A Twin-screw Rotor Profile Design and Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation Method

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A Twin-screw Rotor Profile Design and Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation Method

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method

X. He*1, C. Pan 1, M. Wu 1, X. Ji 1 and R. Zhang 2

There are increasing demands for more efficient screw compressor design method which could

overcome the problems of rotor profile modification and compressor performance test

establishment. As a result, non-uniform rational B-spline curves and computational fluid dynamics

theory were introduced as a new method of twin-screw compressor rotor profile design. In this

paper, unilateral asymmetric combined cycloid with pin gear arc rotor profile was put as the research

object to develop a new rotor profile. Non-uniform rational B-spline curves, which are easy to be

modified, are applied to the new rotor profile design. The twin-screw compressor flow field simulation

models of both the new and the original one are created. The pressure and velocity distribution law

of the twin-screw compressor under the operating speed are explored with the FLUENT software.

The simulation results provide the basis for further optimisation of the new rotor profile design.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, Freeform curves, Design, Rotor profile

as the research object to acquire a new rotor profile.

The twin-screw compressor is a positive displacement Under the screw rotor meshing principle, the rotor

rotary machine. Screw compressor rotors of a series profile is established by NURBS curves. The parametric

profile could be conveniently manufactured with small equations of rotor profiles are deduced. The numerical

clearance at an efficient cost. Screw compressors are simulation method and computational fluid dynamics

compact, efficient and reliable. Consequently, they are theory are applied to improve the design efficiency of

widely used in industrial application as well as refriger- twin-screw rotor profile. The pressure, velocity distri-

ation systems.1 bution of twin-screw compressor is described under the

Rotor profile is the most important part of twin-screw working speed 3000 rev min−1.8 Based on the analysis

compressor performance. There are many rotor profile results, the advantages of the novel design are verified,

design methods. Stosic et al.2 presented an optimisation and new plans for further optimisation are explored.

method for screw compressor. He et al.3 proposed a posi-

tive and reverse design method of screw rotor profiles

with freeform curves. Wu and Fong4 proposed an arbi-

trary sealing line method for screw compressor rotor Twin-screw compressor design

profile design. For the development of computational Coordinates system foundation

fluid dynamics theory, numerical simulation is more As shown in Fig. 1, the female and male rotor profiles are

and more widespread in the design of the screw compres- divided into nine segments, respectively. Female or male

sor profile. Wen et al. 5 designed a twin-screw kneader rotor profile of twin-screw compressor on each segment is

based on numerical simulation technology. Shi et al. 6 predefined. Then, in the process of rotor profile design,

founded an analysis model of twin-screw compressor the other rotor profile that meshed with the predefined

rotor, and provided a theoretical basis of profile design one is deduced based on the conversion relationship of

and optimisation. the coordinate systems and meshing principles of twin-

Non-uniform rational B-spline curve is a kind of screw compressor. Redesign or optimisation operations

B-spline curves. It could be adjusted through changes of of the predefined rotor profiles could be made through

control points or modification of parametric equation redefining the curves of the corresponding segments.

weights.7 In this paper, rotor profile of unilateral A0 is distance between the rotor axes; O1, O2 is rotation

axis of rotors; R1, R2 is radii of rotor pitches; Y2O2O2,

1

Y1O1O1 is static coordinate systems; O3 is intersection

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Food Manufacturing Equipment and

Technology, B307, School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangnan University, point of the pitch circles; O2 × 2y2, O1 × 1y1 is moving

Lihu Road No. 1800, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214122, China coordinate systems; O4, O5 are centres of arc B2C2 and

2

School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China H2I2; R is radii of arc C1D1E1, C2D2E2; β1 , β2 is

*Corresponding author, email hxuem2003@163.com radians of point C1,2 and point E1,2 centred on O3;

Received 19 June 2014; accepted 20 July 2014

DOI 10.1179/1432891715Z.0000000001879 Materials Research Innovations 2015 VOL 19 SUPPL 8 S8-721

He et al. A twin-screw rotor profile design and computational fluid dynamic simulation method

this way, the whole rotor profiles of twin-screw compres-

sor could be obtained.

The non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) curve is

known as one of the most common freeform curves.

