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DECLARATION

I would like to declare that I have successfully completed a four month internship program at a
company called HAWASSA PEPSI-COLA PLANT. I have stayed from October 28/2015to
January 28/2016.During this internship time I have improved my theoretical and practical skills.

Here by I state that this final internship report has been submitted to Bahir Dar Institute of
Technology School of chemical and food engineering. This paper includes all requirements of an
internship program..

Mr.Gerafe
Mentor signature

Mrs. Getahun
Supervisor signature

Melaku

Student signature
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
First of all thanks to God for keeping all things to be happened in good manner. I would like
thanks to BAHIR DAR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY for giving this chance to get practical
skills & to have some important and essential knowledge about soft-drink processing from raw
materials to finished product from company. In deed I would like to express my gratitude to my
advisor Mr. Getahun supervisor of production for his incredible level of advice, many
suggestions and constant support at every step of this report. This report could not finalize
without his regular valuable suggestion and encouragement. Also I would like to gratefully
acknowledge my mentor Mr. Gerafe who is Food process engineering department instructor for
his provision of necessary idea. And all operators that I missed to mention for all their backing
and direct or indirect contribution.

Lastly I give fullness for my families for their financial support.


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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Hawassa millennium Pepsi cola is one of the seven soft drink plants under MOHA, itself a member of MIDROC ETHIOPIA GROUP. It is found in
the south east of the Hawassa town from a distance of 10km and produce five products (Pepsi cola, Miranda orange, Miranda apple, Miranda tonic
and 7up). These all products are distributed in all part of southern region such as in Arbaminch, Della, Shashemene, and up to the Kenya border
…and in the southern oromiya up to Zeway etc. . . .The plant has the capacity of 36000 bottle/hr. and most of the time works on 24hrs in two shifts.
The operators involved in the company should be warn protective such as gloves, guangs, and chemical proof shoes whilst with the chemical
storage and filling areas
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CHAPTER-ONE

1.INTRODUCTION

1.1 HISTORY OF PEPSI COLA

Pepsi cola traces its origins to 1898 when Caleb Bradham, a pharmacist in New Bern, North Carolina, created a
curative drinks for dyspepsia called Pepsi Cola. Pepsi cola, later referred to simply as Pepsi was a mixture of carbonated
water, cane-sugar syrup, and an extract from topical kola nuts. To sell this product, Bradham formed the Pepsi Cola
Company in 1903.In addition to selling the drink at drugstore counters; Bradham bottled Pepsi for sale on store shelves.
At this time, bottling was a new innovation in food packaging However, due to major increases in the price of sugar,
Braham began to lose money on Pepsi and in 1923 he filed for bankruptcy. The Craven Holding Company of craven
country, North Carolina, purchased the company’s assets. In 1931 Charles G.Guth of the Loft Company in New York
City purchased Pepsi-Cola from the holding company. Guth had difficulty getting the business going again, but he
increased sales by selling larger bottles at an unchanged price. By 1933 Pepsi Cola was sold by 313 franchised U.S.
dealers bottled in the united states, Cuba, and England and Sold in 83 countries.

The consumption of soft drinks in their various forms has taken place for many centuries in order to meet the body’s
fundamental requirement for hydration. The most obvious source of hydration is water, but in earlier times the
consumption of water was very hazardous as it was frequently contaminated by micro-organisms. Outbreaks of cholera,
dysentery and other waterborne illnesses were common in many European cities prior to the twentieth century.
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1.2 THE EMERGING OF PEPSI IN ETHIOPIA

Nefas Silk Pepsi Cola is the first Pepsi Cola plant in Ethiopia and was established in 1966 as a share company with an
initial capital of 1 million Birr. The capacity of the bottling line at that time was 20,000 bottles per hour (bph). In 1986,
the plant was renovated and expanded to a capacity of 50,000 bph with twin fillers. Total renovation and expansion
investment cost was Birr 6,647,944.00. Then T/Haimanot Pepsi Cola Plant was established in 1961 as ‘Saba Tej’ Share
Company, but nationalized in 1975 replacing the old line as stated predicating Pepsi cola, Miranda and Team brands in
January 1978. Gondar Pepsi Cola Plant, before nationalization was owned by private individual produced wilk-fite
water.

The Ethiopian beverage corporation made a new feasibility study on Pepsi cola product which got the blessing of the
government to erect the currently operating plant in 1986. Dessie Plant, Dessie soda industry was established in 1952
by and individual owner. In1979. The plant discontinued other soda products and started producing Pepsi Cola,
Miranda brand and carbonated Tosa Water.
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1.3 BRIEF HISTORY FOR HAWASSA MILLENIUM PEPSI COLA PLANT

Hawassa Millennium Pepsi-Cola is one of the seven soft drink plants under MOHA, itself a member of MIDROC
ETHIOPIA GROUP. It is found in the south east of the Hawassa town from a distance of 10km. The official
establishment of the plant date is back to June 5, 1998 when the cornerstone was laid dawn at the current site. The total
compound area is 48km2 and was secured from south nation nationality and population lease bureau for 99 years on
lease basis.

Construction of this plant has taken some times and with the erection of a new state of art bottling line, the plant was
inaugurated on September 8/2007, marking the Ethiopian millennium 2000. The total project cost was 180 million birr.

1.3.1 REASONS AND/OR OBJECTIVES FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COMPANY.

In a market survey conducted in May 2002, by a group of market expert in south nation nationality and population
region and southern Oromiya, it was found out that total Population of the region (SNNPR &southern Oromia) where
the survey was conducted was 19% of the total population of the Ethiopia, which was approximately 12 million.
Therefore it was believed that a new soft drink company must be built in order to meet the need for this specific region.
Then Hawassa Pepsi Cola Plant; a new Pepsi cola plant with a capacity of 36,000 BPH of 300 ml is constructed in
Hawassa which can cover the demand of soft drinks of the southern region.
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MOHA (Mohammed Hussein Al-Amoudi) Soft drinks Industry S.C .was formed and registered under the commercial
code of Ethiopia on the 15th of May 1996. This company was formed after the acquisition of four Pepsi cola plants
located at Addis Ababa (Nefas Silk & T/Haimanot), Gondar and Dessie which were purchased by Sheik Mohammed H.
Al-Amoudi on the 18th of January 1996, through BID which was tendered by Ethiopian privatization Agency. The
hand-over of the factories was finalized on the 4th of April1996.

1.4 MAIN PRODUCTS OF THE COMPANY

The international PepsiCo Company have more than hundreds of types of food and beverage products. But there are
only few products of PepsiCo are producing in our country and these products became well known brands of Pepsi in
Ethiopia. These products are Pepsi, Miranda, 7UP, Miranda Tonic and Miranda Apple in their discovering order and
later cool water (mineral water) is added. Specifically when we come to Hawassa Millennium Pepsi cola plant, except
cool water all five brands are producing.

