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

syngo MR syngo REVEAL


MR-specific syngo application. • NATIVE TrueFISP: Diffusion imaging:
for thoracic-abdominal MRA Diffusion-weighted single-shot
(for example: renal arteries). technique for differential
syngo NATIVE
The intrinsic contrast is diagnosis when evaluating
MR angiography: Images of generated by the inflow of lesions in the overall body;
arteries and veins without blood with nonsaturated REVEAL may be combined
contrast agent (native). spins into a presaturated with 2D PACE technique.
volume.
• NATIVE SPACE:
for peripheral MRA; based
on a fast 3D TSE sequence;
image data are computed
via inline subtraction of
two ECG-triggered data sets
(systole and diastole).

140
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

syngo SPACE syngo TimCT syngo TWIST


MRI measurement technique: MRI measurement technique: MRI measurement technique:
SPACE is a variant of the TimCT (Continuous Table The TWIST method increases
3D turbo spin echo. As com- move) enables measurements the temporal resolution for
pared with a conventional of large examination regions angiographic examinations.
TSE sequence, SPACE uses with continuous table move, This is obtained by repeated
nonselective, short refocusing that is, in one examination measurements of the central
pulse trains that consist of step without measurement k-space region. Bolus timing is
RF pulses with variable flip pauses or repositioning the not required with TWIST. Also
angles. This allows for very table “MR as easy as CT”. consumption of contrast agent
high turbo factors (> 100) Continuous scanning in the is reduced.
and high sampling efficiency. isocenter of the magnet
The results are high-resolution, provides for highest image
isotropic 3D image data sets quality and avoids slice-bound-
which can be reconstructed to ary artifacts that may occur
slice groups in any desired with multistation MRI.
plane.

141
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

syngo WARP syngo VIEWS


MRI measurement technique: MR mammography: Bilateral
WARP provides dedicated 3D measurement technique
imaging techniques based on for the breast with fat satura-
the TSE sequence in order to tion or water excitation.
reduce susceptibility-related
artifacts caused by MR Condi-
tional metal implants:
• high bandwidth optimiza-
tions (readout bandwidth,
RF pulse bandwidth)
• SEMAC
• VAT

142
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

tagging tesla (T) Tim (total imaging matrix)


myocardial tagging MR physics: SI unit for MR components: Tim is an
magnetic field strength. integrated coil architecture
Approximately 20 000 times as with high-density matrix coils,
targeted MIP
strong as the earth's magnetic providing a high signal-to-
localized MIP field (1 tesla = 10000 gauss). noise-ratio. Tim allows for
whole-body examinations
without repositioning the
temporal resolution
patient.
Measurement parameters:
Example: Tim [204128]: Tim
Time duration between two
system up to 204 coil elements
acquisitions of the same
and 128 RF channels
region.

143
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

time-of-flight angiography time rate of change of time-to-peak map (TTP)


(TOF) the magnetic field
MR angiography: The time- dB/dt Perfusion imaging: A TTP map
of-flight angiography (inflow shows the regional distribution
angiography) visualizes ves- of the time needed to the
time series
sels through the flow of non- minimum perfusion signal,
saturated, fully relaxed blood Perfusion imaging: The either in gray scale or color-
into the slice, generating a obtained T2* images are coded. It is generated for
high signal. By comparison, labeled with number and time every slice measured.
stationary (background) spins position in the series. They
are partially saturated and may be used for movie mode
generate a relatively low signal and for statistical evaluations.
intensity.

