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Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction

Water resources are essential for satisfying human needs, protecting health, and
ensuring food production, energy and the restoration of ecosystems, as well as for
social and economic development and for sustainable development.
Water pumping has a long history; so many methods have been developed to
pump water with a minimum of effort. These have been utilized a variety of power
sources, namely human energy, animal power, hydro power, wind, solar and fossil
fuels for small generators. [1]
Renewable energy is energy that is replenished by natural processes at a rate
comparable or faster than its rate of consumption by humans. The energy contained in
sunlight, called solar energy, can be converted into electricity as well. This energy is
converted into electricity directly using devices based on Semiconductor materials,
we call it photovoltaic (PV).
A benefit of using solar energy to water pump systems is that increased water
requirements for human consumptions, livestock and irrigation tend to coincide with
the seasonal increase of incoming solar energy.
The volume of water pumped by a solar-powered system in a given interval
depends on the total amount of solar energy available in that time period. Specifically,
the flow rate of the water pumped is determined by both the intensity of the solar
energy available and the size of the PV array used to convert that solar energy into
electricity.
The solar pump can be pump directly into the system operation during
daytime, or pump water to a storage tank or reservoir (which is part of the solar
pumping solution) so that water is also available on cloudy days and at night. Since it
will be with interactive to the grid, in case of water out during night and cloudy days
due to high consumptions of water, the system may continue to operate and stored
water to storage tank for the availability of water.
When properly designed, these PV systems can also result in significant long-
term cost savings and a smaller environmental footprint compared to conventional
power systems.

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1.2 Conceptual Framework

These designs of solar-powered water pumping system

Water source System layout Water Storage

Solar insolation Design flow rate Total Dynamic


and PV Location for the pump Head for the pump

PV Panel selection
Pump Selection PV array mounting
and foundation

Water flow rate and


Delivery point pressure

Figure 1: These steps ensure that the system functions properly and that water is
supply for the operation in the amounts at the location required.

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1.3 Significance of the Study

This study will be significant endeavor in promoting the renewable energy


such as the solar photovoltaic system. Different applications for their many
advantages as they provide clean energy sources. One of their applications is for high
residential or commercial buildings which in needs of water to be lift up to the higher
floor level. Solar pumping systems are best suited for transfer operations, to pump
water out of bore (for instance), or transfer it from dam to storage tank in which
pumps run continuously for most of the day.

1.4 Statement of the Problem

Availability of water in a high rise residential and commercial building would


be scarce as the tall buildings become higher, and need a water storage tank to reach
the upper floors.
A water pumping system as a solution cannot supply water without power to
operate. Because of power shortage experience in Mindanao, it could lead to prices of
energy continuously increase.
One way to solve this problem is to make an Inverter-based solar pumping
system with Grid interactive. The researchers pursue the ideas to have sufficient
stocked water to provide for daily water requirements especially in residential and
commercial buildings were availability of water is scarce in the upper floor level.

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1.5 Objectives of the Study

This thesis could be possible solution of power shortage, availability of water


through storage tank at the higher floors of building where water pressure of local
water source could not reach the upper floors during the day because of water
demand. Through grid interactive, existing power can be used during night and cloudy
weather or if there is no sufficient supply of solar energy in the PV. Hence, this study
aims to:
1) To design a solar water pumping system that can be used for high-rise
residential and commercial building, to pump the water at the upper floors.
2) To design a grid interactive, inverter based solar pumping system for
domestic applications, taking the MUST LRC building a case study.

1.6 Scope and Limitations

The researchers mainly focus on the design of a solar pumping system of 1 HP


centrifugal pump maximum load.
The data and information may gather, through the results of actual
experiments conducted. It is limited to the type of materials available to be used by
researchers and costs that will be used in the design. For the purpose of this research
we will used the solar PV panels of Mindanao University of Science and Technology,
5000 watts rated power at LRC building including the charge controller and inverter
of the university.

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Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature

2.1. Introduction

The sun is an average star. It has been burning for more than 4-billion years,
and it will burn at least that long into the future before erupting into a giant red star.
Some stars are enormous sources of X-rays; others mostly generate radio signals. The
sun, while producing these and other energies, releases 95% of its output energy as
light, some of which cannot be seen by the human eye. The peak of its radiation is in
the green portion of the visible spectrum. Most plants and the human eye function
best in green light since they have adapted to the nature of the sunlight reaching them.
The sun is responsible for nearly all of the energy available on earth. The exceptions
are attributable to moon tides, radioactive material, and the earth's residual internal
heat. Everything else is a converted form of the sun's energy: Hydropower is made
possible by evaporation-transpiration due to solar radiant heat; the winds are caused
by the sun's uneven heating of the earth's atmosphere; fossil fuels are remnants of
organic life previously nourished by the sun; and photovoltaic electricity is produced
directly from sunlight by converting the energy in sunlight into free charged particles
within certain kinds of materials. [2]
Water pumping is one of the simplest and most appropriate uses for
photovoltaic. From crop irrigation to stock watering to domestic uses, photovoltaic-
powered pumping systems meet a broad range of water needs. Most of these systems
have the added advantage of storing water for use when the sun is not shining,
eliminating the need for batteries, enhancing simplicity and reducing overall system
costs. Many people considering installing a solar water pumping system are put off by
the expense. Viewing the expense over a period of 10 years, however, gives a better
idea of the actual cost. By comparing installation costs (including labor), fuel costs,
and maintenance costs over 10 years, you may find that solar is an economical choice.
A solar-powered pumping system is generally in the same price range as a new
windmill but tends to be more reliable and require less maintenance. A solar-powered
pumping system generally costs more initially than a gas, diesel, or propane-powered
generator but again requires far less maintenance and labor. [2]

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2.2 History of Photovoltaic

In a Photovoltaic history, the physical phenomenon responsible for converting


light to electricity-the photovoltaic effect-was first observed in 1839 by a French
physicist, Edmund Becquerel. Becquerel noted a voltage appeared when one of two
identical electrodes in a weak conducting solution was illuminated. The PV effect was
first studied in solids, such as selenium, in the 1870s. In the 1880s, selenium
photovoltaic cells were built that exhibited 1%-2% efficiency in converting light to
electricity. Selenium converts light in the visible part of the sun's spectrum; for this
reason, it was quickly adopted by the then-emerging field of photography for
photometric (light-measuring) devices. Even today, light-sensitive cells on cameras
for adjusting shutter speed to match illumination are made of selenium. [1]
Selenium cells have never become practical as energy converters because their
cost is too high relative to the tiny amount of power they produce (at 1% efficiency).
Meanwhile, work on the physics of PV phenomena has expanded. In the 1920s and
1930s, quantum mechanics laid the theoretical foundation for our present
understanding of PV. A major step forward in solar-cell technology came in the 1940s
and early 1950s when a method (called the Czochralski method) was developed for
producing highly pure crystalline silicon. In 1954, work at Bell Telephone
Laboratories resulted in a silicon photovoltaic cell with a 4% efficiency. Bell Labs
soon bettered this to a 6% and then 11% efficiency, heralding an entirely new era of
power-producing cells. [3]
Today, photovoltaic systems are capable of transforming one kilowatt of solar energy
falling on one square meter into about a hundred watts' of electricity. One hundred
watts can power most household appliances: a television, a stereo, an electric
typewriter, or a lamp. In fact, standard solar cells covering the sun-facing roof space
of a typical home can provide about 8500-kilowatthours of electricity annually, which
is about the average household's yearly electric consumption. By comparison, a
modern, 200-ton electric-arc steel furnace, demanding 50,000 kilowatts of electricity,
would require about a square kilometer of land for a PV power supply. [2]
The photovoltaic (PV) effect is the basis of the conversion of light to
electricity in photovoltaic, or solar, cells. Described simply, the PV effect is as
follows: Light, which is pure energy, enters a PV cell and imparts enough energy to

