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Table of Content

chapter content page


BASIC QUANTITIES AND MEASUREMENT
1.1 Base quantities and units. 2
1.2 Derived quantities and units. 2
2
1.3 Scalar quantities and vector quantities 3
1.4 Quantity calculation 3
1.5 Prefixes 4
1
1.6 Conversion of units. 5
1.7 Basic measuring instrument 5
6
1.7.1 Meter ruler 6
1.7.2 Vernier Calipers 7
1.7.3 Micrometer screw gauge
EXERCISE
FORCES
2.1 Define force 9
2.2 Describe the effects of forces acting on objects 9
2.2.1 Balanced forces 9
2.2.2 Unbalances forces 10
2.3 Sum of forces 11
2.4 Define Newton’s Law 12
2.5 Force measurement in Newton 12
2.5.1 Force acting against gravity 12
2.5.2 Force acting against enertia 15
2 2.6 Explain forces in equilibrium 17
2.7 Forces in vector diagram 17
2.8 Using vector diagram to calculate forces 18
2.8.1 Resolving forces 18
2.8.2 Resulting forces 20
2.8.3 Usage of resulting and resolcing forces 20
2.9 Definiton of moment 28
2.10 Principle of moment 28
2.11 Condition of static equilibrium of a rigid body 28
2.12 Resulting moment 31
EXERCISE 33
LINEAR MOTION
3.1 Analyzing linear motion 37
3.1.1 Define distance and displacement 37
37
3.1.2 Define speed and motion 38
3.1.3 Define acceleration and deceleration 39
3
3.2 Linear motion graph 39
3.3 Equations of motion 46
3.4 Analyzing motion graph 46
48
3.4.1 Determine distance, displacement and velocity
EXERCISE
WORK, ENERGY, POWER AND EFFICIENCY
4.1 Define work 50
4.2 Work application 50
52
4.3 Define energy 52
4.3.1 Define kinetic energy 54
4 4.3.2 Define gravitational potential energy 57
4.4 Principle of conservation of energy 58
4.5 Energy transfer from potential energy to kinetic energy 61
64
4.6 Define power 66
4.7 Explain efficiency
EXERCISE
chapter content page
SOLID AND LIQUID
5.1 State characteristic of solid, liquid and gas 68
5.2 Determine density of material and relative/specific gravity 69
71
5.3 Define pressure 72
5.3.1 Application of pressure 73
5.4 Define pressure in liquid 73
5.4.1 Depth to pressure in liquid 74
5 5.4.2 Density to pressure in liquid 75
5.4.3 Application of pressure of liquid 75
78
5.4.4 Pascal’s Principle 79
5.4.5 Archemedes Principle 79
5.5 Define gas pressure 80
5.5.1 Atmospheric pressure 81
5.5.2 Application of atmospheric pressure 82
5.5.3 Bernoulli’s Principle
EXERCISE
HEAT AND TEMPERATURE
6.1 Define heat and temperature 84
6.2 Explain heat transfer 84
84
6.3 Define heat capacity and specific heat capacity 85
6 6.4 Aplication of heat capacity 85
6.5 Relative specific heat capacity 86
6.6 Define thermal equilibrium 87
6.7 Determine temperature in thermal equilibrium 88
EXERCISE
ELECTRICITY
7.1 Understanding electric charge 89
7.2 Define charge flow 89
89
7.3 Define current 91
7.4 Define potential different (voltage) 92
7.4.1 Voltage application 92
7.5 Understanding Ohm’s Law 92
7.5.1 State Ohm’s Law 93
7.6 Define conductor 93
7 94
7.7 Define resistance
95
7.8 Factor effecting resistance 95
7.9 Define capacitor 95
7.9.1 State the usage of capasitor 96
7.9.2 Electric charge in capacitor 96
7.10 State simple electrical circuit 102
103
7.10.1 Differentiate serial and parallel circuit
7.10.2 Differentiate direct current and altenating current
EXERCISE
COLLECTION OF FINAL QUESTIONS 104
LABORATORY MANUAL 122
ASSESSMENT 139

2
1.0 PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND MEASUREMENTS
1.1 Base quantities and units.
• Physical quantity that can not be derived from other physical
quantities. Base quantities are shown in table below:

Base quantity (symbol) SI unit (symbol)


Length (l ) Meter (m)
Mass (m) Kilogram (kg)
Time (t) Second (s)
Temperature (θ) Kelvin (K)
Electric current (I) Ampere (A)

1.1 Derived quantities and units.


• Physical quantities that can be derived in terms of base quantities

Relationship Relationship
Derived Derived
Symbol with base with base
quantity unit
quantities units
Area A Length x width mxm m2
Length x width x
Volume V mxmxm m3
height
Mass kg
Density ρ kgm-3
Volume m3
displacement m
Velocity v ms-1
Time taken s
Velocity change ms-1
Acceleration a ms-2
Time s
Mass x Kgms-2 @
Force F kg x ms-2
Acceleration N
Force N
Pressure P Nm-2
Area m2
Force x
Work W kg.m.s-2 x m Nm @ J
displacement
Work kg.m.s-2 Js-1 @ Watt
Power P
Time s (W)

1.1 Scalar quantities and vector quantities

3
• Scalar quantities are physical quantities with magnitude only.
• Vector quantities are physical quantities with direction and magnitude.

Scalar Quantity Vector Quantity


Speed Displacement
Distance Velocity
Volume Acceleration
Temperature Weight
Time Momentum

1.1 Quantity calculation:

Example 1.1:
Express the following derived quantities and their units in terms of base
quantities and base units.

a) Force = mass x acceleration

Acceleration = velocity change


b) Pressure = Force
Area

Solution:
a) Force = mass x acceleration
= mass x velocity change
time

time
= mass x displacement x 1
time time
= mass x displacement
time2
Therefore, unit of force is kg m s-2

b) Pressure = force
Area
= mass x length x length-2
time2
= mass
time2 x length2
Therefore, unit of pressure is kg m-2 s-2

1.1 Prefixes
• Used to denote the multiple of a unit

4
• Each prefix has its own abbreviation and value

Prefix Abbreviation Numerical value Factor


Tera- T 1 000 000 000 000 1012
Large
Giga- G 1 000 000 000 109 magnitude
Mega- M 1 000 000 106 prefix
Kilo- k 1 000 103
Hecto- h 100 102
Deca- da 10 101
Deci- d 0.1 10-1
Centi- c 0.01 10-2
Small
Milli- m 0.001 10-3 magnitude
Micro- μ 0.000 001 10-6 prefix
Nano- n 0.000 000 001 10-9
Pico- p 0.000 000 000 001 10-12

1.1 Conversion of units.


• In certain specific situation, physical units need to be changed.
• Necessary when calculation involves usage of formulae where units of
every quantity must be uniform.

Basic unit conversion


Length Time Weight
1 km  1000m
1 hour  60 minutes
1 m  100cm 1 kg  1000g
1 minute  60 seconds
1 cm  10 mm

Example 1.2:
Change the following quantities to the units shown.

a) 10 km = _______ m
b) 20 kg = _______ g
c) 30 cm2 = _______ m2
d) 1.2 hours = _______ seconds

Solution:

a) 10 km = ________ m

Note that 1 km = 1000 m

so,
10 km x . m .
km
= 10 km x 1000m
1 km
= 10 x 1000m

5
1
= 10000m

b) 20 kg = _________ g

Note that 1 kg = 1000 g

so,
20 kg x . g .
kg
= 20 kg x 1000 g
1 kg
= 20 x 1000 g
= 20000 g
c) 30 cm = ________ m

Note that 1 m = 100 cm

so,
30 cm2 xm
cm
= (30 cm x cm) x 1m x 1m
100 cm 100 cm
= 30 x 1m x 1m
100 100
= 30 x 1m x 1m
100 x 100
= 30 m2
10000
= 0.003 m2

d) 1.2 hour = ________ seconds

Note that 1 hour = 60 minutes


1 minute = 60 seconds

so,
1.2 hour x minutes x seconds
hour minute
= 1.2 hour x 60 minutes x 60 seconds
1 hour 1 minute

= 1.2 x 60 x 60 seconds
1x1
= 4320 seconds

6
1.1 Basic measuring instrument
1.1.1 Meter ruler
• Used in measuring length
• Smallest division is 0.1 cm (1 mm)
• Can measure length accurately up to 0.1 cm
• Measurement have to be recorded accurately to 0.1 cm

1Meter 2ruler 3 4 5 cm

7
Length of object = 4.2 cm

1.1.1 Vernier Calippers


• Used in measuring length
• Smallest division is 0.01 cm (0.1 mm)
• Can measure length accurately up to 0.01 cm
• Useful in measuring the inner diameter of an object
• Divided into main scale and vernier scale
Inside jaws

Vernier
scale Main scale
0 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
cm
5

3 4

0 5 10 3.07cm

1.1.1 Micrometer screw gauge


thimble ratchet
anvil spindle sleeve 30
25
20
15

= 6.85 mm
so, actual reading is: (6.5 + 0.35)mm 45
= 0.35 40
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Vernier scale : 35 x 0.01 mm
Main scale : 6.5 mm 35
Reading: 30

8
EXERCISE
CHAPTER 1

1. Define base quantities.

2. Fill the following table with the correct basic quantities, symbols and SI unit.

Base quantity Symbol SI unit Symbol


Length
Kilogram (kg)
Time
Kelvin (K)
Electric current

9
3. State the definition of derived quantities and give 4 examples of the quantities
and how each of the quantities is derived.

4. Determine these derived quantities using basic quantities needed. State the SI
unit for each quantity given.

a) Velocity, v
b) Pressure, p
c) Work, W
d) Force, F
e) Density, ρ
f) Volume, V
g) Acceleration, a

5. State the differences between scalar quantities and vector quantities. Give
examples for each quantity.

6. Fill in the table given.

Prefix Abbreviation Numerical value Factor


T
G
M
k
h
da
d
c
m
μ
n
p
7. Express the numbers given using scientific notation.

a) 0.000 000 059


b) 2563558169
c) 0.1560235894145
d) 0.0000057

8. Change the following quantities to the units shown.

a) 10 km = _______ m
b) 20 kg = _______ g
c) 30 cm2 = _______ m2
d) 1.2 hours = _______ seconds
e) 35 km/hr = _______ km/s

10
f) 0.4 cm/h2 = _______ m/s2

10 FORCES
1.1 Define forces
• Happen when there is act or pull action applied on object
• These acts will cause the object to move
• Will create speed on the direction of force
• Also needed to bring a moving object to stop
• Affect of force are shown below

Force

Can change the size or shape of anCan


object
change the direction of a moving
Canobject
accelerate or decelerate a moving object
Can move a stationary object Can stop a moving object

11
1.1 Describe the effects of forces acting on objects
1.1.1 Balanced forces
• Balance forces acting on an object will cause them to cancel
each other meaning the net force on the object is zero.
• Balance force will make an object in rest stays immobile.
• Balance force on moving object will ensure the object to move
at constant speed without acceleration and in straight line.
• Forces acting to the left = forces acting to the right and forces
acting upward = forces acting downward

20 N 20 N 30 N

30 N

F1 F1

F1

F1 F1

F1

F1 F1

F1
F1
12
1.1.1 Unbalanced forces
• Happens when a net force is not zero.
• This condition will cause a resting object to move and a
moving object to accelerate.
• It will also affect a moving object to stop or decelerate and to
change its direction.
• Forces acting to the left ≠ forces acting to the right and forces
acting upward ≠ forces acting downward

F1 F1

F1

F1 F1

F1
F1 F1

F1
F1
1.1 Sum of forces
• Sum of forces can only be calculated when the forces are acting along
one straight line such as on Y-axis or X-axis.
• Forces acting to the right an upward are considered as positive and
forces acting downward and to the left are considered negative forces.

13
Situation Sum of forces
F = F1 + F2

F21

F = - F1 + F2 + F3
F132

14

F1 F2F3
F132

Example 2.1:
Calculate the net force acting on every object given:
a)
F312
F1 = 25 N F2 = 30 N

b)

15
F1 = 35 N F2 = 20 N
F3 = 15 N
c)
F1 = 40 N F2 = 25 N
F3 = 2 N

d)
F1 = 15 N F2 = 35 N

F3 = 25 N
e) F1 = 40 N F2 = 50 N

Solutions:
F3 = 200 N
a) F = - F1 + F2
= (- 25 + 30) N
= 5 N (Object move to the right)

b) F = - F1 + F2 + F3
= (- 35 + 20 + 15) N
= 0 N ( Object is in rest)

c) F = - F1 + F2 - F3
= (- 40 + 25 – 2) N
= - 37 N ( Object moves to the left)

d) F = F1 + F2 – F3
= (15 + 35 – 25 ) N
= 25 N ( Object moves upward)
e) F = - F1 + F2 – F3
= (- 40 + 50 – 200) N
= -190 N (object moves downward)
1.1 Newton’s 3 law of motion.
1.1.1 1st law - An object at rest continues in its state of rest. If moving it
continues to move with uniform velocity, unless acted by some
external force.
F=0

16
2.4.2 2nd law – The rate of change of a linear momentum of an object is
directly proportional to the resultant force (net external force)
acting on it and is in the direction of the force.

F= =m = ma
mv − mu v−u
 
t  t 

F =

2.4.3 3rd law – When two bodies X and Y interact, the force exerted by
X on Y is equal and opposite to the force exerted by Y on X.

FX on Y = FY on X

1.2 Force measurement in Newton

1.2.1 Force acting against gravity

• The weight of an object is defined as the force gravity acting on


the object. The expression for the weight of an object with m is
calculated from the equation F = ma, as follow;

W =

with:

W = Weight
m = mass (mass of an object is the total quantity
of material contained in the object)
g = gravity (where g is constant at 9.81 ms-2)

Example 2.2:

Diagram below shows a 5kg object resting on a plain surface. The object
is soon lifted from the surface. Calculate the minimum force needed to lift
the object.

17
5 kg

solution:

F = mg
= 5 kg x 9.81 m/s2
= 49.05 N

Example2.3:

What is the minimum force made by 10 stones to a table surface if each of


the rock has 3 kg mass?

solution:

F = mg
= (10 x 3kg) x 9.81
= 294.3 N

Example 2.4:

A sum of 2050 N of force acted on a walking board used by 4 painters to


stand on. Calculate the mass of one painter.

solution:

F = mg
2050 N = m (9.81)
m = 2050/9.81
= 208.97kg

Mass of 1 painter = 208.97 / 4


= 52.2426kg

1.1.1 Force acting against incline plane


• This type of force happens when there is an inclined plane
involve in the situation.
.

F = mg (sin

18
with:

F = Force
m = mass
g = gravity
θ = degree of inclination

Example 2.5:

Based on the diagram given, calculate the force needed to pull the object
along the inclined plane.

30o

solution:

F = mg (sin θ)
= (4 kg) (9.81)(sin 30)
= 19.62 N

Example 2.6:

Assuming a force of 15N needed to pull an object along a plane with a


degree of inclination of 37o, calculate the mass of the object.

solution:

F = mg (sin θ)
15 N = m (9.81)(sin37)
15 N = m (9.81)(0.6018)
15 N = m (5.9038)
m = 15 / 5.9038
= 2.541 kg

2.5.2 Force acting against inertia


• Inertia is a Latin word for laziness.
• Inertia is a nature of human to react against or to resist any
change in its motion.
• Can be defined as the tendency of an object to maintain its state
of rest, or if moving, to continue its motion in a straight line.

19
F = ma

with:

F = Force
m = mass
a = acceleration

Example 2.7:

An object move from its resting condition till it reached the velocity of 2
m/s in 3 second. Calculate them minimum amount of force needed by the
object to resist the inertia.