144
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

TIR sequence t-map TOF angiography

turbo inversion recovery BOLD imaging: When evalu- time-of-flight angiography


(TurboIR, TIR) ated with the t-test, the t-map (TOF)
shows a statistical correlation
of the signal intensity change
TIRM sequence
with the paradigm. Positive
turbo inversion recovery correlations between stimula-
magnitude (TIRM) tion and signal increase in
BOLD images are shown
bright, negative correlates
tissue contrast
are shown dark.
image contrast

145
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

TONE technique total imaging matrix tracer


MRI measurement technique: Tim (total imaging matrix) MR-PET examination:
TONE is used for TOF angiogra- A tracer is a substance that
phy to minimize the saturation is used to monitor certain
effects as blood flows through metabolic pathways without
a 3D volume. An RF pulse with macroscopic effects (that is,
a tilted slab profile compen- tracers are administered in
sates for the velocity and very small quantities and are
direction of blood flow. often labeled, for example,
This generates a flip angle with fluorescent dyes, positron
that varies from partition to emitters, etc.) A PET tracer,
partition. in particular, is a tracer labeled
with a positron emitter with
a half-life suitable for PET
imaging.

146
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

trace-weighted image tracking sat


Diffusion imaging: Slice positioning: A presatura- The slices are measured
In trace-weighted images, tion pulse is applied to one sequentially (slice by slice).
contrast is generated by the side of the slice to reduce the The presaturation pulse retains
length of the diffusion tensor signal intensity of spins its position relative to the slice.
and reflects the mean diffusiv- (typically blood) that are
ity. This corresponds to the about to flow into this side of
tractography
sum of diagonal elements the slice. This enables arteries
(trace) of the diffusion tensor or veins to be displayed diffusion tractography
matrix: selectively, since the flow is
often in the opposite direction
Trace = Dxx  Dyy  Dzz trajectory
(for example, carotid artery
and jugular vein). k-space trajectory

147
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

transceiver coil transmission bandwidth transmitter adjustment

MR components: A local coil MR measurement: The fre- MR measurement: Setting


that both sends and receives quency range stimulated by the the transmission power of
signals. excitation pulse in a sequence. the RF pulse (flip angle).

transit time transmit coil


Contrast-enhanced MR components: A local coil
examination: The transit time that sends excitation pulses.
is the time of contrast bolus
arrival in the region of interest
after contrast agent injection.

148
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

transverse magnetization transverse plane transverse relaxation


(Mxy)
MR physics: Transverse magne- Slice orientation: Orthogonal MR physics: Decay of
tization Mxy is the component plane dividing the body into transverse magnetization
of the macroscopic magnetiza- cranial (head, superior) and through the loss of phase
tion vector in the xy-plane; that caudal (feet, inferior) parts. coherence between precess-
is, oriented perpendicular to the Synonym: Axial plane. ing spins (due to spin
stationary magnetic field B0. exchange); is also known
The precession of transverse as spin-spin relaxation.
magnetization induces electri-
cal voltage in a receiver coil that
transverse relaxation time
changes over time. The tempo-
ral progression of this voltage is T2 constant (transverse
the MR signal. After RF excita- relaxation time)
tion, Mxy decays to zero at time
constant T2 (ideal) or T2* (real).

149
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

trigger triggering trigger signal


Physiologically controlled Physiologically controlled Physiologically controlled
imaging: Reference point in imaging: Triggering is a form imaging: Physiological signal
the physiological signal which of measurement where (ECG signal, finger pulse or
releases the scan, for example, MR data acquisition only respiratory curve) that starts
the R wave in the ECG signal. begins after detection of a or restarts data acquisition.
desired physiologic event
(R-wave, peripheral pulse,
trigger delay time (TD)
specified level of inspiration,
ECG triggering: Interval or external trigger).
between the trigger and
release of the measurement.

150
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

true trueFISP
MR-PET examination: When MRI measurement technique: The FISP and PSIF signal are
the tracer decays it emits a The TrueFISP gradient-echo generated simultaneously.
positron. As a result of the sequence provides the highest Due to the superimposition
positron annihilation, two signal of all steady-state of both signals, TrueFISP is
photons are emitted at an sequences. The contrast is a sensitive to inhomogeneities
angle of 180°. If these two function of T1/T2. However, in the magnetic field. The
photons are detected within with a short TR and a short TE, images may contain interfer-
the coincidence window, the T1 portion remains con- ence stripes. For this reason,
a line of response (LOR) is stant. The images are primarily TR should be as short as
reconstructed. This is a true T2-weighted. possible, and a shim has to
or true event. be performed.