Pepsi is a carbonated soft drink that is produced and manufactured by PepsiCo. It created and developed in 1893 and
introduced as Brad’s drink, it was renamed as Pepsi-cola on August 28, 1898, then to Pepsi in 1961, and in select areas
of North America, Pepsi-cola made with real sugar. Miranda is the second known brand of PepsiCo in Ethiopia, and it
is also being produced in HMPCP (Hawassa Millennium Pepsi Cola Plant). It is created in Spain in 1959, with global
distribution. The word Miranda means “admirable” or “wonderful” in Esperanto. Though Miranda is available in
different fruit varieties in world market, it is only available with only two flavors in Ethiopia including in HMPCP.
Orange and apple are the flavors and both flavors are producing in HMPCP. 7UP, the fourth brand producing under
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HMPCP is a product of lemon-lime flavored, non-caffeinated soft drink. The rights to the brand are held by Dr Pepper
Snapple Group in the United States, and PepsiCo in the rest of the world. The U.S. version of the 7UP logo includes a
red cherry between the “7” and “UP”; this red cherry has been animated and used as a mascot for the brand as cool
spot.

Fig 1.3 Brands producing under HMPC


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1.5 ORGANAYZETIONAL STRUCTURE HAWASSA MILLENNIUM PEPSI COLA PLANT
GENERAL MANAGER

Human resource Finance Technique Production Market & Sales Food Safety & Procurement &
Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager Quality Manager Supply Manager

Cost & General account Procurement Store &supply

Budget Section Supervisor Supervisor


Supervisor

Electrical Maintenance Supervisor Quality Control

Mechanical Electrical Eng’r fleet supervisor Supervisor

Maintenance Supervisor up country sale supervisor Senior Chemist

Personnel Medical & Safety General Services Shift Chemist

Supervisor Supervisor Supervisor Production Supervisor Production Planning & Operators account dep’t
Follow up clerk
Personnel Officer Operators ware house supervisor market unit manager
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1.6 Vision of the company
To see Pepsi cola company the biggest soft drinks industry in the country and remain the
dominant in the market.

1.7 Mission of the company


The company is committed to marketing its products to all groups, treating all costumers with
respect, sensitivity and fairness, while providing some of the greatest products on the earth.

1.8 Future program of the company


Future program of the Hawassa millennium company is going to settle to expand the market
share and fully satisfy southern part and some part of the Oromia of our country

1.9 Standard achieved


MOHA Soft Drinks Industry S.C has adhered to Pepsi cola International standards and Good
Manufacturing practices (GMP).

1.10 Future plans


An average annual increase of 15% in sales volume and a corresponding profit growth is
anticipated.
MOHA (Mohammed Hussein Al-Amoud) soft drinks Industry S.C was formed and registered
under the commercial code of Ethiopia on 15th of May 1966. This company was formed after
the acquision of four Pepsi cola plants. The hand-over of the factories was finalized on the 4th
of April 1996.
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CHAPTER-TWO

2. OVERALL INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE


Why I selected and how I got into the Company

Out of several programs that BIT is giving nowadays, Food Technology and Process
Engineering is one of those programs and also internship is one of the multiple courses I am
taking under this program. And I wanted to attend this course in HMPCP in Hawassa. The
only reason for choosing HMPCP was that I talk each other and agree to work on a beverage
company because I am interested on it and the possible place to be at that time was HMPCP.
Then the next step was to select the correct section that goes with our program and it was
found to be the food safety and quality control section. It’s because, the duty of a food
technology and process engineer in such companies is that to control the quality and safety of
the product. Therefore I have joined in this section and practiced on the overall process.

The parts or sections of the company that I have stayed during My time are 8 in number and
they are listed below.
1. Water Treatment Room
2. Syrup Room
3. Filling Room
4. Laboratory Room
5. Bottle Washer Room
6. Carbon dioxide Room
7. Boiler Room and
8. Waste Water Treatment Room.
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2.1 WATER TREATMENT ROOM

GROUND WATER CONCRETE TANK

RAW WATER STORAGE TANK SAND FILTER TANK

CARBON FILTER TANK ONE

CARTRIDGE FILTER (POLISHER) 1 SOFTENER TANK


MICRO SIZE

REVERSE OSMOSIS

PRODUCT WATER TANK CARBON FILTER TANK THREE

CARBON FILTER TANK TWO

CARTRITDGE FILTER (5 MICRO SIZE)

ULTRA VIOLET RAY (UV) SOFT WATER

TREATED WATER
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2.1.1 CHEMICALS AND FILTERING MEDIAS USED
 Activated Carbon
 Chlorine
 Hydro Anthracite
 Citric Acid
 Ultrasil
 Quartz Sand
 Sodium Chloride
 Anti-Scalant (Fumados)
 Softener Resin

2.2 PRINCIPLE FOR WATER TREATMENT ROOM

2.2.1 GROUND WATER

Also called bore-hole is the main source of water that required for the overall production
process, such as: for preparation of syrup, for bottle washing and crate washing, for chiller
and boiler, etc. The Mechanism to take the water out from the hole is that there is a pump
down the hole which generates the water from the ground out to the concrete tank via a pipe.
The ground water source is usually free from natural organic matter but can be high in
minerals, alkalinity compounds such as Ca & Mg, it is also free from external pollution, but
it’s not pure water because there is growth of microorganisms and minerals that will be
treated in the plant.

2.2.2 CONCRETE TANK

It is a tank used to receive the pumped water from the bore-hole and store before
transferring to sand tank. The reason required to store the water in concrete tank is to have a
consistent supply of water and moreover the water used to be treated with chlorine in this
tank, though this treatment no longer taking place at concrete tank.
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2.2.3 SAND FILTER TANK

There are three sand filter tanks in number in the water treatment room with similar
purpose. Their purpose is to remove only physical matters and unwanted materials from the
raw water like floating materials present in the ground water. The sand filter tank is consists
of three layers. At the bottom of the tank there are sands which also called gravels and they
are relatively larger in size. On the medium part of the tank there are also sands which are
lesser in size than gravels and also they cover a few heights above the gravel. Finally the
upper part of the tank is filled with fine sand filters followed by anthracite at top up that
enhances filtration of foreign matter or suspended particles coming with raw water which
may occur during storage at concrete tank. Then the raw water passed through the sand filter
will be stored in three different raw water storage tanks each sized 80m3.

2.2.4 RAW WATER STORAGE TANK

As it is stated earlier there are three raw water storage tanks used to receive and store the
raw water that passed through sand filter tanks, and each storage tanks receive from their
proportional sand filter tanks. Then chlorine will be added in these tanks for disinfection of
microorganisms and the water will be stored for about two hours. The amount of chlorine
added must be five percent of the size of the tank or 5ml/l .after adding chlorine the water is
circulate for 30 minute in the storage tank .the Then the chlorinated water will be transferred
to carbon filter tank one.

2.2.5 CARBON FILTER TANK ONE

Is one of the three types of carbon filter tanks and it has activated carbon in it that is
mainly used to dechlorinate the raw water which had a chlorine added at the raw water
storage tank. Beside to this it has also some other purposes such as removing suspended
matters in the water and to remove off taste and color present in the water which may be
produced in water storage tank.
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 After passing the carbon filter tank one, the dechlorinate water will be separated in to
two different ways: the one in to softener tank and the other in to cartridge filter or
polisher for further treatment. The water transferred in to softener tank will finally be
applied for purposes such as bottle washer, chiller, boiler and co2 room. Whereas the
other, which transferred to cartridge filter, after further treatment it will be available
for syrup preparation and beverage production purposes. .