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some electrons (negatively charged atomic particles) to free them. A built-in-potential
barrier in the cell acts on these electrons to produce a voltage (the so-called
photovoltage), which can be used to drive a current through a circuit. [3]

2.3 Governing principles of Solar Energy

2.3.1 Solar Irradiance

The Sun is the fundamental driving force for energy in the Earth's climate
system. It is of crucial importance to understand fully the conditions of its arrival at
the top of the atmosphere and its transformation through the earth. The amount of
solar power available per unit area is known as irradiance. Irradiance is a radiometric
term for the power of electromagnetic radiation at a surface, per unit area. It is used
when the electromagnetic radiation is incident on the surface. Irradiance fluctuates
according to the weather and the sun’s location in the sky. This location constantly
changes through the day due to changes in both the sun’s altitude (or elevation) angle
and its azimuth (or compass) angle. [1]

Figure 2: Sun’s location in the sky [1]

a = the sun’s altitude or elevation angle


𝝰 = the sun’s azimuth angle

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2.3.2 Solar Constant

The solar constant is the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation


per unit area, measured on the outer surface of Earth's atmosphere on a plane
perpendicular to the rays. The solar constant includes all types of solar radiation, not
just the visible light. It is estimated to be roughly 1,366 watts per square meter (W/m²)
according to satellite measurements, though this fluctuates by about 6.9 % during a
year (from 1,412 W/m² in early January to 1,321 W/m² in early July) due to Earth's
varying distance from the Sun. For the entire planet (Earth has a cross section of
127,400,000 km²), the power is (1366 W/m2 x 1.274×1014 m2) 1.740×1017 W, plus
or minus 3.5 %. The solar constant does not remain constant over long periods of
time. The average value cited, 1,366 W/m², is equivalent to 1.96 calories per minute
per square centimeter, or 1.96 langleys (Ly) per minute. [1]

Figure 3: The map shows the amount of solar energy in hours, received each day on
an optimally tilted surface during the worst month of the year. [2]

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2.3.3 Solar Window

The solar window represents the effective area through which useful levels of
sunlight pass throughout the year for a specific location. It is used to determine
potential shading problems when designing a photovoltaic system. [1]

Figure 4: Solar Window [3]

2.3.4 Solar Spectrum

The sun radiates power over a continuous band or spectrum of electromagnetic


wavelengths. The power levels of the various wavelengths in the solar spectrum are
not the same.
Ultraviolet, Visible and Infrared Radiation
The sun’s total energy is composed of 7% ultraviolet radiation, 47% visible
radiation and 46% infrared (heat) radiation. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes many
materials to degrade and is significantly filtered out by the layer of Ozone in the upper
atmosphere.
Photovoltaic cells primarily use visible radiation. The distribution of colours within
light is important, because, a photovoltaic cell will produce different amounts of
current depending on the various colors reflecting on it. [3]

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Figure 5: Solar Spectrum [3]

2.3.5 Solar Insolation

The results of the earth’s motion and atmospheric effects at various locations
have led to essentially two types of solar insolation data. These are daily and hourly.
Solar irradiance is related to power per unit area where as solar insolation is related to
radiant energy per unit area. Solar insolation is determined by summing solar
irradiance over time, and is usually expressed in units of kWh/m2 /day. [1]

Average Daily Solar Radiation

To provide long-term average daily solar radiation data, an average of daily


solar radiation is calculated for each month over a period of typically 30 years. This
data is useful both in predicting long-term performance and in analyzing the
economics of solar energy systems. The actual average daily solar radiation for a
given month may vary significantly from the long-term average for that month. [1]

Peak Sun Hours

The number of peak sun hours per day at a given location is the equivalent
number of hours at peak sun conditions (i.e., at 1 kW/m2) that produces the same total
insolation as actual sun conditions. [1]

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Figure 5 below shows how Peak Sun Hours is determined by constructing a graph
having the same area as that for the actual irradiance versus time.

Figure 6: Peak sun hours [1]

2.3.6 Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation

Sunlight coming from the sun is reduced by about 30% before it reaches the
earth due to scattering by atmospheric particles, scattering by aerosol, dust particles
etc., absorption by atmospheric gases. It is common to consider separately the ‘direct’
(or beam) radiation coming from solar disk and the ‘diffuse’ radiation from elsewhere
in the sky with their sum known as ‘global’ radiation. The component of the radiation
coming from all direction in the sky is diffused. When the sun is directly overhead, it
has diffuse component of about 10% when skies are clear. Percentage increases with
increased Air Mass. [1]

2.4 Photovoltaic Cell, Module, and Array

Photovoltaic cells are connected electrically in series and/or parallel circuits to


produce higher voltages, currents and power levels. Photovoltaic modules consist of
PV cell circuits sealed in an environmentally protective laminate, and are the
fundamental building blocks of PV systems. Photovoltaic panels include one or more
PV modules assembled as a pre-wired, field-installable unit. A photovoltaic array is
the complete power-generating unit, consisting of any number of PV modules and
panels. [4]

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Figure 7: Photovoltaic cells, modules and arrays.

The performance of PV modules and arrays are generally rated according to


their maximum DC power output (watts) under Standard Test Conditions (STC).
Standard Test Conditions are defined by a module (cell) operating temperature of 25o
C (77ᵒ F), and incident solar irradiance level of 1000 W/m2 and under Air Mass 1.5
spectral distribution. Since these conditions are not always typical of how PV
modules and arrays operate in the field, actual performance is usually 85 to 90 percent
of the STC rating. Silicon solar cells produce about 0.5 to 0.6 volt independent cell
area, depending on temperature. The current output of a solar cell depends primarily
on the cell area, its efficiency, and the incident solar radiation. Modern silicon cells
are up to 3 inches in diameter and produce up to 4 watts and 8 amps under full
sunlight.
The following are the common types of silicon solar cells.

2.4.1. Monocrystalline solar cells

Monocrystalline photovoltaic electric solar energy panels have been use for
many years. They are among the oldest, most efficient and most dependable ways to
produce electricity from the sun. Solar cells made of monocrystalline silicon (mono-
Si), also called single-crystalline silicon (single-crystal-Si), and are quite easily
recognizable by an external even coloring and uniform look, indicating high-purity
silicon. Monocrystalline solar panels have the highest efficiency rates since they are
made out of the highest-grade silicon. The efficiency rates of monocrystalline solar
panels are typically 15-20%.

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Figure 8: Monocrystalline Solar Cell and Panel.

2.4.2. Polycrystalline solar cells

Polycrystalline panels are made up from silicon offcuts, moulded to form


blocks and create a cell made up of several bits of pure crystal. Because the individual
crystals are not necessarily all perfectly aligned together and there are losses at the
joints between them, they are not quite as efficient. However, this mis-alignment can
help in some circumstances, because the cells work better from light at all angles, in
low light, etc.

Figure 9: Polycrystalline Solar Cell and Panel

2.4.3. Thin Film Solar Cells

The term "Thin film solar panels" refers to the fact that these types of solar
panels use a much thinner level of photovoltaic material then mono-crystalline or
multi-crystalline solar panels. Thin film solar cells consist of layers of active materials
about 10 nm thick compared with 200- to 300-nm layers for crystalline-silicon cells.