151
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

truncation artifact TTP map


Image quality: MR images The artifact is created through time-to-peak map (TTP)
frequently show periodic point-by-point sampling of the
oscillations parallel to tissue analog signal. Theoretically,
transitions. The artifacts show an infinite number of points
bands with alternating high would have to be sampled. In
and lower signal intensity. practical application, however,
All abrupt transitions in tissue there is a finite number of
are subject to this effect. points: the data are truncated.

152
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

t-test turbo factor turboFLASH


BOLD imaging: Statistical Measurement parameters: MRI measurement technique:
evaluation method for BOLD Measurement time saved With a TurboFLASH sequence,
measurements (previously using a TSE sequence rather the entire raw-data matrix is
Z-score). Is used to compute than a conventional spin-echo measured in one acquisition
the differential image from the sequence. only with an ultra-fast gradi-
mean values of activation and ent-echo sequence. The image
Example: At a turbo factor
nonactivation images. Today, contrast is modified via prepa-
(echo train) of 7, the TSE
the t-test is integrated in GLM. ration pulses.
sequence measures 7 times
faster than an SE sequence
with comparable parameters.

153
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

turbo gradient spin echo turbo inversion recovery


(TurboGSE, TGSE) (TurboIR, TIR)
MRI measurement technique: Advantages as compared MRI measurement technique:
TurboGSE is a hybrid sequence, with TSE: they are faster, fat is TSE sequence with inversion
derived from TSE and EPI. With darker, greater sensitivity to pulse; long TI for fluid suppres-
TGSE, additional gradient ech- susceptibility effects sion (FLAIR); short TI for fat
oes are generated before and (for example: bleeding with suppression (STIR).
after each spin echo. The spin hemosiderin).
echoes are allocated to the
center of the raw-data matrix
to give pure T2 contrast. The
gradient echoes are allocated
to the outer segments. Gradi-
ent echoes determine mainly
the image resolution.

154
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

turbo inversion recovery turbo spin echo TWIST-VIBE


magnitude (TIRM) (TurboSE, TSE)
MRI measurement technique: MRI measurement technique: MRI measurement technique:
Identical to TurboIR, however, TSE is a fast multiecho VIBE sequence which is
with the magnitude image of sequence. Each echo of a extended by the TWIST
the signal and appropriate pulse train receives a different technique in combination
display. phase encoding. Within one with CAIPIRINHA and Dixon
repetition time TR, raw-data with fat/water separation.
rows equal to the number of This allows multi-arterial phase
pulse train echoes are acquired imaging in a single breathhold
(segmented raw data). with high temporal and spatial
The turbo factor increases resolution. Contrast agent
speed, and is frequently used timing is not required as the
to improve resolution. arterial phase is covered from
the beginning of the measure-
ment.

155
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

Tx coil T1 constant (longitudinal T1 contrast


relaxation time)
transmit coil MR physics: Tissue-specific Image quality: Since different
time constant which describes types of tissue show different
the return of the longitudinal T1 relaxation, this difference
TxRx coil
magnetization to equilibrium. can be shown as image con-
transceiver coil After time T1, the longitudinal trast (T1 weighting).
magnetization grows back to
Rule of thumb: T1 contrast =
approx. 63 % of its end value.
TR short (to maximize T1 con-
A tissue parameter that deter-
trast), TE short (to minimize
mines contrast.
T2 contrast).

156
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

T1 weighting T2 constant T2 contrast


(transverse relaxation time)
T1 contrast MR physics: Tissue-specific Image quality: Since different
time constant that describes tissue types show different
the decay of transverse mag- T2 relaxation, these differ-
netization in an ideal homoge- ences are shown as image
neous magnetic field. After contrast (T2 weighting).
time T2, transverse magnetiza-
Rule of thumb: T2 contrast =
tion has lost 63 % of its origi-
TR long (to minimize T1 con-
nal value. A tissue parameter
trast), TE long (to maximize
that determines contrast.
T2 contrast).