2.2.6 CARTRIDGE FILTER (POLISHER, 1MICRO SIZED)

It is used to filter the dechlorinate water by using a 1 micro sized polishing filter bag. This
bag prevents particles whose sizes are greater one micro. it include microorganisms and break
down of activated carbon particle due to physical contact in to carbon filter tank. Then after
passing through this bag, the water will be available for the next treatment, which is reverse
osmosis.

2.2.7 REVERSE OSMOSIS

It is a material used to treat the water by using high pressure to remove almost all
contaminants. In this step, high pressure is applied on the water to pass through the reverse
osmosis membrane and the filtrate water will be collected in the product tank. Reverse osmosis is
a Nano system process applied by changing the pressure from low to high in order remove
suspended particles including mono valiant , ion multivalent ion, bacteria, virus, MOs and mid to
large sized organic molecules.
There are two chemicals that used for different purpose. Those are Anti-Scalant and Caustic.
Anti-Scalant are used for trapping and solublized the scale formation of silica ions by ion
exchange treatment and Caustic used for neutralizing of Acidic form contain organic
compounds that found in water.

2.2.8 PRODUCT WATER TANK

It is a tank used to store the water after treated in reverse osmosis. In this tank, chlorine will
be added for the removal of remaining Mos. That Mos are formed physical contact of
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materials during processing .After chlorinating, the water will be distributed in to two carbon
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filter tanks: which are carbon filter two and three. There are two types water that found in this
tank those are concentrate water and permeate water.

2.2.9 CARBON FILTER TANK TWO

The working principle of this tank is similar to that of tank one, which is dechlorinating
the water that was chlorinated in product water tank by using the activated carbon in it. After
dechlorinating performed, the water will be transferred to a five micro size cartridge filter.

2.2.10 CARTRIDGE FILTER (5 MICRO SIZED POLISHER)

This filter works in similar way with the previous one (1micro sized). It filters fine
suspended particles which may pass through carbon filer tank two before transferred to UV.
The apparatus used for filtration is called polishing bag with 5 micro size. It might be
changed after repeated service.

2.2.11 ULTRA VIOLET (UV) RADIATION

It is the final treatment for the product water. Is used for destroying any present
microorganisms. It’s known as the critical control point for the quality of the water. After
passing through UV, now the water can be used for production purpose, such as syrup
preparation and filling room.
 As it is mentioned before, the water after passed through carbon filter one tank, it is
separated in to cartridge filter and softener tank for different purposes and I have
discussed briefly about the water goes in to cartridge filter, which is finally ready for
production purposes.

2.2.12 SOFTENER TANK


There are two tanks for softener resin which have similar size and application. But at a
time, only one of them will work while the other one will be regenerated using brine tank that
contains sodium chloride. Generally its application is to change the hard water in to soft one.
Its mechanism is to remove chemicals like calcium and magnesium which could increase the
hardness of the water and plus to this, those minerals could have itching effect on boiler and
bottle washer machines by forming scales on the machines body. Therefore, removing the
minerals made the water soft and safe.
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2.2.13 CARBON FILTER TANK THREE

It is remembered that after storing and treating the water in product tank, the next step was
splitting the water in to carbon filter tank two and three. And after the water was brought into
carbon filter tank three, it is dechlorinate by using active carbon containing tank as it was done in
carbon filter tank one and two. Following dechlorinating the water, 50 percent of water from
softener tank and 50 percent of dechlorinate water from carbon filter tank three mixed together and
transferred in to bottle washer, boiler, chiller and CO2 as a soft water.

2.2.14 CIP, BACKWASH AND REGENERATION STEPS


ARO CIP => it is required when the pressure in the membrane gets 12-14 bars.

1st Step: - Circulate the membrane using anthracite at PH>10 and then flush
with water.
2nd Step: - Circulate the membrane with citric acid at PH 2-3 and then flush
with water.
3rd Step: - Circulate the membrane with anti-Scalant or Fumados in order to
prevent scale formation and then flush with product water.

B.CARBON FILTER 1 AND 2 TANKS

Both tanks done CIP with hot water.


Then they will be backwashed for about 5 min.
Final rinse is done for 20min with treated water.

NB: - CARBON FILTER TANK THREE: Because of its rubber nature, it could be done only
back wash.

C.SAND FILTER TANK

Backwash (5step)

 Back wash for 1-5 min.


 Lowering for 5 min.
 Back wash air for 5 min.
 Back wash 2 for 5 min.
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 Final rinse for 5 min


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D,BRINE TANK: is a tank used to prepare sodium chloride that is needed for
regeneration the softener tank. It takes about 300kg of sodium chloride for a single
regeneration process.

2.3 SYRUP ROOM

It is a place where standardize and acceptable syrup is prepared. Finished syrup which is
ready for the filling room also prepared in this room by mixing the ingredients in a proper
manner. By other means syrup room is a place where the first step for production of soft
drink takes place with preparation of thick syrup.

2.3.1 INGREDIENTS USED FOR SYRUP PREPARATION

 water (product water)


 sugar (granulated)
 flavors
 dry component & celatom
 Activated Carbon
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2.3.2 FLOW DIAGRAM FOR SYRUP PREPARATION


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CONVEYER DISSOLVING TANK DELLA TOFFOLA


FILTER
HEAT EXCHANGER POLISHING FILTER BUFFER TANK
BAG

MIX TANK FINAL TANK

2.3.3 DESCRIPTION FOR THE SYRUP ROOM

2.3.3.1 CONVEYER

It is found separated by a wall from the main syrup room, but connected with the
dissolving tank by a pipe through the separator block or wall. Because of its purpose it is put
in the same room with the sugar. It is a material used to receive the sugar and transport it to
the dissolving tank. Before transferring the sugar into dissolving tank, the conveyer filters the
sugar by extracting physically larger unwanted materials and non-sugar particles with the
help of sieves welded on it. After the filtration, the sugar transfers into dissolving tank.

2.3.3.2 DISSOLVING TANK

It contains a hot water that boiled about 80oc in order to dissolve the sugar. The heat that used
to boil the water is in steam form which comes from boiler room. The reason to boil the water
till 80oc is that it is the standard for PEPSICO International. In addition, if the sugar s not
boiled to just 80oc, it may not be soluble as we want with the flavors. And if it exceeds 80oc,
it may evaporate and we may loss some amount of sugar and this may be occur an error in the
brix reading. There is a chemical called celatom used to filter the dissolved sugar or simple
syrup. This chemical is powder and mixed in water in the filter aid dissolving tank which is
found beside the dissolving tank. The simple syrup then circulates for thirty minutes and filter
through two horizontal filters called strainer. There is nothing different thing performed in the
strainers other than filtration. The celatom which mixed with water is added in the dissolving
tank in liquid form. This chemical helps to treat the simple syrup. If we use local produced
sugar we must use activated Carbon because the locally produced sugar contains high amount
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of greater impurity imported sugar that impurity can affect flavor and taste of product.
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2.3.3.3 FILTER TANK
It is a tank consists of thirty five multiple plates in it. It is used for filtration. Its principle is
that Eight hundred Fifty Littre of water and Fifteen kilogram of celatom will be mixed in it
and celatom will form a cake on the plate found in the tank. Now the simple syrup will let to
pass through filter tank on the plates. During the simple syrup passing through the plate, the
formed cake will absorb the other celatom that was added in dissolving tank before and other
substances will also be removed. When we see a pure and colorless liquid in filter tank
through display glasses, then we can realize that this step is done.

