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Using WELLPLAN

R2003.11.0.1

copyright © 2004 by Landmark Graphics Corporation

Part No. 162163, Rev. A, V2003.11 August 2004


© 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Landmark Graphics Corporation
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Landmark Graphics Corporation
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P.O. Box 42806, Houston, Texas 77242, USA
Phone:713-839-2000
Help desk: 713-839-2200
FAX: 713-839-2401
Internet: www.lgc.com
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Note
The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a
commitment by Landmark Graphics Corporation. Landmark Graphics Corporation assumes no responsibility for any
error that may appear in this manual. Some states or jurisdictions do not allow disclaimer of expressed or implied
warranties in certain transactions; therefore, this statement may not apply to you.
Contacting Support
Landmark operates Technical Assistance Centers (TACs) in Houston, Texas, Leatherhead, UK
and Perth, Australia. Additional support is provided through district support offices around the
world. If problems cannot be resolved at the district level, our escalation team is called to resolve
your incidents quickly.

Support information is always available on the Landmark Graphics Support internet page located
at:- http:\\www.lgc.com\customersupport.

Technical Assistance Centers


North America 713-839-2200 (Houston, TX, USA)
7:30 am - 5:30 pm Central Standard Time Toll Free 1-877-435-7542
Monday - Friday, excluding holidays (1-877-HELP-LGC)
Fax: 713-839-2168 (Houston, TX)
Fax: 512-292-2200, 2220 (Austin, TX)
Fax: 907-275-2655 (Anchorage, AK)
Fax: 303-796-0807 (Denver, CO)
Fax: 403-262-1929 (Calgary, Canada)

Email: support@lgc.com

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Local normal business hours
Toll Free from:
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Peru: 0800-51634
Trinidad: 1-888-438-1296
Venezuela: 0-800-526-3627

Toll Free from local area:


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Email: eame_helpdesk@lgc.com
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South Korea 00308-61-0046
Taiwan 00801-61-1350
Thailand 001-800-611-2784

Toll Free from local area:


Vietnam: 84-8-9191901

District Support Offices


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Monday - Friday, excluding holidays Email: eame_helpdesk@lgc.com

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Email: soporte@lgc.com

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Email: apsupport@lgc.com

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Email: soporte@lgc.com

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Monday - Friday, excluding holidays
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Monday-Friday, excluding holidays Fax: 403-262-1929 (Calgary, Canada)
Fax: 713-830-2168 (Houston, TX)
Email: support@lgc.com

Chile (TAO TAC, Houston, Texas) Toll Free 800-201-898


Local normal business hours Fax: 1-713-839-3646
Email: soporte@lgc.com

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Email: soporte@lgc.com

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Local Business Days, excluding holidays Fax: 91-11-647-9246
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Indonesia (Jakarta) 62-21-3003-9039 or


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Email: apsupport@lgc.com

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Support Fax: 1-713-839-3646
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Monday - Friday, excluding holidays Other Phone: 10-800-810-0209
Fac: 86-10-8486-4819
Email bjsupport@lgc.com
or apsupport@lgc.com

Peru (Lima) Toll Free 0800-51634


Local normal business hours Fax: 1-713-830-3646
Email: soporte@lgc.com

Russia (Moscow) 7-095-755-8300


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Local Business Days, excluding holidays Fax: 7-095-755-8301
Email: eame_helpdesk@lgc.com

Taiwan Toll Free 00801-61-1350


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Monday-Friday, excluding holidays Email: apsupport@lgc.com

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Monday - Friday, excluding holidays Fax: 66-2-278-8199
Email: apsupport@lgc.com

Trinidad & Tobago (TAO TAC, Houston, TX) Toll Free: 1-888-438-1296
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(Houston, TX) Email: soporte@lgc.com
Local normal business hours

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Local Business Days, excluding holidays Fax: +971-4-3315837
Email: gulf_support@lgc.com
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Email: soporte@lgc.com

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Monday - Friday, excluding holidays Fax: 84-8-910-1902
Email: apsupport@lgc.com

Helpful internet links are shown below.

Name Website Address


Landmark Graphics home page http://www.lgc.com
Landmark Graphics FTP Site ftp://ftp.lgc.com
Oracle home page http://www.oracle.com
FLEXlm license management software http://www.macrovision.com/products/
home page legacy_products/flexlm/index.html
Microsoft SQL Server home page http://www.microsoft.com/sql/default.asp
Adobe Acrobat Reader http://www.adobe.com
Microsoft MSDE http://www.microsoft.com/sql/default.asp
Landmark WELLPLAN Training Manual

Contents

Contacting Support ............................................................................................................. 3

Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 25
What is WELLPLAN? ................................................................................................. 25
Training Course and Manual Overview ....................................................................... 25
Licensing ................................................................................................................ 26

The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database .................................................. 27


