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22 vues10 pagesprofit and loss

Jan 24, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

profit and loss

© All Rights Reserved

22 vues

profit and loss

© All Rights Reserved

- The Year of Less: How I Stopped Shopping, Gave Away My Belongings, and Discovered Life Is Worth More Than Anything You Can Buy in a Store
- The Psychology of Selling: Increase Your Sales Faster and Easier Than You Ever Thought Possible
- If You're Not First, You're Last: Sales Strategies to Dominate Your Market and Beat Your Competition
- SPIN Selling: Situation Problem Implication Need-Payoff
- Ca$hvertising: How to Use More Than 100 Secrets of Ad-Agency Psychology to Make BIG MONEY Selling Anything to Anyone
- How I Raised Myself From Failure to Success in Selling
- The Art of Closing the Sale: The Key to Making More Money Faster in the World of Professional Selling
- Marketing 4.0: Moving from Traditional to Digital
- HBR's 10 Must Reads on Strategic Marketing (with featured article "Marketing Myopia," by Theodore Levitt)
- From Zero to One Million Followers in 2019: Become an Influencer with Social Media Viral Growth Strategies on YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and the Secrets to Make Your Personal Brand KNOWN
- Grinding It Out: The Making of McDonald's
- Why We Buy: The Science Of Shopping
- Coaching Salespeople into Sales Champions: A Tactical Playbook for Managers and Executives
- Shopify: A Beginner's Guide With Proven Steps On How To Make Money Online With Shopify Dropshipping Ecommerce
- Smart Calling: Eliminate the Fear, Failure, and Rejection from Cold Calling
- Logistics Operations and Management: Concepts and Models
- Sam Walton: Made in America
- Diary of a Currency Trader: A simple strategy for foreign exchange trading and how it is used in practice

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CONCEPT VIDEO:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fb3zopkNjb0&t=58s

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UYbMb17Mgtk

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1bCiqL86sB0

Cost Price:

The price, at which an article is purchased, is called its cost price, abbreviated as C.P.

Selling Price:

The price, at which an article is sold, is called its selling prices, abbreviated as S.P.

Profit or Gain:

If S.P. is greater than C.P., the seller is said to have a profit or gain.

Loss:

If S.P. is less than C.P., the seller is said to have incurred a loss.

IMPORTANT FORMULAE

1. Gain = (S.P.) – (C.P.)

2. Loss = (C.P.) – (S.P.)

3. Loss or gain is always reckoned on C.P.

4. Gain Percentage: (Gain %)

Gain % =

5. Loss Percentage: (Loss %)

Loss % =

6. Selling Price: (S.P.)

SP =

7. Selling Price: (S.P.)

SP =

8. Cost Price: (C.P.)

C.P. =

9. Cost Price: (C.P.)

C.P. =

10. If an article is sold at a gain of say 35%, then S.P. = 135% of C.P.

11. If an article is sold at a loss of say, 35% then S.P. = 65% of C.P.

12. When a person sells two similar items, one at a gain of say x%, and the other at a loss of x%, then the seller

always incurs a loss given by:

Basic Concept of Profit and Loss with examples

Marked Price (MP) –> Price written on the article/MRP

Selling Price (SP) –> Price at which an article is sold

Profit –> SP> CP Profit = SP – CP

Loss –> CP> SP Loss = CP – SP

Profit% or Gain % –> Profit /CP ×100% = SP – CP / CP ×100%

Loss% –> Loss/CP ×100% = CP – SP / CP×100%

Rule of Fraction:

The gain of x% –> Calculate figure –> 100& 100 + x

The loss of x% –> Calculate figure –> 100& 100 – x

Example:

(A) If CP = 50, Gain % = 5 then SP = ?

Calculate figure –> 100& 105

SP = 50 ×105/100 = 52.5

(B) If CP = 50, loss % = 5 then SP = ?

Calculate figure –> 100& 95

SP = 50 × 95/100 = 47.5

Type 1:

If two articles are sold- first article at x% profit and the second article at y% loss, thus making no

profit, no loss in the transaction,

Then cost price of the two articles are in the ratio y : x

Proof:Let cost price of two articles is Rs.a and Rs.b respectively.