2.3.3.4 BUFFER TANK

The purpose of this tank is to control the level of simple syrup transferred into police filter
aid or filter bag. It is performed by the help of two sensors on the buffer tank: one at the
bottom of the tank that used to know the amount of simple syrup passed to polisher bag. and
the other at the top used to regulate the amount of simple syrup that drained from filter tank.

2.3.3.5 POLISHING FILTER BAG


It is the fourth and final filtration step in the syrup room. Its purpose is to filter if anything
passes from filter tank by any means with the simple syrup. The material used for filtration is
called a bag and it is cotton like structure.

2.3.3.6 HEAT EXCHANGER


Its purpose is to cool down the temperature of simple syrup from 80ºC to <25ºC before
getting into mix tank. Decreasing the temperature is needed because if the simple syrup gets
into mix tank with high temperature it may damage the flavor in mix tank, increase its degree
Brix.

2.3.3.7 MIX TANK


There are five mix tanks in syrup room, each sized are 11,000L.The simple syrup
which has less than 250c transferring in to mix tank from heat exchanger .Then flavors
and dray component will be mixed with simple syrup in order to give final syrup. Except
Pepsi, dry component and flavors mixed in concentrated tank before getting in to the mix
tank.

Table 1.Beverage and Syrup standard and target parameter for one unit.
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Brand PepsiCo Mirinda 7UP Mirinda Mirinda


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orange tonic apple


226L 230L 180L 260L
Treated H2O 700Ltr

Celatom 15Kg 15Kg 15Kg 15Kg 15Kg

1668.2L 516.4L 525.8L 460.5L 595.8L


S.S volume
54 62.7 57.1 55.4 57.6
S.S Brixº
F.S Brixº 53.3-54.1 59.1 54.4 48 52.1

F.S Volume 1703.4L 567.8L 567.8L 567.8 681.4L

Sugar use 1128Kg 421.4Kg 380.6Kg 321.3Kg 436.2Kg

Dry components of Mirinda Tonic per unit


 sodium Benzoate(0.652 Kg)
 Citric acid(9.979Kg)
 Mirinda tonic flavor(2.271L)

Ingredients of Pepsi Cola per unit


 Citric acid(18.93L)
 PepsiCo(7.571L)

Dry components of 7UP per unit


 Citric acid(3.56kg)
 Malic acid(1.814kg)
 Sodium Citrate(1.588kg)
 7UP flavor(5.678L)

Dry components of Mirinda Apple per unit

 Sodium Benzoate(0.326kg)
 Sodium Citrate(0.329kg)
 Citric acid(3.219kg)
 Apple flavor(3.785L)

Dry components of Mirinda Orange per unit

 Sodium Benzoate(0.652kg)
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 Potassium Sulfate(0.34kg)
 Sodium chloride(0.68kg)
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 Citric acid(5.783kg)
 Mirinda Orange flavor(15.14L)
 Ascorbic Acid(0.133kkg)

2.3.3.8 CIP FOR MIX TANKS


There are two types of CIP system in syrup room. We use them depending on the type of the
product. For example:-from the two types: 5step and 3step, we use 5step CIP when we
change our product from Mirinda orange to PEPSI and we use 3step CIP to change from
PEPSI to Miranda orange.

 Let us look at them in detail.

5 STEPS CIP 3 STEPS CIP

 Pre-flush for 10 min  Pre-flushing for 10 min

 Caustic for 15 min Apply hot water for 10 min


 Caustic flush for 10 min  Cool down for 2 min
 Hot water for 15 min  Flushing for 10 min
 Cool down for 2 min
 Flushing for 10 min.
To form Pepsi 7UP M.Orange M.Apple M.Tonic

Pepsi No CIP 5 step Rinse 3 step 3 step

7UP Rinse No CIP Rinse Rinse 3 step

M.Orange 3 step 5 step No CIP Rinse 3 step

M.Apple 3 step 5 step 3 step No CIP 3 Step

M.Tonic 3 step 5 step 3 step 3 step No CIP

Table 2 General description of CIP system for syrup room

2.4 CARBONDIOXIDE PLANT


Carbon dioxide gas is one of the ingredients found in all types of products. Without CO 2
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any of the products won’t be real. Therefore CO2 is a mandatory content for the products. At
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atmospheric condition the natural state of CO2 is gas.CO2 is a color less, odor less and test
less gas, but a significant concentration of CO2 in air causes a bit sense to nose, mouse and
eye. Gaseous CO2 is heavier than air.

2.4.1 CHEMICALS USED TO PRODUCE CO2


 Fuel oil
 MEA (mono ethanol amine )
 PPM (Potassium per Manganite)
 Activated Carbon
 Sodium Carbonate

2.4.2 FLOW DIAGRAM USED FOR CO2 PRODUCTION

Fuel oil Burner Soda Absorber Stripper


Tanker Scrubber

PPM Water Heat


Dehydrator Compressor Scrubber Separator Exchanger

Carbon Refrigerator Compressor


filter and CO2 Condenser Storage Evaporator

2.4.3 DESCRIPTION FOR THE FLOW DIAGRAM

2.4.3.1 FUEL OIL TANKER


It is a tanker that used to store the basic source for the production of carbon dioxide, which is
fuel oil. The fuel oil is burned in order to give CO2 gas.
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2.4.3.2 BURNER

The fuel oil will be brought into burner and the burner will be generate CO2 by combustion of
fuel oil at the temperature between 180ºC and 360º with Oxygen.

2.4.3.3 SODA SCRUBBER

The soda solution is circulated in the system by means of soda scrubber pump and the heat is
removed in the soda cooling using cooling water. The fuel gas from the boiler contains some
sulphur oxides (So2and So3) that are formed due to sulphur content in the fuel oil. Sulphur
and sulphur oxide components are very harm full to the CO2 plant. They cause corrosion on
the plant and if entering the MEA (Mono ethanol amine) system they will degrade the
solution. Therefore, a chemical called sodium carbonate will be added in soda scrubber in
order to remove the sulphur.

2.4.3.4 ABSORBER
It is used to absorb CO2 and the other gases are evaporated due to temperature.The white
smoke coming from the absorber outlet is mainly water vapour, nitrogen, and O2.the CO 2
content must be exceeding 0.5-1%. The CO2 content out of the absorber is one of the most
important values to know when troubleshooting the generating unit.

2.4.3.5 STRIPPER
The rich lye containing CO2 is preheated in the lye cooler before entering stripper. In order to
release CO2 from the lye solution, the solution must be heated to its boiling point. The steam
and CO2 is separated from the MEA and gases to the gas cooler from the top of the stripper
and MEA is circulated in the boiler.

2.4.3.6 HEAT EXCHANGER

It is also called gas cooler. During stripper the mechanism used to separate CO2 and MEA
was heat. Then this heat must be decrease before further processing and it is done by using
heat exchanger. After heat exchanger, CO2 will be cooled.

2.4.3.7 WATER SEPARATOR


When CO2 passed through heat exchanger it will be cooled and it may absorb the moisture.
Therefore this water separator separates the moisture with process of condensation from CO2
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if any.
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2.4.3.8 PPM SCRUBBER
It is chemical called potassium per Manganite. And it has two major applications. The first
one is it removes if any moisture is present after water separator. The second application is
that it mainly extracts a substance called ammonia from MEA solution .

