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Hydropower and

Sustainable Development

Er. Satya Ram Jyakhwa


Assistant Manager
Upper Trishuli 3A Hydroelectric Project

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GLOBAL HYDROPOWER
 Hydropower is the most widely used form of renewable
energy, but still accounts for only 16 % of global electricity
generation.
 several major hydroelectric projects are underway mostly
in the Asia-Pacific region, that already generates 32 % of
global hydropower.
 China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 721
terawatt-hours of production in 2010, representing
around 17 % of domestic electricity use.
 Paraguay produces 100% of its electricity from
hydroelectric dams, and Norway 98–99%.
 Brazil, Canada, New Zealand, Austria, Switzerland, and
Venezuela …. majority of the internal electric energy
production from hydroelectric power

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Global Hydropower Potential
%Harnessed of Commercially Feasible Capacity Hydro Power Capacity in GW
60.00%
%Share of
51.43% Region Commercially Total
50.00% Installed
Feasible Commercially
Feasible
40.00% 36.56%
Asia 2204 416.7 58%
South
30.00% 532 138.9 14%
26.11% America

18.91% North
20.00% 456 166.7 12%
America
10.45%
10.00% Europe 342 175.9 9%

Africa 266 27.8 7%


0.00%
Europe North South Asia Africa Total 3800 926 100
America America
Source: Hydropower & Dams World Atlas, 2010
Note:* is the average value

 Asia has the largest hydropower capacity in the world but has been unable to utilize its vast potential
with a harness rate of 19% only.
 Europe where hydropower’s inception took place is the leader in developing and utilizing its
hydropower potential.
Regional scenario of power sector development in SAARC

Public/Private Share in Total Power Generation Public/Private Share in Hydro Power Generation

% capacity contribution % capacity contribution


120 120
100 100 100 98
100 100 93
86
80 75 72 80 72

Percentage
Percentage

66 NEA/
60 54 51 49 Public Utility 60
46
34 IPPs 40
40 28 24
22
20 14
20 NEA Subsidiary 7 4
3 2
0 0

• Public Sector plays an important role with an average of 70% contribution in overall power
generation where as PPs contribution is much lower in hydro power with an average of 6% except
in Nepal and higher (24%) in thermal and other sources.
Regional scenario of hydro capacity

%Harnessed of Commercially Feasible


Capacity Hydro Power Capacity in MW
%Share of Total
60.00 54.93 Country Commercially
Commercially
55.00 Gross Installed Feasible
50.00 46.48 Feasible
45.00
40.00 India 148700 84,044 39060 39.4
35.00 30.46
30.00 Pakistan 100000 59000 6555 27.65
25.00
20.00 Nepal 83000 43000 659 20.15
15.00 11.11
10.00 6.20 Bhutan 30,000 24000 1488 11.25
5.00 1.53
0.00 Srilanka 2550.7 1401 1.2
Bangladesh 755 230 0.35
Total 365006 213350 49394 100

 SAARC countries have been able to utilize only 29% of their commercially feasible hydro potential
except that of Nepal which has the lowest one by contribution of 1.53% only.
Hydropower development In Nepal:
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Hydropower Potential in Nepal:
S.N River Basin Small Major Total Economically
Rivers* Rivers** Potential Feasible
1 Koshi 3.6 18.75 22.35 10.86
2 Gandaki/Narayani 2.7 17.95 20.65 5.27
3 Karnali and 3.5 32.68 36.18 25.1
Mahakali
4 Southern Rivers 1.04 3.07 4.11 0.88
Total 9.8 72.45 83.29 42.11

* Rivers with catchment areas 300-1000 km2


** Rivers with catchment area > 1000 km2
Hydropower development In Nepal:
• The total hydropower potential of Nepal was assessed as 83,500 MW in 1966
by Dr. Hari Man Shrestha during his PhD research work in former USSR.
• Incorporating GIS and the Hydropower Model, the power potential and
annual energy estimate on an run-of-the-river (ROR) basis of the entire
country has been worked out. (2009, IOE -MSc Thesis)
• The result shows that the power potential and annual energy estimates of
Narayani, Saptakoshi and Karnali River basins at Q40% (flow exceedence) and
80% efficiency are 17800, 17008, 15661 MW and 113373, 108817, 102324
GWh, respectively.
• The Mahakali River would yield only 2262 MW of hydropower and 14981
GWh of energy annually. The other water sources in Nepal would have a total
power potential of 1105 MW and a combined annual energy of 7043 GWh.
• The total hydropower potential and corresponding annual energy capacity of
Nepal on a ROR basis at Q40%, and 80% efficiency is 53,836 MW and 346538
GWh, respectively.
Advantages of Hydropower:
1) Water as fuel for water power hence called white coal whereas fuel is required
for thermal power
 Uses water with decreasing its utility in anyway subsequently d/s side can
be used irrigation, w/s etc.
 Thermal station have a ash' final product of coal' and hence disposal
problem
2) Running cost of the hydropower are very low as compared to the thermal
station and nuclear station (cost of fuel, transportation etc)
3) Hydraulic turbine can be put off and on in matter of minutes i.e. very flexible
4) Hydropower plant is simple in concept and self contained in operation (higher
reliability)
5) Modern hydropower equipment has greater life expectancy (easily last 50 yrs or
more) where as nuclear station has hardly 30yrs of effective life.
6) Due to its great ease of throwing off load and taking up the load, it is used as
ideal spinning reverse in a system- mix of thermal, hydro and nuclear) – Suitable
for industrial use
7) With modern design technologies, hydro generation give high efficiency for
considerable range of load 90%
Advantages of Hydropower:
8) Reduced CO2 emission
9) Hydropower provides ancillary benefits – recreation, irrigation, water supply,
navigation, flood control etc.