Overview............................................................................................................................. 27
Logging In To the Database................................................................................................ 28
Starting WELLPLAN .................................................................................................. 28
Describing the Data Structure............................................................................................. 29
Associated Components ............................................................................................... 32
Associated with Designs: ....................................................................................... 32
Associated with Cases: .......................................................................................... 33
Copying and Pasting Associated Items .................................................................. 33
Rules for Associating Components ........................................................................ 34
Common Data ..................................................................................................................... 35
Data Locking....................................................................................................................... 36
How Locking Works .............................................................................................. 36
Simultaneous Activity Monitor (SAM) .............................................................................. 38
Concurrent Use of Same Data By Multiple Users .............................................................. 39
How the Well Explorer Handles Concurrent Users ..................................................... 39
Same User on Same Computer .............................................................................. 40
Multiple Users, Different Computers .................................................................... 40
Reload Notification ...................................................................................................... 40
Importing and Exporting Data ............................................................................................ 42
Importing Data into the EDM Database ...................................................................... 42
Importing EDM Well Data from Another Database .............................................. 42
Importing a DEX File Into the Database ............................................................... 43
Exporting Data From the EDM Database .................................................................... 45
Exporting Data in XML Format ............................................................................ 45
Exporting Well Data in DEX Format .................................................................... 46
Using Datums in EDM ....................................................................................................... 48
Definition of Terms Associated With Datums ............................................................ 48
Project Properties ................................................................................................... 48
Well Properties ...................................................................................................... 48
Design Properties ................................................................................................... 50
Setting Up Datums for Your Design ............................................................................ 50

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WELLPLAN Training Manual Landmark

Changing the Datum .................................................................................................... 51

Using the Well Explorer .............................................................................................. 55


Overview............................................................................................................................. 55
Describing the Well Explorer ............................................................................................. 56
Components of the Well Explorer ............................................................................... 57
The Tree ................................................................................................................. 57
Associated Data Components ................................................................................ 57
The Recent Bar ............................................................................................................ 60
Displaying/Hiding the Well Explorer and Recent Bar ................................................ 60
Refreshing the Well Explorer ...................................................................................... 60
Positioning the Well Explorer ...................................................................................... 61
Tracking Data Modifications ....................................................................................... 61
Drag and Drop Rules ................................................................................................... 62
Well Explorer Right-Click Menus ............................................................................... 63
Working at the Database Level .................................................................................... 64
New Company (Database Level) ........................................................................... 64
Instant Case (Database Level) ............................................................................... 65
Export (Database Level) ........................................................................................ 66
Import (Database Level) ........................................................................................ 66
Properties (Database Level) ................................................................................... 66
Well Name (Database Level) ................................................................................. 67
Wellbore Name (Database Level) .......................................................................... 68
Refresh (Database Level) ....................................................................................... 68
Expand All (Database Level) ................................................................................. 68
Collapse All (Database Level) ............................................................................... 68
Working at the Company Level ................................................................................... 68
New Project (Company Level) .............................................................................. 69
New Attachment (Company Level) ....................................................................... 70
Paste (Company Level) .......................................................................................... 70
Rename (Company Level) ..................................................................................... 70
Delete (Company Level) ........................................................................................ 70
Export (Company Level) ....................................................................................... 71
Properties (Company Level) .................................................................................. 71
Expand All (Company Level) ................................................................................ 74
Collapse All (Company Level) .............................................................................. 74
Working at the Project Level ....................................................................................... 75
New Site (Project Level) ........................................................................................ 76
New Attachment (Project Level) ........................................................................... 76
Copy (Project Level) .............................................................................................. 76
Paste (Project Level) .............................................................................................. 76
Rename (Project Level) ......................................................................................... 77
Delete (Project Level) ............................................................................................ 77
Export (Project Level) ........................................................................................... 77
Properties (Project Level) ...................................................................................... 77

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Landmark WELLPLAN Training Manual

Expand All (Project Level) .................................................................................... 79