2.4.3.9 COMPRESSOR

Have two tube type heat exchangers. These are inner and after cooler..It have three function
those are cooling system, pulling and pushing CO2 from PPM scrubber and pressurize CO2
with 15 bar.

2.4.3.10 DEHYDRATOR

Although cooler has been removed water from the CO2 gas in intermediate and after cooler, it
still contain some amount of water. It is a process to remove the remaining water which
consists of two vessels filled with molecular sieves. When the one vessels works, the other
will regenerates. Each vessel works for four hours.

2.4.3.11 CARBON FILTER

Is used to remove odour and other impurities from the gas. Traces of different organic and
sulphuric compounds can be trapped. it is consists of one vessel, filled with activated carbon.
The activated carbon must be renewed regularly.

2.4.3.12 REFRIGERATOR COMPRESSOR & CO2 CONDENSER

CO2 gas from the filter unit is going to the CO2 condenser. CO2 condenser is a fully welded
plate heat exchanger, where CO2 is on one side and refrigerant is on the other side. The
refrigerant which is called Freon refrigerant cooled down the CO2 by temperature of -27ºC
into liquid form. The reason behind for changing CO2 into water form is that it is difficult to
store CO2 in gas form. Gases have a nature to occupy a very large space for a small amount.

2.4.3.13 STORAGE
22

The liquid form of CO2 will be stored in a tank before evaporated into gas form again.It
contain about 21tons.
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2.4.3.14 EVAPORATOR
The liquid form CO2 will be transferred into evaporator and will be heated until it changes its
nature into gas form. After it has changed into gas, finally the CO2 can be goes to filler room
in order to mix with syrup and water for the final product.

2.5 FILLING ROOM

It is one of the production sections whose purpose is to verify that containers are
consistently filled to the correct level as established by correct volume or weight for the
brand and package type. There are 5 main machines to do the entire job under filling room.
These machines are listed as follows:-

2 Empty Bottle inspection (EBI)


3 Mixer Machine
4 Filler Machine
5 Full Bottle Inspection (FBI)
6 Date coder

2.5.1 EMPTY BOTTLE INSPECTION (EBI)


This machine used to inspection the empty bottle that comes from the bottle washer. It has
about 8 parameters to inspect the coming each bottle. Let us look them one by one.

1) NECK FINISH: By using camera system it detects the bottle neck, whether it
is cracked or not.
2) BASE: t checks he bottles base or bottom part. If t is too thick or too thin or if
it has no gear on it.
3) INSIDE WALL: It checks whether the inside wall is cracked.
4) HF CAUSTIC: Using antenna system it detects whether there is any caustic in
the bottle that comes from bottle washer.
5) IR RESIDUAL LIQUID: Using infrared ray it checks whether a residual
liquid is present in the bottle.
6) TOO TALL: There is a sensor to detect the length of the bottle, it checks the
bottle whether it is too tall.
7) TOO SHORT: Similar to the upper one, detects the height using adjustment
sensors whether the bottle is too short.
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8) CAP: It is also detected by the adjustment sensor.


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2.5.2 MIXER MACHINE

The basic purpose of this machine is to mix the three main contents of the product, which
are water, finished syrup and carbon dioxide. The water comes from water treatment room
and it is well-treated water and the finished syrup comes from syrup room whereas the carbon
dioxide comes from CO2 room. There are two machines under mixer machine; these are
dosing tank and water tank used to receive the finished syrup and the treated water
respectively before mixing. Flowing out from their own tanks the syrup and the water will
mix in the pipe. They mixed depending on the standard ratio of PEPSICO international.
Except Mirinda apple their ratio is 1L syrup to 5L water, but for apple it will be 1L syrup to
4L water. After the syrup and water are mixed regarding to their ratio, CO2 will be added on
the mixture. There is no material to receive carbon dioxide, it just comes online and mix with
the water and the syrup and will get into the carbonation tank. There is also a standard for
carbon dioxide added. Carbonation tank is used to dissolve the CO2 thoroughly in the
mixture. When the CO2 completely mixed with the mixture then it is called a final product
and will be ready for filling.

2.5.3 FILLER MACHINE

It is a machine used to fill the product into empty bottle. The machine that suck the
bottles and fills the product is called a bowl. This machine has 6 sequences from receiving
the empty bottles to filling the product. These sequences are stated as follows:

1. EVACUATION: - When coming to filling the bottles may hold strange gases for the
product. Therefore this step used to remove those gases.
2. FLUSHING: - Then the bottles will be flushed with CO2.
3. PRESSURIZATION: - This step used to remove the CO2 that was applied for
flushing. It is carried out after the container is sealed to the sealing valve. Removing
the CO2 is required to prevent contact between product and CO2, unless otherwise it
may result exceeding the CO2 amount in the product.
4. FILLING: - Is a step of which the product is filled into the bottles.
5. CORRECTION: - If the fill height becomes greater than the range then it will be
corrected or sacked. This is done under correction step.
6. SNIFTING: - Is a step used to balance the pressure between the container and the
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surrounding.
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2.5.4 FULL BOTTLE INSPECTION (FBI)
Like EBI machine, this machine also inspects the status of a full bottle. There are
parameters used to check the full bottle. The basic parameters are the following:

1. UNDER FILL: This parameter checks the fill height of the product, and if the height
of the product in the bottle found to be under its standard height the bottle will be
discard from the process.
2. UNCROWNED: If the cork does not fit correctly, it will be checked and removed
from the process line.
3. EMPTY BOTTLE: When a bottle cracked in the bowl, it will jump some number of
bottles without filling. During this moment the FBI will remove those empty bottles
with the help of a sensor.

2.5.5 DATE CODER


It is a machine used to label the best before date and the factory’s abbreviation name
with the time of production. It has an ink and a makeup used to mix the ink which is used for
the labeling in it. A product without a label of best before date will not be available for
market. In other words there will be no production if this machine does not work

2.5.6 CIP AND SANITATION FOR FILLER ROOM


Like syrup room when one product’s production is finished, CIP will take place before
starting another kind of product’s production. Depending on the type of the products two
kinds of CIPs will be done. These are five steps CIP and three step CIP.

 5 STEP CIP
 Pre-flushing at 34oc for 10 minute.
 Apply caustic at 60oc for 15 minute.
 Caustic flushing at 66oc for 10 minute.
 Hot water at 75-79oc for 15 minute.
 Final flushing at 35oc for 10 minute.
 3 STEP CIP
 Pre flushing at 34oc for 10 minute.
 Hot water at 70oc for 15 minute.
 Cool down
 Final flushing at 35oc for 10 minute.
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2.5.7 SANITATION
Each and every week the machines will take place sanitation with water and a special type
detergent. This helps the machines to be clean and to produce a good quality product .

2.6 LABORATORY ROOM


We can say that the laboratory room is the element for the production of a well quality,
nutrition and desirable product. All the quality and standards of each ingredient will be
controlled in the laboratory room. This room consists of two main sections: PHYSIO-
CHEMICAL section and MICROBILOGICAL section. Both section have their final goal is
to ensure quality and safety.

