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Stages of New Building

This article covers basic stages/steps of new building construction and designing. Here are
some important sequential steps using which you may plan your housing project in a better
way and efficiently. We aim to provide you with a better understanding of construction in a
simplified manner.
House Construction Steps
1. Location
Locating land for constructing your dream home is very important. Identify the Land according
to your choice. Always take the advice of an architect preferably with sound knowledge to
check and verify the plot which you have in mind. The Architect should be able to guide you
considering soil conditions, and the latest building rules applying to your plot of land.
Verify with local authority office like municipality/Corporation whether there is any objection
in building a house in that specific plot with respect to the survey no of your said plot. Also,
make a point to check that your plot has no legal complications.
2. Design Process
Before finding/meeting up with an architect make a rough requirement list for your home. This
process should cover the basic concepts of your home, such as living space, no: of bedrooms
you want, Guest bedrooms, Hall, kitchen, Bathrooms, where you want the stairs, car porch,
Garden/landscaping/Pond etc. You should involve your family also, ask their likes and
suggestions. Visit your friends, talk to neighbours about pros and cons of their property and
what they would like to improve.
3. Funding/ budgeting
How much will a house cost you to build? There has been a tremendous increase in the cost
of house construction. These days the normal running rate per square feet is anywhere
between 1800 - 3500 + Rs including materials and labour. One should always make a note
on the available cash at hand and also you may approach banks for loans. In that way you
come to know how much you can spare.
4. The Architect
Arrange a meeting with the architects. Talk through design goals and then fix an Architect,
he will draw up schematics for consideration coupling functionality, room-by-room layouts,
finding the best furniture positioning and use of space. Recommending structural changes
where this seeks to make space work better. A 2D sketch is developed, which is then further
refined and made to a 3D model, you can consult with the architect and his team to develop
the final 3D Model of your house as well as an elevation. An approved architect will develop
drawings for City municipality / Corporation to approve.
5. Building Permits
Permit to build your home is issued by the local governing bodies such as Municipality
/Corporation which is normally validity for 2 years.
6. Building Contractor
Finding a good building Contractor is the next biggest task. And ideally, you have to identify
a builder, plumber, mechanical, electrical contractor. But if you can find a good, reliable and
reasonable contractor you can save your time and money. Always ask his method of working
and check how reliable he is. You may visit and see some of his previous projects and speak
with his previous clients. If he has good
You may visit and see some of his previous projects and speak with his previous clients. If
he has good credentials, technical know-how and is also good at giving a quality work output
then you can consider him as your Contractor.
7. Construction Process
Site Clearance -- Before starting any construction work it becomes necessary to clear the
place from the unwanted grass, boulder etc. In case of any hill like appearance on the ground,
that too needs to be cleared of the excess earth and if there is a pit, it is required to be filled
up. This total job is called site clearance.
Break Ground & Excavation-- After the site clearance, the layout of the structure at the site
can be planned with respect to the given foundation plans. Begin earth excavation and take
trenches accordingly.
Foundation-- A foundation is the lower portion of building a structure that transfers its gravity
loads to the earth. Foundation work is done according to drawings provided by the Architect.
i.e. the size of foundation, depth, length and breadth etc. and type of foundation (Rubble
Packing or Raft and beams etc ..)
Superstructure -- Super-structure is to provide support in the construction of the building as
per designed plan and various members of super-structure such as columns and beams are
designed to provide strength for carrying the dead load and live load expected to come on
the various parts of the structure in a safe and well-distributed manner. After casting the
roofing slab necessary waterproofing coatings shall be done.
Boundary Wall and Gates -- Compound walls should be built ideally just before beginning
major construction activities, it is to protect the site and the material stored in the storage
shed, from the outside environments and from thieves.
8. Roof / Heat Protective Coatings – truss work roofing, Weather Resistant
Barrier, Waterproofing coatings, Rainscreen, Green roof are some of the applications you can
implement to reduce heat.
9. Electrical And Lighting - works can be done after the masonry work has been completed.
10. Interior Design -- works can be executed according to the working drawing provided by
the architect.
11. Plastering
Plastering work can commence after the initial lighting and electrical plumbing work has been
completed. Cement plaster is generally used with 13 mm thickness and sometimes it can be
of 20 mm thickness. On completion of brickwork, plastering is to be done.
(a) to make the building structurally strong
(b) to protect it from the effect of weather, and
(c) to give it an attractive look.
12. Initial Plumbing -- Once plastering is done for bathroom walls, it is okay to start plumbing
13. Painting- Is done with cement primer once initial wiring work and plumbing works are
14. Flooring
Flooring works can commence after the initial wiring works and primer coat is done to the
interior walls. There are many types of floors according to their uses, economy and required
the level of finishing. Ceramic tiles, Vitrified tiles, Clay Tiles, Granite, Marble, Wood, Epoxy
flooring are some of the options you have in flooring.
15. Cabinets, Interior works, Crockery Shelves
Interior works can commence after the initial wiring works and primer coat is done to the
interior walls. Cabinets, shelves and kitchen can be done using a variety of materials which
are currently available in the market such as Wood, Multi-Wood, MDF, Plywood, ACP,
Stainless steel..etc
16. Finishing Plumbing Works - Can be done after tiling works are completed.
17. Finishing Electrical and Lighting works are done just before the application of final
finishing coat of paint.
18. Completion Certificate
At this stage, one can apply for completion certificate from the respective authorities. After
completion of construction Architect/Licensee will have to apply for a completion certificate in
the prescribed format along with completed building drawings to the Issuing Authorities. The
local authority will check completion documents for compliance with building rules and will
assess building tax for the building. Once you have received the completion /occupancy
certificate you can apply for water connection.
A temporary electrical connection can be applied any time once you have an active site which
can be converted to a permanent connection later on when all the necessary papers are at
19. Hardscaping and Landscaping
Once your builder has completed your home, there’s still the “hardscaping” to be done – the
driveway, patio and walkways, and then the “landscaping” plan can be put into action –
the irrigation system, laying of grass bed and planting of trees, as well as outdoor lighting, to
be considered.
20. Final Cleanup
There will always be debris left over from the construction process on the interior and exterior
of the home that you’ll want to have removed/cleaned.
21. Moving In
Basic Components of a Building
A foundation is necessary to evenly distribute the entire building load on the
soil in such a manner that no damaging settlements take place. Hence, the
foundations need to be constructed on good/solid ground.