5 kg

solution:

acceleration, a = v-u
t
= (2 – 0)m/s
3s
= 0.6667 m/s2

F = ma
= (5kg) (0.6667)
= 3.3333 N

Example 2.8:

A table with a mass of 20 kg is drag by a 130N force on a plain surface.


Calculate the acceleration occurred in the situation.

solution:

F = ma

20
130 N = (20kg)(a)
a = 130/20
= 6.5 m/s2

Example 2.9:

How much force needed to drag a 12 kg object so that the acceleration


reaches 3 m/s2?

solution:

F = ma
= (12)(3)
= 36 N
Example 2.10:

Given is an object of 4 kg and beginning velocity of 0 m/s. the object


reaches 2 m/s in 3 seconds. Find the force acting on the object.

4kg

3saat
solution:

F = ma
= (4)(v-u)/t
= (4)(2-0)/3
= (4)(2/3)
= (4)(0.6667)
= 2.68 N

2.5 Equilibrium Force


• A number of forces may act on an object.
• The object is in equilibrium if the net force (resultant of all the force)
acting on it is zero, means forces that act on the object are balanced in
all direction.
• When an object is in equilibrium, the body is:
(a) Static (stationary) – For an object to be static (not moving), a =
0
Resultant force, F = ma

21
= m (0)
=0
(b) Moving with uniform velocity – For an object moving with
constant velocity, u = v ;
Acceleration, a = =0
v−v
t
Resultant force, F = ma
= m (0)
=0

2.5 Forces in vector diagram


• Characteristic of vector:
– Represented by an arrow
magnitud A B

direction Written as vector AB

– Has
Horizontal
Vertical component
component

vector

22
– Can be resolved an resulted using analysis method or graphical
method

A B

Vector AB + vector BC = vector AC


AC is a vector resulting from BC and AB

2.5 Using vector diagram to calculate force


• There are 2 ways in calculation forces which are:
– graph method
– calculation/ analysis method

D C

S
S sin θ

A S kos θ B

FAB = FX = S kos θ
FAB = FY = S sin θ

Resulting force, S = √ [(FX)2 + (FY)2]

tan θ = Fy/Fx

23
2.8.1 Resolving forces
• a force acting in one direction that consist both x and y axis can
be resolved using the calculation method shown in the diagram
above
• meaning the force can be resolved into y-axis and x-axis
• to confirm whether the calculation on resolving force is correct,
the resolved forces can be resulted to get the same amount
acting in the same direction

Example 2.11:
Resolve the force given below using calculation/analysis method.

80N

60o
0o

Solution:

For x-axis use F cos θ

Fx = 80 N (cos 60o)
= 80 N (0.5)
= 40 N

For y- axis use F sin θ

Fy = 80 N (sin 60o)
= 80 N (0.8660)
= 69.28 N

69.28N

40N

24
2.8.1 Resulting forces
• forces acting in direction of x-axis and y-axis can be resulted

Example 2.12:
Taking resolved forces from Example 10 combine the forces into one
force. Force should be 80N acting at 60o.
69.28N

40N
Solution:

Use the formula, S = √ [(FX)2 + (FY)2]


= √ [(402) + (69.282)]
= √ (1600 + 4799.7184)
= √ 6399.7184
= 79.889N

tan θ = Fy/Fx
tan θ = 69.28 / 40
tan θ = 1.732
θ = tan-1 1.732
= 60o

2.8.1 Usage of resolving and resulting forces


• If more than 1 force acting in x direction and y direction, resulting
method and resolving method must be used together to determine
the amount of forces and the direction of the force.

Example 2.13:

Diagram shows forces acting on an object. Using analysis method and


graph method, calculate the resulting force acting on the object. Compare
your answers.
15N

20N 60o

25
12N 10N

solution:

analysis method:

i) label or mark each forces given:

F3=15N
F1=20N 60o

F2=12N F4=10N

ii) resolve each force acting between x-axis and y-axis into each x and y
components.

F3y = F3 sin θ
= 15 sin 60
= 15 (0.8660) F3=15N
= 12.9904 N
60o

F3x = F3 cos θ
= 15 cos 60
= 15 (0.5)
= 7.5 N

iii) draw put the resolve forces diagram

F3y = 12.9904 N

F3x = 7.5 N
F1=20N

F2=12N F4=10N

iv) calculate the sum of forces acting in x direction and y direction.

∑ Fx = - F1 - F2 + F3x + F4
= - 20 N -12 N + 7.5 N + 10 N
= - 14.5 N

∑ Fy = F3y
= 12.9904 N

26
v) draw out the x and y forces. Make sure there is only 1 force for x-
direction and 1 force for y-direction.

Fy = 12.9904 N

Fx = -14.5 N

vi) using the analysis formula, calculate the resulting force

S = √ [(FX)2 + (FY)2]
= √ [(-14.5)2+ (12.9904)2]
= √ ( 210.25 + 168.75)
= √ (279)
= 19.468 N

vii) calculate the degree of acting force

tan θ = Fy/Fx
= 12.9904 N
14.5 N
= 0.89589
θ = tan-1 0.89589
= 41.8568o

viii) draw the resulting force diagram

Fy = 12.9904 N
S = 19.468 N

41.86o

Fx = -14.5 N

27
Graph method:

i) separate all forces acting on the object and determine the directions
of actions. Use the nearest force to x-axis in fist sector as
reference. Make sure the following forces is in order.
F3=15N
F1180
=20No F2=12No
o
180 F4=10N
60 360o

ii) using a graph paper, determine your scale


y: 1 cm : 1N
x: 1 cm : 1N

iii) use a force nearest to x-axis in first sector as reference force


iv) draw each force on the graph paper

y: 1 cm : 5N
x: 1 cm : 5N

180o 180o

360o

60o

v) use a ruler and determine the net force according to your scale

28
vi) use protractor to measure the direction of resulted force.

Example 2.14:

According to the diagram given, forces are applied on point O. calculate

105yx1o2615
130 NNN

29
O

solution:

i) label forces given


y

F1=15 N

130o
F2=12 N
105o
O x

ii) resolve F3=6 N


every force acting at point O into each horizontal and vertical
components

F1=15 N

50o O

F3x = F1 cos θ 55o O


= 6 cos 55o F3y = F1 sin θ
= 15 (0.5736) = 15 sin 55o
= 8.604 N F3=6 N = 15 (0.8192)
= 12.288 N

iii) draw out diagram of resolved forces


y

F1y = 11.49 N

30
F1x = 9.6418 N O F2 =12 N
x
F3x = 8.604 N

F3y = 12.288 N

iv) calculate the sum of forces acting in x- axis and y-axis


∑ Fx = - F1x – F3x + F2
= - 9.6418 N -8.604 N + 12 N
= - 6.2458 N

∑ Fy = F1y - F3y
= 11.49 N – 12.288 N
= - 0.798 N

v) draw the diagram of forces acting at point O


x
Fx = 6.2458 N
Fy = 0.798 N

vi) use the analysis method to calculate the resulting force

S = √ [(FX)2 + (FY)2]
=√ [(-6.2458)2+ (-0.798)2]
= √ ( 41.705 + 0.6368)
= √ (42.3418)
= 6.5071 N
vii) determine the force direction

tan θ = Fy/Fx
= 0.798 N
6.2458 N
= 0.12357
θ = tan-1 0.12357
= 7.0442o

viii) sketch the diagram of resulted force


7.0442o

S = 6.5071N

Example 2.15:

31
A pack of five Artic wolves are exerting five different forces upon the
carcass of a 500kg dead polar bear. A top view showing the magnitude
and direction of each of the five individual forces is shown in the diagram.
Use a scaled vector diagram to determine the net force acting upon the
polar bear. Then compute the acceleration of the polar bear (both
magnitude and direction).

Solution:

The scaled vector diagram for this problem would look like the following:

32
2.8 Definition of moment
• Product of the force and the perpendicular distance of its line of action
from that point.
• Unit of moment is Nm

Moment = Force x Perpendicular distance

force , F
distance, d
Moment = force x distance
= Fd

2.8 Principle of moment


• A force applied on certain point of an object with a distance from
another point causing it to pivot, twist or rotate.
• Moment in equilibrium is:
• Sum of moment rotating clockwise = sum of moment rotating
anticlockwise

33
F1 F2

A B
d1 d2
RF
Where,

F1 and F2 = applied load


RF = reaction load
d1 and d2 = distance

i) ∑M = ∑M
ii) F1 andF2 = RF

2.8 Condition of static equilibrium of a rigid body


Suppose several forces acting on a rigid body keep it in static equilibrium.
To maintain the body in this state, follow the following condition:
i) Condition 1:
• In order to have translation, the net force acting through the center
of the mass of the body must be zero. Hence, we have

∑ Fx = 0 and ∑ Fy = 0
ii) Condition 2:
• The forces acting on the body could cause it to rotate if these
forces produced a net moment on the body about any point or axis.
Hence, if the body does not rotate the total moment about any
point or axis must be zero. Hence, we have

∑M=0

Example 2.16:

Determine the center of gravity for the system shown below by assuming
the object is in equilibrium.
20N 50N
4m
A B
x
RF

solution:

34
Assume the center of gravity is at x distance

∑M = ∑M
FA dA = FB dB
20 (x) = 50 (4 – x)
20 x = 200 – 50 x
70 x = 200
x = 200/70
= 2.86 m

Example 2.17:

The diagram below shows a beam in equilibrium. Calculate Rx and Ry.


10N 5N 12N

A B
Rx Ry
5m 2m 1m 6m

solution:

assume Rx as reference point

=
Rx + Ry = 10N + 5N + 12N
= 27 N
∑ Mx = 0
∑M = ∑M

10(5) + 3Ry = 5(2) + 12 (9)


50 + 3 Ry = 118
Ry = 22.67 N

R x + Ry = 27 N
Rx + 22.67 N = 27
Rx = 4.33 N

Example 2.18:

30N 20N 10N

35
30o
M N

4m 2m
x
Solution:

Assuming the center of gravity is at x distance from point M

∑M = ∑M

(30 sin 30)(x) = 20 (4 – x) + 10 (6 – x)


15 x = 80 – 20 x + 60 – 10x
15 x = 140 -30 x
45 x = 140
x = 140 / 45
= 3.11m

Example 2.19:

From the free body diagram of a beam given, calculate the amount of
force needed at support R and the amount of F force if the beam is in
equilibrium.
20N F

R 5N

4m 12m 4m

solution:
assume R point as reference

=
R + 5 N = 20 N + F
R = 15 N + F
∑ Mx = 0
∑M= ∑M

36
20(4) + 5(12) = F (4+12)
140 = 16F
F = 8.75 N
R = 15 N + F
= 15 N + 8.75 N
= 23.75 N

2.8 Resulting moment


• Sum of moment divided by sum of forces
F1 F2 F3
x1 x2

A B
x
Rx
• Assume that the center of gravity is at x distance from A
• Take moment at A as reference
• Use the formula given:

x = F1(0) + F2 (x1) + F3 (x2)


F1 + F2 + F3

Example 2.20:

Determine the center of gravity for the condition given. Assume the object
is in equilibrium.
5N 10N 12N

30o
6m 9m
solution:

x = F1(0) + F2 (x1) + F3 (x2)


F1 + F2 + F 3
= 5(0) + (10 sin 30) + 12(15)
5 + 10 + 12
= 5 + 180
27
= 6.6667 m

37
EXERCISE
CHAPTER 2

1. State the definition of force.

2. Calculate the minimum force needed to lift each mass given.


a) 50 g e) 0.2 g
b) 400 kg f) 5000 kg
c) 0.02 kg e) 5000000 g
d) 500 g g) 0.0005 kg

3. Determine force needed to pull the object x up the inclined plane as shown in the
figure if:
a) 50 g, 30o e) 0.45 g, 77o
b) 400 kg, 45 o
f) 1500 kg, 43o
c) 0.02 kg, 75o e) 18000000 g, 32o
d) 5050 g, 32 o
g) 0.0075 kg, 21o

38

4. based on the figure given, calculate the mass of object if :

39

a) 65 N, 30o e) 0.563 kN, 77o


b) 430N, 45o f) 4500 N, 43o
c) 0.331 kN, 75o e) 253614 N, 32o
d) 2031N, 32o g) 0.01235468 N, 21o

40
5. A train moves from A station to B station everyday. Using all information given, fill
in the blank of the table given. Show your calculation.

Initial Final
Force(F
Time(t) velocity velocity Acceleration Mass
)
s (u) (v) m/s2 kg
N
m/s m/s
a) 25 45 45 25 25 000
b) 2500 25 0 13
c) 60 2 45 13 000
d) 23500 3 3 13
e) 250300 6 4 74
f) 1200 12 1 11
g) 38 4 24 30 000
h) 2356 12 24 56
i) 350 22 0 17
j) 5 25 20 50 000

6. Calculate the resultant force for theses situation and determine the direction of
movement.

a)
8kN

15kN
3kN 26o

60N 100N

b)
10N 10N

10N 59o 56o 10N


35o 42o
10N
10N
41
c) 35N 250N

65o 64o
0.035kN 36N

84N 0.02kN
57o 35o

50N
14N

7. Figure below shows forces acting on point. Determine the resultant force caused by
the forces and determine the direction of the resultant force. Compare your answer to
graphical method.

20N 1N 3N

30o

50N 40o 4N

50o

15N
13N

8. Using the principle of moment method, calculate the gravity point of the beam if the
beams shown are in equilibrium.

a) 4N 10N 15N b) 36N 25N 15N 32N

20o 60o
3m 5m 1m 12m

x Rf x Rf 15m

9. Calculate the center of gravity for the figures given using moment method suitable.

42
a) 30N 15N 0.01kN 14N b) 50N 30N 40N 2N

30o 30o 30o


3m 5m 20m 30m

11m 100m

2 LINEAR MOTION
3.1 Analyzing linear motion:
3.1.1 Define distance and displacement.

43
• Distance is also called as length or distance
• one-dimensional quantity representing the separation between two
defined points

Unit To convert to Conversely,


(and symbol) meters, multiply by: multiply by:
kilometer (km) 1000 0.001
centimeter (cm) 0.01 100
millimeter (mm) 0.001 1000
micrometer or
10-6 106
micron (µ)
nanometer (nm) 10-9 109
Angstrom (Ä) 10-10 1010
• Symbolized as d or s
• The standard unit of displacement in the International System of Units
(SI) is the meter (m).
• Distance is usually measured or defined along a straight line
• Displacement is sometimes measured or defined along curved paths
• When expressing large or small distances, prefix multipliers are
attached to the meter. The table below shows the most common
alternative displacement units and their relationship to the meter.

3.1.1 Define speed and velocity


• Distance traveled per unit time
• Scalar quantity
• Unit of speed is (m/s)

speed = distance traveled


traveled time

min of speed = sum of traveled distance


sum of traveled time

Example 3.1:

44
A man drives his car along a road with a distance of 80km. Time taken to
travel that far is 1 hour and 20 minutes. Using information given, calculate
the speed of the car.

solution::
velocity, v = distance traveled
traveled time
= . 80km .
(80/60)jam
= 80 km
1.33jam
= 60.15 km/jam

3.1.1 Define acceleration and deceleration


• Define as the rate at which an object's velocity changes with
time
• Vector quantity
• Unit of acceleration is ms-2.
• Negative acceleration is also known as deceleration

Acceleration, a = (v) – (u)


(t)
where:

a = acceleration
v = final velocity
u = initial velocity
t = time

Example 3.2:

A driver is driving his vehicle at a velocity of 30m/s when he suddenly


accelerate his vehicle to 60 m/s. It takes 3 seconds for the vehicle to reach
60m/s. Determine the amount of acceleration of the vehicle in condition
mentioned.

solution:

Initial velocity = 30 m/s


Final velocity = 60 m/s
Time taken = 3 saat

acceleration = (v) – (u)


(t)

45
= 60 m/s – 30 m/s
3s
= 30m/s
3
= 10m/s2
3.1 Linear motion in graph
• Motion of an object along straight line with acceleration (a), initial
velocity (u), final velocity (v) and time can be shown in a graphical
diagram.