Then profit on the first article = ax/100 and loss on the second article = by/100

There is no profit or no loss in the bargain. –> ax/100 = by/100 –> ax=by –> a/b = y/x

Example:

1) A man purchased two articles for total cost of Rs.9000. He sold the first article at

15% profit and the second at 12% loss. In the bargain, he neither gained nor lost

anything. Find cost price of the first article.

a) Rs. 4000 b) Rs.4500 c) Rs.5000 d) Rs.5500

Solution:

Ratio of cost price of the first and the second article = 12 : 15 = 4: 5

Cost price of the first article = 4/9 ×9000 = Rs.4000

Type 2:

On selling an article for Rs.x, a person earns a% profit. In order to earn b% profit, he must sell the

article for Rs.x ×(100+b) / (100+a),

i.e. New selling price = (Old selling price × (100 + Desired profit (in%))/ (100+ Initial profit

(in%))

Example:

1) On selling an article for Rs.550, a man gains 10%. What should be the selling price, if

desired profit is 20%?

a) Rs.500 b) Rs.600 c) Rs.660 d) Rs.715

Solution:

SP= 550×(100 + 20 / 100 +15)

= 550 × 120/110 = Rs.600

2) Ram sold a cow for Rs.136 and thus lost 15%. At what price he should have sold it to

gain 15%?

a) Rs.180 b) Rs.150 c) Rs.200 d) Rs.184

Solution:

New selling price = 136 × (100+15)/(100-15)

= 136 × 115/85 = Rs.184

Type 3:

1) Shopkeeper buys 25 tables and 10 chairs for Rs. 7000 sells, table at 10%, chair at

12% profit. If he gets 7740 find CP of table and chair?

Solution:

(If Both Increase by 10% then overall increment will be10% i.e. 10% of 7000/- which is Rs.700.

But profit = 740. This extra 40/- is due to 2% of chair)

2% Chair –> 40/-

100% C(10) –> 2000

1 chair = 2000/10 = 200

So all table (25) = 5000/-

1 table = 5000/25 = 200/-

Type 4:

If price of an article is marked x% above the cost price and x% discount is allowed on its marked

price, thenlosspercent = x2/100

Example:

1) A shopkeeper mark price of his article 12% above the cost Price and then allows 12%

discount on the mark price. What is his loss percent?

a) 0% b) 1% c) 1.44% d) 2.4%

Solution:

Loss% = 122/100 = 1.44%

Type 5:

If two articles are sold for the same selling price. On selling first article, a man gains x% and on

selling the other article he loss x%, in such casesthere will be always loss, and Loss% = x2/100

or (Common gain and loss)2/100

Example:

1) A TV manufacturer sells two televisions at Rs.9900 each. He earned a profit of 10%

on the first one and suffered 10% loss on another. His net profit or loss percent is?

a) 1% loss b) 1% gain c) 2% loss d) No profit/loss

Solution:

Loss% = (Common gain and loss)2/100

= 102/100 = 1%

Type 6:

If two articles are sold for the same selling price. On selling the first, the gain is x% and on selling

the second the gain is y%, then net % profit

= (2× (100+x) (100+y)/ (100+x) + (100+y)) – 100

Example:

1) A man sold two articles for Rs.600 each. On selling first, he gains 20% and on the

other, he gains 30%. What is profit percent in the transaction?

a) 24.8% b) 25% c) 50% d) 56%

Solution:

Profit% = (2×120×130 / 120+130)-100 = 24.8%

Type 7:

1) A shopkeeper buys 2 chair at total cost 900/-. By selling one at 4/5 of its cost and

other at 5/4 of its cost he made a profit 90/-. Find CP of each chair

Solution:

4/5 = 80% i.e.20%loss

5/4 = 125% i.e = 25% profit

Profit = 90/- i.e 10% (90 is 10% of 900)

i.e Ratio of their CP = 15 : 30 = 1:2

1stchair = Rs. 300, 2nd chair = Rs. 600/-

Type 8:

1) A man purchase 11 orange for Rs.10/- and sell them at the rate of 10 oranges for

Rs.11/. Find profit?

Solution:

= 21%

Type 9:

1) Selling price of two articles 4000/- each. First article sold at profit of 25% profit and

2nd article at some % loss. Find loss % on 2ndarticle if there is neither loss nor gain.