A plinth is normally constructed just above the ground level and immediately
after the foundation. It raises the floor above the ground level and herewith
prevents surface water from entering the building.


Damp proof course is a layer of water proofing material such as asphalt or
waterproof cement. Walls are constructed above the damp proof course.
Damp proof course prevents surface water from rising into the walls.
Dampness reduces the strength of the walls and creates unhealthy living
conditions. Also it affects the paint and plaster and increasing the cost of
Damp proofing layer is not required where a plinth beam is constructed,
because the plinth beam already performs like a DPC.

A plinth beam is constructed depending upon the type of the structure of the
building and nature of the soil. It provides additional stability in regard to
settlements of the building and earthquake damages.

This is the surface on which we do most of our activities. Floorings is laid
over the filling of the plinth and on subsequent floors.
Flooring can be done with different materials, but care must be given that
the ground below the floor is well compacted. Flooring is done to prevent
dampness from rising to the top and to have a firm platform that can be
kept hygienic and clean.
Walls are the vertical elements on which the roof finally rests. They can be
made of different materials like bricks, stones, mud, concrete blocks,
lateritic blocks etc. If the walls are very long, columns can be provided to
carry the roof.
Walls provide privacy and enclosure. Walls also provide security and
protection against natural elements such as wind, rain and sunshine.
Openings are to be provided in wall for access and ventilation.

Openings are normally provided in the walls as door, windows and
Doors provide access; windows and ventilators provide light and ventilation.
Lintels are constructed just above the openings. It is normally a stone slab
or a concrete slab.
Sill is the part of the wall that is just below the window.
Lintels are constructed to hold up the walls above the openings. In
earthquake prone areas a continuous lintel beam is provided all over the

A stair is a sequence of steps and it is provided to afford the means of
ascent and descent between the floors and landings.
The apartment or room of a building in which stair is located is called
staircase. The space or opening occupied by the stair is called a stairway.
There are different kind of stairs are used in buildings, like RCC stair,
wooden stair, metal stair, brick stair etc.