2.6.1 PHYSIO-CHEMICAL LABORATORY


This part of the laboratory is a place where almost all the laboratory job is done. On other
means more part following are some of the job done in Physico-chemical section:-observing
foreign material, CO2, brixº, turbidity, alkalinity, PH and etc. There are also additional areas
where sample preparation is made. There are:-

 Water Treatment
 Simple Syrup
 Finished Syrup (Final Syrup)
 Finished product
 Hot water for bottle washer
 Caustic

2.6.2 Water Treatment


Here in water treatment room, three samples are to be taken. These are from raw water,
softener water and treated water.

2.6.3 Raw Water


Parameters to be checked during testing raw water are:-

1) PH: Most of the time raw waters PH lie between 6.5 and 8.5. But it is required
to be 7 which is neutral and this can be done by treating the water.
2) Conductivity: Is the primary measurement of mineral contamination in water.
This contamination will be checked in laboratory and depending on the result
26

a correction will be taken according to its range.


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3) Turbidity: Is the coldness or haziness of the water and it is caused by the
presence of non-sucrose substances, such as poly saccharides, high molecular
weight poly phenols and suspended minerals (ash) that are generally invisible
to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. This parameter quality also be
checked and it must be a very low number for application. It is measure by
turbid meter.
4) Total Hardness: Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast
with soft water).Hard water is formed when water percolates through deposits
of calcium and magnesium containing minerals such as lime stone, chalk and
dolomite. Treating hard water is used to keep the safety of machines such as
boiler and bottle washer.
5) Alkalinity: Is a measure of the capacity of water to neutralize acid. It is
parameter to be checked and will take an action if the result exceeds the range.

2.6.4 SOFTENER WATER


This type of water is used for bottle washer, boiler and chiller purposes. As raw water,
softener water also will be checked it hardness and conductivity.

1) Total Hardness

As it is stated earlier hardness is the amount of minerals such as calcium and magnesium
present in water .This also treated it change the hard water in to soft as much as possible
after knowing it result from LAB.

2) Conductivity: Like to the raw water, the mechanism is also similar to softener water.
There only difference is that the value will be lesser than that was in the raw water. It
is because of filtration.

2.6.5 TREATED WATER


Most of the parameters that where checked under raw and softener water also will be checked
under treated water. The only and different parameter is that UV ray, because it is the final
step before going to in to production.

NB: Treated Water is more safe and clean than raw and softener water.

2.6.6 Simple syrup


27

A sample will be taken from simple syrup to check it brix, color, turbidity and percent of ash.
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1) Brix: It is a sugar content of simple syrup. This amount varies depending on the
product like if its Pepsi the brix standard will be 54.00 for Miranda=62.70,for
apple=57.60,for tonic= 55.4 and for 7-up=57.10.
2) Color: It is also the other parameter to judge the quality of simple syrup. The color
tells as weather the simple syrup is filtered properly or not. If the color of the simple
syrup became like water color , then we can say that its clean, unless otherwise it not.
The apparatus used to check color is called spectrometer.
3) Percent of Ash: This parameter tells as the quality of the sugar. Percent of ash rises,
then the sugars quality can be said t is low and vice versal.

2.6.7 Final Syrup


Under final syrup brix also will be checked and Titrable acid is the other parameter to be
checked.

1) Brix: The value of final syrup is different from it simple syrup, because dray
component and flavors are added to it. And there range is differ across the
type of the product. For example Pepsi=53.5 to54.00, Miranda=59.10,
apple=52.10, tonic=48, 7-up=54.40.

2) Titrable Acid: Is a very use full and essential parameter which tell whether the
sample has acidic property or not, or if it has another unwanted substance,. the
amount Titrable acidity determined by titrant. The substance used for titration
is called sodium hydroxide.

2.6.8 Finished Product


Whenever a finished product brought to laboratory, the first step is to view whether there is
a foreign material present in it by using bottle inspection glass. Then it cork size and fill
height will be measured by using cork measurement and fill height gage respectively. After
measuring temperature and pressure of the product in order to read carbon dioxide,
bicarbonate or remove carbon dioxide using decarbonator for measuring brix. If we measure
the brix with co2 present in it, it went give as the correct result because the system works
oscillating, but when CO2 is present in it. This all checkup it continuously performs in every
20 min.

𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒
Weight of sugar in %=𝐵𝑟𝑖𝑥 ∗ 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 ∗ 100
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Net content=Gross weight-Tare weight/densityinve*0.9989


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where 0.9989 is correction factor.

2.6.9 Hot Water from Bottle Washer


After washing the bottle with caustic, we wash them with hot water to remove the caustic.
But the hot water alkalinity is checked by titrating it with H2SO4 of 0.02N.The principle is as
follows

2 Three drops of methyl orange add for indication


3 Then titrated with H2SO4 0.02N
4 Finally we can check the alkalinity

2.6.10 Caustic Concentration


The concentration of caustic required can be checked by using H2SO4 of 2.5N. The
procedure is as follows:

 Add three drops of BaCl2 as an indicator in the caustic


 Titrate it with H2SO4 of 2.5N
 Its standard lies between 2-3

2.7 MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

In this section he parameters to deal are MOs such as bacteria, yeast and mold most of the
time a simple will be took from water treatment the water found in this room must not
contain coli form, if it is fast action must be taken total aerobic bacteria level also not less
than 50 after UV, but before it could be must not less than 500.

Test Temperature in ºC Time


Total bacteria 35 48 hour

Yeast, mold and acidic 25 120 hour


bacteria
Coli form bacteria 35 24hour
Table 3 Microbiological test
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2.8 GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE
Refers to a quality system management controls for research laboratory and organizations to
try to ensure the uniformity, consistency, reliability, reproducibility, quality and integrity of
chemical non-clinical safety’s tests from Physico-chemical properties through acuity to
chronic toxicity tests.

2.9 ACTIVITIES EXPECTED FROM LAB ANALYST


 He or she must prepare different types of solution
 He or she must check the final product in every 20 min
 He or she must check water in every 4hrs or at every time when about a new product
starts.
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2.10 BOTTLE WASHER

2.10.1 FLOW DIAGRAM FOR BOTTLE WASHER

HIGH PRESSURE
JETTING

PRE JETTING

CAUSTIC ONE

CAUSTIC TWO

WARM WATER ONE

WARM WATER TWO

COLD WATER

FRESH WATER
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2.10.1.1 THERE ARE MAINLY FIVE CHEMICALS USED IN BOTTLE WASHER

1. CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE):- Is used to wash the inside and outside
of the bottle. it can also washes the contaminants, dirt, and other unwanted substance
off from both sides of the bottle.

2. DIVOBRITE: - It is a chemical used to strengthen caustic soda during washing. It will


be added in each 5minute in caustic one and in each seven minute in caustic two for
15 seconds.

3. DIVO LE 92: - This chemical is used to remove scale formed during the drainage and
also in addition it uses to dry the jellyness and the foam occurred because of the
caustic.