Disadvantages of Hydropower:
1) Most hydropower are capital intensive projects, so rate of return is low
2) Construction period is long
3) As gestation period of hydropower project is fairly large, there will be gap
of technology between the initial idea and final inauguration of the
project
4) Dependable on natural flow of river which is extremely variable
5) Cannot be placed near to the load centre- long transmission line
6) Ecosystem damage and loss of land, Relocation and resettlement problem
7) Siltation and flow shortage
8) Methane emission from reservoir
9) Failure risk in reservoir type projects
History of hydropower Development in Nepal

 First Hydropower – Built in Wisconsin, USA in 1882


 After 29 yrs, Pharping (500KW) -the oldest hydropower
plants of Asia and the first hydropower plant of Nepal
(Started construction 1907 and was commissioned in
1911 during King Prithvi Bir Bikram )
 First Hydropower in India –in 1898 in Darjeeling
 First Hydropower in China - 1912
 In 1936 – Sundarijal (intial 900 kw, later 640 KW)
 Only after 54 yrs, 2.4 MW Panauti hydro plant was built
with the help of Russian Government

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History of hydropower Development in Nepal
Cumulative Generation
S.No. Hydropower Projects Commissioned Year Capacity (KW) (KW) Type Located District Grid Status Ownership
1 Pharping ** 1911 500 500 RoR Kathmandu Grid Connected NEA
2 Sundarijal 1936 640 1,140 RoR Kathmandu Grid Connected NEA
3 Panauti 1965 2,400 3,540 RoR Kavre Grid Connected NEA
4 Phewa 1967 1,088 4,628 RoR Kaski Grid Connected NEA
5 Trisuli 1967 24,000 28,628 RoR Nuwakot Grid Connected NEA
7 Sunkosi 1972 10,050 38,918 RoR Sindupalchowk Grid Connected NEA
10 Tinau 1978 1,024 40,319 RoR Rupendehi Grid Connected NEA
11 Gandak 1979 15,000 55,319 RoR Nawalparasi Grid Connected NEA
18 Kulekhani 1982 60,000 116,463 Storage Makwanpur Grid Connected NEA
19 Devighat 1983 14,100 130,563 RoR Nuwakot Grid Connected NEA
22 Seti (Pokhara) 1985 1,500 132,193 RoR Kaski Isolated NEA
24 Kulekhani 1986 32,000 164,593 Storage Makwanpur Grid Connected NEA
36 Marsyangdi 1989 69,000 235,343 RoR Lamjung Grid Connected NEA
42 Tatopani -1 and 2 1991 2,000 238,118 RoR Myagdi Grid Connected NEA
43 Andhi Khola (BPC) 1991 5,100 243,218 RoR Sangja Grid Connected Pvt. Sector
45 Namche 1993 600 244,118 RoR Solukhumbu Isolated NEA
46 Jhimruk (BPC) 1994 12,300 256,418 RoR Pyuthan Grid Connected Pvt. Sector
48 Chatara 1996 3,200 260,018 RoR Sindupalchowk Grid Connected NEA
49 Kalikot** 1999 500 260,518 RoR Kalikot Isolated NEA
50 Puwa Khola 1999 6,200 266,718 RoR Ilam Grid Connected NEA
51 Modi Khola 2000 14,800 281,518 RoR Parbat Grid Connected NEA
52 Chilime (CPC) 2000 20,000 301,518 RoR Rasuwa Grid Connected Pvt. Sector
53 Khimti Khola (HPL) 2000 60,000 361,518 RoR Dolakha Grid Connected Pvt. Sector
55 Bhotekosi (BKPC) 2001 36,000 397,701 RoR Sindhupalchowk Grid Connected Pvt. Sector
56 Chaku Khola (APCO) 2002 1,500 399,201 RoR Sindhupalchowk Grid Connected Pvt. Sector
57 Indrawati (NHPC) 2002 7,500 406,701 RoR Sindhupalchowk Grid Connected Pvt. Sector
58 Kali Gandaki A 2002 144,000 550,701 RoR Sangja Grid Connected NEA
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History of hydropower Development in Nepal
Added Installed Capacity
297,783
300,000
248,175
250,000