The roof provides protection for the building and the people living in it. The
roof rests on the walls and requires proper anchoring so that wind and other
mechanical impact cannot destroy it. A roof can have different shapes but it
is always either flat or sloping.
Roof is typically made of RCC, stone slab, tiles etc.
External finishes are the outer most layer of protection, which protect the
structure from weathering. Internal finishes are the layers given on internal
faces. They give durability and pleasing appearance to the inside.

Screeds are long, straight, stiff tubing or boards used to smooth concrete shortly after it
is poured. Screeds are available in different sizes and can even be project-specific,
such as those used for building concrete bridges. For hand-screeding, the screed must
be longer than the width of the concrete form so that the screed can "ride" along top
edges of the form.


Vibrators are used to settle and compact concrete on-site. There are four basic types:

Internal, also called needle or poker—includes a vibrating probe that is immersed in the
wet concrete

Form—attaches to the outside of the concrete form

Surface—attaches to a screed to vibrate the concrete surface during screeding

Table—vibrating metal table for vibrating concrete inside a mold


Wheelbarrows are needed to move small amounts of concrete or to carry tools around
the site. They are also useful for taking concrete samples for slump tests or other


A portable mixer allows you to mix small amounts of concrete at the job site. Mixers
come in handy for pours that are too small to warrant an order of ready-mix, and mixing
by machine is much more efficient than mixing by hand in a wheelbarrow or mixing tub.

Rubber Gloves

Rubber gloves are always needed when handling concrete. Concrete contains
chemicals and admixtures that can irritate skin. Cement in concrete draws moisture
from the skin and can cause extensive damage over time.
Laser Level

A laser level is now the standard (and preferred) tool for leveling forms and setting their
elevation. They're also useful for establishing or checking the height of embedded
pieces, like bolts and other anchors. Laser levels send a beam of light to provide a
straight level or plumb line. Unlike a traditional string line, the laser line never gets in the
way, and it can remain true over a long distance.

Curing Compound

Curing compound is applied directly to a wet concrete surface to reduce cracks and
help the concrete set at the desired rate. For residential and small commercial projects,
the compound is typically sprayed onto the concrete with a hand sprayer.


A bucket or pail of water is handy for pours in very dry or humid conditions. A small
amount of water added during the finishing process makes the concrete more

Water Pump

Rain, snow, or drainage can lead to concrete forms full of water. Bailing out water by
hand can use up precious time before a pour. A water pump can get rid of the water
much faster and with very little manpower.
Materials used in concreting works and suitability of usage

River sand- Naturally available on river banks. Has smoother texture and better shape. Recommended
for RCC, plastering and brick/ block work.

Crushed sand – manufactured in a factory or quarry. Has angular and has rougher texture. Highly
recommended for RCC purposes and brick/ block works.

Crushed stone -made from rocks that have been broken down by machines called crushers,
giving the stones more angular surfaces.

Gravel -produced by the natural processes of weathering and erosion, and typically has a more
rounded shape verses the angular surfaces of stone. The smooth surface of the stones makes it
a good choice for driveways, walkways and more decorative landscape use

Recycled concrete -After removal of contaminants through selective demolition, screening, and
/or air separation and size reduction in a crusher to aggregate sizes, crushed concrete can be
used as new concrete.

Ordinary Portland Cement - the most common type of cement which is manufactured and
widely used worldwide. It is used for all ordinary purposes such as
making concrete, mortar, plaster etc.

OPC has many applications such as in the manufacturing of grout, wall putty, solid concrete
blocks, AAC blocks, and other types of cement.

Portland Pozzolana Cement - a variation of ordinary Portland cement, which includes a mixture
of pozzolanic materials, OPC and gypsum.

Apart from common applications, it is used in mass concrete constructions like high-rise
buildings, underwater concrete structures such as bridges, piers, dams etc.

This is the least expensive but most important ingredient of concrete. Water, which is used
for making concrete, should be clean and free from harmful impurities such as oil, alkali, acid,
etc. In general, water which is fit for drinking should be used for making concrete.

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