Solution:

Type 10:

1) How much % more than CP must a shopkeeper mark his goods to gain 26% after

giving a discount of 10%

Solution:

=100×126/100×100/90

=140

Difference =140 -100 =40%

1). Cost price of 20 article is equal to the selling price of 18 article, then profit %

PROFIT = DIFFERENCE /SP *100 =2/18*100 =100/9 =11 1/9%

2). Nick sold a machine to Sonia at a profit of 30% and Sonia sold it to varun at 20%loss. If nick

get the machine for 5000 then what is the cost price of machine at varun

PERCENTAGE EFFICIENCY = (+30-20 *(+30*-20 /100) =4%

5000 -100 ; 104- 5200

Cp of varun =5200

3). If a shopkeeper sells goods 6%loss on cost price but gives 14 g instead of 16g. What is his

percentage of profit or loss?

A=6% , c=16g b=14g

FORMULA = [(100-A) (C/B)-100] %

= 94 *(16/14) -100 % =52/7% gain

4). A dealer sold at 20% loss on cost price but uses 40% less weight. What is his percentage of

profit or loss?

= 40 -20 / (100 -40)

= 20/60=2/6*100%

= 33 1/3 % profit

5). If 2/3 of article sold at 30% profit 1/4 of part at 16%, profit and remaining part of 12%

Profit finally, there is a profit of rs.75,then the cost price of the article

C= 1-(1/2+3/4) =1/12

= (75*100) / ((2/3*30)(1/4*16) (1/12*12)

=7500/25 =300

6). A bought a certain quantity of oranges at a total cost of 1200. He sold 1/3 of those oranges at

20% loss. If A earns an overall profit of 10%, At what percentage profit did A sell the rest of the

oranges?

Sol:-

1/3 of oranges sold, Remaining we have 2/3 of oranges. So,

1/3:2/3=>1:2. Final ratio is 1:2

He sold 1/3 of those oranges at 20% loss and overall profit of 10%, so we using mixture allegation

method,

X-110/30=1/2

We solve these, we get X=125

So A sell the rest of the oranges at 25% profit.

7). If a shopkeeper sells an item for 1410, his loss is 6%. To earn a profit of 15% he should sell it

for?

Sol:(100-loss)/sp1=(100+gain)/sp2

=>94/1410=115/x

=>94x=115*1410

=>x=1725

8). By selling 25% of a quantity of sugar a person earns 40% profit, While on the remaining

quantity he incurs a loss of 20%. Find the overall profit/loss percentage.

Sol:

Profit/loss%= (25/100)*40% +(75/100)*(-20%)

=>(1/4) *40% +(3/4)*(-20%)

=>10%+(-15%)

=> (-5%)

So, 5% loss. (‘-‘ symbol denotes a loss)

ROBLEMS

1) A man buys a cycle for Rs.1400 and sells it at a loss of 15%. What is the selling

price of the cycle?

2) When a commodity is sold for Rs.34.80. there is a loss of 25%. What is the cost

price of the commodity?

3) Sam purchased 20 dozens of toys at the rate of Rs.375 per dozen. He sold each one

of them at the rate of Rs.33. What was his percentage profit?

4) A fruit seller sells mangoes at the rate of Rs.9 per kg and thereby loses 20%. At

what price per kg, he should have sold them to make a profit of 5%?

5) A shopkeeper give 12% additional discount on the discounted price, after giving an

initial discount of 20% on the labeled price of a radio. If the final sale price of the

radio is Rs.704, then what is its labeled price?

6) A man sells two flats at the rate of Rs.1.995 lakhs each. On one he gains 5% and on

the other, he loses 5%. His gain or loss percent in the whole transaction is

7) Peter purchased a machine for Rs.80,000 and spent Rs.5000 on repair and Rs.1000

on transport and sold it with 25% profit. At what price did he sell themachine?

8) A shopkeeper expects a gain of 22 ½% on his cost price. If in a week, his sale was

of Rs.392, what was his profit?

9) By selling a pen for Rs.15, a man loses one sixteenth of what it costs him. The cost

price of the pen is

10) A shopkeeper professes to sell his goods at cost price but uses a weight of 800 g m

instead of kilogram weight. Thus, he make a profit of

11) Samant bought a microwave oven and paid 10% less than the original price. He sold

it with 30% profit on the price he had paid. What percentage of profit did Samant

earn on the original price?