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The semiconductor junctions are formed in different ways, either as a p-i-n device in
amorphous silicon (A-Si), or as a hetero-junction (e.g. with a thin cadmium sulfide
layer) for CdTe and CIGS panels. A transparent conducting oxide layer (such as tin
oxide) forms the front electrical contact of the cell, and a metal layer forms the rear
contact. [5]

Figure 10: Thin Film Solar Cell

2.5 Type of Photovoltaic system

Solar Photovoltaics convert daylight into electricity and can be used in Grid-
Tied Solar PV Systems where renewable electricity is fed directly into the properties
power supply, excess electricity being exported (sold) to energy companies using the
National Grid and in Off-Grid situations where electricity is generated and stored in
batteries for use locally. [1]

2.5.1. Grid-Tied Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

A grid-connected photovoltaic power system or grid-connected PV system is an


electricity generating solar PV system that is connected to the utility grid. A grid-
connected PV system consists of solar panels, one or several inverters, a power
conditioning unit and grid connection equipment. They range from small residential
and commercial rooftop systems to large utility-scale solar power stations.
Unlike stand-alone power systems, a grid-connected system rarely includes
an integrated battery solution, as they are still very expensive. When conditions are
right, the grid-connected PV system supplies the excess power, beyond consumption
by the connected load, to the utility grid. [1]

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Figure 11: Grid-connected PV system [1]

2.5.2. Off-grid Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

In an Off-grid or stand-alone photovoltaic power systems, the electrical energy


produced by the photovoltaic panels cannot always be used directly. As the demand
from the load does not always equal the solar panel capacity, battery banks are
generally used. [3]

Figure 12: Off-grid connected PV system [3]

2.6. Motor Pump

A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries,


by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to
the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps.

Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and


consume energy to perform mechanical work by moving the fluid. Pumps operate via
many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, engines, or wind power,

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come in many sizes, from microscopic for use in medical applications to large
industrial pumps. [9]

Figure 13: A small, electrically powered pump [9]

2.6.1. Centrifugal Pump

Centrifugal Pump: A centrifugal pump may be defined as one in which an


impeller rotating inside a close – fitting case draws in the liquid at the centre and, by
virtue of centrifugal force, throws out through an opening at the side of the casing. In
operation, the pump is filled with water and the impeller rotated. The blades cause the
liquid to rotate with the impeller and, in turn, import a high velocity to the water
particles. The centrifugal force causes the water particles to be thrown from the
impeller reduces pressure at the inlet, allowing more water to be drawn in through the
suction pipe by atmospheric pressure. The liquid passes into the casing, where its high
velocity is reduced and converted into pressure and the water is pumped out through
the discharge pipe. The conversion of velocity energy into pressure energy is
accomplished either in a Volute casing or in a Diffuser. [9]

Figure 14: Centrifugal Pump [9]

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2.7 Water Requirements

A World Bank (1980) study on basic needs and the urban poor reported that
"neither personal hygiene nor public health" would require water for domestic
consumption greater than 100 liters per capita per day (l/c/d). This estimate was
corroborated by the United States Department of Agriculture study in 1991, which
indicated that basic household activities such as cooking, drinking, and washing can
be met by less than 94.5 liters. More recent studies give estimates of basic water
requirement between 50 and 100 l/c/d. [6]

2.8 Solar inverter

PV inverter, or Solar converter, converts the variable direct current (DC)


output of a photovoltaic (PV)solar panel into a utility frequency alternating
current (AC) that can be fed into a commercial electrical grid or used by a local, off-
grid electrical network. It is a critical BOS–component in a photovoltaic system,
allowing the use of ordinary AC-powered equipment. Solar inverters have special
functions adapted for use with photovoltaic arrays, including maximum power point
tracking and anti-islanding protection. [10]

Figure 15: Solar inverter [10]

2.8.1 Solar pumping inverters

Advanced solar pumping inverters convert DC voltage from the solar array
into AC voltage to drive submersible pumps directly without the need for batteries or
other energy storage devices. By utilizing MPPT (maximum power point tracking),
solar pumping inverters regulate output frequency to control the speed of the pumps
in order to save the pump motor from damage.

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Solar pumping inverters usually have multiple ports to allow the input of DC
current generated by PV arrays, one port to allow the output of AC voltage, and a
further port for input from a water-level sensor. [1]

Figure 16: Solar Pump Inverter [1]

2.9 Solar charge controller

A charge controller may be used to power DC equipment with solar panels.


The charge controller provides a regulated DC output and stores excess energy in a
battery as well as monitoring the battery voltage to prevent under/overcharging. More
expensive units will also perform maximum power point tracking. An inverter can be
connected to the output of a charge controller to drive AC loads. [12]

Figure 17: Solar Charge Controller [12]

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2.10 Water Storage

A water tank is a container for storing liquid. The need for a water tank is as
old as civilization, providing storage of water for drinking
water, irrigation agriculture, fire suppression, agricultural farming, both for plants and
livestock, chemical manufacturing, preparations well as many other
applications. Water tank parameters include the general design of the tank, and choice
of construction materials. Various materials are used for making a water
tank: plastics (polyethylene, polypropylene), fiberglass, concrete, stone, steel (welded
or bolted, carbon, or stainless), Earthen ponds function as water storage. Water tanks
are an efficient way to help developing countries, LEDCs, to store clean water. [10]

Figure 18: Water Tank [10]

2.12 Magnetic Contactor

A magnetic contactor is an electrically controlled switch used for switching a


power circuit. It has main contacts used for power circuit and auxiliary contact used
for control circuit. [13]

Figure 19: Magnetic Contactor [13]

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2.13 Variable-frequency drive (VFD)

also termed adjustable-frequency drive, variable-speed drive, AC drive, micro


drive or inverter drive is a type of adjustable-speed drive used in electro-
mechanical drive systems to control AC motor speed and torque by varying motor
input frequency and voltage.

VFDs are used in applications ranging from small appliances to the largest of mine
mill drives and compressors. However, around 25% of the world's electrical energy is
consumed by electric motors in industrial applications, which are especially
conducive for energy savings using VFDs in centrifugal load service. [14]

Figure 20: Variable-frequency drive [14]

2.14 Existing Solar-Powered Pumping System

There are two basic types of solar-powered water pumping systems, battery-
coupled and direct-coupled.
Battery-coupled water pumping systems consist of photovoltaic (PV) panels,
charge control regulator, batteries, pump controller, pressure switch, tank, and DC
water pump. The electric current produced by PV panels during daylight hours
charges the batteries, and the batteries in turn supply power to the pump anytime
water is needed. The use of batteries spreads the pumping over a longer period of time
by providing a steady operating voltage to the DC motor of the pump. Thus, during
the night and low light periods, the system can still deliver a constant source of water
for livestock. [15]

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Figure 21: Battery-coupled water pumping systems. [15]

In direct-coupled pumping systems, electricity from the PV modules is sent


directly to the pump, which in turn pumps water through a pipe to where it is needed
(Figure.2). This system is designed to pump water only during the day. The amount of
water pumped is totally dependent on the amount of sunlight hitting the PV panels
and the type of pump. Because the intensity of the sun and the angle at which it strikes
the PV panel changes throughout the day, the amount of water pumped by this system
also changes throughout the day. For instance, during optimum sunlight periods (late
morning to late afternoon on bright sunny days) the pump operates at or near 100
percent efficiency with maximum water flow. However, during early morning and
late afternoon, pump efficiency may drop by as much as 25 percent or more under
these low-light conditions. [15]
During cloudy days, pump efficiency will drop off even more. To compensate
for these variable flow rates, a good match between the pump and PV module(s) is
necessary to achieve efficient operation of the system.