Velocity, v (m/s)

Final velocity, v Constant velocity

Constant acceleration, a a=v–u


t deceleration, -a

Initial velocity, u

time (s)
0 t

3.1 Equation of motion


• From graph velocity vs. time, displacement can be obtained by calculating
the area under the graph:
s = area of cuboids + area of triangles
= ut + ½ ( v – u )t
= ut + ½ vt – ½ ut
= ½ vt + ½ ut
= ½ (v + u ) t
• From equation a = ( v – u ) / t derive t = (v – u ) / a
• By replacing equation s = ½ (v + u ) t into the previous equation will
create:
s = ½ ( v + u ) (v – u ) / a
= (v+u)(v–u)
2a
2as = v2 – u2
v2 = u2 + 2as
• Other equation can be used in this linear motion situation are:
s = ut + ½ at2 and

v = u + at

with,
v = initial velocity

46
u = final velocity
t = period of time
s = displacement
a = acceleration

Example 3.3:

A car moved from its static condition to reach its destination in 45


minutes. Its final velocity is 120 km/j. from the information, calculate:

a) Acceleration of the car in term of m/s


b) Displacement traveled by the car in term of m

solution:

a) Initial velocity (u) = 0 m/s


Final velocity (v) = 120 km/j
= 120 000 / 3600 s
= 33.33 m/s
time traveled = 45 minute
= 45 (60)
= 2700 s

acceleration = final velocity – initial velocity


traveled time
a = v–u
t
= (33.33 – 0)
2700
= 0.01234 m/s2.

b) v2 = u2 + 2as
2as = v2 - u2
s = v2 - u2
2a
= ( 33.33 )2 - ( 0)2
2 ( 0.01234)
= 1110.89
0.02468
= 45011.75 m

Example 3.4:

An airplane accelerates down a runway at 3.20 m/s2 for 32.8 s until it


finally lifts off the ground. Determine the distance traveled before takeoff.

solution:

47
s = ut + ½ at2
= (0 m/s)(32.8 s)+ 0.5(3.20 m/s2)(32.8 s)2
= 1720 m
Example 3.5:
A boy rides his bike with a constant velocity of 5 m/s2. His velocity at that
time is 8 m/s. Determine:
a) his velocity after 16 second
b) distance traveled by the boy

solution:

a) initial velocity (u) = 8 m/s


acceleration (a) = 5 m/s2
time (t) = 16 second

acceleration = initial velocity – final velocity


traveled time
a = v - u
t
5m/s2 = ( v - 8 m/s )
16s
(5 m/s2)(16s) = ( v - 8 m/s )
80 m/s = v - 8 m/s
v = 88 m/s

b) v2 = u2 + 2as
( 88 )2 = ( 8 )2 + 2 ( 5 )(s)
7744 = 64 + 10 s
7744 - 64 = 10s
7680 = s
10
s = 768 m

Example 3.6:

A vehicle moves with an acceleration of 1.2 m/s2 . what is the velocity of


the car after 30 second? Also, determine the distance traveled by the car.
Used both graph and equation method.

solution:

given a = 1.2 m/s2


t = 30 seconds
u = 0

48
find : v and s

a) equation method

v = u + at
= 0 + 1.2(30)
= 36 m/s

s = ut + ½ at2
= (0)(30) + ½ (1.2)(30)2
= 540 m

b) linear graph method

v(m/s)

v=?

a = 1.2 m/s2

t (s)
t1 = 30 seconds

from graph:

acceleration, a = slope on graph


a = (v – u) / t
1.2 = (v – 0) / (30)
v = 30 (1.2)
= 36 m/s

displacement = area under the graph


s = ½ (v – u) t
= ½ (36 – 0)(30)
= 15 (36)
= 540 m

49
Example 3.7:

A car moved from 4 m/s to 25 m/s with constant acceleration of 2 m/s2.


this condition continued until the car was stopped with deceleration of 2
m/s2. Sum of distance traveled by the car is 5 km. using both equation and
graph method, calculate:

a) distance during the acceleration


b) distance traveled during deceleration
c) total time traveled by the car

solution:

graph method:

25m/s

2m/s2
-2m/s2
4m/s

0m/s
t1=10.5sec t3=12.5sec
j1=152.25m j3=156.25m
5000m

a) distance during the acceleration

acceleration = final velocity – final velocity


time traveled
a = (v – u)/t
2 m/s2 = (25 – 4)
t
= (21)
2
t = 10.5 seconds

distance = area under the graph


= ½ (10.5)(25-4) + (4)(10.5)
= ½ (10.5)(21) + (42)
= 110.25 + 42
= 152.25 m

50
b) distance traveled during deceleration

acceleration = final velocity – final velocity


time traveled
a = (v – u)/t
Negative (-ve) symbol
-2m/sindicates
2
= deceleration
(0 – 25)
t
t = -25
-2
= 12.5 seconds

distance = area under the graph


= ½ (12.5)(25)
= 156.25 m

c) total time traveled by the car

distance = area under graph


5000 m = distance 1 + distance 2 + distance 3
= 152.25 + (25)(t2) + 156.25
= 308.5 + 25 t2
t2 = (5000 – 308.25)
25
= 187.66 second

total time = t1 + t2 + t3
= (10.5 + 187.66 + 12.5)sec
= 210.66sseconds

equation method:

given:
a = 2 m/s2
v1 = 25 m/s
u1 = 4 m/s
-a = -2m/s2
v2 = 0 m/s
u2 = 25 m/s

a) distance travel during acceleration


s = ut + ½ at2
find t,
a = (v – u)/t
2 = (25 – 4)/t
t = 21/2
= 10.5 sec
so,

51
s = ut + ½ at2
= (4)(10.5) + ½ (2)(10.5)2
= 42 + 110.25
= 152.25 m

b) distance during deceleration


s = ut + ½ at2

acceleration, a = final velocity – final velocity


time traveled
a = (v – u)/t
2
-2m/s = (0 – 25)
t
= -25
-2
= 12.5 sec

so,

s = ut + ½ at2
= (25)(12.5) + ½ (-2)(12.5)2
= 312.5 + (-156.25)
= 156.25 m

c) total time traveled by the car

s = ut + ½ at2
4691.5 = 25(t) + ½ (0)(t) 2
= 25t + 0
= 25 t

t = 4691.5/25
= 187.66 s

so,

t = (10.5 + 12.5 + 187.66)s


= 210.66 s

3.1 Analyzing motion graph.


3.1.1 Determine distance, displacement and velocity from:

52
i) displacement-time graph
• Consider a car moving with a constant, rightward (+) velocity of 10 m/s.

• If the position-time data for such a car were graphed, the resulting graph
would look like the below. Note that a motion with constant, positive
velocity results in a line of constant and positive slope when plotted as a
displacement-time graph.

• consider a car moving with a changing, rightward (+) velocity – that is, a
car that is moving rightward and speeding up or accelerating

• If the position-time data for such a car were graphed, the resulting graph
would look like the graph at the right. Note that a motion with changing,
positive velocity results in a line of changing and positive slope when
plotted as a position-time graph.

i) velocity- time graph


• Consider a car moving with a constant, rightward (+) velocity of +10 m/s.
A car moving with a constant velocity is a car moving with zero
acceleration.

53
• If the velocity-time data for such a car were graphed, the resulting graph
would look like the graph at the right. Note that a motion with constant,
positive velocity results in a line of zero slope (a horizontal line has zero
slope) when plotted as a velocity-time graph.

• Now consider a car moving with a rightward (+), changing velocity – that
is, a car that is moving rightward and speeding up or accelerating. Since
the car is moving in the positive direction and speeding up, it is said to
have a positive acceleration.

• If the velocity-time data for such a car were graphed, the resulting graph
would look like the graph at the right. Note that a motion with changing,
positive velocity results in a diagonal line when plotted as a velocity-time
graph. The slope of this line is positive, corresponding to the positive
acceleration. In addition, only positive velocity values are plotted,
corresponding to a motion with positive velocity.

EXERCISE
CHAPTER 3

1. Define speed, velocity and acceleration.

2. A man drives his car to the south a far as x km. Time needed by the man to reach
that distance is y hour while the velocity of his vehicle is z km/hr. according to
information given, solve all the problems below.

No. Displacement Time Velocity


x (km) y(jam) z(km/j)
1 50 2.5
2 1 100
3 200 80

54
4 0.5 40
5 150 0.89

3. David drives his car at initial velocity of x m/s. He then accelerate his car with
acceleration of z m/s until he reaches final velocity of y m/s. Fill in the table
below using all information given.

No. Initial Final Acceleration Time


velocity velocity (m/s2) (t)
(m/s) (m/s)
1 30 60 10
2 53 2.5 5
3 5 30 4
4 8 5 6
5 30 11 3

4. A car increases its velocity steadily from 72 km/h to 108 km/h in 5 s. what is its
acceleration in m/s2.

5. An object moves from rest with a uniform acceleration of 2 m/s 2. What is the
velocity of the object after 30 s?

6. A car is accelerated at 6 m/s2 from an initial velocity of 2 m/s for 10 seconds.


What is

a) the final velocity ?


b) the distance moved?

1. A driver traveling at a velocity of 108 km/hr notices a cow in the middle of the
road 80m from him. On seeing that, the driver instantly hit the brakes and able to
bring the car to rest after 6 seconds. Calculate:

a) the deceleration of the car


b) distance traveled by the car from the time the driver applies the
brakes until it is stopped.

1. A car starts from rest and accelerates at constant acceleration of 2 m/s2 for 5
seconds. The car then travels at a constant velocity for 9 seconds. The brakes are
applied then and the car stops in 6 seconds.

a) Calculate the maximum velocity attained by the car.


b) Plot a velocity-time graph for the whole journey.
c) From the graph, determine the total distance traveled.

55
3 WORK, ENERGY, POWER AND EFFICIENCY
3.1 Define work using W = Fd
• Work is defined as force acting upon an object to cause a displacement in
the direction of the applied force.
• In order for a force to qualify as having done work on an object, there
must be a displacement and the force must cause the displacement.
• In our daily lives, work refers to almost any kind of physical or mental
activity.
• Work will not happen if force applied not causing displacement such as
pushing a wall as hard as we can.
• Work also does not happen if displacement occurred without applying
force such as a waiter carrying a meal to a table.
• The SI unit of work is Joule (J).

3.1 Work application


• Force causes displacement

Work, W = Force x displacement


W = Fd

Example 4.1:

A student lifts a 12 kg bag onto his shoulder through a vertical distance of


1.5m. What is the work done by the student?

solution:

work, W = Force x Distance Force, F = mass x gravity


F = mg
Remember, g = 9.81 m/s2 if not given otherwise
56
W = Fd
W = (12 kg x 9.81) (1.5m)
W = (117.72N) (1.5m)
W = 176.58 J

Example 4.2:

A tractor was pulled from point A to point B. The distance between these
2 points is 5 m. Minimum force needed to pull the tractor is 5000N.
Calculate the work done to pull the tractor from point A to point B.

solution:

Work, W = Force x distance


W= 5000 N x 5 m
W= 25000 Nm
W= 25000 J @ 25 KJ

Example 4.3:

A mall worker pulls a 50 kg stock of meat up a plane inclined at 30o to the


horizontal shown in figure below. If the length of the plane is 4.5 m,
calculate the work done by the worker in pulling the stock to the top of the
plane.

30o

solution:
Force acting on inclined plane:
W = Fd F = mg sin θ
W = (mg sin θ) d
W = [(50 x 9.81) sin 30o] x 4.5
W = [(490.5) (0.5)] x 4.5
W = 245.25 x 4.5 Using calculator:
W = 1103.625 J sin 30o = 0.5

• force causes rotation


Changing θ to θrad :
W=τxθ θ rad = θ o x . π .
W = Fd x θrad 180o

Example 4.4:

57
Figure below shows a 40N force being applied on a spanner to loosen a
bolt. Length of the spanner is 0.02m. Once applied, the force caused the
bolt to rotate at 45o. Using all the information, calculate the work done to
loosen the bolt.

58
solution:

τ = force x distance
= 40N x 0.02 m
= 0.8 Nm

59
60
W = τ x θrad
45o = 0.08 Nm x [ 45o x (Л /
180o)]
= 0.628 Nm @ J

Example 4.5:

A plumber did 300J of work to loosen a big pipe. Once loosen, the pipe
rotated at 60o. Calculate force applied by the plumber to loosen the pipe if
the length of the tool used is 0.50m.

solution:

W = τ x θrad
300 = (F x d) x [60o x (π/180)]
= (F x 0.5) x (60o x 0.017456)
= 0.5F x 1.0473
= 0.5237F
300 = F
0.5237
F = 572.847N

3.1 Define energy


• Capacity to do work
• Enables useful work to be done.
• SI unit for energy is joule (J)
• Energy has many different forms that can be converted to one
another.
• Work is done when energy is converted.

3.1.1 Define kinetic energy


• Energy possesses by an object due to its motion.
• Any moving object has kinetic energy.
• Depends on 2 variables:

Kinetic Energy, EK = ½ mass x velocity2


= ½ mv2

i) mass of object
• the greater the mass of an object, the greater the kinetic
energy possesses by it
ii) velocity of the object
• the faster an object moves, the bigger the kinetic energy
possesses by it

61
Example 4.6:

A car with a mass of 1200kg moves with velocity of 25 m/s. calculate the
kinetic energy possessed by the car from the movement.

solution:

Kinetic energy, EK = ½ mv2


= ½ (1200) (25)2
= 375 000 J @ 375 kJ

Example 4.7:

Determine the kinetic energy of a 1000kg roller coaster car that is moving
with a speed of 20.0 m/s.

solution:

Kinetic energy. EK = ½ mv2


= ½ (1000) (20)2
= 200 000 J @ 200 kJ

Example 4.8:

Missy Diwater, the former platform diver for the Ringling Brother's Circus
had a kinetic energy of 15 000 J just prior to hitting the bucket of water. If
Missy's mass is 50 kg, then what is her speed?

solution:

Kinetic energy, EK = ½ mv2


15 000 = ½ (50) (v2)
= 25 v2
15 000 = v2
25
24.495 m/s = v

Example 4.9:

A 750kg compact car moving at 100 km/hr has approximately 290 000
Joules of kinetic energy. What is the kinetic energy of the same car if it is
moving at 50 km/hr?

Solution:
100 km x 1 hr x 1 min x 1000m
hr 60 min 60 s 1 km
62 = 27.7778 m/s
50 km/hr = 13.8889 m/s
Kinetic energy, EK = ½ mv2
290 000 = ½ m (27.7778)2
751.678kg =m
EK = ½ mv2
= ½ (751.678) (13.8889)2
= 72 499 J
3.1.1 Define gravitational potential energy
• Potential energy is the stored energy of position possessed by
an object.
• Unit for gravitational energy is Nm @ J
• Depends on 2 variable:

Potential Energy, EP = mass x gravity x height


= mgh

i) mass of object
• More massive objects have greater gravitational potential
energy.
• Based on figures below, object A stored more than object B
because mass of object A is greater than object B.