12) If a man reduces the selling price of a fan from Rs.400 to Rs.380, his loss increases

by 2%. The cost price of the fan is

13) A shopkeeper fixes the marked price of an item 35% above its cost price. The

percentage of discount allowed to gain 8% is

14) Kunal bought a suitcase with 15% discount on the labeled price. He sold the

suitcase for Rs.2880 with 20% profit on the labeled price. At what price did he buy

the suitcase?

15) I gain 70 paise on Rs.70. My gain percent is

16) A book was sold for Rs.27.50 with a profit of 10%. If it were sold for Rs.25.75, then

what would have been the percentage of profit or loss?

17) A shopkeeper buys 100 eggs at Rs.1.20 per piece. Unfortunately 4 eggs got spoiled

during transportation. The shopkeeper sells the remaining eggs at Rs.15 a dozen.

Find his profit or loss?

18) Find the cost price of an article which is sold for Rs.220 at a loss of 12%

19) If the cost price of an article is Rs.300 and the percent markup is 20%. What is the

marked price?

20) By selling 18 chocolates, a vendor loses the selling price of 2 chocolates. Find his

loss percent?

21) A dealer by selling 12 oranges gets the cost price of 15 oranges. What is the

percentage profit?

22) If the cost price of 15 apples, is same as the selling price of 20 apples. What is the

gain or loss percent?

23) The CP of 21 articles is equal to SP of 18 articles. Find the gain or loss percent?

24) Find the single discount equivalent to a series discount of 20%, 10% and 5%.

25) A vendor bought bananas at 6 for Rs.10 and sold them at 4 for Rs.6. Find his gain or

loss percent?

26) A dealer sold three-fourth of his articles at a gain of 20% and the remaining at cost

price. Find the gain earned by him in the whole transaction.

27) A grocer purchased 80 kg of sugar at Rs.13.50 per kg and mixed it with 120 kg

sugar at Rs.16 per kg. At what rate should he sell the mixture to gain 16%

28) The price of a jewel, passing through three hands, rises on the whole by 65%. If the

first and the second sellers earned 20% and 25% profit respectively, find the

percentage profit earned by the third seller?

29) A tradesman sold an article at a loss of 20%. If the selling price had been increased

by Rs.100, there would have been a gain of 5%. What was the cost price of the

article?

30) A trader sells two articles, one at a loss of 10% and another at a profit of 15% but

finally there is no loss or gain. If the total sale price of these two articles is

Rs.30,000, find the difference between their cost prices:

31) A shopkeeper sold an article for Rs.2090.42. Approximately, what will be the

percentage profit if he sold that article for Rs.2602.58?

32) A man bought 18 oranges for a rupee and sold them at 12 oranges for a rupee. What

is the profit percentage?

33) A retailer bought 20 kg tea at a discount of 10%. Besides 1 kg tea was freely offered

to him by the wholesaler at the purchase of 20 kg tea. Now he sells all the tea at the

marked price to a customer. What is profit percentage of retailer?https://bankersway.com/Profit and loss.pdf.pdf

34) Each of A and B sold their article at Rs.1818 but A incurred a loss of 10% while B

gained by 1%. What is the ratio of cost price of the articles of A to that of B?

35) Abhinav saves Rs.25 by getting 6.66% discount on a textbook. What is the amount

of money (in Rs.) paid by him?

36) A trader sells goods to a customer at a profit of k% over the cost price, besides it he

cheats his customer by giving 880 g only instead of 1 kg. Thus, his overall profit

percentage is 25%. Find the value of k?

37) DSNL charges a fixed rental of Rs.350 per month. It allows 200 calls free per

month. Each call is charged at Rs.1.4 when the number of calls exceeds 200 per

month and it charges Rs.1.6 when the number of calls exceeds 400 per month and

so on. A customer made 150 calls in February and 250 calls in March. By how

much percent the each call is cheaper in March than each call in February?

38) Pratibha printers prepares diaries expecting to earn a profit of 40% by selling on the

marked price. But during transportation 8% diaries were got spoiled due to at

random rain and 32% could be sold only at 75% of the cost price. Thus the

remaining 60% diaries could be sold at the expected price. What is the net profit or

loss in the whole consignment?