Figure 22: Direct-coupled pumping systems [15]

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Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter discuss the design of the propose project to ensure that the
objectives of the project will be achieve. It ensures also that the system will functions
properly and that water is supplied for the operation in the amounts and at the
locations required.
The step by step process on how the researcher carried out the study is defending in
the flow chart shown below.

Start Components Rating


and Values
Calculation

Determine
water
requirement
Is the
output
attainable?

Determine the
size of Water
Storage

Testing and Design


Verification
Design flow rate for
the pump

Is the
output
System Design
attained?

Control Circuit
Design Result Analysis Start

Figure 23: Flow chart

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3.2 Water Requirements [5]

The four components of basic water requirements: (1) drinking water for survival, (2)
water for human hygiene, (3) water for sanitation services, and (4) modest household
needs for preparing food. In accordance with local practices and situation, the second
component is expanded to include water used for brushing of teeth and washing of
face and hands while the third component defined as requirements for sanitation,
which is primarily toilet flushing, is expanded to include cleaning of toilet and the
house.
Water requirement, (Rw) can be written as

Rw = Dw (1)

Where:
dDw
=0
dP
Dw = f (P, I, N, Z)

Where:
Rw = water requirement
Dw = demand for water
P = price and the prices of its substitutes
I = income
N = household size
Z = other socioeconomic variables

3.2.1. Water Quantity Estimation [7]

The Quantity of water required for residential and commercial uses for which
the water supply has to be designed.

Qw = PCD x N (2)
Where:
Qw = Quantity of water
PCD = water consumption rate (Per Capita Demand)
N = number of person to be serve

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3.3 Determine the size of water storage

The system’s total water storage capacity is sufficient for a minimum water
requirement base on the flow rate of pump motor to be used. The flow rate (lpm) is
the volume of water that is pumped in a set time period.

water storage capacity


(in liters)
Size of tank in Cubic Meter = (3)
cubic meters (in liters)

Formula for Cylindrical Volume

V = πr 2 h (4)

Where:
V = volume of the tank
r = radius of the tank
h = height of the tank

3.4 Design flow rate for the pump

The design flow rate for the pump is calculated by dividing the daily water
needs of the operation by the number of peak sun hours per day.

Water storage capacity


Flow Rate (Q) = 60min (5)
PSH∗ hr

Where:
PSH = Peak Sun Hours

3.4.1 Total Dynamic Head [8]

The total dynamic head of a water system must be considered when determining the
size of pumping equipment to be installed. It determines the various head losses that
the pump must overcome.

Total head = Hs + Hd (6)

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Where:
Hs = A + B (7)
v2 (8)
Hd = Hf +
2g

3.5 System Design

3.5.1 Pump Selection

Because it delivers a constant flow of water at a constant pressure for any


given set of conditions, the centrifugal pump is ideal for delivering water.

ρVgH
E= (9)
ɳp

Where:
E = Daily energy required
ρ = density of water
g = acceleration due to gravity
V = volumetric rate
H = total head
ɳp = pump efficiency
The pump efficiency is a function of load (head and flowrate) and is available as a
characteristic curve from the manufacturer.

Table 1: Typical range of pump performance parameters [9]


Wire-to-water
Head (m) Type of pump
Efficiency (%)
0-5 Centrifugal 15-25
Centrifugal with Jet 10-20
6-20
Submersible 20-30
Submersible 30-40
21-100
Jack pump 30-45
>100 Jack pump 35-50

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Selecting pump can be refers to the performance curve for a particular application.

Figure 24: Pump curve [9]

3.5.2 Load Estimation

The entire system design is based on size of the load. Inaccurate estimation,
the initial costs will be too high or the array could be too small and system will
eventually fail. [9]
Connected load - It is the Sum of all the loads connected to the electrical system,
usually expressed in watts.
Demand load - It is The electric load at the receiving terminals averaged over a
specified demand interval of time, usually 15 min., 30 min., or 1 hour based upon the
particular utility’s demand interval. Demand may be expressed in amperes, kilo-
amperes, kilo-watts, kilo-vars, or kilo-volt-amperes.
To determine the full load current in amperes, the Philippine Electrical Code provide
a reference for full load currents for running at usual speeds and motors with normal
torque characteristics at PEC 2009 Table 4.30.14.2 page 403. [10]

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Table 2: The table 4.30.14.2 of PEC 2009.
The table 4.30.14.2 Full-Load Currents in Amperes, Single-Phase Alternating-
Currents Motors.
The following values of Full-Load currents are for motors running at usual speeds and
motors with normal torque characteristics. The voltages listed are rated motor
voltages. The currents listed shall be permitted for system voltage ranges of 110 to
120 and 220 to 240 volts.
Horsepower 115 volts 200 volts 208 volts 230 volts
¼ 5.8 3.3 3.2 2.9
½ 9.8 5.6 5.4 4.9
¾ 13.8 7.9 7.6 6.9
1 16 9.2 8.8 8.0
1½ 20 11.5 11 10
2 24 13.8 13.2 12
3 34 19.6 18.7 17
5 56 32.2 30.8 28

3.5.3 PV Panel Selection and Array Layout

In designing a PV system, its sizing is the basic and most important parameter
needed to produce the desired output power. The formulas used are discussed in the
succeeding sections.
The require PV module area APV (m²) can be calculated from the chosen nominal PV
power using the formula:

Ppv
Apv = (10)
ηpv

Where:
ɳpv = efficiency of modules at STC
Ppv = Nominal PV power in kW
Ppv
Ppeak = PSH (11)

Where:
Ppv = PV rated power
PSH = Peak Sun Hours

27
3.5.3.1 Solar Insolation

Solar insolation data can be found at actually Atmospheric Science Data


Center which is sponsored and maintained by NASA (National Aeronautics and
Space Administration). This center holds the data collected on various parameters of
atmosphere and earth. The Surface meteorology and Solar Energy division of this
center holds the data associated with Solar Energy. The following are the salient
features of this division. [11]
• Over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters
• Monthly averaged from 22 years of data
• Data tables for a particular location
• Color plots on both global and regional scales
• Global solar energy data for 1195 ground sites

3.5.3.2 Efficiency

Efficiency of a PV device is the ratio of the electrical power output and the
solar irradiance input over the device area, expressed as a percentage:

Pmp
ɳ= (12)
ExA

Pmp = Imp x Vmp (13)


Where:
ƞ = efficiency
Pmp = maximum power rating (W)
E = solar irradiance (W/m2 )
A = surface area (m2 )
Imp = maximum power current
Vmp = maximum power voltage

3.5.3.3 PV System Sizing

PV systems are usually sized based on the average values of energy and power
needed, available solar radiation, and component efficiency.

28
Number of panel needed for the system can be calculated using the formula,

Load/day
Np = PSH x P (14)
pv

Where:
Np = number of panels
Ppv = PV rated power
PSH = Peak Sun Hours

3.5.3.4 Array Layout

Number of Modules in Series

In calculating the number of PV modules connected in series, a rated voltage


input of the inverter indicated as V (input) and the rated voltage output of module
denoted as V (module) are considered. Using the equation in 17, we can compute for
the number of modules that would be connected in series.

