Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 2



Macasil, R.C., Mendoza, M.D., Raymundo, K.J.O., Saya, D.J.S.
Advisers: Engr. Milagros R. Cabangon and Dr. Denvert C. Pangayao

Formatted: Font: Arial, 12 pt
Formatted: Left, Line spacing: 1.5 lines
Liner films, which are also known as industrial liners, are commonly designed for
use with outer packages and are used to line boxes, drums, bins and other containers.
This material includes polyethylene bags thus, it is mainly produced using petroleum-
derived products. This research has been developed for obtaining the same quality of
liner films using bio-based derived raw materials and converting them to a
biodegradable packaging material. Researchers resort to using renewable and readily
available raw materials such as alimasag shells and tobacco stalks for liner film
production. The materials chosen are typically considered as wastes subject for
disposal and improper disposal causes environmental and health problems.

The raw materials – alimasag shells (28.56% chitin) and tobacco stalks (29.00%
alpha cellulose) were collected from a private alimasag-meat-processing company, and
National Tobacco Administration, respectively.

The alimasag shells and the tobacco stalks were processed separately. For the
alimasag shells, the following major processes were undertaken: (1) deproteinization,
(2) demineralization, (3) bleaching and (4) deacetylation. First, the alimasag shells were
powdered to pass through 0.355-mm Tyler Mesh then, it was subjected to
deproteinization process using potassium hydroxide solution (3.0 M KOH, ratio of 1g:10
mL, 120 mins, 800C) for protein removal. Afterwards, the deproteinized shells
underwent demineralization process using hydrochloric acid (3.0 M HCl, ratio of 1g:15
mL, 180 mins, 600C) to isolate the chitin then, chitin was bleached using sodium
hypochlorite (ratio of 1g of chitin:7mL of NaOCl). Chitin was converted using sodium
hydroxides solution (60% w/w NaOH, ratio of 1g:15mL, 60 mins, 600C) for the
conversion of chitin to chitosan. Lastly, this was dissolved in acetic acid solution (0.4M
CH3COOH, ratio of 6% w/w solution) and concentrated via evaporation (120 0C, 60
mins) to obtain the chitosan mixture.
On the other hand, the tobacco stalks were size reduced from 2.0 to 0.02 mm.
The tobacco stalk was digested using sodium hydroxide solution (20% w/w NaOH, ratio
of 1g tobacco stalks:9g NaOH solution, 900C, 90 mins) to obtain alkali cellulose. To
decolorize the alkali cellulose, it was bleached using sodium hypochlorite (ratio of 1g
alkali cellulose:4g NaOCl, 60 mins) then and hydrolysis was employed by sulfuric acid
(65% w/w H2SO4, ratio of 1g bleached alkali cellulose:10g H2SO4, 550C, 60 mins).The
cellulose nanocrystal was separated for the bleached alkali cellulose to cellulose
nanocrystal conversion. The acid solution obtained from the acid hydrolysis underwent
centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 30 minutes.

The chitosan solution and the cellulose nanocrystal slurry were then mixed with
sorbitol at a ratio of 3g chitosan solution:1g cellulose nanocrystal slurry:1g sorbitol. The
solution was stirred and heated at 1100C for 1 hour to promote proper mixing and
evaporate some of the water present in the liner film solution. The resulting solution was
then formed in a 32x40 cm container.

Based on the Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, the

chitosan product conforms with the standard peak reading: 3,407.78 cm–1, signifying -
NH3 bond; 2,922.71 cm-1, for -CH2– and -CH3 bonds; 1,654.32 cm-1, indicating -NH2
bond; 1,565 cm-1, for N-H bending; and 894.91 cm-1, for ring stretching for β-1-4
glycosidic linkage. Moreover, cellulose nanocrystal showed peaks of C-H and CH2
stretching vibration at 2,924.57 cm-1, 1,633.40 cm-1 band assigned to O-H bending of
absorbed water and a peak at 1,204.47 cm-1 indicating weak sulphur. Finally, using
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis image, the presence and the dimensions
of the cellulose nanocrystals that were used to reinforce the chitosan film to produce
liner film was showed. The proposed product, which conformed to the standard and
commercial properties of liner film, has density of 921kg/m3 (0.03-mm thickness), light
transmittance of 4.70%, dart drop impact strength of 140.80g and coefficient of friction
of 0.185.