157
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

T2 weighting T2* constant T2* contrast


T2 contrast MR physics: Characteristic Image quality: The contrast
time constant that describes of a T2*-weighted image
the decay of transverse depends primarily on the
magnetization, taking into various T2* time constants of
account the inhomogeneity the different tissue types.
in static magnetic fields and
the human body. T2* is always
less than T2.

158
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

UTE
MRI measurement technique:
Pulse sequences with
ultrashort echo times (UTE)
that are 10 to 20 times shorter
than conventional ones. This
allows for the display of tissue
components with a short T2
(for example, membranes,
compact bone substance) that
could appear as dark only due
to their small signal portion.

159
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

VAT velocity encoding


MRI measurement technique: However, VAT may cause Measurement parameters:
Technique to correct for image blurring due to The velocity encoding (venc)
in-plane distortions. geometric slice shear as well parameter is used to produce
During signal readout, an as the low-pass filtering effect the phase shift known as flow
additional readout gradient of the additional VAT gradient. sensitivity in phase-contrast
(VAT gradient) is applied along These effects can be mini- images.
the slice-selection direction. mized by using thinner slices,
This gradient causes “shearing” higher resolution, and shorter
venc
of the imaged pixels, as if the readout durations.
slice were viewed at an angle. velocity encoding
Application: reduction of
Hence, the pixel shift in the
artifacts in the presence of
readout direction is compen-
MR Conditional metal venetian-blind artifact
sated.
implants.
slice-boundary artifact

160
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

VERSE VIBE volume coil


MRI measurement technique: MRI measurement technique: MR components: An RF coil
Sequences with time- FLASH 3D imaging technique that encloses a part of the
optimized VERSE pulses with reduced data acquisition body (for example: head/neck
improve the slice profile for time by using data interpola- coil, knee coil).
3D measurements. This allows tion, or partial Fourier tech-
for the accelerated 3D imaging niques, or both, primarily for
volume of interest (VOI)
of limited volumes with a dynamic contrast-enhanced
consistent image contrast examinations of the abdomen. A VOI is the volume used for
across the entire 3D slab. measurements or evaluations.

volume-rendering technique
3D VRT

161
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

voxel voxel bleeding VRT


Imaging: Volume element of MR spectroscopy: Voxel 3D VRT
the sample to be examined bleeding indicates crosstalk
which is assigned to a pixel in of signal intensities from one
the image matrix. voxel to an adjacent voxel.
Up to 10 % of a signal can
Voxel size = slice
appear in an adjacent voxel.
thickness  pixel size
These localization artifacts
spatial resolution tend to appear in the image
during intensity tests. It is
reduced by an apodization
filter (for example: Hamming
filter).

162
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

wash-out effect water image water saturation


Image quality: The wash-out Image quality: A pure water Image quality: Frequency-
effect can appear perpendicu- image displays only the signals selective excitation of water,
lar to the image plane during from water protons in the with subsequent dephasing,
fast flow. It occurs during image and suppresses signals is used to suppress water sig-
spin-echo imaging and similar from fat protons. Water images nals. This technique is used for
procedures. Using a 90 pulse, are generated with the dixon MR imaging and spectroscopy.
a bolus is excited within the technique, for example.
slice to be measured. If blood See also fat image.
flows out of the slice before
the subsequent 180 pulse,
some or all of the signal is lost.
This results in a low signal or
no signal at all.