V(input)
N(series) = V(module)
(15)

Number of Strings per Inverter

For solving the value of the number of strings per inverter, the rated current input of the
inverter designated as I (input) is used with the rated module current denoted as I
(module) are considered. With the equation given, the number of strings per inverter is
calculated.

strings I(input)
N (inverter) = (16)
I(module)

Total Number of PV Modules

The number of modules in series and number of strings in parallel, it can be then
calculate for the total number of PV modules to be used. Its formula would be

Total number of PV modules = Ns x Np (17)

29
Where:
Ns = Number of Modules in Series
Np = Number of Strings in parallel

Bypass Diode

Bypass diodes are connected in parallel with series strings of cells to prevent
cell overheating when cells or parts of an array are shaded.

When cells are not shaded, the bypass When cells is shaded, the bypass
diode is reverse biased and does not diode is forward biased and conducts
conduct current current

Positive (+) Negative (-)

Shaded Cell
Figure 25: Bypass diodes are connected in parallel with series
strings of cells

3.5.4 Charge Controller and Inverter Selection


3.5.4.1 Charge Controller Selection

The solar charge controller is typically rated against Amperage and Voltage
capacities. For the series charge controller type, the sizing of controller depends on
the total PV input current which is delivered to the controller and also depends on PV
panel configuration (series or parallel configuration).

Solar Charge controller rating = Isc x Np x Safety Factor (18)

Where:
Isc = PV module short-circuit current
Np = Number of Strings in parallel
Safety factor = 1.25

30
3.5.4.2 Inverter Selection

The efficiency of the inverter drives the efficiency of a solar panel


system because inverters convert Direct Current (DC) (as produced by the solar
panels), into Alternating Current (AC) (as used by the load). This leads many to the
effect of over-sizing or under-sizing an inverter will have on overall system
efficiency.
Under-sizing your inverter will mean that the maximum performance of your system
will be dictated by the size of your inverter and regardless of how big the output of
your solar panels is, the output will be cut-off by the inverter.
When over-sizing your inverter, the efficiency of the system (as seen in the example
graph) depends on what your average point of operation is (this in turn is based on the
size of your solar panels

Figure 26: [44]

An inverter is used in the system where AC power output is needed. The input rating
of the inverter should never be lower than the total watts of load. Motor type of load,
then inverter size should be minimum of 3 times the capacity of load those to handle
surge current during starting.

Inverter Capacity [12] = total watts of load x 3 (19)

31
3.6 Control Circuit Design

The design of the control circuit is very important to realize remote automatic
control. There are two circuits to a starter — the Power Circuit and the Control
Circuit. The electricity that passes through the contacts of the starter, through the
overload relay, and out to the motor, is called the power circuit. It is the power circuit
that passes electricity to the motor enabling it to run.
The control circuit may not be at the same voltage as the power circuit. When the
voltage of the control and power circuits is the same, it is referred to as Common
Control. If the voltages are different, it is called Separate Control.

32
Chapter 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction

The data gathered as indicated below is used to make the choices needed
during system design. Design is not just plugging in some numbers in respective
formulae. It involves balancing calculations with judgments and selecting components
and subsystems based on information about load and the efficiency of each
component.

4.2 Water Requirements

Water demand at high-rise building must know in order to meet those


demands. This is the minimum water requirement for a person to maintain good
health and proper sanitation. [1]

Table 2: Minimum water requirements per person


Activity (per person) Minimum Water requirements (liters/day)
Food Preparation (Cooking & Kitchen) 10
Personal Hygiene 30
(Shower/bathing & Hand/face washing)
Sanitation (Urinal/toilet flushing) 20
Laundry 12.5
Drinking 5
Total 77.5

Water Quantity Estimation = PCD x N


Water Quantity Estimation = 77.5liters/day/person x 150 persons*
Water Quantity Estimation = 11,625 liters/day

*Researcher assumption for the population of the high-rise commercial building.

33
4.3 Size of Water Storage

Water storage capacity is sufficient for a minimum water requirement base on


the water quantity estimation.
water storage capacity (in liters)
Size of storage in Cubic Meter =
cubic meters (in liters)

11,625 liters
Size of storage in Cubic Meter =
1000 li/m3

Size of storage in Cubic Meter = 11.625 m3


Storage tank Dimension
For a cylindrical tank
V = πr 2 h
V = 11.625 m3
If r = h,
11.625 = (π) ( m3 )

m = 1.55 meters; radius = 1.55 meters and a height of 1.55 meters

4.4 Design flow rate for the pump

The flowrate of the pump will be based on the size of tank to be filled up
according to the time that the pump motor will be operated at a given peak sun hours.

Water storage capacity


Flow Rate (Q) =
60min
PSH ∗ hr

11,625 liters
Flow rate (Q) = 5.36 x 60

= 36.147 liters/minute

34
4.4.1 Total Dynamic Head

As the Total Dynamic Head (THD) increase, the Flow rate (Q) decrease in order to
maintain constant pressure at the discharge side. When a pump is used to displace a
liquid to a higher level it is usually located at the low point or close to it. The head of
the reservoir, which is called static head, will produce pressure on the pump that will
have to be overcome once the pump is started.

Float Switch

Storage Tank

Water Inlet to Sump


18 meters Tank
From a water source

Float Switch

Sump Tank

Sump Tank water level is


controlled by a Ball Valve

2 meters

Figure 27: Total dynamic head

35
Total Head Calculation

The static head


Hs = A + B
Hs = 18 m + 2 m
Hs = 20 m
The dynamic head
v2
Hd = Hf +
2g

Friction factor = 0.05


102
Hd = (0.05) (20 m) + 9.81

Hd = 6.10 m
The total head of the system
Total Head = Hs + Hd
Total Head = 20 m + 6.10 m
Total Head = 26.10 m

36
4.5 System Design

System Lay-out of Solar Pumping System


4.5.1 System Lay-out

PV

Water Tank CR

Controller

Solar Inverter

Grid interactive
Water Tank
Pump Motor

Figure 28: System Lay-out of Solar Pumping System


Water Source

37
The system layout of solar pumping system is designed to deliver the highest
volume of water demand. From the solar panel in which the power harnesses from the
sunlight, to solar controller to maintain the voltage required for input voltage of solar
inverter. Since current needed for the water pump is alternating current, inverter
added to the system. Variable frequency drive introduces also to the system to limit or
regulate the starting current of the pump motor. The storage water tank is an
advantage to the system to eliminating the need for batteries, enhancing simplicity
and reducing overall systems costs.

4.5.2 Pump Selection

Based on the data above, the pump should have a minimum flowrate of 36.147
liters per minute, and a maximum head of 26.10 meters. The pump we selected is
local centrifugal pump, Pedrollo centrifugal pump with a flowrate of 40 LPM and a
head of 38 meters. This pump meet the required needed for the system.

ρVgH
The Daily Energy Required =
ɳp

1kg
= [(liter)(11625L/day) (9.81m/s2) (26.10m)]/(0.20)

The Daily Energy Required = 14.8 x 106 J/day


The Daily Energy Required = 4,118.16 Wh/day

4.5.3 Load Estimation

The connected load of the system is only 1 horse power centrifugal pump. A
continuous duty type of motor, based on Philippine Electrical Code, Table 4.30.14.2
page 403, 1HP has a full load of 8.0 Amperes for 230 V.
Conductors connecting the motor to its controller shall have an ampacity not
less than:
Circuit Conductors = Full Load Current x 125%
= 8.0 Amps x 1.25
Circuit conductors = 10 Amps.
Use two 3.5 mm2 THW at 40ᵒC ambient is 20 Amperes x 0.88 = 17.6 Amperes. See
PEC 2009 Table 3.0.1.16 for ampacity correction factors.