Object A Object B
100kg 50kg

5m 5m

63
64
Example 4.10:

A cat is sitting on a tree branch with height of h. Say that the mass of the
cat is 2 kg and the height of the tree branch is 2 m. calculate the
gravitational potential energy possessed by the cat at the moment.

solution:

Gravitational potential energy, EP = mass x gravity x height


= mgh
= (2) (9.81) (2)
= 39.24 J

Example 4.11:

While the cat in the previous example sit on the tree branch, came another
cat with a weight of 5 kg sat right next to it. Now, calculate the
gravitational potential energy possessed by the second cat.
solution:

Gravitational potential energy, EP = mgh


= (4) (9.81) (2)
= 78.48 J

Example 4.12:

Three boxes of a same size are laid on a table as shown in figure below.
The first box labeled as Box A is empty. Box B instead is filled with
shredded paper while Box C is filled with beach sand. Which of these
boxes possesses the most gravitational potential energy and which
possesses the least? Explain your answer.
Box A Box B Box C

solution:

65
Box C containing beach sand possesses the most gravitational potential
energy as it has the greatest mass comparing to all other boxes. Box A
however possesses the least of it as it contains on cotton or the least mass.

ii) height of the object to which it is raised


• the higher that an object is elevated, the greater the
gravitational potential energy
• based on figures given, object A possesses greater
potential energy compared to object B due to its
difference in height even though both objects have
same mass

66
50kg
8m 5m

67
Example 4.13:

Based on the figure given, determine which object possesses more


gravitational potential energy.
Box B

68
50kg
7m 4m

69
Box A

solution:

Gravitational potential energy, EP = mass x gravity x height

Box A, Box B,
EP = mgh EP = mgh
= 50 x 9.81 x 4 = 50 x 9.81 x 7
= 1962 J = 3433.5 J

Example 4.14:

Jack Sparrow was in a mission to locate a treasure on an island. He had to


climb a cliff as the treasure was laid on top of it. Now, calculate the
gravitational potential gravity possessed by Jack Sparrow as he reached ¼,
½ and ¾ of the cliff. Also calculate the potential energy when jack reach
the top of the cliff. Jack’s mass is 72 kg and the cliff is 500m high.

solution:

Gravitational potential energy, EP = mass x gravity x height

¼ of the cliff,
EP = mgh
= 72 x 9.81 x (¼ x 500)
= 72 x 9.81 x 125
= 88290 J

½ of the cliff,
EP = mgh
= 72 x 9.81 x (½ x 500)
= 72 x 9.81 x 250
= 176580 J

¾ of the cliff,
EP = mgh

70
= 72 x 9.81 x (¾ x 375)
= 72 x 9.81 x 125
= 264870 J

Top of the cliff,


EP = mgh
= 72 x 9.81 x 500)
= 353160 J

4.4 Principle of Conservation of Energy


• The principle states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
• Energy can be converted from one form to another.
• Example of energy conversion is electric energy to kinetic.

4.5 Energy transfer from potential energy to kinetic energy and the opposite
• Object of any mass falling vertically downwards from static , its loss in
potential energy is equal to the amount of kinetic energy gained, assuming
that no energy is lost during the process.

mgh = ½ mv2

71
• If object is rebound to any height after hitting the ground and left it, its
maximum kinetic energy while moving upwards will be equal to its
potential energy at its maximum height.

½ mv2 = mgh

• For an object that slides down a friction free slope, its potential energy is
equal to its kinetic energy at the bottom.

mgh = ½ mv2

Example 4.15:

A steel ball of a mass 2 kg is released from a height of 8 m from the


ground. On hitting the ground, the ball rebounds to a height of 3.2m.
Assuming there is no other energy leaves or enters the system during the
process, find:

a) the kinetic energy of the ball as it reaches the ground.


b) the velocity of the ball on reaching the ground.
c) the kinetic energy of the ball as it leaves the ground on
rebound.
d) the velocity of the ball on rebound.

solution:

a) the kinetic energy of the ball as it reaches the ground.

EK = mgh
= 2 (9.81) (8)
= 156.96 J v 2 = u 2 + 2as
or, v 2 = (0)2 + (2) (9.81) (8
v 2 = 156.96
EK = ½ mv2
= ½ (2) 156.96
= 156.96 J

b) the velocity of the ball on reaching the ground.

EK = ½ mv2
156.96J = ½ (2) v2
156.96J = v2
v = 12.2866 m/s

72
c) the kinetic energy of the ball as it leaves the ground on
rebound.

Kinetic energy of the ball as it leaves the ground is equal to


its maximum potential energy on rebound

EK = mgh
= 2 (9.81) (3.2)
= 62.784 J

d) the velocity of the ball on rebound

EK = ½ mv2
62.784J = ½ (2) v2
62.784J = v2
v = 7.9236 m/s

Example 4.16:

An object of 30 kg mass was lifted as high as 3 m from the ground and


was let to fall under the gravitational reaction. Calculate the gravitational
potential energy and the kinetic energy possessed by the object under
these situations:

a) before it was let to fall


b) 1 meter under free fall
c) right after its touched the ground

solution:

a) before it was let to fall

EP = mgh
= 30 x 9.81 x 3
= 882.9 J

EK = ½ mv2
= ½ (30)(0)
= 0
b) 1 meter under free fall

EP = mgh
= 30 x 9.81 x 2
= 588.6 J

EK = ½ mv2
= ½ (30) (v2)

73
Obtain v from the formulae v2 = u2 + 2as

v2 = u2 + 2as
= 0 + 2 (9.81) (1)
= 19.62 m/s

EK = ½ mv2
= ½ (30) (v2)
= ½ (30) (19.62)
= 294.3 J

c) right after its touched the ground

EP = mgh
= 30 (9.81) (0)
= 0

EK = ½ mv2
= ½ (30) (v2)

Obtain v from the formulae v2 = u2 + 2as

v2 = u2 + 2as
= 0 + 2 (9.81) (3)
= 58.86 m/s

EK = ½ mv2
= ½ (30) (v2)
= ½ (30) (58.86)
= 882.9 J

4.6 Define power using P = W/t


• Power is the rate of at which work is done.
• It is the work/time ratio.

Power, P = Work, W
Time, T
Means,

Power = Force x displacement

74
Time
Or,

Power = Force x displacement


Time Velocity = displacement
= Force x velocity Time

• Standard metric unit for power is Watt, W.

Example 4.17:

A tractor was pulled by another tractor as far as 5 m from point A to point


B. amount of force needed to pull the tractor was 5000N. It took 2 minutes
for the tractor to reach point B from point A. calculate the power done.

Solution:

Work, W = Force x displacement


W = Fxd
= 5000 N x 5 m
= 25000 Nm
= 25000 J

Power, P = Work
time
P = W
t
= 25000 Nm
(2 x 60) s
= 25000 Nm
120s
= 208.33 Nm/s @W

Example 4.18:

Approximately 3 minutes is needed to bring 80kg of raw mineral from


through a mine shaft to the surface. The depth of the mine is 90m. find the
power used for the process.

solution:

W = (F) (d)
= (m) (g) (h)

75
= (80 x 9.81) (90m)
= 70632.0 Nm

P = W
t
= 70632 Nm
(3 x 60) s
= 70632 Nm
180s
= 39.238 Nm/s

Example 4.19:

40N of force applied on a spanner to loosen a nut. Length of the spanner is


0.02 m and 45o angle was produced as the loosed. Time for the whole
process to take part was 4 seconds. Calculate power done in the process.

Solution:

calculate τ:

τ = Force x displacement
= Fxd
= 40N x 0.02 m
= 0.8 Nm

W = τ x θrad
= 0.08 Nm x Л /4 rad
= 0.628 Nm

P = W
t
= 0.628 Nm
4s
= 0.157 Nm/s @ W

Example 4.20:

If little Nellie Newton lifts her 40 kg body a distance of 0.25 meters in 2


seconds, then what is the power delivered by little Nellie's biceps?

Solution:

W = (F) (d)
= (m) (g) (h)
= (40 x 9.81) (0.25m)

76
= 98.1 Nm

P = W
t
= 98.1 Nm
2s
= 49.05 Nm/s @ W

Example 4.21:

An escalator is used to move 20 passengers every minute from the first


floor of a department store to the second. The second floor is located
5meters above the first floor. The average passenger's mass is 60 kg.
Determine the power requirement of the escalator in order to move this
number of passengers in this amount of time.

W = (F) (d) Mass:


= (m) (g) (h) 1 passenger = 60kg
= [(60 x 20) x 9.81] (5m) 20 passengers = 20 x 60
= (1200 x 9.81) (5) = 1200 kg
= 11772 x 5
= 58860 Nm

P = W
t
Time:
= 58860 Nm 1 minute = 60seconds
60 s
= 981 Nm/s @ W

Example 4.22:

A car moves at a constant velocity of 72 km/hr. find the power generated


by the car if the force friction that acts on it is 1500N.

solution:

Power, P = Work, W
Time, t
= Force, F x displacement, d

77
Time, t
= Force, F x displacement, d
Time, t Unit conversion:
= Force, F x velocity, v = 72km x 1000m x 1 hr x 1 m
= Fxv hr 1km 60min 60
= 1500 N x 20 m/s = 72 x 1000m x 1 x 1
= 30 000 W 60 x 60s
= 20 m/s

4.7 Explain efficiency, efficiency = X output x 100%


X input

• Efficiency is defined as the ratio of the useful output energy to the total
energy put into the machine.

efficiency = energy output x 100%


energy input
=
work output x 100%
work input

• There is no machine with efficiency of 100% as energy is always wasted


in overcoming friction and in moving parts of the machine.
• Efficiency needs to be maximized in order to conserver resources.

Example 4.23:

A force of 250 N used to raise a load of 1000N through a distance of 5 m


in a pulley system. If the force moves through a distance of 30m, find
a) the work done in raising the load
b) the work done by the effort
c) the efficiency of the pulley system

solution:

a) the work done in raising load

Work, W = Force, F x displacement, d


=Fxd
= 1000 N x 5 m
= 5000 J

b) the work done by the effort

78
Work, W = Force, F x displacement, d
=Fxd
= 250 N x 30 m
= 7500 N

c) the efficiency of the pulley system

efficiency = work output x 100%


work input

= 5000 N x 100%
7500 N

= 66.7 %

EXERCISE
CHAPTER 4

1. Define work, energy, power and efficiency.

2. A student lifts a 20 kg bag onto his shoulder through a vertical distance of 1.62m.
What is the work done by the student?

3. A tractor was pulled from point A to point B. The distance between these 2 points
is 10 m. Minimum force needed to pull the tractor is 25 000N. Calculate the work
done to pull the tractor from point A to point B.

79
4. A mall worker pulls a 150 kg stock of meat up a plane inclined at 30 o to the
horizontal shown in figure below. If the length of the plane is 6.5 m, calculate the
work done by the worker in pulling the stock to the top of the plane.

30o

5. A plumber did 200J of work to loosen a big pipe. Once loosen, the pipe rotated at
40o. Calculate force applied by the plumber to loosen the pipe if the length of the
tool used is 0.20m.

6. Determine the kinetic energy of a 2000kg roller coaster car that is moving with a
speed of 25.0 m/s.

7. A 550kg compact car moving at 110 km/hr has approximately 260 500 Joules of
kinetic energy. What is the kinetic energy of the same car if it is moving at 65
km/hr?

8. A bird is sitting on a tree branch with height of h. Say that the mass of the bird is
0.5 kg and the height of the tree branch is 2 m. Calculate the gravitational
potential energy possessed by the bird at the moment.

9. A steel ball of a mass 3 kg is released from a height of 15 m from the ground. On


hitting the ground, the ball rebounds to a height of 2.2m. Assuming there is no
other energy leaves or enters the system during the process, find:

a) the kinetic energy of the ball as it reaches the ground.


b) the velocity of the ball on reaching the ground.
c) the kinetic energy of the ball as it leaves the ground on
rebound.
d) the velocity of the ball on rebound.
10. A tractor was pulled by another tractor as far as 15 m from point A to point B.
amount of force needed to pull the tractor was 4000N. It took 3 minutes for the
tractor to reach point B from point A. Calculate the power done.

11. Approximately 5 minutes is needed to bring 1000kg of raw mineral from through
a mine shaft to the surface. The depth of the mine is 250m. Find the power used
for the process.

12. 50N of force applied on a spanner to loosen a nut. Length of the spanner is 0.04 m
and 45o angle was produced as the loosed. Time for the whole process to take part
was 6 seconds. Calculate power done in the process.

80
5 SOLID AND LIQUID
5.1 State characteristic of solid, liquid and gas
• Everything in this world existed in form of solid, liquid or gas.
• Gases, liquids and solids are all made up of atoms, molecules, and/or
ions, but the behaviors of these particles differ in the three phases. The
following figure illustrates the microscopic differences.

Some Characteristics of Gases, Liquids and Solids and the


Microscopic Explanation for the Behavior
gas liquid solid

assumes the shape assumes the shape of retains a fixed


and volume of its the part of the volume and shape
container : container which it rigid - particles
particles can move occupies: locked into place
past one another particles can
move/slide past one
another
compressible not easily not easily
lots of free space compressible compressible
between particles little free space little free space
between particles between particles
flows easily flows easily does not flow easily
particles can move particles can rigid - particles
past one another move/slide past one cannot move/slide
another past one another
particle: particle: particle:
separated with no are close together are tightly packed,
regular arrangement with no regular usually in a regular
arrangement pattern
particle: particle: particle:
vibrate and move Vibrate, move about, vibrate (jiggle) but
freely at high speeds and slide past each generally do not
other. move from place to
place

5.2 Determine density of material and relative density/specific gravity

81
i) Density
• Density is a measure of how much mass is contained in a given
unit volume (density = mass/volume).
• It is usually expressed in kg/m3.
• In other word if mass is a measure of how much ‘stuff’ there is in
an object, density is a measure of how tightly that ‘stuff’ is packed
together.
• Before we can calculate density we have to know how to calculate
the volume of substance
• Unit of density is kg/m3
Density = mass
Volume
= m/v

substance density
(kg/m3)
Water 1000
Ice 917
Alcohol 790
Oxygen 1.43
Air 1.29

• Volume:
Area (A) Shape Volume (V)

A=bxl h V=bxlxh
l
b

A = Л j2 V = Л r2h
h

D
h
2
A = (1/3) Л j V = 1/3 Л r2h
D

A = 4 Л j2 V = 4/3 Л j3

ii) relative density


• also known as specific density

82
• Specific gravity is the density of a substance divided by the density
of water.
• Since water has a density of 1 gram/cm3, and since all of the units
cancel.

ρ specific = ρ substance
ρ water
Example 5.1:

A big box with has mass of 20N and size of 30cm x 30cm x 30cm. Using
all the information, calculate the density of the box.

solution:

given,
W = 20N
size = 30cm x 30cm x 30cm
= 0.3m x 0.3m x 0.3m

so,
W = mg
30N = m (9.81)
mass ,m = 30/(9.81)
= 2.04kg

Volume, V = 0.3m x 0.3m x 0.3m


= 0.027m3

density, ρ = m/v
= 2.04kg/0.027m3
= 75.57 kgm-3

Example 5.2:

A cube with density of 2300kgm-3 was located on a table. Weight of the


cube is 285 N. determine the mass and the volume of the cube.

solution:

W = mg
= 285 N
= 285 kgms-2
mass, m = W/(9.81)
= 285 kgms-2 / 9.81ms-2
= 29.05 kg

83
volume ,V = m/ρ
= 29.05kg / 2300kgm-3
= 0.0126 m3

5.3 Define pressure, p = F/A


• Pressure in Pascal’s (Pa) is defined as force (N) per unit area (m2)

Pressure = Force
Area
p = F
A

Example 5.3:

How many Pascal’s are exerted by an elephant of weight 50 000 N


standing on his feet of total area 0.8 m2?

solution:

Pressure = Force
Area
p = F
A
p = 50000
0.8
p = 62 500 Pa

Example 5.4:

What pressure is exerted by an apple of weight 1 N sitting on an area of 20


mm2?
20mm 2 =
solution: = 20mm2 x (1 cm)2 x (1 m)
(10mm)2 (100cm
p = F = 20 x 1 x 12m2
2

A 102 1002
p = 1N . = 20 x 1 x 1 m 2
100 x 10000
0.00002m2
= 20 m2
p = 50 000 Pa 1000000
= 0.00002 m2

Example 5.5:

A fruit seller uses a knife with a sharp edge and a cross-sectional area of
0.5 cm2 to cut open a watermelon.

