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Script:

“Film. A story or event Screenshot of


recorded by a camera as a set https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=f
of moving images.” ilm+definition&rlz=1C1GGRV_enGB815G
B815&oq=film+defi&aqs=chrome.0.69i5
9j69i57j0l4.1895j0j7&sourceid=chrom
e&ie=UTF-8
Nowadays, films are made all Montage of modern films.
the time and look amazing.
But they didn’t always look Zoom effect all the way back to the
this way. We need to go back, start through all the films.
all the way to the start.
The first ever film was the https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3QS
Sallie Gardner at a Gallop, QphrITLo
made in 1878, consisting of
16 frames of a horse running.
Cut back to screenshot of:
Now this may not look like https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=f
much but this was ilm+definition&rlz=1C1GGRV_enGB815G
revolutionary for its time, B815&oq=film+defi&aqs=chrome.0.69i5
considering it was the first 9j69i57j0l4.1895j0j7&sourceid=chrom
‘set of moving images’ e&ie=UTF-8
Moving on to 1888, when the https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=686
first camera was made. It was Y7bZYavA
called the Kinetoscope, made
by Thomas Edison. It was able https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zxu
to capture multiple frames W9NmFZtQ
but was not able to capture
sound. As this camera was not
able to capture colour
either, you’d often find
people manually colouring the
frames.
The only problem with this
camera was it was not made to
be strong, so along came the
first metal camera in 1912.
Moving nearly 20 years
forward, the super 8 came out
in 1983, using 8mm film and
allowing a lot more quality
in the picture.
The first film that made the
move from film to digital was
the original Star Wars film
in 1999. The camera was
designed by George Lucas and
was made in order to make
films cheaper and easier to
make.
Since then, film has become
less and less common in
features, and only a small
amount of directors choose to
use it.
2007 was the year where the https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SVo
first 4k camera was ZTwFtHNk
introduced.
This was good as it increased https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Idf
the quality of the picture, kIqbjrNk
giving film makers the
ability to add more detail to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6-
their films. It had the _tIPShuwQ
ability to film at a
resolution of 4k at 30fps
however after developing a 12
megapixel called the
Mysterium, the camera had the
ability to film 4k at 60fps.
Now we’ve looked at the https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KHs
history of film, let’s break n2smp4N4
down a scene from the film
Captain Phillips, directed by
Paul Greengrass.
This is the scene where the https://www.youtube.com/watch?annot
Somali pirates have taken ation_id=annotation_2000815885&feat
over the cargo ship. ure=iv&list=PLZbXA4lyCtqrWM5O-
w0xA390B3eID39NO&src_vid=KHsn2smp4N
4&v=kSmAfIP9CoQ

This scene uses camera work https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KHs


in order to add tension. n2smp4N4
Throughout the film, a
constant use of handheld
shots in order to make the
shots feel more like a point
of view rather than a simple
film shot. This makes the
audience feel more as if they
are in the film as opposed to
watching it, adding more
intensity to both the scene
and the viewer.
Another way to add tension https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KHs
and immersion in the scene is n2smp4N4
for the viewers to get closer
to the characters. This scene
does a good job of doing
this, during the standoff
between the two main
characters, the shots get
closer to them.
Let’s look at another scene https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ng9
of the film, the end scene 5gpwSjZU
where Captain Phillips has
been saved by the US Navy
after being captured by the
Somali pirates.
This scene does an excellent https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ng9
job at conveying a huge 5gpwSjZU
amount of emotion. The acting
and music are truly amazing
at creating a huge amount of
relief and shock for both the
Captain and the viewer, but
that’s not what we’re here to
talk about. The camerawork in
this scene also plays a big
part in making the scene more
immersive for the viewer. It
maintains the handheld look
in order to make the shots
feel more like a point of
view. This effect is also
amplified by the camera
cutting less, making it feel
more realistic.
The scene is also filmed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ng9
using a wide angle in order 5gpwSjZU
to further push the effect of
it looking like a point of
view shot.
Whilst I said that digital Title shows up on screen saying
was becoming more common than Film vs Digital
film, I was telling the
truth, however there are https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bTR
still some directors that 8Rfdqoo0
still use film to this day,
one being Christopher Nolan. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KT0
BTHkvbto
His latest film Dunkirk, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KT0
released in 2017 was filmed BTHkvbto
100% on film on a 60mm IMAX
camera. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VtH
6kiPbMBw
“Film will always have this
wonderful richness, the
analogue colour it has, the
superior resolution”
Dunkirk uses film for the https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z52
exact reason that it looks vVsMdBkc
better, being able to play
with light better than
digital as well as being able
to hold more quality.
This is the reason Dunkirk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z52
looks so breath-taking, vVsMdBkc
because of the camera
movements to convey different
emotions in different scenes
along with the films ability
to create amazing looking
shots.
Along with Dunkirk, Nolan https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6X
used film on Inception, The kEEzjVFA
Dark Knight and Interstellar.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CwB
9FNVHnWM