38
The Volt-Ampere of the load would be:
VA = Voltage x Amperes
VA = 230 V x 10 A
VA = 2300 VA or 2300 W if pf=1
Daily Energy required running the pump

E = 2300 W x 5 hrs/day
E = 11,500 Wh/day

4.5.4 PV Panel Selection and Array Layout

There are different sizes of PV module commercially available (typically sized from
60W to 250W). Usually, a number of PV modules are combined as an array to meet
different energy demands. The size of system selected for the proposed system is
5000W. Each module rated maximum power of 100W, Polycrystalline silicon
photovoltaic module, Sharp NE-250UC1.

The require PV module area APV (m²) can be calculated from the chosen nominal PV
power using the formula:

Ppv
Apv =
ηpv

Calculated Area
0.100 kW
Area per module =
0.1432

= 0.698 𝑚2
PV panel efficiency is
= 0.1434 = 14.34%

39
Solar Insolation

The results of the earth’s motion and atmospheric effects at various locations
have led to essentially two types of solar insolation data. Solar insolation is
determined by summing solar irradiance over time, and is usually expressed in units
of kWh/m2 /day.
The figure shows that the Monthly Averaged Insolation Incident On A Horizontal
Surface (kWh/m2/day) particular to the location of Cagayan de Oro City is 5.36
kWh/m2/day.

Table 3: Monthly Averaged Insolation Incident on a Horizontal Surface (kWh/m2/day


Latitude 8.48 22-year average (Based on NASA
Longitude 124.65 (Cagayan de Oro data and calculation)
City)
Month Monthly average daily solar
radiation
(kWh/m^2/day)
January 4.67
February 5.22
March 5.99
April 6.39
May 5.91
June 5.33
July 5.27
August 5.36
September 5.51
October 5.18
November 4.93
December 4.63
Annual Average 5.36

40
Average Daily Solar Radiation
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Figure 29: Graphical Representation of Average Monthly Daily Solar Radiation

The month of April has the highest solar radiation having 6.39 kWh/m 2/day
wherein it is in time of summer and the lowest solar radiation of the entire year is the
month of December having 4.63 kWh/m2/day. It could then be assumed that the
month of April would have the highest energy output for a year.

PV System Sizing

PV systems are usually sized based on the average values of energy and power needed
available solar radiation, and component efficiencies.

Load = 11500 Wh/day


PSH = 5.36 hrs/day
PV panel power rating = 250 W
Wh
11500
day
Number of panels = = 8.58 = 10 panels
(5.36hr/day)(250 W)

41
Array Layout

The number of modules per array will be determined by the number of


modules in parallel and in series.

Number of Modules in Series


Maximum Input Voltage Rating (charge controller)
Ns =
Peak Voltage of Module
96
= 38.3 = 2.5

Ns = 2 panel

Number of Strings per charge controller


maximum Input current rating 100A
Np = = = 11.236
short circuit (Isc) of the module 8.9

Np = 10
Total Number of PV Modules

Np = (number of modules in series x strings)


= 2x10
= 20 modules

42
Array configuration

Number Number of Modules per String


Of 1 2
+
Strings -
1 + - + -
2
2 + - + -
3
3 + - + -

4 + - + -

5 + - + -

6 + - + -

7 + - + -

8 + - + -

9 + - + -

10 + - + -

Figure 30: Array configuration

This array are composed of modules to deliver a given output power. The modules
connected in series design to meet the input voltage for the inverter and connected in
parallel so that the maximum current required will not exceed to the maximum input
current of the inverter.

43
Bypass Diode

The optimal location and orientation of a photovoltaic array is not sufficient to


produce the maximum energy generation. The shadows are responsible for power
losses. This can result in far higher losses of power than expected, in relation to the
percentage of areas shaded.

Figure 31: non-overlapped bypass diodes [1]

Using PV modules with non-overlapped bypass diodes can reduce the power losses.
Non-overlapped diodes are used; two thirds of the PV cells are generating power.

4.5.5 Charge Controller and Inverter

Rating of Charge Controller of the system must rate against voltage and
amperage capacity.

Solar Charge controller rating = Isc x Np x Safety Factor


= 8.9 x 10 x 1.25
Solar Charge controller rating = 111.25 A
Inverter
Inverter Capacity [12] = total watts of load x 3
Inverter Capacity = 2300 W x 3
Inverter Capacity = 6900 W
Inverter rating must not less than 6900 W

44
4.6 Control Circuit Design

The control circuit is design to have a safety operation on motor by means of


automatic control.
At the storage tank, When Upper level reaches half the height of the Float, the
Micro Switch gets Open and the Pump gets disconnected from the power supply. The
switch remains Open until the water level drop to half the height of the lower Float.
When Lower level reaches half the height of the Float, the Micro Switch gets closed
and the Pump gets connected from the power supply. The switch remains Closed until
the water level reaches to half the height of the upper Float.
At the sump tank, if the water level drops below a certain level, the float
switch makes the micro switch to "OFF" position [contact broken]. When the water
level reaches a pre-defined level above the minimum water level, the float switch
makes the micro switch to "ON" position [contact made].
Float Switch
Storage Tank

Manual Reset
Overload
Contact

N
To 230 V-1P 1P– 230 V
Overload Contact
230 V Coil

Contactor
Coil
Contactor With thermal Overload unit attached

Figure 32: Wiring Diagram for Single Phase Water Pumps

45
This schematic diagram shows The Contactor coil provided power through the Sump
Float switch and the Storage Tank Float switch so that when both switches are "ON",
the contactor coil gets energized and if any of the switches are "OFF", the contactor
coil de-energizes or drops. A thermal overload unit is used; it can be connected in
series with the two float switches.

START
STOP
MANUAL A1 A2

MC L2

L1 OL AUTO
NC NO
AUX
FLOAT
VALVE

Figure 33: Schematic Diagram for Single Phase Water Pumps

2 Way Micro Switch


Inside enclosure
Water In
From pump

Storage Cord connected to the


Tank Micro Switch
Normally Closed
Upper Water Level
Upper Float

Common
Used

Normally
UsedOpen
Water level Cord connected to
Variation Upper and lower Normally Closed
Floats

Common
Used
Lower Water Level Lower Float Used

Normally Open

Water Out (Gravity Flow)

Figure 34: Storage Tank and Float Switch arrangement with 2 Way Float Switch
46
When Upper Water level reaches half the height of the Float, the Micro switch
gets Open and the Water Pump gets disconnected from the Power Supply. The switch
remains Open until the water level drops to half the height of the lower Float. When
Lower Water level reaches half the height of the Float, the Micro switch gets closed
and the Water Pump gets connected to the Power Supply. The switch remains Closed
until the water level reaches half the height of the upper Float.

Water Inlet to Sump Tank


From a water source

Sump Tank water level


is controlled by a Ball
Sump Tank Valve
Water Out

Set – up for Automatic Float Switch operated Water Pump operation


Float Switch

Water Inlet to Sump


Tank From a water
source
Storage Tank

Float Switch

Sump Tank

Figure 35: Set – up for Automatic Float Switch operated Water Pump operation

47
4.7 Testing and Design Verification

The researchers implemented the system at LRC building at Mindanao


University of Science and Technology with the supervision of research adviser and
EE laboratory technician. The researchers used ½ Hp Centrifugal pump, 2 tank 500
liters each.