84
a) If the force applied on a knife is 18 N, what is the pressure
exerted by the knife on the watermelon?
b) After that, he cuts open a papaya using the same knife by
exerting a pressure of 2.7 x 105 Pa. calculate the magnitude of
force applied to cut the papaya.

Solution:

a) If the force applied on a knife is 18 N, what is


the pressure exerted by the knife on the
watermelon?
0.5
Pressure = Force =0
Area
p = F =0
A
p = 18N . =0
0.00005m2
p = 360 000 Pa =0

b) After that, he cuts open a papaya using the same knife by


exerting a pressure of 2.7 x 105 Pa. calculate the magnitude of
force applied to cut the papaya.

Pressure = Force
Area
p = F
A
270000Pa = F .
0.00005m2
F = 0.00005 x 270000
= 13.5 N
53670291960252

5.3.1 Application of pressure


i) high pressure
• cutting tools:
Small force applied on a very small area of the knife edge
produce a larger pressure
• shoes:
Spikes running shoes can provide a better grip for athletes
running on a track because these shoes have spikes that
produce large pressure to pierce the track.

i) low pressure
• heavy machine:

85
Bulldozers and heavy machineries usually have large area
of surface to move them to decrease the pressure exerted on
the ground.
• Buildings:
Tall buildings often build on large area of surface to
decrease the pressure exerted on the ground

5.4 Define pressure in liquid, p = ρgh


• The pressure at any point in a liquid is due to the weight
of the liquid above that point.
• Figure of Pascal’s vases shows that water in each tube
rises to the same height, h.
• This situation shows that a liquid always finds its own
level.
• At the same level or depth, the liquid pressure must be
the same; otherwise liquid will flow to equalize any
pressure differences.
Water
level

Water finds its own level


5.4.1 Depth to pressure in liquid
• Pressure at any point in a liquid acts equally in all directions.
• Liquid pressure increases with depth.

Water jet

Liquid pressure increases with depth


5.4.1 Density to pressure in liquid

86
• Pressure of liquid increases with density.
• Water and cooking oil make a different pressure as the
density of cooking oil is less than water.

Example 5.6:

A solid metal sinks slowly in 500m water. Calculate the pressure exerted
by the water to the metal when the metal reaches the depth of 100m,
200m, 300m, 400m and the bottom. What if the metal sinks in 500m of
oil? Explain the difference of your answers. (Density of oil = 800 kgm-3).

solution:

at 100 m,
Pwater = ρgh Poil = ρgh
= 1000 x 9.81 x 100 = 800 x 9.81 x 100
= 981000 Pa = 784800 Pa

at 200 m,
Pwater = ρgh Poil = ρgh
= 1000 x 9.81 x 200 = 800 x 9.81 x 200
= 1962000 Pa = 1569600 Pa

at 300 m,
Pwater = ρgh Poil = ρgh
= 1000 x 9.81 x 300 = 800 x 9.81 x 300
= 2943000 Pa = 2354400 Pa

at 400 m,
Pwater = ρgh Poil = ρgh
= 1000 x 9.81 x 400 = 800 x 9.81 x 400
= 3924000 Pa = 3139200 Pa

at 500 m,
Pwater = ρgh Poil = ρgh
= 1000 x 9.81 x 500 = 800 x 9.81 x 500
= 4905000 Pa = 3924000 Pa

Explanations:
i) Liquid pressure increases with depth.
ii) Liquid pressure increases with density.

5.4.1 Application of pressure of liquid


i) Public water supply system

87
• Due to gravitational pull, water in storage is maintained at a
high pressure and this enables water to flow to houses of
consumers.
• Water tank is usually built atop the roof of each house to
store water and maintain constant water pressure.
ii) The wall of a dam
• Walls of a dam increase in thickness downward.
• A thicker wall is required to withstand greater pressure
since water pressure increases with depth.
i) Fire-fighting hose
• A fire fighter requires a fire hose for directing a water of
very high pressure to put out fire in a high rise building.
• To produce a pressurized water jet, the water is accelerated
by an electric pump before flowing through the fire hose.

5.4.1 Pascal’s Principle


• Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted
undiminished to every part of the fluid, as well as to the
walls of the container.

Fluid is transmitted undiminished to every part of the fluid

Example 5.7:

88
Figure below shows a hydraulic pressure mechanism in equilibrium. Base
on the figure; calculate the force, F2 needed to ensure the hydraulic
pressure will always be in equilibrium if 150 N/m2 is given.
F2 30N

Area,A1= 0.2m2
Area,A1= 0.4m2

Pressure, P

solution:

P = F1 = F2
A1 A2

use

F1 = F2
A1 A2

30 = F2
0.2 0.4
150 (0.4) = F2
60 = F2
F2 = 60 N

or

use

P = F2
A2

150 = F2
0.4
150(0.4) = F2
60 = F2
F2 = 60N

Example 5.8:

89
The cylindrical piston of a hydraulic jack has a cross-sectional area of 0.06
m2 and the plunger has a cross-sectional area of 0.002m2.

a) The upward force for lifting a load placed on top of the large
piston is 9 000 N. calculate the downward force on the plunger
required
b) If the distance moved by the plunger is 75cm, what is the
distance moved by the large piston?

F2=9 000N
F1
load
plunger
A1=0.002 m2 A2=0.06m2

pressure
oil

solution:

a) The upward force for lifting a load placed on top of the large
piston is 9 000 N. calculate the downward force on the plunger
required

F1 = F2
A1 A2
F1 = F2 A1
A2
= 0.002 x 9 000
0.06
= 300 N

b) If the distance moved by the plunger is 75cm, what is the


distance moved by the large piston

A2x2 = A1x1
x2 = A1x1
A2
= 0.002 x 75
0.06
= 2.5 cm

5.4.1 Archimedes’ Principle


• states that a body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a
force equal to the weight of the displaced fluid

90
• applies to both floating and submerged bodies and to all
fluids
• It explains not only the buoyancy of ships and other vessels
in water but also the rise of a balloon in the air and the
apparent loss of weight of objects underwater.

i) For floating body

Mass of floating body = mass of water displaced

Object buoyancy = weight of water


displaced

– Floating body
caused by pressure
will be change into
buoyancy force.

a) For immerge body

Mass of water displaced= buoyancy force of body

Example 5.9:

A piece 27 kg coral with density of 3000 kgm-3 is placed inside an


aquarium filled with water of density 1000kg m-3. Calculate

a) the volume of water displaced by the coral


b) the apparent loss in weight of the coral
c) the weight of coral in water

solution:

a) the volume of water displaced by the coral

91
ρ = m
V
V = m
ρ
= 27 kg / 3000 kg m-3
= 0.009m3

b) the apparent loss in weight of the coral

apparent loss in weight in water = weight of water displaced


= V water x ρwater x g
= 0.009 x 1000 x 9.81
= 88.29 N

c) the weight of coral in water

weight of coral in air – apparent loss in weight in water


= 27 (9.81) – 88.29
= 264.87 – 88.29
= 176.58 N

5.4 Define gas pressure


• Gas pressure is caused by collision of gas molecules on
walls of a container.
• Gases exert pressure in all direction just like liquid.
• When the frequency of collisions of the gas molecules on
the walls of the container increases, the gas pressure
increases.

5.4.1 Atmospheric pressure


• Atmospheric pressure happens when the weight of the mass of
the atmosphere exerts pressure on the surface of the Earth.
• The density of air on earth’s surface increases as more air
molecules fall on to it due to gravitational pull.
• Pressure of gas can be calculated by using the expression

p = pa + hρg

where,
pa = atmospheric pressure
h = height difference of liquid column
ρ = density of liquid
g = gravitational field strength
Example 5.10:

92
Water is added into one arm of a U-tube containing some mercury until its
height above the mercury level is 14 cm. petrol is then added carefully into
the other arm of the U-tube until the mercury levels at X and Y in both
arms are the same. It is observed that the petrol column is 17.5 cm high.
Calculate the density of petrol. Given the density of water = 1 000 kgm-3.

petrol
water

17.5cm
14.0cm

X Y

mercury

solution:

Total pressure at X = Total pressure at Y


pA + hwater ρwater g = pA + hpetrol ρpetrol g
hwater ρwater g = ρpetrol
hpetrol
14 x 1000 = ρpetrol
17.5
800 kgm-3 = ρpetrol

5.4.1 Application of Atmospheric pressure


• Drinking straw
• when air is sucked out from a drinking straw, the air
pressure inside becomes lower
• then the higher atmospheric pressure acting on the surface
of the drink pushes the drink into the drinking straw and
enables it to be sucked into the mouth.
• Syringe
• when the nozzle is dipped into a liquid and the piston is
pulled up, the pressure is reduced.
• The higher atmospheric pressure acting on surface of the
liquid pushes the liquid into the cylinder
• When the piston is pushed down, the liquid is ejected.

5.4.1 Bernoulli’s principle


• This principle states that the pressure of a fluid (liquid or gas)
decreases at the region where the speed of fluid flow increases.

93
• The higher the velocity, the higher the pressure exerted.
• Velocity of fluid increases in narrow space or orifice.
• Pressure will decrease uniformly in uniform velocity water.

x y z

Water
inlet

94
x y z

Water Water outlet


inlet

Pressure will decrease uniformly in uniform velocity water

95
Water
x y z
inlet

96
Water
x y z
inlet

97
Pressure decreases in narrow section as the velocity of liquid increases.

EXERCISE
CHAPTER 5

1. A big box with has mass of 100N and size of 20cm x 40cm x 30cm. Using all the
information, calculate the density of the box.

2. A cube with density of 5300kgm-3 was located on a table. Weight of the cube is 400
N. Determine the mass and the volume of the cube.

3. How many Pascal’s are exerted by an elephant of weight 54 000 N standing on his
feet of total area 0.15 m2?

4. What pressure is exerted by an apple of weight 1 N sitting on an area of 34 mm2?

5. A fruit seller uses a knife with a sharp edge and a cross-sectional area of 0.6 cm2 to
cut open a watermelon.
a) If the force applied on a knife is 20 N, what is the pressure exerted by the
knife on the watermelon?
b) After that, he cuts open a papaya using the same knife by exerting a
pressure of 3.7 x 105 Pa. calculate the magnitude of force applied to cut
the papaya.

6. A solid metal sinks slowly in 455m water. Calculate the pressure exerted by the water
to the metal when the metal reaches the depth of 150m, 210m, 320m, 408m and the
bottom. What if the metal sinks in 500m of oil? Explain the difference of your
answers. (Density of oil = 800 kgm-3).

7. The cylindrical piston of a hydraulic jack has a cross-sectional area of 0.06 m 2 and the
plunger has a cross-sectional area of 0.002m2.

a) The upward force for lifting a load placed on top of the large piston is 10
000 N. calculate the downward force on the plunger required
b) If the distance moved by the plunger is 105cm, what is the distance moved
by the large piston?

F2=10 000N
F1
load
plunger
A1=0.002 m2 A2=0.06m2

98
pressure
oil

8. A piece 21 kg rubber with density of 2 000 kgm-3 is placed inside an aquarium filled
with water of density 1 000kg m-3. Calculate

a) the volume of water displaced by the rubber


b) the apparent loss in weight of the rubber
c) the weight of coral in rubber

9. Figure below shows a hydraulic pressure mechanism in equilibrium. Base on the


figure; calculate the force, F2 needed to ensure the hydraulic pressure will always be
in equilibrium if 120 N/m2 is given.
F2 40N

Area,A1= 0.2m2
Area,A1= 0.4m2

Pressure, P

10. Water is added into one arm of a U-tube containing some mercury until its height
above the mercury level is 14 cm. petrol is then added carefully into the other arm of
the U-tube until the mercury levels at X and Y in both arms are the same. It is
observed that the petrol column is 18.5 cm high. Calculate the density of petrol.
Given the density of water = 1 000 kgm-3.

petrol
water

18.5cm
12.0cm

X Y

mercury

99
5 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE
6.1 Define heat and temperature
• Heat is the amount of thermal energy that can be transferred from one
object to one another.
• Heat is measured in Joules, J.
• Temperature is the degree of hotness of an object.
• Temperature is measured in degree Celsius (oC)

6.1 Explain heat transfer


• there are 3 ways to transfer heat :
i) conduction
• A process of transferring heat from a high temperature object
to a lower temperature object.
ii) convection
• Movement of gas from a hot area to colder area.
• Hot liquid or gas will become lighter while cold liquid or gas
will become heavier. This will cause the hot gas to move up
while cold gas downward instead.
iii) ray and radiation
• Heat transfer through wave or ray from one heat source to another
object.

6.1 Define heat capacity and specific heat capacity, Q = mcθ


i) Heat capacity
• Heat capacity of a substance is defined as the amount of heat required
to raise its temperature by 1 oC.
• Heat capacity is measured in joules per degree Celsius (J oC-1)

C = Heat quantity (Q)


Temperature change (θ)
= Q
θ
= J/oC

ii) Specific heat capacity


• Defined as the heat required raising the temperature of 1 kg of
substance by 1oC.

c = Heat quantity (Q)


mass(m) x temperature change(θ)
= Q
mc

10
0
= KJ/ @ J/g oC

6.1 Application of heat capacity


• Using the formulae Q = mCθ

Example 6.1:

Calculate the heat quantity needed to raise a temperature of 7 kg water as


much as 30oC. Specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 kJ/kg oC.

solution:

Q = mC θ
= (7kg)(4.2kJ/kg oC)(30oC)
= 882 kJ

Example 6.2:

Calculate the heat quantity needed to raise a temperature of 6 kg metal


from 10oC to 80oC. Specific heat capacity of water is 0.38 kJ/kg oC.

solution:

Q = mC θ
= (6kg) (0.38kJ/kg oC) (80oC – 10oC)
= 159.6 kJ

6.1 Relative specific heat capacity


• Ratio of specific heat capacity of a substance with water

Relative specific heat capacity of substance


= Specific heat capacity of substance
Specific heat capacity of water

where:

Specific heat capacity of water = 4.2 Kj/kg oC @ 4.2 J/g oC

Example 6.3:

If relative specific heat capacity of copper is 0.09, calculate the specific


heat capacity of the copper.

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1
solution:

Relative specific heat capacity of substance


= Specific heat capacity of substance
Specific heat capacity of water
RSHC substance = SHC substance
SHC water
0.09 = SHC substance
(4.2)
SHC substance = 0.09 x 4.2
= 0.378 kJ/kgoC

6.1 Define thermal equilibrium


• A condition in which there is no net heat flow between two objects
that are in thermal contact with each other.

6.1 Determine temperature in thermal equilibrium, Q released = Q absorbed


• When two objects of different temperatures are placed in contact with
each other, the object with the higher temperature will transfer heat to
the object with a lower temperature.
• After a while, both objects will attain the same temperature. At this
state, both objects have reached thermal equilibrium.

Object Object
A B Object Object
(Hot) Heat transfer (Cold) A B

Object A will transfer heat to object B with lower temperature


resulting both of the objects to settle at one steady temperature.