Their expressions are given as follows

n

P(t) = Qi Li,n (t) (3)

i=0

Vi Bi,n (t)

Li,n (t) = n i = 1, 2, . . . , nm − 1 (4)

j=0 Vj B j,n (t)

1 Coordinate system

Bi,n (t) represent rational basis functions, Qi are the

φ1 , φ2 is rotation angles; ω2 , ω1 is rotation velocities; control points, m is the number of power, Vi are weight

θ1 , θ2 is radians of point C and point H centred on O2. factors of the parametric equation. NURBS curves

could be modified through changing either control

points or weight factors. Twin-screw compressor rotor

Meshing principle profile is mostly constructed by the multiple curves, and

Here is a predefined segment of the female rotor profile, many modifications are needed before a good perform-

and the parametric equations is as follows ance screw rotor profile to be acquired. For these

reasons, NURBS curves are applied to establish rotor

profile so as to shortening profile design time.

x2 = x2 (t)

tb ≤ t ≤ t e (1)

y2 = y2 (t)

Optimisation

are the left limit and right limit, respectively. According to The female and male rotor profiles are divided into nine

the coordinate system in Fig. 1, if the male rotor is fixed segments, respectively, as shown in Fig. 1. On the basis

and the transmission relations remain unchanged, it is of the practical requirements, NURBS curves and other

easy to know that the female rotor moves around the freeform curves are used to design or optimise the

male rotor at the angular velocity of −ω1 , and its rotation female rotor profile. Then, the male rotor profile is

speed is −ω2. As a result, a series of curves are generated. deduced by the equations of the female rotor profile

The envelope tangent to these curves is the conjugate and meshing principle. Because of the freeform curves

curve of predefined female rotor tooth profile. The conju- such as NURBS curves are involved in rotor profile

gate curves of the predefined female rotor profiles are the design, the twin-screw compressor rotor profile could be

corresponding male rotor tooth profiles based on the changed through adjusting either weight factors or

meshing principle of twin-screw rotors. Finally, the para- control points efficiently.

metric equations of the corresponding segment in the

male rotor profile could be acquired as follows:

Optimised rotor profiles

⎧ The rotor profile of unilateral asymmetric combined

⎪ x1 = x1 (t, φ1 )

⎪

⎨ cycloid with pin gear arc is shown in Fig. 2a. There is a

y1 = y1 (t, φ1 )

(2) long contact line and sealed volume on the profile,

⎪

⎪ ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂y

⎩ f (t, φ1 ) = 1 1 − 1 1 = 0 which caused loudly operating noise, air leakage and

∂t ∂φ1 ∂φ1 ∂t low working efficiency in practical applications.

2 a The rotor profile of unilateral asymmetric combined cycloid with pin gear arc. b The new designed rotor profile

He et al. A twin-screw rotor profile design and computational fluid dynamic simulation method

Segments Origin New Segments Origin New

B2C2 Line Arc B1C1 Arc envelope

C2D2 Arc Arc C1D1 Arc

D2E2 D1E1

E2F2 Cycloid NURBS curve E1F1 Cycloid NURBS curve envelope

F2G2 F1G1

G2H2 Line G1H1

H2I2 None Arc H1I1 Line Cycloid

Freeform curves such as NURBS curves are introduced, curves. The equations are expressed as follows

and the newly designed rotor profile is shown in Fig. 2b.

h

Comparing Fig. 2a with Fig. 2b, it is easy to see the fol- Bi,3 (t)Wi Vi

lowing: (1) the straight lines are replaced by circular arcs C(t) = i=1

n (7)

i=1 Bi,3 (t)Wi

in segments B2C2, H2I2. A smooth mesh between the

male and female profiles is achieved; moreover, the Vi are the control points of the NURBS curves, Wi are

effects of working stress concentration are suppressed the weight factors, Bi,3 (t) are the basis functions of three

on screw rotors through this design. (2) The combination B-spline equations which are defined by the vectors of

of the NURBS curves and their envelopes are used control points Vi , h is the number of control points.