System running without Variable Frequency Drive


Table 4: The Real Power, voltage RMS, current RMS, and computed Reactive Power.

Time Computed
Volt-
interval Volt RMS Current Real Reactive
Ampere
in (V) RMS (A) Power (W) Power(lagging)
(VA)
second (VAR)
(s)
1 236.45 2.25
2 236.37 1.69 325.11 397.07 227.96
3 236.31 1.69 325.17 396.90 227.58
4 236.36 1.69 325.18 396.96 227.67
5 236.39 1.69 325.28 396.92 227.46
6 236.38 1.69 325.36 396.93 227.36
7 236.38 1.69 325.21 396.83 226.21
8 236.43 1.69 325.34 397.03 227.57
9 236.29 1.68 324.94 396 226.34
10 236.4 1.69 325.22 396.84 227.41

Based on the data we gathered at data logger that we used. Table shown below
the Real Power, voltage RMS, current RMS, and computed Reactive Power. The
different trial conducted to get the data. Separate graph provided each parameter
result.

48
Without VFD
440
420
400
380
P 360
340
O 320
300
W 280
260
E 240
220
R 200
180
160
(W) 140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s 10s
Time (s)

Figure 36: Graphical Representation of real power absorbed by the pump motor at
given time

The real power absorbed by the pump motor without variable frequency drive
automatically stable at two seconds and continuously the same power under running
conditions.

Without VFD
260
240
V 220
O 200
180
L 160
T 140
A 120
G 100
E 80
60
(V) 40
20
0
1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s 10s

Time (s)
Figure 37: Graphical Representation of voltage RMS by the pump motor at given time.

The voltage starts at 236.45 V and continuously stable at running conditions.

49
3
C 2.5
u 2
r
1.5
r
e 1
n 0.5
t 0
(A) 1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s 10s
Time (s)

Figure 38: Graphical Representation of current RMS by the pump motor at given time.

Current have a starting current of 2.25 at 1second, automatically drop to its running at
2seconds and become stable at running conditions.
System running with Variable Frequency Drive at 50 Hz
Table 5: The Real Power, voltage RMS, current RMS, and computed Reactive Power.

Time Computed
Real
interval Volt RMS Current Volt-Ampere Reactive
Power
in (V) RMS (A) (VA) Power(lagging)
(W)
second (VAR)
(s)
1 234.97 2.09
2 234.93 1.15 146.57 268.23 224.64
3 234.93 1.16 148.06 270.58 226.48
4 234.68 1.17 150.38 272.69 227.48
5 234.77 1.19 152.72 278.69 233.20
6 234.30 1.21 155.39 281.01 234.14
7 233.70 1.22 158.25 284.76 236.74
8 233.88 1.24 160.62 287.67 238.85
9 234.02 1.24 162.09 289.67 240.07
10 234.37 1.26 164.58 294.18 243.83
60 234.79 1.48 198.33 345.78 283.25
90 232.75 1.52 201.23 351.43 288.11
100 235 1.52 203.73 355.12 291.29
120 234.13 1.51 202.71 352.04 287.82

50
With VFD at 50 Hz
440
420
400
380
P 360
340
O 320
300
W 280
260
240
E 220
200
R 180
160
140
(W) 120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s 10s 60s 90s 100s 120s 150s 200s
Time (s)

Figure 39: Graphical Representation of Real power absorbed by the pump motor at
given time
The real power absorbed by the pump motor with variable frequency drive slowly
increasing with an average increase of 2.427 watts per second, and become stable at
90 seconds and continuously the same power under running conditions.

With VFD at 50 Hz
260
240
V 220
200
O 180
L 160
T 140
A 120
G 100
80
E
60
(V) 40
20
0
1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s 10s 60s 90s 100s 120s 150s 200s
Time (s)

Figure 40: Graphical Representation for voltage RMS at given time interval given time

The voltage starts at 236.45 V and continuously stable at running conditions.

51
With VFD at 50 Hz

3
C
U 2.5
R
R 2
E
N 1.5
T
1
(A)
0.5

Time (S)

Figure 41: Graphical Representation for current RMS at given time


interval
Current have a starting current of 2.09 A at 1second, automatically drop to 1.15 A its
running at 2seconds and slowly increasing with an average increase of 0.015 A per
second, and become stable at 90 seconds at running conditions.

52
System running with Variable Frequency Drive at 60 Hz

Table 6: The Real Power, voltage RMS, current RMS, and computed Reactive Power.

Computed
Time Real
Volt RMS Current Volt-Ampere Reactive
interval Power
(V) RMS (A) (VA) Power(lagging)
in second (W)
(VAR)
(s)
1 231.38 1.09
2 232.61 1.75 239.31 404.79 325.54
3 231.98 1.74 240.02 401.04 325.02
4 231.92 1.74 241.98 399.84 317.25
5 232.26 1.75 243.26 403.99 322.54
6 233.54 1.76 248.26 408.64 324.58
7 232.70 1.79 250.7 414.45 330.03
8 233.31 1.79 251.69 421.07 337.62
9 233.75 1.81 252.84 423.11 339.26
10 234.37 1.82 252.84 423.11 339.26
60 233.41 2.01 281.68 460.67 364.52
90 232.67 2.02 288.07 467.04 367.62
100 233.15 2.07 290.92 481.16 383.25
120 233.68 2.06 290.52 352.04 478.64
150 232.83 2.04 291.14 471.67 371.1
200 232.91 2.03 289.5 469.24 369.3

Running the system with the variable frequency drive, the starting current is gradually
increase so that the power will not automatically absorbed, and minimized mechanical
and electrical stress.

53
With VFD at 60 Hz

440
420
400
P 380
360
O 340
320
300
W 280
260
E 240
220
200
R 180
160
140
120
100
80
(V) 60
40
20
0
1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s 10s 60s 90s 100s 120s 150s 200s

Time (s)

Figure 42: Graphical Representation of power RMS by the pump motor at given time

The real power absorbed by the pump motor with variable frequency drive slowly
increasing with an average increase of 2.063 watts per second, and become stable at
100 seconds and continuously the same power under running conditions.

With VFD at 60 Hz
260
240
220
V 200
180
O
160
L
140
T
120
A
100
G
80
E
60
40
(V) 20
0
1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s 10s 60s 90s 100s120s150s200s

Time (s)

Figure 43: Graphical Representation for voltage RMS at given time interval

The voltage starts at 231.38 V and continuously stable at running conditions.

54
With VFD at 60 Hz

C 3.5
U 3
R
R 2.5
E 2
N
T 1.5
(A) 1
0.5

0
1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 8s 9s 10s 60s 90s 100s 120s 150s 200s

Time (s)

Figure 44: Graphical Representation for current RMS at given time interval

Current have a starting current of 3.39 A at 1second, automatically drop to 1.75 A its
running at 2seconds and slowly increasing with an average increase of 0.013 A per
second, and become stable at 100 seconds at running conditions.

55
Chapter 5
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary and Conclusion


Based on the implementation conducted, the researcher was able to compare
the theoretical result and the actual output of the system. Using the ½ HP Centrifugal
pump motoring the system, the actual current drawn by the pump is 2.25 starting
current and 1.69 running current if no VFD was used. The actual flow rate of the
system at 1st location which the vertical head is 18 meters located at the top of LRC is
8 Liters/min. At the 2nd location when it was removed and transfer to a higher location
which vertical head become 20 meters, the flowrate becomes 6 Liters/min.
The researcher was able to provide the necessary correct information to select
a pump, controller, solar array, wiring and piping. Grid interactive is advantage of this
research since the system can connect the grid in case of unavailable of solar power
from the sun
The starting current was significantly reduced with the use of VFD as
expected and verified by experiments.