Thermal equilibrium

Q released = Q absorbed
mc θ1 = mc θ2
mc(T1 - T3) = mc (T3 – T2)

where:

θ1 = heat loss
θ2 = heat absorbed
T3 = final temperature

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2
Example 6.4:

An iron block with a mass of 4.5 kg was heated till it reached the
temperature of 650oC. Then, the iron block was immediately soaked in 2
kg of oil with temperature of 200oC. Both oil and iron temperature then
settled at 250oC. Given, the specific heat capacity of iron is 0.11kcal kg-1 o
C-1. Determine the quantity of heat being transferred from iron to oil. Also
calculate the specific heat capacity of the oil.
solution:

Q released = Q absorbed
mc θ1 = mc θ2
mc (T1 - T3) = mc (T3 – T2)
= mcθ
= (4.5) (0.11) (650 – 250)
= 198 k cal

Q released = Q absorbed
mc θ1 = mc θ2
2c (250 - 200) = mc (T3 – T2)
100c = mcθ
100c = (4.5) (0.11) (650 – 250)
c = 198 k cal
100
= 1.98 kcal kg-1 o C-1

Example 6.5:

A piece of metal of mass 0.5 kg is heated to 100oC in boiling water. It is


then transferred into a well insulated beaker containing 1.5 kg of water at
27oC. If the final steady temperature of the water in the beaker is 32oC,
what is the specific heat capacity of the metal? Assume there is no energy
loss of heat to the surroundings and ignore the heat transferred to the
beaker. (Specific heat capacity of water is 4 200 J kg-1 oC-1)

Q released = Q absorbed
mc θ1 = mc θ2
mc (T1 - T3) = mc (T3 – T2
0.5c (100 - 32)= mc (32 – 27)
0.5c (68) = 1.5 (4200) (5)
34 c = 31500
c = 31500
34
= 926.5 j kg-1 o C-1

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3
EXERCISE
CHAPTER 6

1. Calculate the heat quantity needed to raise a temperature of 5 kg water as much as


20oC. Specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 kJ/kg oC.

2. Calculate the heat quantity needed to raise a temperature of 5 kg metal from 10 oC to


50oC. Specific heat capacity of water is 0.38 kJ/kg oC.

3. If relative specific heat capacity of copper is 0.07, calculate the specific heat capacity
of the copper.

4. An iron block with a mass of 4.7 kg was heated till it reached the temperature of
650oC. Then, the iron block was immediately soaked in 4 kg of oil with temperature
of 220oC. Both oil and iron temperature then settled at 285oC. Given, the specific heat
capacity of iron is 0.12kcal kg-1 o C-1. Determine the quantity of heat being transferred
from iron to oil. Also calculate the specific heat capacity of the oil.

5. A piece of metal of mass 0.75 kg is heated to 100oC in boiling water. It is then


transferred into a well insulated beaker containing 1.5 kg of water at 27oC. If the final
steady temperature of the water in the beaker is 33oC, what is the specific heat
capacity of the metal? Assume there is no energy loss of heat to the surroundings and
ignore the heat transferred to the beaker. (Specific heat capacity of water is 4 200 J
kg-1 oC-1)

6. If 2 kg of hot water at 100o C is added to 10 kg of cold water at 28oC and stirred well,
what is the final temperature of the mixture?

7. 400 g of water at 25oC is added to 200 g of water at 100 oC. Find the final temperature
of the mixture.

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4
6 ELECTRICITY
6.1 Understanding electric charge
• Referring to atom figure given below, matter is made up of tiny
particles called atoms.
• At the centre of the atom is the nucleus which is made up of
protons and neutrons.
• Surrounding the nucleus are particles called electrons.
• A proton has positive (+) charge while electron has an equal
negative (-) charge otherwise neutron is uncharged.
• Electric charge is denoted by the symbol Q. The SI unit of electric
charge is the coulomb and is denoted by the symbol C.

Charge on one electron = - 1.60 x 10-19 C


Charge on one proton = + 1.60 x 10-19 C

6.1 Define charge flow


• Movement of charge from positive terminal to negative terminal in an
electric circuit.

6.1 Define current


• Electric current is defined as the rate of flow of charge.
• If the amount of charge which flows through any point in an electric
circuit in time t is Q, then the electric current I is given by:

Q = It

• The SI unit of electric current is the ampere, A.


• The electric current flowing in an electric circuit is 1 ampere if the
amount of charge flowing through any point in the circuit in 1 second
is 1coulomb.

1 ampere = 1 coulomb per second


1A = 1Cs -1

• A coulomb of charge can be defined as the charge flowing through any


point in a circuit when a steady current of 1 ampere flows for 1
second.

1 coulomb = 1 ampere second


1C = 1As

• The amount of charge, Q that flows through a conductor is given by:

Q = ne

Where n is the number of electrons and e is the charge on one electron

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5
• An electric circuit represents he path taken by an electric current as it
flows from the positive to the negative terminals.

Positive Negative
terminal terminal
+ - Electron flow
Conventional
current

lamp

Example 7.1:

A lamp P is lighted up for a duration of 5 minutes using a dry cell as


shown in figure below. Assume that the dry cell provides a steady current
during that duration.

a) How much charge flows through the lamp if the ammeter shows a
reading of 0.3 A?
b) Determine the number of electrons that flows through the lamp if
the charge on one electron is 1.6 x 10-19 C?

solution:

a) How much charge flows through the lamp if the ammeter shows a
reading of 0.3 A?

I = 0.3 A
t = 5 minutes = 300s
Q = It
= 0.3 x 300
= 90 C

b) Determine the number of electrons that flows through the lamp if


the charge on one electron is 1.6 x 10-19 C?

10
6
Q = 90 C
e = 1.6 x 10-19 C
n = Q
e
= 90 .
-19
1.6 x 10 C
= 5.625 x 1020

6.1 Define potential different (voltage)


• Potential different, V is defined as the work done in moving a unit
charge from one point to the other.
• Potential difference is measured in volts (V)
• The potential difference across two points in a circuit is volt if 1 joule
of work is done in moving 1 coulomb of charge from one point to the
other.
• Voltmeter can be used to measure potential difference.

Example 7.2:

The potential difference across the lamp is 1.3 V. How many joules of
energy are transformed into light and heat when a charge of 20 C passes
through the lamp?

solution:

V = 1.3 V
Q = 20 C

V = E/Q
E = VQ
= 1.3 x 20
= 26 J

Example 7.3:

If 72 J of work has to be done to carry 6 C of charge across two parallel


metal plates, what is the potential difference across the metal plates?

solution:

W = 72 J Q = 6C
V = W/Q
= 72 / 6
= 12 V
6.1.1 Voltage application

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7
• DC Filter - A DC filter is used to create a smooth voltage from
irregular or pulsating voltage sources. High peak currents and
ripple currents are dissipated by capacitors storing and
releasing charge in a controlled fashion.
• Inverter - An inverter is a device that converts direct current
power input to alternating polarity power output.
• Resonant Charge Circuit - A circuit used for the resonant
charging of one capacitor from another capacitor through an
inductor. This form of charging is frequently used in pulsed
power and power conditioning circuits in order to efficiently
transfer energy from one stage to another.
• Pulse Forming Network - Pulse forming networks are able to
create a high power pulse with a relatively flat top. This is
achieved using a network of capacitors and inductors to
discharge at precise times to create a square or trapezoidal
current. Different network designs exist based on the desired
output.

6.1 Understanding Ohm’s Law


6.1.1 State Ohm’s Law, V = IR
• Ohm's law states that, in an electrical circuit, the current
passing through a conductor from one terminal point on the
conductor to another terminal point on the conductor is directly
proportional to the potential difference (i.e. voltage drop or
voltage) across the two terminal points, and inversely
proportional to the resistance of the conductor between the two
terminal points.

V = IR

Example 7.4:

A source of 6.0V is connected to a purely resistive lamp and a current of


2.0 amperes flows. All the wires are resistance-free. What is the resistance
of the lamp?

solution:

V = IR
R = V/I
R = 3.0

6.1 Define conductors

10
8
• contain movable electric charges which will move when an
electric potential difference (measured in volts) is applied
across separate points on a wire (etc) made from the material.
• This flow of charge (measured in amperes) is what is meant by
electric current.
• In most materials, the amount of current is proportional to the
voltage (Ohm's Law) provided the temperature remains
constant and the material remains in the same shape and state

6.1 Define resistance


• Resistance is a measure of how much a conductor resists the flow of
electricity.
• Electrons moving in a wire will hit the wall of the wire and also collide
with other atoms causing the movement to slow is called resistance.
• A good conductor has low resistance and a poor conductor has a high
resistance.
• The resistance (R) of a conductor is defined as the ratio of potential
different, V across the conductor to the current, I flowing through it.
• Unit of resistance is ohm, Ώ.
Material Resistivity (ohm•meter)
Silver 1.59 x 10-8

Copper 1.7 x 10-8

Gold 2.4 x 10-8

Aluminum 2.8 x 10-8

Tungsten 5.6 x 10-8

Iron 10 x 10-8

Platinum 11 x 10-8

Lead 22 x 10-8

Nichrome 150 x 10-8

Carbon 3.5 x 105

Polystyrene 107 - 1011

Polyethylene 108 - 109

Glass 1010 - 1014

Hard Rubber 1013

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9
Resistance = potential difference
current
R = ∆V
Example 7.5: I

A bulb of 120 W has 0.91 A. Calculate the resistance of the bulb if 12V
passes through it.

solution:

R = ∆V
I
= 12 V
0.91A
= 120.9 Ώ

6.1 Factors affecting resistance


• There are three factors affecting the resistance in wire
a) Length of wire
b) resistant
c) area of wire
• symbol for resistant (ρ), length (l), and area (A)

Resistance = resistant x length


area
R = ρl
A

wire
A
L

11
0
Example 7.6:

Given a 200m cuprum wire with is of 0.02 cm2. Calculate the resistance of
the wire. Also, calculate the resistance if the wire is made of aluminum.

solution:

R = ρL
A
= (1.72 x 10-6) (20000)
0.01
= 3.44 Ώ

If wire is made of aluminum:

R = ρL
A
= (2.824 x 10-6)(20000)
0.01
= 5.648 Ώ

Example 7.7:

Calculate the resistance of a wire if resistant of the wire is 0.15 x 10-6 Ώ.


The wire is 30m long with diameter of 2.15 mm2.

R = ρL
A
= (0.15 x 10-6) x 30
(Л j2)
= (4.5 x 10 -6)
(Л x 0.001252)
= 1.24 Ώ

6.1 Define capacitor


• is an electrical device that can store energy in the electric field between a
pair of closely spaced conductors (called 'plates').

6.1.1 State the usage of capacitor


• used in electrical circuits as energy-storage devices
• They can also be used to differentiate between high-frequency and low-
frequency signals and this makes them useful in electronic filters.

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1
6.1.1 Measure the electric energy in capacitor using Ep = ½ CV2
• As opposite charges accumulate on the plates of a capacitor
due to the separation of charge, a voltage develops across the
capacitor owing to the electric field of these charges. Ever-
increasing work must be done against this ever-increasing
electric field as more charge is separated. The energy
(measured in joules, in SI) stored in a capacitor is equal to the
amount of work required to establish the voltage across the
capacitor, and therefore the electric field

• The maximum energy that can be (safely) stored in a particular


capacitor is limited by the maximum electric field that the
dielectric can withstand before it breaks down. Therefore, all
capacitors made with the same dielectric have about the same
maximum energy density (joules of energy per cubic meter).

6.1 State simple electrical circuit


• A circuit connects circuit elements together in a specific
configuration designed to transform the source signal
(originating from a voltage or current source) into another
signal—the output—that corresponds to the current or voltage
defined for a particular circuit element
• is an interconnection of electrical elements such as resistors,
inductors, capacitors, transmission lines, voltage sources,
current sources, and switches
• is a network that has a closed loop, giving a return path for the
current.

6.1.1 Differentiate series and parallel circuit

Differences between series and parallel circuit


Series circuit Parallel circuit
• Has only one path for • Has more than one
the current flow. path for the current to
• The current is the flow
same throughout the • The current is
circuit. different at different
• The component with points
the largest resistance • The p.d across all the
has the highest p.d components is the
across it. same
• No current flows when • Current stops only in

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2
the switch is open. the branch that is
open. Current
continues to flow in
other branches.

i) Series circuit
• The three resistors R1, R2 and R3 in figure below are said
to be connected in series
• The current I is the same at all point throughout the circuit.

I = I1 = I2 = I3

• The total potential difference V cross the resistors is equal


to the sum of the potential differences across each resistor.

V = V1 + V2 + V3

• From Ohm’s Law, V1 = I1R1, V2 = I2R2, V3 = I3R3. If R is


the effective or total resistance, V = IR. Hence,

IR = I1 R1 + I2R2 + I3R3

• The effective resistance of two or more resistors connected


in series is the sum of the individual resistance

R = R1 + R2 + R3

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3
VR1 V
I1 R2 V2 R3 V3

11
4
Resistors in series

Example 7.8:

An 8 Ώ resistor and a 12 Ώ resistor are connected in series with a 12 V


battery as shown in figure below. What is the potential difference across
each resistor?
12 Ώ

8Ώ 12 Ώ

solution:

R = R1 + R 2
= (8 + 12 ) Ώ
= 20 Ώ

V = IR
12 = I (20)
I = 12 / 20
= 0.6 A

V1 = I R1
= 0.6 x 8
= 4.8 V

V2 = I R2
= 0.6 x 12 V
= 7.2 V

Example 7.9:

A 12 V battery is connected in series with a lamp M and a 4 Ώ resistor as


shown in the following figure. If the ammeter A shows a reading of 0.5 S,
find the resistance of the lamp M and potential difference across the lamp.
12 V

11
5
A
8Ώ 4Ώ

Solution:

V = I (R1 + R2) V1 = IR1


12 = 0.5 ( R1 + 4) = 0.5 x 20
R1 = 20 Ώ = 10 V

i) Parallel circuit
• The three resistors R1, R2 and R3 in figure below are said
to be connected in parallel.
• The potential difference V cross each of the resistors is the
same.
V = V1 = V2 = V3
• The current I in the main circuit is equal to the sum of the
currents through the separate branches.
I = I1 + I2 + I3
• From Ohm’s Law, I1 = V1/R1, I2 = V2/R2, I3 = V3/R3

R = 1 + 1 + 1
R1 R2 R3

I V

I1
R1
I2
R2
I3
R3

Resistors in parallel

Example 7.10:

A potential difference of 3 V is applied to a network of resistors as shown


in figure below.

a) What is the reading of the ammeter A?


b) What is the potential difference across the parallel network?
c) What is the current flowing through the 6 Ώ resistor?
3V

11
6
A


solution:

a) What is the reading of the ammeter A?

1 = 1 + 1
R1 R2 R3
= 1 + 1
6 3
= 2Ώ

b) What is the potential difference across the parallel network?

V = 1R1
= 0.5 x 2
= 1.0 V

c) What is the current flowing through the 6 Ώ resistor?