instead of the combination of a point and cycloid in seg- Point H2 is a fixed point in the female rotor tooth

ments E1H1, E2H2. As a result, the seal volume of the profile. Since Point H1 is coincided with point H2, the

original profile is eliminated, and the diffusion of gas is parametric equations of cycloid H1I1 could be written

reduced. (3) Points H1,2 are moved some distance as equation (8): λ is the distance between a point of the

towards the upper left of their original position to cycloid H1I1 and the male rotor axis O1. e = 0.625%; A0 .

prevent the starting point H1 of cycloid H1I1 from being

worn heavily. But the height of the highest point is ⎧

⎪ x1 = A0 cos φ1 − (R2 − e) cos (θ2 − kφ1 )

brought down on meshing line, which makes the relative ⎪

⎪

⎨ y2 = A0 sin φ1 + (R2 − e) sin (θ2 − kφ1 )

leakage triangle expanded. (4) The interdental volume is
(8)

amplified by expanding the radius of arcs C1E1, C2E2. ⎪

⎪ 1 (R2 − e)2 + A2 − λ2

⎪

⎩ φ1 = u θ2 − arccos

All the new designs are listed in Table 1. 2A0 (R2 − e)

Numerical simulation

The female rotor tooth profile is an arc centred on point

O4 on segment B2C2. The arc parametric equation is The working flow of twin-screw compressor is air, and its

expressed as follows characteristics were studied mainly by using the analytic

method, numerical calculations.9 However, owing to the

complexity of twin-screw compressor flow path, the ana-

x2 = x4 + r4 cos t

t4 B ≤ t ≤ t 4 c (5) lytic method requires a huge workload, and the analytic

y2 = y4 + r4 sin t results are usually error-prone. In this paper, the air

flow is calculated by numerical simulation method with

where x4 , y4 are the coordinate values of O4 in static appropriate professional workstations that installed cor-

coordinate system Y2O2O3, r4 is the radius of arc B2C2. responding software to save costs as well as to improve

t4B is the left limit of the parametric equation. Since design efficiency. Through this way, some difficult pro-

the normal direction of arc B2C2 endpoint C2 and the blems of experimental operation even could be solved.

female rotor velocity are in the same direction, the

values of t4B could be deduced. For the tangential direc-

tion of arc B2C2 endpoint B2 and the female rotor velocity Numerical models

are in the same direction, the values of the right limit t4c The air flow of twin-screw compressor is Newtonian flow,

could be obtained. The tooth profile equations on which could be calculated by the k − ε model. In con-

segment B1C1 are as follows sideration of the specific twin-screw compressor air con-

ditions and the airflow characteristics, these following

⎧

⎪ x1 = x4 cos kφ1 − y4 sin kφ1 − r4 cos (kφ1 − t) + A0 cos φ1 assumptions are made: (1) air flow is stable, isothermal,

⎪

⎨ y = −x sin kφ + y cos kφ + r sin (kφ − t) + A sin φ

1 4 4 4 isotropic. (2) The air flow is considered as a kind of tur-

1 1 1

0 1

bulent flows, since the Reynolds number of the air flow

⎪

⎪ 1 k

⎩ φ1 = arcsin (y4 cos t − x4 sin t) + t is large. (3) Effects of inertia and gravity are ignored.

u A0

(4) There is no effect of lubricating oil on the nature of

(6) the air flow. (5) Air leaking outside of the compressor is

ignored during the compression process. (6) The compres-

Teeth profiles E1H1, E2H2 are established by NURBS sor working cycle is theoretical. Ultimately, the air flow

He et al. A twin-screw rotor profile design and computational fluid dynamic simulation method

numerical model could be given as follows corresponding screw rotor three-dimensional model

could be obtained. The flow models are exported to

r2 Gambit in STP file format, and the contact surfaces of

μt = ρCμ (9) these models are defined as interfaces. Finally, they are

ε

classified into unstructured tetrahedral meshes by

where μt is turbulent viscosity; ρ is gas density; Cμ is dynamic mesh method, which is shown in Fig. 3b. The

empirical constant; r, ε is turbulent kinetic energy; turbu- grid quantity of the air flow models is listed in Table 2.

lent dissipate rate.