200,000

150,000 125,775
91,725
100,000
37,778
50,000
1,140
-
1965~1975
<1965

1975~1985

1985~1995

1995~2005

2005~2015
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History of hydropower Development in Nepal

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History of hydropower Development in Nepal

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Hydropower Development in Nepal: Lessons from
Past Models -Santa Bahadur Pun
 The 1950s and ‘60s were the era of bilateralism
 multilateralism of the 1970s and ‘80s
 liberalization and privatization of the 1990s and 2000.
 Bilateral model with donors’ own agendas
 The first bilateral hydropower project -Russian 2.4 MW Panauti
Project commissioned in 1965 at a cost of 2.7 crore rupees
 Historically, Nepal’s first bilateral agreements - with India on 1954
Kosi and 1959 Gandak Projects
 Kosi’s 20 MW Kataiya Hydropower Plant, located in India, later
de-rated to 13.6 MW due to siltation problems.
 Gandak’s 15 MW in Nepal –normally generating only about 3 to 4
MW, was commissioned in 1979 at a cost of 17 crore rupees
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Hydropower Development in Nepal: Lessons from
Past Models -Santa Bahadur Pun
 The Indian-aided Trishuli hydropower first-phase 9 MW in 1967
with three Yugoslavian units of 3 MW each.
 The Trishuli 12 MW second phase, commissioned in 1971, four
Japanese units of 3 MW each (project cost was 14 crore)
 China commissioned a slightly smaller 10.05 MW Sunkoshi plant
in 1972 at a cost of 10.9 crore
 14.1 MW Indian-aided Devighat Hydropower Project came on line
in 1984 at a cost of NRs 75 crores, both the turbines and
generators of 4.7 MW each were built by India’s own Bharat
Heavy Electricals.
 India commissioned Bhutan’s 336 MW Chukha Hydropower Plant
in 1988 with each units of 84 MW built in India itself.

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Hydropower Development in Nepal: Lessons from
Past Models
 Balaju Yantrashala built 5kw propeller turbine in 1962 and cross
flow turbine from 1976.
 Kathmandu Metal Industries –Multipurpose Power units
(Grinding, husking, oil expelling) – all experience from improved
water mill
 Private Sector electrification became more popular in 1984 as
<100 KW were delicensed
 China’s Guiding Principle “ Self Construction, self management,
self consumption”
 Norway-” A policy aiming at rapid electrification of the rural areas
should be based on strong involvements of the consumers
themselves”. Hence, by 1980, 99.8% of electricity was based in
inland water power
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Hydropower Development in Nepal: Lessons from
Past Models -Santa Bahadur Pun
Multilateral model with strings attached:
 UNDP was requested to help in the study of Karnali Chisapani
 Japanese consultant, Nippon Koei, was given the task.
 SMEC, Norconsult, etc., which was followed by the multilateral
banks were heralded .
 The World Bank picked up the 60 MW Kulekhani Project
 ADB in the agreement concerning the Marsyangdi project was
supported by WB and then forced to integrate two bodies -
formed NEA.

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Hydropower Development in Nepal: Lessons from
Past Models -Santa Bahadur Pun
Liberalization and privatization model
 With the liberalization of the power sector through the Electricity
Act of 1992, the Khimti and Bhote Koshi Projects came.
 The successful implementation by Nepalese developers
(Indrawati, Chilime, Piluwa, Chakukhola, Sunkosi, Rairang, Khudi,
Baramchi, etc.) of smaller projects were not entrusted for bigger
sizes.
 Both bilateral and multilateral models did very little to encourage
utilization of indigenous skills and resources; the government
totally failed on this count