V = IR2
1 = I (6)
I = 1/6 A

Example 7.11:

An electrical system consists of serial resistor. Each resistor has 8 Ώ, 12 Ώ


and 13 Ώ resistance. What is the total resistance of this system? Also
calculate if the system consists of parallel circuit.
Solution :

R = R1 + R2 + R3
= (8 + 12 + 13) Ώ
= 33 Ώ

parallel:

1 = 1+ 1 + 1
Rj R1 R2 R3
1/Rj = (1/8) + (1/12) + (1/13)

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7
1/Rj = 0.285
Rj = 3.51 Ώ

Example 7.12:

According to the figure given, find:

a) The Effective resistance


b) Potential different between p and q
c) Current flows in 15Ώ and 20Ώ resistor
50 Ώ

10 Ώ 60 Ώ

p 30 Ώ
q

15 Ώ

20 Ώ

+ -

solution:
200 V

a) Effective resistance

R1 = 10 + 1
(1/50) + (1/60) + (1/30)

= 10 + 14.29
= 24.29 Ώ

R2 = 1 + 5
(1/15) + (1/20)

= 8.57 + 5
= 13.57 Ώ

R = 1
(1/24.29) + (1/13.57)

= 8.7 Ώ

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8
b) Potential different between p and q
10 Ώ 14.29 Ώ

8.57 Ώ

+ -

200 V

V = 200
I = V/R
= 200/24.29
= 8.23 A

V1 = IR
= (8.23) (14.29)
= 117.7 volt

c) Current flows in 15Ώ and 20Ώ resistor

I = V/R
= 200/13.57
= 14.74 A

V2 = IR
= (14.74) (8.57)
= 126.31 volt

I15 = V/R
= 126.31/15
= 8.42 A

I20 = V/R
= 126.31/20
= 6.312 A

6.1.1 Differentiate direct current (d.c) and alternating current (a.c)

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9
Differences between direct current and alternating current
direct current alternating current
• Direction and • direction and magnitude
magnitude of electric of electric charge
charge flowing in wire changes all the time
will not change • energy releases by is
• Energy releases by not constant
direct current is always • energy produces by this
constant current always higher
• To obtain higher than direct current
voltage level, circuit
must be built in series.

EXERCISE
CHAPTER 7

1. Define electric charge, charge flow, current and voltage.

2. State the Ohm’s Law.

3. A lamp is lighted up for duration of 10 minutes using a dry cell as shown in figure
below. Assume that the dry cell provides a steady current during that duration.

12
0
A

a) How much charge flows through the lamp if the ammeter shows a reading of
0.8 A?
b) Determine the number of electrons that flows through the lamp if the charge
on one electron is 1.6 x 10-19 C?

4. The potential difference across the lamp is 1.7 V. How many joules of energy are
transformed into light and heat when a charge of 40 C passes through the lamp?

5. A source of 7.0V is connected to a purely resistive lamp and a current of 4.0 amperes
flows. All the wires are resistance-free. What is the resistance of the lamp?

6. An 4 Ώ resistor and an 8 Ώ resistor are connected in series with a 12 V battery as


shown in figure below. What is the potential difference across each resistor?
12 V

4Ώ 8Ώ

7. An electrical system consists of serial resistor. Each resistor has 12 Ώ, 15 Ώ and 16 Ώ


resistance. What is the total resistance of this system? Also calculate if the system
consists of parallel circuit.

12
1
COLLECTION
FINAL EXAMINATION
Soalan 1 (Julai 2006)

a) Nyatakan takrifan bagi:


i) Ketumpatan bahan
ii) Ketumpatan bandingan

b) Nyatakan prinsip momen apabila suatu jasad berada dalam keseimbangan.

c) Berapakah nilai tekanan bagi suatu jasad yang berada pada kedalaman 6.0m
dari permukaaan laut. Diberi,
Tekanan atmosfera = 1.01 x 105 Pa
Ketumpatan air laut = 1.00 x 103 kgm-3

30oo 1
Rajah
8N
4N
2N
30
45

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2
d) Berapakah daya paduan bagi jasad yang bertindak daya-daya seperti dalam
Rajah 1.

Soalan 1 (Julai 2005)

a) Berikan takrifan:
i) Tekanan
ii) Ketumpatan
iii) Ketumpatan bandingan

a) Jika ketumpatan bandingan sejenis keluli 8.21, berapakah ketumpatan keluli


tersebut. (ketumpatan Air = 1000 kg/m3)

b) Suatu bekas kiub berukuran 30cm x 20cm x 40cm telah diisikan dengan
minyak yang berjisim 3500 g.
Kirakan:
i) Ketumpatan minyak.
ii) Ketumpatan bandingan minyak.
iii) Tekanan pada bekas jika ia dikenakan daya 5 kN.
Soalan 1 (Januari 2005)

a) Berikan takrifan dan dua contoh bagi setiap yang berikut:


i) Kuantiti Skalar
ii) Kuantiti Vektor

b) Dengan menggunakan kaedah penguraian daya, dapatkan magnitud dan arah


bagi daya-daya di bawah:

12
3
5No
10N
30
45 7N

c) Sebuah bongkah keluli mempunyai dimensi 1m x 1m x 1m dan ketumpatan


bandingan ialah 7.85. Carikan jisim bongkah tersebut. Diberi ketumpatan air
ialah 1000 kg/m3.

Soalan 1 (Julai 2004)

a) Satu susunan radas eksperimen adalah seperti rajah 1(a) di bawah.


i) Apakah nilai jisim m, (kg) pada omboh B yang diperlukan bagi
membolehkan tekanan hidraulik berada dalam keseimbangan.
ii) Jika jisim m dialihkan dan omboh B dibiarkan tanpa beban,
didapati aras air pada omboh B naik setinggi h (m) daripada aras
omboh A. Kirakan nilai h.

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4
Daya, Jisim, m
FA=30N (kg)
Omboh A, Omboh B
Diameter, DA = Diameter , DB =
0.8 m 0.95m

Tekanan Air, P

Rajah 1 (a)

a) i) Nyatakan perbezaan kuantiti vektor dan kuantiti skalar.


ii) Tiga daya F1, F2, dan F3 bertindak ke atas satu titik O seperti
ditunjukkan pada rajah 1 (b). Dapatkan daya paduan ke atas titik O
dan arahnya.

F1 = 15N 130o

105o F2 = 12N

F3 = 6N
Rajah 1 (b)

Soalan 1 (Januari 2002)

a) Nyatakan prinsip Archimedes.


b) Berikan DUA(2) perbezaan antara berat dan jisim.
c) Berikan takrifan ketumpatan dan tekanan.
d) Kirakan jumlah daya bersih dan arahnya dalam tindakan daya-daya berikut.
i) 24 N 28 N

ii)
32 N 8N
25 N

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5
e) Rajah di bawah menunjukkan sebuah alat tekanan hidraulik yang berada
dalam keseimbangan. Diberi F1 = 20N, A1 = 0.2 m2, A2 = 0.3 m2. Berapakah
nilai daya F2 yang diperlukan untuk memastikan tekanan hidraulik berada
dalam keseimbangan jika diberi nilai tekanan, P = 100N/m2.

F1 F2
A1 A2

Tekanan, P

Soalan (Julai 2002)

a) Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan keseimbangan?


b) Nyatakan contoh empat (4) kuantiti vektor dan empat (4) kuantiti skalar.
c) Berapakah tekanan yang disebabkan oleh air pada dasar sebuah tasik yang
mempunyai kedalaman air 2.5 meter. Ketumpatan air (ρ air) diberikan
sebagai 1000 kgm3 dan tarikan gravity sebagai 10 ms-2.
d) Sebuah kotak besi segiempat sama berketumpatan 2300 kgm3 berada di atas
meja. Berat kotak besi ialah 285N. Dapatkan jisim dan isipadu besi dalam
unit piawainya.

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Soalan 2 (Julai 2006)

a) Munsyi yang berjisim 30 kg menaiki 10 anak tangga. Tinggi setiap anak


tangga adalah 20cm. Hitung kerja yang dilakukan oleh Munsyi untuk menaiki
tangga tersebut. Diberi g = 10 N kg-1.

b) Sebuah silinder hidraulik menggerakkan piston sejauh 25 cm. Tekanan


bendalir ialah 70 kN/m2. Dapatkan kerja yang dilakukan oleh seilinder
hidraulik tersebut. Diberi luas silinder 10 cm2.

c) i) Tenaga masukan sebuah motor ialah 5760 Joule. Motor disambungkan kepada
kren untuk menggerakkan beban. Berat beban 1700 N dan diangkat setinggi
3m. Kirakan kerja yang dilakukan oleh motor serta kecekapannya.
ii) Bateri 6 Volt menghasilkan 12 Coulomb cas. Berapakah kerja yang
dilakukan?

Soalan 2 (Julai 2005)

a) Sebuah tangki minyak kosong telah diisi penuh dengan 300 x 106 cm3
minyak dari sebuah lori tangki. Semasa proses memindahkan minyak dari lori
tangki ke dalam tangki tersebut, didapati beza ketinggian static dan lori ialah
25m, pam yang digunakan untuk tujuan pemindahan tersebut seperti dalam
rajah di bawah. Dapatkan kerja yang telah dila5kukan oleh pam tersebut. (ρ
minyak = 6500 g/m3)

25m

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b) Seorang ahli keselamatan bomba, sedang melakukan kerja menutup paip
bomba di kawasan Indera Mahkota selepas latihan kebakaran. Sudut putaran
yang dilakukan ialah 55o dengan menggunakan spanar paip sepanjang 10cm.
Penghasilan kerja yang dilakukan oleh ahli bomba tersebut untuk menutup
paip ialah 60Nm. Dapatkan jisim spanar paip tersebut, dalam kiraan unit kg.

Soalan 2 (Januari 2005)

a) Terangkan secara ringkas dan berikan rumus setiap satunya:


i) Kerja dalam sistem mekanikal
ii) Kerja dalam sistem elektrik

b) Sebuah bateri berkuasa 30V boleh menyimpan 2400 Coulomb cas elektron.
Berapakah kerja elektrik yang terhasil.

c) Tenaga masukan sebuah motor ialah 6 Joule. Motor disambungkan kepada kren untuk
menggerakkan rasuk. Berat rasuk 2000N dan diangkat setinggi 3m. Kirakan kerja
yang dilakukan oleh motor dan kecekapannya.

Soalan 2 (Julai 2004)

a) Lima orang pelajar politeknik menolak sebuah kereta yang rosak ke sebuah
bangkel pada jarak 50 meter. Jika setiap pelajar memerlukan daya 100N,
berapakah kerja yang dilakukan untuk membawa kereta tersebut ke bengkel?

b) Kerja yang dilakukan untuk mengangkat sebuah enjin kereta dengan sebuah takal
ialah 3924 J. Jika jisim ialah 200 kg, berapakah tinggi enjin itu diangkat?
Anggapkan daya tarikan gravity Bumi (g) ialah 9.81 N/kg.

c) Sebuah piston hidraulik dengan diameter sililnder 50cm digunakan untuk


mengangkat sebuah kereta yang dibaiki. Jika piston itu bergerak sejauh 1
meter dengan tekanan malar 30kPa, berapakah kerja yang dibuat untuk
mengangkat kereta itu?

Soalan 2 (Januari 2002)

a) Takrifkan yang berikut dan nyatakan formulanya:


i) Kerja
ii) Kecekapan

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a) Merujuk kepada rajah di bawah, dapatkan nilai daya F jika kerja yang dilakukan ialah
300J untuk menganjakkan jasad A dari B ke C.
C
13m
5m
F
A 12m

B
b) Sebuah motor disambungka kepada kren untuk mengangkat kontena setinggi 400cm.
Berat kontena adalah 5000N. Kirakan kerja yang dilakukan oleh motor serta
kecekapan motor. Diberi tenaga masukan motor ialah 37766 J.

Soalan 2 (Julai 2002)

a) Rajah di bawah menunjukkan suatau beban 50kg diangkat setinggi 2 m dari


lantai oleh satu tali.Berapakah kerja yang diperlukan untuk mengangkat beban
itu?

2 meter

lantai

b) Seorang mekanik membuka skru tayar dari sebuah kenderaan dengan


menggunakan pemutar skru bagi menggantikan tayar yang baru. Panjang
pemutar skru yang digunakan ialah 0.02 meter. Untuk melonggarkan skru itu,
sudut yang dihasilkan ialah 60o dan daya yang dikenakan ialah 70N.
Berapakah kerja yang diperlukan oleh mekanik untuk melonggarkan skru
tayar tersebut.

c) Sebuah motor elektrik yang mempunyai 0.5 Kuasa Kuda memerlukan 600 Watt
kuasa masukan. Kirakan kecekapan motor elektrik tersebut.

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Soalan 3 (Julai 2006)

a) Nyatakan perbezaan geseran statik dan geseran kinetik.

b) Takrifkan yang berikut:


i) Halaju seragam
ii) Pecutan seragam

c) Jika sebuah kapalterbang mengambil masa 10 jam untuk sampai ke suatau


tempat yang berjarak 8000km dari titik permulaan dengan kelajuan tetap,
kirakan:
i) Halaju dalam m/s
ii) Jarak yang dialui dalam masa 30 minit
iii) Masa yang diambil untuk jarak 50km

d) Di dalam Rajah 2 litar dibawah, diberikan Voltan = 240 V, R1 = 12 Ώ, R2 =


10Ώ dan R3 = 5Ώ. Kirakan yang berikut:
i) Jumlah rintangan, RJ
ii) Jumlah arus
iii) Arus I2
iv) Arus I3

R2 R1

R3
Rajah 2

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Soalan 3 (Julai 2005)

a) Berikan definasi rintangan elektrik dan hukum Ohm.

b) Satu plat nipis di letakkan di atas sekeping papan. Kemudian papan


tersebut di condongkan pada sudut 32o dan plat nipis tersebut mula
menggelongsor jatuh. Dapatkan pekali geseran antara plat dan papan.

c) Sebuah kereta bermula dari keadaan diam dari sebuah Bandar A memecut
dengan kadar 0.4 m/s2 selama 3 minit. Selepas itu kereta bergerak engan
halaju seragam selama 13 minit. Seterusnya kereta itu melalui nyahpecutan
seragam selama 5 minit sebelum berhenti.
i) Lakarkan graf halaju – masa untuk pergerakan ini
ii) Dari graf dapatkan kadar nyahpecutan dan jumlah jarak yang dilalui
dalam km.

d) Diberi wayar kuprum yang panjangnya 150m dan berdiameter 20mm.


Dapatkan kerintangan wayar tersebut jika kerintangan wayar tersebut ialah
2Ώ.

Soalan 3 (Januari 2005)

a) Nyatakan Takrifan bagi:


i) Pecutan
ii) Nyahpecutan
iii) Halaju

a) Sebuah troli yang pegun dibiarkan turun secara bebas ke bawah satu landasan
yang cerun dengan suatu pecutan seragam. Dalam saat yang pertama, ia telah
bergerak sejauh 10 cm. Hitungkan:
i) Halaju purata dalam saat pertama.
ii) Halajunya pada hujung saat pertama.
iii) Pecutannya.
iv) Halajunya selepas 5 saat.
v) Jarak yang dilalui selepas 5 saat.

b) Berikan takrifan bagi


i) Hukum Ohm.
ii) Rintangan.

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iii) Rajah di bawah menunjukkan satu rangkain perintang yang disambung
kepada satu bateri V volt. Jika bacaan ammeter A1 ialah 1.0 x 102 mA,
hitungkan:
– Nilai V
– Arus yang mengalir melalui perintang 30Ώ.
– Arus pada ammeter A2.

A1
20Ώ 20Ώ

40Ώ
V 30Ώ

A2

Soalan 3 (Julai 2004)

a) i) Takrifkan kerintangan
ii) Tiga perintang yang bernilai 10Ώ, 20 Ώ, dan 25 Ώ disambung selari.
Dua perintang yang lain bernilai 15 Ώ dan 30 Ώ juga disambung selari.
Dua kumpulan perintang yang ini disambung secara sesiri dengan
bekalan 240 V.
– Lukiskan gambarajah litar
– Tentukan jumlah arus yang diambil dari bekalan

a) Sebuah kenderaan bergerak dari keadaan diam dengan pecutan seragam


0.2m/s2 selama 8 saat sehingga mencapai halaju maksimum. Ia
bergerak pada halaju selama 30 saat. Sebelum diberhentikan dengan
lambatan seragam dalam masa 5 saat.
Lakarkan graf halaju melawan masa untuk pergerakan ini. Dengan
menggunakan graf ini tentukan:
i) Halaju maksimum.
ii) Masa yang diambil untuk bergerak 15m pertama.
iii) Jumlah jarak di lalui.