163
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

water suppression whole-body width


MRI examination
Image quality: The MR signal MRI measurement technique: windowing
comprises the sum of signals Imaging the whole body
from water and fat protons. of a patient in one single
windowing
Various techniques can be examination. Strategies used
used to suppress the water are multistation MRI or Image display: Setting bright-
signal. acquisition during continuous ness (center) and contrast
table movement (see syngo (width) in images.
water saturation
TimCT).
wrap-around artifact
whisper sequence
whole-body SAR
overfolding artifact
MRI measurement technique:
Safety: Specific absorption rate
Sequences with low acoustic
(SAR) averaged over the total
noise gradient pulses.
mass of the patient’s body and
over a specified time.

164
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

zero filling Z-score

MRI measurement technique: t-test


Interpolation technique for
expanding a raw-data matrix
with zeroes. Commonly used
to increase the image matrix
size in the phase-encoding
direction (for example,
from 256 to 512) or in the
slice-encoding direction for
3D measurements (for exam-
ple, from 32 to 64)

165
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

1D PACE MRI measurement technique: Fast motion correction in real time,


for example, during cardiac imaging. This PACE technique allows
the patient to breathe freely during the measurement.

2D PACE MRI measurement technique: The PACE technique used in abdominal


imaging is based on a local 2D test image for motion detection.

3D imaging MRI measurement technique: In 3D imaging, the entire measurement


volume, the 3D slab, is excited and not just single slices. Additional phase
encoding in the slice-selection direction provides information in
this direction. See also partition.

3D PACE MRI measurement technique: Fully automated technique for motion


detection and correction during BOLD measurements. Serves to eliminate
motion artifacts.
3D PACE corrects 6 degrees of freedom (3 translations and 3 rotations)
in real time.

166
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

3D shim Magnetic field: 3D shim enables the shim volume to be limited (local shim).
A 3D volume (VOI) is defined. The local magnetic field distribution is deter-
mined in this volume, resulting in the calculation of
the shim currents.
A 3D shim provides for a more precise result than a MAP shim used
with older MR systems and therefore for a better fat saturation.
For spectroscopy, it provides a better starting value for the interactive shim.

3D slab Measurement parameters: Measurement volume stimulated for


3D imaging. The 3D slab is divided into partitions.

3D TSE MRI measurement technique: As a 3D sequence, TSE allows for the


acquisition of T2 images with thin slices and practically uniform voxels.

3D VRT Postprocessing: 3D depiction of complex anatomies and anatomic


relationships, for example, in angiography. In addition to color images,
a threshold-based segmentation of 3D objects is possible.

167
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

AC attenuation correction CAIPIRINHA controlled aliasing in parallel


imaging results in higher
ACRIN American College of Radiology
acceleration
Imaging Network
CARE combined applications to reduce
ADC analog-to-digital converter
exposure
ADC apparent diffusion coefficient
CB CARE Bolus
AIF arterial input function
CE MRA contrast-enhanced
AS active shielding MR angiography
ASL arterial spin labeling CISS constructive interference in steady
state
ATC activity-time course
CM contrast medium, contrast agent
CNR contrast-to-noise ratio
b b-value
CP circular polarization
B magnetic induction,
MR: magnetic field CPR curved planar reconstruction
BOLD blood oxygenation-level- CSF cerebrospinal fluid, liquor
dependent imaging
CSI chemical-shift imaging
BRACE breast acquisition correction
CSPAMM complementary spatial
B0 main magnetic field modulation of magnetization
B1 alternating magnetic field

168
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

dB/dt temporal change of FISP fast imaging with steady state


the magnetic field precession
DESS dual echo steady state FLAIR fluid attenuated inversion
recovery
DIR double inversion recovery
FLASH fast low angle shot
Dot day optimizing throughput
fMRI functional magnetic resonance
DTI diffusion tensor imaging
imaging
DICOM digital imaging and
FOR frame of reference
communication in medicine
FOV field of view
DSI diffusion spectrum imaging
FT Fourier transform
DWI diffusion-weighted imaging
FWHM full width at half maximum (peak)