The air flow could be written as follows

Dynamic simulation results

∂(ρui r) ∂(ρr) ∂ The distribution of pressure and velocity

+ = Gr + Gb − ρε − YM + Sr (10) The twin-screw compressor flow numerical simulation is

∂xi ∂t ∂xj

analysed by the professional fluid analysis software

FLUENT after setting the operating speed

∂(ρui ε) ∂(ρε) ∂ μt ∂ε ε 3000 rev min−1 and other relevant parameters. The

+ = μ+ + C1ε (Gr dynamic pressure simulation results of the original and

∂xi ∂t ∂xj σ ε ∂xj r

new air flow fields are shown in Fig. 4. The pressure of

ε2 the twin-screw compressor flow is gradually increased

+ C3ε Gb ) − C2ε ρ + Sε (11)

r from the intake port to exhaust port, which is obvious

to be noted in Fig. 4. The pressure is low in intake port,

where but the pressure of the exhaust port is high. The downside

⎧ pressure of the meshing line is higher than the upside

⎪

⎪ ∂ui ∂uj ∂ui pressure significantly, which matches the practical distri-

⎪

⎪ Gr = μt +

⎪

⎨ ∂xj ∂xi ∂xj bution of the compressor flow pressure. According to

μ ∂T 1 ∂ρ . (12) Fig. 4, the pressure of the intake port is −0.0922 MPa

⎪

⎪ Gb = βgi t , β=−

⎪

⎪ Prt ∂xi ρ ∂T on the original air flow field, whereas the new flow

⎪

⎩ √ field’s pressure is −0.0907 MPa; the highest pressure of

YM = 2ρεMt2 , Mt = r/a2 , a = λRT

original exhaust port is 0.707 MPa on original air flow,

the pressure of new flow field is 0.767 MPa. The

Gr is turbulent kinetic energy related to the gradient of

maximum differential pressure of the original flow is

mean speed; Gb is turbulent kinetic energy related to the

0.7992 MPa, the maximum differential pressure of the

buoyancy of air; YM is influence coefficient of the total

new flow field is 0.8577 MPa. As described above, the

dissipation rate related to the pulsation of compressible

pressure distribution of the novel profile air flow field is

turbulence; C1ε , C2ε , C3ε is empirical constants. Prt is

optimised: the intake pressure improved by 1.6%, the

turbulent Prandtl number; σ ε , σ r are Prandtl numbers

highest exhaust pressure improved by 8.5% and the

of turbulent dissipation rate and turbulent kinetic

maximum differential pressure improved by 7.3%.

energy; gi is component of gravity acceleration in the

As shown in Fig. 5, the location of high velocity is the

direction of i; Mt , β, a is turbulent Mach number,

leakage triangle where the air is leaked from the high-

thermal expansion coefficient, sound speed.

pressure area to the low-pressure area. It is obvious to

The physical parameters of air in a standard atmos-

see that the maximum leaking velocity of the original

pheric pressure at 20°C are as follows: the density of air

flow is 725 m s−1, whereas the velocity of new flow field

is ρ = 1.29 kg m−3; kinetic viscosity is 17.9 × 10−6 Pa s−1;

is 768 m s−1. Compared with the original flow field, the

thermal conductivity is 2547 W m K; specific heat capacity

is 1005 J (kg−1 K−1). Since the flow is assumed isothermal,

the energy equations are not given. Table 2 Grid quantity of the air flow models

Three-dimensional models

As shown in Fig. 3, the profiles of female and male rotor Original flow 1 120 256 575 732 44 059

Designed flow 1 570 613 685 502 66 281

are spiralled up about their rotation axes, and

He et al. A twin-screw rotor profile design and computational fluid dynamic simulation method

5 a Velocity vector of the original flow field. b Velocity vector of the new flow field

leaking velocity is increased by 5.6%. For the phenom- basis of the simulation results. Ultimately, a prototype

enon of backflow is exhibited in the exhaust port,10 the of the twin-screw compressor rotor profile would be pro-

displacement of intake flow field is put as the displace- duced and a confirmatory experiment is to be made to

ment of the compressor. The displacement of the original verify performance of the rotor profile. Apart from all

compressor flow field is 15.5 m−3 min−1, and the new the above, it could be seen that this new design method

one’s is 16.1 m−3 min−1, which is increased by 3.9%. could overcome the inconvenience in traditional rotor

profile design or optimisation process such as the compli-

Further optimisation cated modification in rotor profile, shortage of funds and

The maximum differential pressure of newly designed flow time in the compressor performance experiments, pro-

is increased obviously based on the dynamic simulation blems in data collection and analysis.

analysis results. It forebodes a certain rationality of the

novel rotor profile compared with the original profile.