Soalan 3 (Januari 2002)

a) Sebuah keretapi bergerak dari stesen dari stesen A ke stesen D dalam


masa 40 saat. Semasa perjalanan itu, ia telah melalui stesen-stesen B
dan C. Perjalanan dari stesen A ke stesen mengambil masa 10 saat dengan

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pecutan 16m/s2 dan perjalanan dari stesen B ke stesen C pula mengambil masa
15 saat dan pecutannya ialah 8m/s2. Bagi 15 minit terakhir, ia bergerak dengan
lambatan seragam sehingga berhenti di stesen D. Hitungkan:
i) Halaju maksimum yang dicapai.
ii) Lambatan pada 15 saat terakhir.
iii) Jumlah jarak yang telah dilalui.

b) Dua perintang 5 Ώ dan 20 Ώ disambung kepada sumber voltan 10V secara selari
seperti rajah di bawah. Hitungkan:
i) Rintangan berkesan selari
ii) Jumlah arus yang mengalir dari sumber voltan
iii) Arus yang mengalir dalam setiap cabang.

+
10V R1= 5 Ώ R2= 20 Ώ
-

Soalan 3 (Januari 2002)

a) Apakah yang dinyatakan oleh Hukum Ohm. Berikan formula Hukum Ohm.

b) Cari nilai-nilai arus jika nilai rintangan 5ohm digunakan oleh voltan 20 Volt dan
60 Volt. Apakah kesan kepada arus dalam satu litar jika nilai voltan diubah
daripada 20 Volt kepada 60 Volt dengan mengekalkan nilai rintangan ohm.

c) Sebuah kereta bergerak dari keadaan pegun dengan pecutan positif 0.8 m/s2
sepanjang jalan yang lurus. Dapatkan:
i) Masa yang diperlukan untuk mencapai halaju 72km/j.
ii) Jarak yang telah dilalui sehingga mencapai halaju 72 km/j.
iii) Masa yang diambil untuk mencapai halaju 72 km/j dari 5 m/s.
iv) Halaju kereta selepas 20 saat yang pertama.

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Soalan 6 (Julai 2006)

a) Sebuah kren mengangkat sebatang rasuk berjisim 200kg setinggi 30m, dalam
masa 25s. Kira kuasa digunakan. Jika kecekapan enjin kren adalah 80%, kira
kuasa masukan diperlukan.

b) Empangan Kobat menggunakan tenaga pam hidraulik untuk mengagihkan 10 m3


air ke tangki simpanan Indera Mahkota sejauh 6m. Diberi ketumpatan air = 1000
kgm-3. Dapatkan:
i) Kerja yang dilakukan oleh pam
ii) Kuasa keluaran pam jika kerja diselesaikan selepas 5 minit.

c) Sebuah generator membekalkan arus 30A pada beza upaya 240V. Berapakah
kuasa masukan generator tersebut.

Soalan 5 (Julai 2005)

a) Berikan takrif KUASA bagi sebuah mesin dan nyatakan unit bagi KUASA.

b) Sebuah motor 6000 watt memusingkan kabel mengelilingi sebuah deram. Jika
kabel itu mengangkat beban 300kg kepada ketinggian 4 meter dalam masa 3 saat.
Kirakan:

i) kuasa keluaran.
ii) kecekapan motor.
iii) kadar kerja dilakukan untuk mengatasi geseran.

a) Sebuah motor elektrik 110V menghasilkan kuasa keluaran aci sebanyak 0.5
Kuasa Kuda dengan kecekapan 80% (1 Kuasa Kuda = 746 watt). Kirakan:
i) Kuasa masukan motor.
ii) Arus yang diperlukan oleh motor.

Soalan 6 (Julai 2005)

a) Air dipam setinggi 10m pada kadar 7 liter/saat, kira kuasa yang diperlukan. Jika
pam mempunyai kecekapan 70%, cari kuasa masukan pam.

Soalan 6 (Januari 2005)

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a) Nyatakan takrif kuasa dan berikan kedua-dua unit kuasa.

b) Seorang budak berjisim 25 kg dapat menaiki tangga 30m dalam masa 6s dan
seorang dewasa berjisim 60 kg dapat menaiki tangga yang sama dalam tempoh
9s. Siapakah yang lebih berkuasa?

c) Sebuah pam diperlukan untuk mengangkat air ke tangki yang tingginya 25m dari
aras bumi. Kuasa keluaran yang mampu dihasilkan oleh pam 9kW. Cari kadar
mengepam bagi mengangkat air itu dalam unit m3/s.

d) Sebuah motor elektrik yang beroperasi dengan voltan 28V menghasilkan kuasa
keluaran aci ¼ kk. Arus yang digunakan 9.50A. Kirakan:
i) Kuasa masukan
ii) Kecekapan
(1 kk = 746 W)

Soalan 6 (Julai 2004)

a) Takrifkan Kuasa.

b) Sebuah silinder hidraulik menghasilkan kuasa 3700 watt dan daya keluaran 650
N. Apakah laju omboh (piston) dalam m/s. Seterusnya cariperbezaan tekanan jika
luas keratan rentas silinder ialah 25cm2. (1watt = 1 Nm/s)

c) Sebuah motor elektrik 48 V menghasilkan kuasa keluaran aci ¼ kk. Arus yang
digunakan 6.25 A (1kk = 746 w). Kirakan:
i) Kuasa Masukan
ii) Kecekapan

Soalan 6 (Januari 2002)

a) Seorang pengangkat berat dapat mengangkat 250kg beban setinggi 2m dalam


masa 2 saat. Berapakah kuasa yang telah dikeluarkan olehnya?

b) Sebuah mesin yang menggunakan voltan 10 V menghasilkan kuasa keluaran aci


½ kk. Arus yang digunakan ialah 30 A (1kk = 746 W). Kira:
i) Kuasa masukan
ii) Kecekapan

c) Sebuah kereta dengan jisimnya 2500kg memecut sejauh 80 km/j. Tentukan kuasa
yang dilakukan oleh kereta semasa memecut.

Soalan 6 (Julai 2002)

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a) Disebuah tempat pelupusan sampah terdapat dua buah kren pengangkat besi
buruk. Kren A mengangkat objek besi menggunakan pengepit besi secara
mekanikal, manakala kren B menggunakan kuasa elektrik bagi mengangkat objek
besi.
i) Kirakan kuasa mekanikal linear yang digunakan oleh kren A di tempat
pelupusan sampah bagi mengangkat sebuah kereta buruk yang seberat
1000kg secara menegak ke atas dengan ketinggian 5 meter dalam masa 10
saat.
ii) Sekiranya kuasa elektrik yang digunakan oleh kren B untuk mengangkat
kereta yang sama secara menegak ke atas dengan ketinggian dan
jangkamasa yang sama adalah 12500watt, kirakan kecekapan sistem bagi
kren B.

a) Sebatang paip besar dari sebuah empangan mempunyai keratin rentas 1 meter
persegi menyalurkan air sejauh 2 kilometer tanpa menggunakan sebarang
pengepam. Air mengalir di dalam paip disebabkan oleh paip itu disambungkan ke
dasar empangan. Sekiranya pada waktu itu kedalaman atau jarak menegak antara
saluran paip di dasar empangan dengan permukaan air empangan adalah 5 meter,
manakala masa yang diambil untuk mengalir air sejauh 2 kilometer adalah 3 minit
20 saat, kirakan kuasa yang terjana oleh air yang mengalir di dalam paip itu.
Anggapkan:
Pecutan gravity = 10 ms-2
Ketumpatan air diberikan sebagai 1000 kg.m-3

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Soalan 4 (Julai 2006)

a) i) Berikan takrifan bagi tenaga.


ii) Nyatakan lima (5) contoh tenaga.

b) Seorang pelajar Politeknik menolak sebuah troli yang berjisim 1.5 kg dengan
kelajuan awal 3 m/s kepada suatu halaju akhir 5 m/s. Kirakan tenaga kinetik awal
dan tenaga kinetik akhir troli tersebut.

c) Seorang pengasuh menarik sebuah buaian yang pada awalnya berada pada
ketinggian 45 cm. Seorang kanak-kanak berjisim 25kg berada dalam buaian itu.
Kirakan:
i) Tenaga keupayaan graviti buaian pada permulaan ayunan.
ii) Halaju maksimum yang boleh dicapai oleh buaian itu apabila diayunkan.

Soalan 5 (Julai 2006)

a) Berikan takrifan muatan haba tentu

b) Sebatang sudu perak berjisim 500g telah dipanaskan daripada 20oC sehingga
mencapai suhu 100oC. Berapakah kuantiti haba yang diserap oleh sudu besi itu?
(muatan haba tentu besi ialah 452 J kg-1 oC -1)

c) Sebatang sudu perak berjisim 50.0g pada suhu 20oC digunakan untuk mengacau
kopi yang bersuhu 90oC. Akhirnya kedua-dua sudu dan kopi mencapai suhu 89oC.
Jika jisim kopi ialah 200g
i) berapakah haba yang diserap oleh sudu?
ii) hitungkan muatan haba tentu bagi kopi.
(nuatan haba tentu bagi sudu = 0.23 kJ kg-1 o C-1)

Soalan 4 (Julai 2005)

a) Takrifkan Tenaga Keupayaan dan Tenaga Kinetik serta satu contoh yang
berkaitan

b) Sebuah motor digunakan untuk mengangkat 80kg beban setinggi 90m dalam masa
4 minit. Kirakan:
i) Kerja yang dilakukan
ii) Kuasa yang diperlukan

c) Seketul batu berjisim 50kg dijatuhkan dari ketinggian 100m kepada 30 m.


Kirakan tenaga keupayaan batu pada ketika itu.

d) Jika satu objek yang berjisim 8 kg mempunyai tenaga kinetik 300Joule. Kirakan
halaju objek tersebut.

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Soalan 6 (Julai 2005)

b) Sebiji bebola besi berjisim 2 kg dilepaskan jatuh bebas ke bumi daripada


ketinggian 5 meter, kirakan tenaga keupyaan dan tenaga kinetik bagi keadaan
berikut.
i) Semasa bebola berada pada ketinggian 5 meter.
ii)Semasa bebola jatuh pada aras 2 meter dari permukaan bumi.
iii)Sebaik sahaja ia mencecah kepermukaan bumi.
iv)Tenaga kinetik maksimum yang dapat dihasilkan oleh bebola..

Soalan 4 (Januari 2005)

a) Berikan takrifan Tenaga Keupayaan (Ep) dan Tenaga Kinetik (Ek) beserta contoh.

b) Satu asad berjisim 40 kg bergerak dari dua tempat berjarak 15m dalam masa 10
saat. Dengan menganggapkan bahawa halaju adalah malar, carikan nilai tenaga
kinetik jasad tersebut.

c) Diberi voltan sebanyak 25 telah melalui sebuah kapasitor pada kadar 1.5μF.
Kirakan Tenaga Keupayaan yang disimpan dalam kapasitor tersebut.

d) Sebiji bola getah berjisim 2.5kg jatuh ke bawah dengan ketinggian 5m ke atas
sekeping keluli danmelantun setinggi 3.4m, hitungkan:

i) Tenaga Keupayaan bola sejurus sebelum ia bersentuhan dengan kepingan


keluli.
ii) Tenaga Kinetik bola sejurus ia meninggalkan keluli.

Soalan 5 (Januari 2005)

a) Berikan takrifan Muatan Haba Tentu dan nyatakan formulanya.

b) Terangkan proses pemindahan haba berikut serta contoh.


i) Pengaliran
ii) Perolakan

c) Suatu cecair berjisim m kg disejukkan dari 95o C kepada 35o C. Jumlah haba yang
hilang ialah 9.6kJ. Berapakah berat jisim tersebut jika muatan haba tentu cecair
adalah sebanyak 4200 J/kgo C.
d) Sekeping tembaga 200g pada suhu 60o C dimasukkan ke dalam sebuah bikar yang
mengandungi 600g air pada suhu 28o C. Dengan menganggapkan bahawa tidak
ada pindahan haba ke sekeliling dan kuantiti haba yang dihilangkan itu adalah

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sama dengan kuantiti haba yang diserapkan oleh ketul tembaga tersebut, tentukan
suhu akhir air itu.
Muatan haba tentu tembaga = 840 J/kgo C
Muatan haba tentu air = 4200 J/kgo C

Soalan 4 (Januari 2002)

a) Satu jasad berjisim 30kg diangkat setinggi 3m dari permukaan bumi dan
dibiarkan jatuh secara bebas di bawah tindakan graviti. Apakah tenaga keupayaan
dan tenaga kinetiknya:
i) sebelum jasad itu jatuh
ii) setelah jatuh 1m ke bawah
iii) ketika ia menyentuh tanah

b) Merujuk kepada gambarajah di bawah, tentukan:


i) cas yang disimpan dalam plat kapasitor
ii) tenaga keupayaan yang tersimpan
1.5μF
1.5μF

2.0μF

120V

Soalan 5 (Januari 2002)

a) Berikan takrifan berikut:


i) Haba
ii) Suhu
iii) Muatan Haba Tentu

b) 100 gram air pada suhu 85o C dituang ke dalam 200 gram air yang bersuhu 25o C.
Berapakah suhu akhir campuran tersebut? Muatan haba tentu air ialah 4200 J/kgo
C.
c) Seketul logam panas dicelupkan ke dalam satu calorimeter yang mengandungi air
seperti berikut:

air, 03.kg, 20oC


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celup

Logam 0.2 kg, Kalorimeter kuprum,


100o C c=400 J/kgoC, 0.3kg
20o C

Akibatnya logam panas dan air serta kalorimeter ini mencapai suhu campuran
65oC. Kirakan muatan haba tentu logam ini.

Soalan 4 (Julai 2002)

a) Takrifkan Tenaga dan nyatakan lima (5) jenis tenaga.

b) i) Suatu jasad berjisim 40kg diletakkan pada ketinggian 10meter. Berapakah tenaga
keupayaan jasad tersebut

ii) Jika jasad berjisim 5 kg bergerak dengan halaju 9m/s, berapakah tenaga
kinetic jasad tersebut.

c) Diberi voltan sebanyak 30 Volt telah melalui kapasitor pada kadar 2μF untuk
mengecaskkannya. Kirakan:
i) Cas yang disimpan dalam plat kapasitor
ii) Tenaga Keupayaan yang disimpan dalam kapasitor

Soalan 5 (Julai 2002)

a) Terangkan tiga(3) kaedah pemindahan haba.

b) Berapakah haba diserap oleh 5 kg aluminium untuk menaikkan suhunya dari


20oC ke 100oC?
Muatan haba tentu aluminium = 0.215 kal/goC

c) Satu bongkah besi berjisim 18 kg danmempunyai muatan haba tentu 500


J/kgK dimasukkan ke dalam minyak. Suhu awal besi ialah 150oC dan suhu
awal minyak ialah 18oC. Hitungkan jisim minyak yang dikehendaki supaya
suhu akhir yang dicapai oleh minyak ialah 40oC. Abaikan semua kehilangan
haba yang diserap oleh bekas minyak. Muatan haba tentu minyak ialah 1580
J/kgoC.

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