39) At kul-kul petrol pump the operator gives 5% less petrol but he sells it at the cost

price. What is his profit in this way?

40) A bookseller procures 40 books for Rs.3200 and sells them at a profit equal to the

selling price of 8 books. What is the selling price of one dozen books, if the price of

each book is same?

41) Rahul went to purchase a Nokia mobile handset, the shopkeeper told him to pay

20% tax if he asked the bill. Rahul manages to get the discount of 5% on the actual

sale price of the mobile and he paid the shopkeeper Rs.3325 without tax. Besides he

manages to avoid to pay 20% tax on the already discounted price, what is the

amount of discount that he has gotten?

42) Rotomac produces very fine quality of writing pens. Company knows that on an

average 10% of the produced pens are always defective so are rejected before

packing. Company promises to deliver 7200 pens to its wholesaler at Rs.10 each. It

estimates the overall profit on all the manufactured pens to be 25%. What is the

manufacturing cost of each pen?

43) A merchant earns 25% profit in general. Once his 25% consignment was abducted

forever by some goondas. Trying to compensate his loss he sold the rest amount by

increasing his selling price by 20%. What is the new percentage profit orloss?

44) Alfred buys an old scooter for Rs.4700 and spends Rs.800 on its repairs. If he sells

the scooter for Rs.5800, his gain percent is :

45) By selling an article, Michael earned a profit equal to one-fourth of the price he

bought it. If he sold it for Rs.375, what was the cost price?

46) If by selling 110 mangoes, the C.P. of 120 mangoes is realized, the gain percent is :

47) A man bought some fruits at the rate of 16 for Rs.24 and sold them at the rate of 8

for Rs.18. What is the profit percent?

48) A trader mixes three varieties of groundnuts costing Rs.50, Rs.20 and Rs.30 per kg

in the ratio 2 : 4 : 3 in terms of weight, and sells the mixture at Rs.33 per kg. Wha t

percentage of profit does he make?

49) A bought a radio set and spent Rs.110 on its repairs. He then sold it to B at 20%

profit, B sold it to C at a loss of 10% and C sold it for Rs.1188 at a profit of 10%.

What is the amount for which A bought the radio set?

50) The difference between the cost price and sale price of an article is Rs.240. If the

profit is 20%, the selling price is :

51) A businessman sold 2/3

of his stock at a gain of 20% and the rest at a gain of 14%.

The overall percentage of gain to the businessman is :

52) A shopkeeper offers 2.5% discount on cash purchases. What cash amount would

Rohan pay for a cycle, the marked price of which is Rs.650?

53) A manufacturer offers a 20% rebate on the marked price of a product. The retailer

offers another 30% rebate on the reduced price. The two reductions are equivalent

to a single reduction of :

54) A trader marked the price of his commodity so as to include a profit of 25%. He

allowed discount of 16% on the marked price. His actual profit was:

55) A tradesman gives 4% discount on the marked price and gives 1 article free for

buying every 15 articles and thus gains 35%. The marked price is above the cost

price by :

56) A dishonest dealer purchases goods at 20% discount of the cost price of Rs. x and

also cheats his wholesaler by getting 20% extra through false weighing, per kg.

Then he marks up his goods by 80% of x, but he gives a discount of 25% besides he

cheats his customer by weighing 10% less than the required. What is his overall

profit percentage?

57) Titan sells a wrist watch to a wholesaler making a profit of 10%. The wholesaler, in

turn, sells it to the retailer making a profit of 10%. A customer purchases it by

paying Rs.990. Thus, the profit of retailer is 2 3 %. What is the cost incurred by the 11 Titan to produce it?

ADDITIONAL VIDEOS:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKArtE2pOV8&list=PLeG-OOhmwhyZVumhxQuVkZpMDxEqBbI-c&t=1592s&index=2

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jAGiCu_cdWg&list=PLeG-OOhmwhyZVumhxQuVkZpMDxEqBbI-c&index=2

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9qi0QEK7Uqs&index=3&list=PLeG-OOhmwhyZVumhxQuVkZpMDxEqBbI-c

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PHVVlWhKxc&index=4&list=PLeG-OOhmwhyZVumhxQuVkZpMDxEqBbI-c

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8AsbU5hkfsttuAT_LoVOz_ziCnIgLe8H

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