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a3l
cGnMhvsA

Another one of his films, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f3p


Interstellar, has brilliant tQ0CPMmU
camera work. It is shot in a
way that gives off a really
cinematic look.
This scene uses camerawork to https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f3p
I’s advantage, making a lot tQ0CPMmU
of the shots from inside the
spacecraft to increase the
realism of it and make the
viewer feel as if they are
with the characters,
increasing the intensity as
they worry for the characters
more. When there are shots of
the exterior of the ship, a
lot of them seem to be
attached to the ship, almost
emulating a camera that could
have been placed on as part
of it. This also adds to the
realism of the scene
This technique is used all https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f3p
throughout the film to create tQ0CPMmU
a level of realism. The film
also uses other techniques in
order to hook the viewer in a
way that could go unnoticed
by the casual viewer.
In this scene, Cooper arrives https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MoL
back on a spaceship to see kabPK3YU
that years’ worth of messages
have been sent to him from
his family back on Earth.
Now to the casual viewer, the
camera work may seem pretty
standard. But if you look
carefully, it does an amazing
job of adding to the emotion.
The camera cuts less meaning
we feel like we are sitting
there with him and
experiencing everything with
him. It also moves forward
slowly, literally making us
get closer to him and making
the scene feel more emotional
and intimate. This subtle but
present camera movement
really helps the scene to
feel a lot more emotional as
we seem to relate and
empathise with him more.
So just by these two scenes,
you can tell that this really
does take advantage of the
camera movements and
placements in order to make
the film as immersive for the
viewer whilst not making it
too obvious.
Because film looks so good, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=In_
it doesn’t mean that digital 3VkSH9_4
looks bad, there are plenty
of upsides to digital that https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jug
film doesn’t have. For HMJN3Kw4
starters, it is a lot cheaper
to use than film. It is also https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8sj
quicker to shoot on, meaning 70eAbmiU
the crew will be able to get
the film completed in less
days. It is also easier to
use than film, a lot of
camera operators have more
experience with digital than
film as it costs more to use.
So at the end of the day,
it’s personal preference as
to whether film or digital is
better. It just depends on
what look you want to go for.
Now we’ve looked at Nolan, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Wt
let’s look at another great Dmbr9xyY
director, Alfred Hitchcock.
Whilst his films may be a https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4WA
little older and a little xDlUOw-w
less colourful than Nolan’s,
it doesn’t mean they were any
worse. In fact, Alfred
Hitchcock is seen as one of
the best directors of all
time, directing such films as
Vertigo, Rear Window, Rope,
North by Northwest and…
Psycho.
Psycho, made in 1960, is one https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Wt
of the greatest and most well Dmbr9xyY&t=3s
known films of all time and
if you haven’t seen it, I’d
highly suggest you do so.
The film is most known for https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Wt
its famous shower scene which Dmbr9xyY&t=3s
contains the murder of a
woman in a shower.
Hitchcock uses the camera in https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Wt
this scene to create a large Dmbr9xyY&t=3s
amount of suspense.
During this scene, everything https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Wt
seems fine until it switches Dmbr9xyY&t=3s
to this shot. The camera is
placed inside the shower,
where we can see the killer
approaching but the
protagonist cannot in a
pantomime like fashion,
adding suspense as the
audience knows what’s going
to happen but the protagonist
doesn’t. This is clever
because it allows the film to
reveal the killer to the
audience effectively but not
to focus on it so it becomes
obvious to them.
In this scene Hitchcock also
redefined what was meant by
montage as he used the
technique of cutting between
different shots quickly to
create suspense, a way that
had never been done before.
So both camera work and
cameras have evolved over
time and become more
important and more
impressive. But this leads to
the question… where will they
go from here?
Well I think that camera work
will continue to expand and
change and continue to have a
huge influence over the
medium of film. I think that
film will still continue to
be used however digital will
become increasingly popular.