However, the slight increase of the compressor displace-

Conclusion

ment is mainly because points H1,2 are moved some dis- In this paper, the rotor profiles are established by free-

tance towards the upper left of their original position. As form curves (non-uniform rational B-spline curves) to

a result, the leakage triangle is expanded. And the obtain a smooth mesh of the rotors, and the optimisations

further growth of compressor displacement is affected. of rotor profiles could be made by motions of the control

Further improvement of the newly designed twin-screw points or changes of weight factors of the curves easily.

compressor rotor profile is still needed. Freeform curves When compared the simulation results of the new

such as NURBS curves could be applied to replace the profile with the original profile, it is easy to be noted

cycloid and the arcs in segment H1I1. Segments E1H1, that the maximum differential pressure of the new com-

E2H2 would be extended outward some distance to pressor flow field is increased significantly, which indi-

achieve a smooth mesh of female and male tooth profiles. cates a certain rationality of the redesigned profile.

The radius of arc H2I2 would be increased and points H1,2 In the twin-screw rotor profile design process,

are extended towards the upper right of their original pos- Computational Fluid Dynamics theories and freeform

ition. The above optimisations could be achieved by mod- curves are applied. On the basis of the numerical simu-

ifying control points of curves or weight factors of the lation results, freeform curves are applied to optimise

parametric equations. Then, a new numerical model the rotor profile until a novel good performance profile

would be built to simulate the compression process of is obtained. With this method, physical experiments are

compressor. The rotor profile would be adjusted until a decreased as few as possible to realise the advantages of

good performance rotor profile to be obtained on the cost, reliability and agility.

He et al. A twin-screw rotor profile design and computational fluid dynamic simulation method

Acknowledgements 4. Y.-R. Wu and Z.-H. Fong: ‘Improved rotor profiling based on the

arbitrary sealing line for twin-screw compressors’, Mech. Mach.

This project is funded by National Science Foundation of Theory, 2008, 43, (6), 695–711.

China (51275210), (51105175); Industry-University- 5. J. Wen, X. Sun, W. Sun and G. Zhang: ‘Rotor profiles design method

and numerical simulation for twin-screw kneader’, Chinese J. Mech.

Research Foundation of Jiangsu Province (BY2013015- Eng., 2013, 49, (3), 63–73 (in Chinese).

30); and Six-Major-Talent-Summit Project of Jiangsu 6. W. Shi, X. Yu and J. Li: ‘Finite element modal analysis of double

Province, China (2013-ZBZZ-016). screw compressor rotor’, Compressor Technol., 2012, 4, 7–9 (in

Chinese).

7. J. Chen and H. Cui: ‘Shape modification of NURBS curves based on

weight’, J. Naval Univ. Eng., 2012, 24, (4), 108–112 (in Chinese).

References 8. P. Drtina and M. Sallaberger: ‘Hydraulic: turbines—basic principles

and state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics applications’,

1. X. Sun: ‘Analysis of market development trends of screw compressor Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 1999, 213, (1), 85–102.

for process gas’, Compressor Technol., 2012, 1, 65–68 (in Chinese). 9. F. Mink: ‘Numerical non-isothermal flow analysis of non-newtonian

2. N. Stosic, I. K. Smith and A. Kovacevic: ‘Optimization of screw fluid in a nonintermeshing counter-rotating twin screw extruder’,

compressors’, Appl. Therm. Eng., 2003, 23, (10), 1177–1195. Polym. Eng. Sci., 1994, 34, (13), 1033–1046.

3. X. He, J. Dai and H. Liu: ‘Positive and reverse design of screw rotor 10. H. Wu, J. Li and Z. Xing: ‘Theoretical and experimental research on

profiles based on freeform curve’, China Mech. Eng., 2012, 23, (22), the working process of screw refrigeration compressor under super

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