5.2 Recommendation

The researcher recommends the variable frequency drive (VFD) to improve


the performance of the pump motor and quickly response to a load change. Other
factor affecting the performance of the system is the total head which include friction
head loss and static head loss, and this must be considered in implementation of the
system.
An inverter based solar pump can be used for low-rise residential and
commercial applications. It can be grid interactive in case long cloudy days and
increase demand of water during night.

56
REFERENCES

[1] P. Jayakumar, "Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology," in


Photovoltaic system design course manual, 2009, p. 13.
[2] "Solar Electricity Basics," Florida Solar Energy Center, [Online]. Available:
http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/en/consumer/solar_electricity/basics/index.htm
[3] Kyocera Solar Inc. Solar Water Pump Applications Guide 2001 (downloaded
from www.kyocerasolar.com)
[4] Morris, M., and V. Lynne. 2002. Solar-powered live- stock watering system
[Online]. Available from http://www.clemson.edu/sustainableag/
IP217_solar_livestock_watering.pdf
[5] A. B. Inocencio, "Philippine Institute for development Studies," in Determination
of Basic Household Water requirements , 1996.
[6] J. E. P. Arlene B. Inocencio, "Determination of Basic Household," in
Determination of Basic Household, Philippine Institute for Development Studies,
1999, p. 5.
[7] R.P.Raffaele, Current Trends in Photovoltaics,SantaBar-
baraSummitonEnergyEfficiency(TheInstituteforEnergy
Efficiency,SantaBarbara,California,2011).
[8] Anonymous, Solar Powered Livestock WateringSystems, Mick Morris, National
Sustainable Agriculture Information Service (2002), “Solar-Powered Livestock
Watering Systems” attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/pdf/solarlswater.pdf
[9] G.Masson,M.Latour,M.Rekinger,I.-T.Theologitis, and
M.Papoutsi,“GlobalMarketOutlookforPhotovoltaics 2013-
2017,”EuropeanPhotovoltaicIndustryAssociation, Brussels,Belgium(2013).
[10] I. I. E. E. o. t. philippines, "Philippine Electrical Code," in Philippine Electrical
Code , 2009.
[11] Foster, R., and A. Ellis. 2003. Renewable energy for water pumping applications
in rural villages [Online; NREL/SR-500-30361]. Available from http://www.
nrel.gov/docs/fy03osti/30361.pdf
[12] K.Mertens, Photovoltaics: Fundamentals, Technology and Practice
(JohnWiley&SonsLtd,Chichester,UnitedKing- dom,2014) texbook-pv.org.

57
[13] K.Jäger,J.Lenssen,P.Veltman, andE.Hamers,in 28th European Photovoltaic Solar
Energy Conference and Exhib- ition (2013)p.2164.
[14] SandiaNationalLaboratories,“Inverterlibrary,” (2014),
sam.nrel.gov/sites/sam.nrel.gov/files/sam-library-sandia- inverters-2014-1-14.csv.
[15] A.McEvoy,T.Markvart, andL.Castañer,eds., Practical Handbook of
Photovoltaics,2nded.(AcademicPress,Bo- ston.Massachusetts,2012).
[16] W.Bower,M.Behnke,W.Erdman, andC.Whitaker,
“Performancetestprotocolforevaluatinginverters usedingrid-
connectedphotovoltaicsystems,” (2004),
www.gosolarcalifornia.org/equipment/documents/2004-11- 22_Test_Protocol.pdf.
[17] M.K.Fuentes, A Simplified Thermal Model for Flat-Plate Photovoltaic
Arrays,Tech.Rep.(SandiaNationalLaborator- ies,1987).
[18] NASA/Goddard, (2012), www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/
sunearth/multimedia/Sunlayers.html.

58
APPENDIX A
PHOTO DOCUMENTATION

Water source

Connecting the pipe

59
Constructing the pipeline

60
Assemble the water faucet at comfort room of renewable energy laboratory

61
Discharge Flowrate at Comfort Room

Wiring for the float valve of storage tank

62
Connecting the VFD to the system

Gathering the result from a data logger using power analyzer and microcontroller

63
Gathering the result from a using multi-tester fluke.

64
APPENDIX B

PV Panel Specification [13]


Cell Type Poly
Watts 255 W
Panel Vmp 29.8 V
Panel Imp 8.4 A
Panel Voc 38.3 V
Panel Isc 8.9

Variable Frequency Drive Specification [14]

Items Criterion
Rated Output
1.5
Power (kW)
Rated Output
8
Current
Phase Input: Single Phase; Output: Three Phase
Motor Power
1.5
(kW)
Frequency 0 – 600 Hz
Precision 0.01 Hz
Distinguish
rate of Digital setting: 0.01 Hz. Analog setting: AD switch
Performance
setting precision for one in thousand, linearity for +-5%
frequency
Speed range 1:100
Overload
150% rated current 60s; 180% rated current 2s
capability
Control
Open-loop simple vector control
Mode
Torque Manual torque can be adjust; Auto-Torque upgrade the
Boost whole frequency band
Start up
When 0.5Hz, rated torque for 150%
Torque
Acc and Dec
Jog frequency:00-50.00hz
time
Simple vector control, torque boost, automatic slip
Standard compensation(rev gain), stop for DC braking, Restart after
functions power off instantaneous, auto fault reset, control over-
current when accelerating speed, multi-step speed 4 run,

65
traverse frequency function applies to textile, closed loop
PID control
Function 3kinds control mode: keyboard control, analog terminal
Run rule
descriptions control, serial communication control
Frequency Digital setting, analog voltage setting, analog current
Source setting, the serial communication port setting; can be
Selection combined through a variety of ways to switch.
4digital input terminals, as many as 13 kinds of custo
Input m features, is compatible with the active NPN input; Two
Terminals analog input terminals, can receive a voltage signal (0
~10V), or current signal (4 ~ 20mA);
1 relay output, up to 6 kinds of user defined functions;11
Output open-collector output,6 user defined functions;1 analog
Terminals output, 4 kinds of user defined functions; can export
voltage signal (0 ~ 10V).
Protection Overvoltage, undervoltage and external fault, overcurrent,
functions overheating, overload
Installation Indoor, Altitude of less than 1 km, clean, non-corrosive
place gases and no direct sunlight
-10°C ~ +40°C(Inverter will be derated if ambient
Temperature
temperature exceeds 40°C.)
Environment
Humidity 20%~90%RH(without dewfall)
Vibration Less than 0.5g
Storage
-25°C~+65°C
Temperature

Motor Pump Specifications

Bolzano Water Pump Specifications


Type QB60
Frequency 60 Hz

Speed 3400 rpm


Size (Pipe) 1” x 1”
Sunction Head max 9m
HP 1 HP

Flowrate (Q) 40 L/Min


Height max 38 m

66
Inverter Specification

Type DC/AC Inverter

Frequency 50/60 Hz selectable


Input Voltage 96 V
Output Current 70 A
Output Voltage 230 V

Output Wave Pure sine wave


Efficiency 92%

Charge Controller

Over Voltage 117.6 V


Under Recovery Voltage 96 V
Rated Voltage 96 V
Over Recovery Voltage 112 V
No-load loss current </- 0.09 A
Working Temp. +10 – 50ᵒC

67