4. DIVO NP 30: -It used to control the PH value of the water in the bath.

5. CHLORINE: - It used as disinfectant. It is added on warm water and it kills


microorganisms if any

2.10.1.2 DESCRIPTION FOR BOTTLE WASHER ROOM

2.10.1.3 HIGH PRESSURE JETTING

It is the first step for bottle washing. Its principle is that it uses high amount of pressurized
water (highly pressurized) to wash the internal part of the bottle, slightly the external art of
the bottle will also be washed. As it is the first step of washing, physical matters such as dirty
particles, gums and mobile cards will be removed here as a result of pressurized water.

2.10.1.4 PRE-JETTING

After highly pressurizing with water, the bottles will be goes to pre jetting. During pre-
jetting caustic is applied to the water present in it and by using the motor pump only the outer
part of the bottle will be washed. Warm water also brought to pre-jetting from warm water in
order to help the bottle washing.

2.10.1.5 CAUSTIC ONE


32

Caustic soda or sodium hydroxide is the critical element that used to wash a bottle during
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bottle washing. The concentration of caustic used for washing is 2-2.5 c. the reason for using
this chemical is that because of its ability to remove or clean contaminants and dirty
substances from internal and external parts of the bottle. In each 5 minute caustic soda will be
added for 15 seconds and its set point temperature is 70oc.

2.10.1.6 CAUSTIC TWO

In this step the mechanism is almost similar to caustic one. It is applied after caustic one
just for further cleaning. Therefore the only difference between caustic one and two is that the
contact time and set point temperature which means in the case of caustic two, caustic is
added in each seven minutes for 15 seconds and its set point temperature is 65oc.

2.10.1.6 POST CAUSTIC

Is simply washing the bottle to remove remaining caustic from caustic one and two found
in the bottle. It is done by high pressurized water. The other point is that during post caustic
washing, it is only the outer part of the bottle will be washed.

2.10.1.7 WARM WATER ONE AND TWO


Both warm water one and two have similar application which is to wash out the caustic in
and out of the bottle. The washing is performed with high pressurized water. Their only
difference is that their temperature. Warm water one applies a 48 oc water whereas 38oc is for
warm water two.

2.10.1.8 COLD WATER

The other step for bottle washing and washes the bottle to remove if any caustic is
remained after washing with warm water one and two respectively. It applies low temperature
compared to warm water one and two. The water used for warm water one and two and cold
water must be changed in every 8hrs.

2.10.1.9 FRESH WATER

The final step before discharging the bottles into filler room. Its duty is only to rinse the
33

bottle with 32oc water.


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NB: - If the bottle fails one of the above inspections, it will be removed.

2.11 BOILER ROOM


This room is one of the company’s essential units. It mainly produces steam for syrup
room, bottle washer & crate washer. The main materials used to produce steam are:-Furnace
(Heavy oil), soft water and LVG gas. The reason behind for choosing furnace over fuel
(Light oil) is that it is cheaper than fuel.

2.11.1 A DIAGRAM FOR BOILER ROOM

SOFT WATER

FURNACE
BOILER LVG GAS
(HEAVY
OIL)

STEAM

SYRUP ROOM BOTTLE WASHER CRATE WASHER

2.11.2 A DETAIL DESCRIPTION FOR BOILER ROOM PROCESS


After preparing all the required parameters that are producing steam, the first thing that will
be done is that to bring the furnace from furnace tank to modified furnace storage tank. On
the other hand, an equal mixture of product water and soft water also boiled in the water tank
with steam before getting in to boiler.

I boiled the water before getting in to boiler, because to maintain the T0 of the water and the
34

T0 in the boiler. Unless otherwise it will take us too much time until it will boiled and change
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in to steam. And if we add cool water in to the boiler, it could also decrease the T 0 in the
boiler.

Next step will be boiling the water until 1800c, where the water changed in to steam. The
furnace which is used as a base to boil the water is burned by using LVG gas in the boiler.
During boiling, the water and the flame will have no direct contact. There is a thick plate
between them used as a heat exchanger in order to boil the water.

When the temperature reaches 1800, the water will completely change into steam and this
steam automatically transferred in to distributer tank. Distributer tank is a tank used receives
the steam from boiler and distribute it to syrup room (in order to boil the sugar), bottle washer
and crate washer. After completing it task, the steam will return back to boil room and stored
in to condenser tank in order to change it in to liquid. When the steam changed in to liquid, it
will transfer in to water tank so that any steam will not be lows, instead it will circulate for
the next batch services.

2.11.3 BOILER ROOM SANITATION


As it is a critical room it also requiring a very good care, boiler room also needs an
excellent and continuous sanitation. There for, our plant also applies this kind of sanitation.
Every week the entire machines including boiler will be cleaned. The lines which are used as
an exit for the burned fume will be cleaned in order to remove any scale that has been formed
during the fume passing in it. Each tankers present in this room will be also wash to destroy
MOs, such as algae and unwanted particles. But if the required care and this good sanitations
where not perform, there will be a serious damage on the company, like the boiler may blast
dangerously.

2.11.4 WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT


Its objective is to neutralize the waste water comes from different areas of the plant by
adding chemicals. The plant uses the water and different chemicals for washing purpose in
different areas for different purposes and run to the waste water stages. This waste water must
be treated because it is danger for the humans, animals and plants.

2.11.5 SOURCES FOR THE WASTE WATER


35

1. The Filling Area


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2. Bottle Washer Area


3. Water used in cafeteria

The waste water comes from other areas is considered as there is no danger chemicals in it, so
it join with the final treated waste water. The raw waste water should not contain any
oxidants other than chlorine, greases, or other water immiscible. The neutralized system is
used to neutralize the incoming waste water to a PH range of 6.0 to 8.0. There is a double
stage system provide, in the first stage the inlet waste water is mix and equalize.

Since the waste water treatment system has two stages. The coming waste water is containing
a physical presence of floating and deposited materials which are removed by a screening
method. The two stages has the same principles but may different in the amount of dosing
chemicals depending of the PH of the water reading in PH meter.

This waste water is measured by sensor either acidic or basic then dosing the chemical to
neutralize. But most of the time the inlet waste water is basic because of the caustic soda,
then add the acid. The mixing the waste water is performed by a circulation pump place at the
outlet of the waste water stage this pump activates it self when a waste water flow is detected
at the outlet of the stage using the flow meter installed.

Depending on the PH of the waste water which enters stage 2, caustic, or acidic is dosed
using dosing valve. In addition a fine tuning of the PH occurs via the use of the dosing pump
arrangement base on the outlet of PH measured. The potassium per manganese is added to the
waste water to avoid the smell/odours of the waste water. There are circulating pumps inside
the waste water to mix the addition of chemicals like PPM and dosing acid or caustic because
the water is stable there is creation of the smell and no equal distribution of the added
chemicals and the waste water is not neutralized.

2.11.6 Chemical dosing


The chemical dosing station is used to dose the following chemicals to the deal kalised

water before the buffer. The dosing chemicals are:

1. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) 50% which is used to against the low PH waste water.

2. Sulphuric Acid H2SO4 96 % used to against the high PH waste water.


36

For stage 1, chemicals are dosed in proportion of the flow & inlet PH, measured at the outlet
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the sand trap. A correlation formula is then used to calculate the pulse-pause timer for the
dosing valve. The correlation uses the titration curve of typical waste water as was analysed
by the laboratory. The flow meter reading is then used in addition to calculate acid or caustic
flow rates.
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CHAPTER-THREE

3.1BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES

3.1.1 Overall Benefits

A Skill refers to ability of using that information and applying it in a context.