EPI echo-planar imaging


GBP global bolus plot
GLM general linear model
FA flip angle
GMR gradient motion rephasing,
FA fractional anisotropy
flow compensation
FatSat fat saturation
GRACE generalized breast spectroscopy
FDG fluorodeoxyglucose exam
FFT fast Fourier transform GRAPPA generalized autocalibrating
partially parallel acquisition
FID free induction decay

169
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

GRE gradient echo LOR line of response


GSP graphical slice positioning LOTA long term averaging

HASTE half-Fourier acquisition MAP multiangle projection


single-shot TurboSE
MDDW multidirectional diffusion
HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and weighting
Accountability Act
MEDIC multiecho data-image
Hz hertz combination
MIP maximum intensity projection
iMRI interventional magnetic MNS multinuclear spectroscopy
resonance imaging
MPPS modality performed procedure
IPA integrated panoramic array step
iPAT integrated parallel acquisition MPR multiplanar reconstruction
techniques
MPRAGE magnetization prepared rapid
IR inversion recovery gradient-echo imaging
IRM inversion recovery magnitude MR magnetic resonance
IRT interactive real-time MRA magnetic resonance angiography
IRTTT interactive real-time tip tracking MRI magnetic resonance imaging

170
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

MRS magnetic resonance spectroscopy PERU physiological ECG and respiratory


unit
MRSI magnetic resonance spectroscopic
imaging PET positron emission tomography
mSENSE modified sensitivity encoding PETRA pointwise encoding time
reduction with radial acquisition
MTC magnetization transfer contrast
PMU physiological measurement unit
mT/m millitesla per meter
PNS peripheral nerve stimulation
MTT mean transit time
POCS projection onto convex sets
Mxy transverse magnetization
ppm parts per million
MZ longitudinal magnetization
PPU peripheral pulse unit
NA number of acquisitions
PRESS point resolved spectroscopy
PSIF FISP read backward
NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers
Assocation PWI perfusion-weighted imaging
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
QA quality assurance
PACE prospective acquisition correction QISS quiescent interval single shot
PASL pulsed arterial spin labeling
PAT parallel acquisition techniques
PBP percentage of baseline at peak
PCA phase-contrast angiography

171
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

RARE rapid acquisition with relaxation SPAIR spectrally adiabatic inversion


enhancement recovery
relCBF relative cerebral blood flow SR saturation recovery
relCBV relative cerebral blood volume SSD surface-shaded display
relMTT relative mean transit time STEAM stimulated echo acquisition
method
RF radio frequency
STIR short TI inversion recovery
ROI region of interest
SUV standardized uptake value
SVS single-voxel spectroscopy
SAR specific absorption rate
SWI susceptibility-weighted imaging
SE spin echo
SE-CSI spin-echo chemical-shift imaging
T tesla
SED specific energy dose
TA acquisition time
SEMAC slice-encoding for metal artifact
correction TD delay time
SENSE sensitivity encoding TE echo time
SF scatter fraction TEeff effective echo time
SI système internationale TGSE turbo gradient spin echo
SMASH simultaneous acquisition of TI inversion time
spatial harmonics
Tim total imaging matrix
SNR signal-to-noise ratio

172
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 123 Abbr.

TimCT Tim continuous table move VAT view angle tilting


TIR turbo inversion recovery venc velocity encoding
TIRM turbo inversion recovery VERSE variable-rate selective excitation
magnitude
VIBE volume interpolated breath-hold
TOF time of flight examination
TONE tilted, optimized, nonsaturating VIEWS volume imaging with enhanced
excitation water signal
TR repetition time VOI volume of interest
TReff effective repetition time VRT volume-rendering technique
TSE turbo spin echo (TurboSE)
tseff effective stimulus duration
TTP time to peak

UTE ultrashort TE

173
Siemens Healthcare Headquarters
Siemens Healthcare GmbH
Henkestraße 127
91052 Erlangen
Germany
Phone: + 49 9131 84-0
siemens.com/healthcare

Print No. MR-00000G.640.04.01.02 | © Siemens Healthcare GmbH, 2015