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Orange Grading

See also: Food grading

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has established the following
grades for Florida oranges, which primarily apply to oranges sold as fresh fruit:
US Fancy, US No. 1 Bright, US No. 1, US No. 1 Golden, US No. 1 Bronze, US No. 1
Russet, US No. 2 Bright, US No. 2, US No. 2 Russet, and US No. 3.[68] The general
characteristics graded are color (both hue and uniformity), firmness, maturity,
varietal characteristics, texture, and shape. Fancy, the highest grade, requires
the highest grade of color and an absence of blemishes, while the terms Bright,
Golden, Bronze, and Russet concern solely discoloration.

Grade numbers are determined by the amount of unsightly blemishes on the skin and
firmness of the fruit that do not affect consumer safety. The USDA separates
blemishes into three categories:

General blemishes: ammoniation, buckskin, caked melanose, creasing, decay,

scab, split navels, sprayburn, undeveloped segments, unhealed segments, and wormy
Injuries to fruit: bruises, green spots, oil spots, rough, wide, or protruding
navels, scale, scars, skin breakdown, and thorn scratches
Damage caused by dirt or other foreign material, disease, dryness, or mushy
condition, hail, insects, riciness or woodiness, and sunburn.[68]

The USDA uses a separate grading system for oranges used for juice because
appearance and texture are irrelevant in this case. There are only two grades: US
Grade AA Juice and US Grade A Juice, which are given to the oranges before
processing. Juice grades are determined by three factors:

The juiciness of the orange

The amount of solids in the juice (at least 10% solids are required for the AA
The proportion of anhydric citric acid in fruit solids