Most education programs are focused on theoretical part. Students have to acquire a lot of
theoretical knowledge, though the gap between theory and practice may be rather broad.
During this internship time I have gained a lot of benefits according to improving my skills.

3.1.2 Challenges in the time of Internship

The challenge that I see in the plant during the internship time was, the company rule are
uncomfortable for student because that rule are did not give chance to know how the
machine was work in detail. When the problem is happen so difficult to see freely internal
part of machines and quality room. Also the body of the machines are not touched by
students even they know how to operate. Finally, the company doesn’t give full information
about the history of the company.
So, I found to another way to pass this challenge by contacting each machine operators and
supervisors and also by reading manuals and searching from internet.
And also due to the expensive cost of the equipment found in each section, the operators have
no self-confidence to perform some activities in the sections freely. The other is, there is no
enough manuals or reference present in each section, present only in the laboratory. It is
challenges for me to write the report..Another challenge is wastage of my internship time due
to international auditing system of the company.
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3.1.3 Practical skill

Practical skills are developed by course design, coursework assessment, feedback,


tutorials and seminars endorse interactive and participative teaching.
Before I joined my hosting company for internship I have black box image about the real
world (industries).But in this internship I have seen the practibility of some of the things
that I have learned in only the subject matter.

3.1.4 Theoretical Knowledge

When people decide that they truly want to learn and master a new skill they need a
book that is dedicated to that subject with details of materials, illustrations of techniques
and explicit patterns to follow or design source books with examples.
This internship has a benefit for interns to upgrade their theoretical knowledge. I n this
internship program I found much theoretical knowledge about:-

 In the company in each section, there an actual practically worked to apply the
theoretical parts in to practical, i.e. is what is it looks like the raw material preparation
from reception, handling, storage, and how to transfer from one place to another to
ensure the safety and quality of the products what are the sources of the raw materials
and how to prepare the final product, what happen the degree birx, color, appearance
and how to use the standard specification and also how to treat the raw materials in
order to keep the quality and safety of the products.
 In the laboratory room to ensure the correct proportion or content of the product and
how to measure the degree brix CO2 content of the product and also the effective
treatment of the raw materials, like water, syrup, CO2…and how to check the growth
and presence of the microorganisms in the raw materials, in products and even in
tanks, in class rooms. According to the operation of each machine to understand how
to operate the machine manually and automatically and how to work in treatment,
washed, filtered, filling, crown/closure and how to label and packed the products.
 Generally to understood how to produce good acceptable standard product and what
happened if there is made a few mistake in each section because each section is
39

connected each other to produce the products.


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3.1.5 Communication skill

The purpose of communication is to get our message across to others clearly and
unambiguously. In a recent survey of recruiters from companies with more than 50,000
employees, communication skills were cited as the single more important decisive factor in
choosing managers. In spite of the increasing importance placed on communication skills,
many individuals continue to struggle with this, unable to communicate their thoughts and
ideas effectively-whether in verbal or written format. This inability makes it nearly
impossible for them to compete effectively in the workplace, and stands in the way of career
progression. From this point of view without improving our communication skill there is no
job.

3.1.6 Team playing skill

Teams need strong team player to perform well. Teams need people who speak up and
express their thoughts and ideas clearly, directly, honestly, and with respect for others and for
the work of team. That’s what it means to communicate constructively. Such a team member
does not shy away from making a point but makes it in the best way possible in a positive,
confident, and respectful manner. Team work has a dramatic effect on organizational
performance. An effective team can help an organization achieve incredible results.

3.1.7 Leadership skill

The modern view is that through patience, persistence and hard work, we can be a highly
effective leader. This section of mind tools helps me to start finding and developing leader
ship qualities.

3.1.8 Entrepreneurship skill

A wide range of skills are seen as entrepreneurial and useful to entrepreneurs, these include
both personal traits and skills.
A Management skills- the ability to manage time and people (both yourself and others)
successfully.
a. Communication skills and the ability to sell ideas and persuade others
b. The ability to work both as part of team and independently
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c. Able to plan, coordinate and organize effectively


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d. Financial literacy
e. Able to research effectively, for example available markets, suppliers,
customers and the competition
f. Self-motivated and disciplined

3.1.9 Work ethics

The work ethic is a cultural norm that advocates being personally accountable and
responsible for the work that one does and is based on a belief that work has intrinsic value.
Work ethics include not only how one feels about their job, career or vocation, but also how
one does his/her job or responsibilities. This involves attitude, behavior, respect,
communication, and interaction; how one gets along with others. Work ethics demonstrate
many things about whom and how a person is. Thus employer expects employees to develop
certain desirable traits that will help them to perform their jobs well so that the company can
succeed. Some of these traits include the following:
I. Loyalty
II. Honesty
III. Trustworthiness
IV. Dependability
V. Reliability
VI. Initiative
VII. Self-discipline
VIII. Self-responsibility and etc…
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CHAPTRE-FOUER

4.1 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

4.2 CONCLSION

The internship program is very necessary for the students to apply the theoretical knowledge
to the practical skills and to ensure to develop our communication skill and the leader ship
skills. So the BAHIR DAR INSTITE OF TECHNOLOGY should be given the greater
attention for the internship program for the students to capture/collect the practical skills.

The plant is produced five products with well-organized and a good quality standards &
distributed to the consumer with a short time due to the number of the consumers that accept
the product and the products are checked by the executive organizational office members on
unknown days.
Generally, both the BAHIR DAR UNIVERSITY and students should have been give
emphasis for the internship program in order to encourage the communication skill and to
produce the practical skills and knowledge.
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4.3 RECOMMENDATION
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While I was in HAWASSA MEILLENNIUM PEPSI COLA PLANT for four months I
observed some faults made and I tried to give respective professional recommendations as
followed below:-

-challenges of the workers,

-affection of environment and


-obstacles of the operators
 The carbon dioxide was produce in the plant to use their own techniques but the
environment are polluted by other gases that released from carbon dioxide production
like argen,nitrogen and others are affect in the environment by this condition the
employer also hurted.

 The other is syrup preparation problem, in this room also the air condition is very
warm which is difficult for the employer in order to perform activity so I
recommended that the air ventilator is should be necessary especially for laboratory,
syrup, bottle washer and carbon dioxide room.
 Enough operator instructions and manuals should be present in the worker /operators
for each section to perform appropriate activities. Most of the operators are done their
activities in habitual actions, the uneducated/engineers should be necessary for the
safety and security of the machines and equipment’s.

 Generally I recommended that the company leaders/managers should be analyse the


problem and find the solution for each problems, it helps to ensure the production
safety. And also the company managers should be solve the environmental problem of
the employers in each section and they must be create a good relationship with
employers in order to increase profitability.

4.4 REFERENC
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1. PepsiCo, (2005). Quality manual PepsiCo international manufacturing processing


Page

Vol-1 700 Anderson Hill Road, NY.


2. PepsiCo, (2005). Quality manual PepsiCo international Analytical methods Vol-2 700
Anderson Hill Road, NY.

3. PepsiCo, (2005). Quality manual PepsiCo international standards and specifications

and operational practice Vol-3 and Vol -4 700 Anderson Hill Road, NY.

4. http://www.google.com.et/internet
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