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जलविद्यु तमा िैदेशिक सहायता
 िैदेशिक अनुदान सहयोग-
भारत -पादी, त्रििूली, दे िीघाट क्रमिः १, २१ र १४.१ मेगािाट
चीन - सुनकोिी र सेती क्रमिः १०.५ मेगािाट र १.५ मेगािाट
रूि – पनौती २.४ मेगािाट
 ऋण सहायता-
विश्व बैङ्क, जापान र कुबेत - कुलेखानी (९२ मेगािाट)
जममनी- मस्र्याङ्दी र मध्यमस्र्याङ्दी
एशियाली विकास बैङ्क, जापान र विश्व बैङ्क - कालीगण्डकी–ए
चीन - मात्रिल्लो त्रििूली–३ ए (६० मेगािाट)
कोररया – चमेत्रलया (३० मेगािाट)
भारत – राहघ ु ाट (३२ मेगािाट)
 प्रत्यक्ष िैदेशिक लगानी-
भोटे कोिी (३६ मेगािाट), शखम्ती (६० मेगािाट) , मात्रिल्लो कणामली (९००
मेगािाट) र अरूण तेस्रो (९०० मेगािाट), पशिम सेती जलािय (७५० मेगािाट)
 घरे ल ु त्रनजीक्षेि र बाह्य क्षेिको सहयोग
शिमरुक (१२ मेगािाट), माइखोला (२० मेगािाट)
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िायु र सौयम ऊजाम हाइड्रोको विकल्प हन
ु सक्दै न
• बाह्रै मवहना एकनासको हािा चल्ने प्रिस्त समुन्द्रतटीय भूगोल भएको दे िको
लात्रग िायु विद्युत उजामको सिोत्तम विकल्प
• तर वहमालयको काखामा बसेर पानीको महत्त्ि नबुिेर हािाको पछात्रड लाग्नु
त्यत्रत बुविमानी नहोला।
• विद्युतीय लगायतका हेभी मेशिनरी सामान उत्पादनमा विश्वमै अग्रस्िानमा
रहेको अमेररकी कम्पनी GE को product specification अनुसार एउटा 1.5
MW को लात्रग चावहिँने िायुटिामइनको तीनिटा blade हन्द्ु छ, जसमध्ये प्रत्येकको
लम्बाई 32.25 त्रमटर हन्द्ु छ । त्यसको लात्रग 99.95 त्रमटर अग्लो फलामको
टािर चावहिं न्द्छ। उक्त टबामइनको जेनरे टर-गेयरबक्स 56 टन, ब्लेड एसेम्ब्ली
36 टन तिा टािर 71 टन गरी जम्मा 163 टन हन ु आउिँछ।
• टु क्र्याउन नत्रमल्ने 32 त्रमटर लामो 12 टनको ब्लेडलाई पहाडको टु प्पोमा
कसले कसरी पुर्याउने? विदे िमा त समुन्द्रको वकनारमा त्रसधा फरावकलो
बाटो हन्द्ु छ।
• 56 टनको विक्कोलाई 100 त्रमटरको उचाईमा उचालेर टािरको टु प्पोमा जडान
गनुप म ने

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NEPAL’S HYDROPOWER DEVELOPMENT

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Load shedding Management

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Load shedding Management

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Energy Consumption Trends
In 2010 In 2015
Biomass 85% 78%
Petroleum product 9% 12%
Grid Electricity 2% 3%
Petroleum Product
2004 2015
Petrol 8% 16%
Diesel 34% 49%
LPG 14% 26%
Kerosene 36% 1%
Within 2008 to 2010, sales of diesel has doubled from 0.3 mil. KL
to 0.6 mil. KL
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Energy Consumption Trends
• LPG import is increasing by 17% i.e. doubling every 5 years
• Petroleum product import – 25 billion
• LPG import - 25 billion
If 20% of this cost is used for Hydropower, 60MW can be added
in the system in each year.
Per Capita Electricity Consumption in 2013 (Kwh)
Nepal 128
India 783
China 3766
Norway 23,324
Asian Average 918
Bangladesh 293
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Energy Consumption Trends
• Current HDI of Nepal = 0.5
• 2000kwh per capita is needed to achieve HDI of 0.8
• For that we need around 14000 MW

India is generating 40,000 MW Hydro out of 2,37,742 MW in


total (2013/14)
Hence, India require more hydro to stabilize its system.
India’s peak is in Summer whereas Nepal’s peak is in Winter.

Bangladesh is proposing to purchase Nepal’s Hydro-electricity to


reduce it’s coal consumption.

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Major Problems of Hydropower Development and
Way Forward
• Revised Electricity Act
• Revised other Acts and Regulations connected to new
Electricity Act (Like EIA, Forest, Land Acquisition etc.)
• Stop Political Interference for group’s benefit, Commit and
delegate authority for concerned bodies
• Integrate, again unbundling etc. no more test on system, first
do honestly for the shake of nation whatever we have on
hand at present.
• Trust on Nepalese skills and their Capabilities. Leave to do
mistake at first if he is doing his best genuinely but hang who
repeats.
• Go for bulk sale of electricity (for Municipality or VDC or
cooperatives as of rural electrification) 31
Major Problems of Hydropower Development and
Way Forward
• Promote for household solar and corporate house solar
• Implement smart metering, TOD and two way reading
metering for solar houses.
• Strong Political commitment for local problems.
• Strong Transmission, distribution and Substations – new
construction and capacity upgrade (Remember Indian
Blockade).
• Go for multipurpose (integrated) projects. There will be no
water for irrigation if proper basin plan and urban
development plan is not implement.

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THANK YOU!

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