Collapse All (Project Level) .................................................................................. 79
Working at the Site Level ............................................................................................ 79
New Well (Site Level) ........................................................................................... 80
New Attachment (Site Level) ................................................................................ 81
Copy (Site Level) ................................................................................................... 81
Paste (Site Level) ................................................................................................... 81
Rename (Site Level) .............................................................................................. 81
Delete (Site Level) ................................................................................................. 81
Export (Site Level) ................................................................................................. 81
Properties (Site Level) ........................................................................................... 81
Expand All (Site Level) ......................................................................................... 84
Collapse All (Site Level) ....................................................................................... 84
Working at the Well Level ........................................................................................... 85
New Wellbore (Well Level) .................................................................................. 85
New Attachment (Well Level) ............................................................................... 86
Copy (Well Level) ................................................................................................. 86
Paste (Well Level) ................................................................................................. 86
Rename (Well Level) ............................................................................................. 86
Delete (Well Level) ............................................................................................... 87
Export (Well Level) ............................................................................................... 87
Properties (Well Level) .......................................................................................... 87
Expand All (Well Level) ........................................................................................ 92
Collapse All (Well Level) ...................................................................................... 92
Working at the Wellbore Level ................................................................................... 92
New Design (Wellbore Level) ............................................................................... 93
New Design/Case from OpenWells ....................................................................... 94
New Attachment (Wellbore Level) ........................................................................ 94
Cut (Wellbore Level) ............................................................................................. 94
Copy (Wellbore Level) .......................................................................................... 94
Paste (Wellbore Level) .......................................................................................... 94
Rename (Wellbore Level) ...................................................................................... 94
Delete (Wellbore Level) ........................................................................................ 95
Export (Wellbore Level) ........................................................................................ 95
Properties (Wellbore Level) ................................................................................... 95
Expand All (Wellbore Level) ................................................................................ 97
Collapse All (Wellbore Level) ............................................................................... 97
Working at the Design Level ....................................................................................... 98
New Case (Design Level) ...................................................................................... 98
New Attachment (Design Level) ........................................................................... 99
Copy (Design Level) .............................................................................................. 99
Paste (Design Level) .............................................................................................. 99
Rename (Design Level) ......................................................................................... 99
Delete (Design Level) ............................................................................................ 99
Export (Design Level) ........................................................................................... 99
Properties (Design Level) ...................................................................................... 100

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WELLPLAN Training Manual Landmark

Expand All (Design Level) .................................................................................... 102


Collapse All (Design Level) .................................................................................. 102
Working at the Case Level (WELLPLAN Only) ........................................................ 102
Open (Case Level) ................................................................................................. 103
Close (Case Level) ................................................................................................. 103
Clear Active Workspace (Case Level) ................................................................... 103
New Attachment (Case Level) ............................................................................... 103
Copy (Case Level) ................................................................................................. 103
Paste (Case Level) ................................................................................................. 104
Rename (Case Level) ............................................................................................. 104
Delete (Case Level) ............................................................................................... 104
Export (Case Level) ............................................................................................... 104
Properties (Case Level) .......................................................................................... 104
Working With Design- and Case-Associated Components ......................................... 108
About Associated Items and Well Explorer .......................................................... 108
Working With Catalogs ............................................................................................... 110
Creating a New Catalog ......................................................................................... 111
Copying a Catalog ................................................................................................. 112
Deleting a Catalog ................................................................................................. 112
Exporting a Catalog ............................................................................................... 112
Importing a Catalog ............................................................................................... 113
Opening a Catalog ................................................................................................. 113
Saving a Catalog .................................................................................................... 113
Closing a Catalog ................................................................................................... 114
Catalog Properties Dialog ...................................................................................... 114

Concepts and Tools ...................................................................................................... 117


Overview............................................................................................................................. 117
Accessing Online Documentation and Tools...................................................................... 118
Using the Main Window..................................................................................................... 119
Using the Well Explorer .............................................................................................. 119
Using the Menu Bar ............................................................................................................ 120
Working With Units............................................................................................................ 122
Configuring Unit Systems ........................................................................................... 122
Converting MD to TVD, or TVD to MD ..................................................................... 123
Converting Field or Cell Units ..................................................................................... 123
Defining Tubular Temperature Deration, Grade, Material and Class ................................ 125
Temperature Deration .................................................................................................. 125
Material ........................................................................................................................ 125
Tubular Grades ............................................................................................................ 126
Class ............................................................................................................................. 127
Using Halliburton Cementing Tables ................................................................................. 129
Configuring Sound Effects ................................................................................................. 130
Using the Online Help ........................................................................................................ 131
Using Tool Bars .................................................................................................................. 132

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Landmark WELLPLAN Training Manual

Enabling Toolbars ........................................................................................................ 132


Using the Standard Toolbar ......................................................................................... 133
Using the Module Toolbar ........................................................................................... 133
Using the Graphics Toolbar ......................................................................................... 134
Using the Wizard Toolbar ............................................................................................ 134
Using Wellpath Plots and Schematics ................................................................................ 135
Using Well Schematics ................................................................................................ 135
Viewing Wellpath Plots ............................................................................................... 136
Accessing Wellpath Plots ............................................................................................ 136
Printing and Print Preview .................................................................................................. 137
Configuring Plot Properties ................................................................................................ 138
Changing Curve Line Properties .................................................................................. 138
Using Freeze Line .................................................................................................. 139
Using the Plot Properties Tabs ..................................................................................... 140
Accessing the Plot Properties Tabs ........................................................................ 140
Changing the Scale ................................................................................................ 141
Configuring the Axis ............................................................................................. 141
Changing the Grid .................................................................................................. 142
Changing the Axis Labels ...................................................................................... 143
Changing the Font .................................................................................................. 143
Changing the Line Styles ....................................................................................... 144
Using Data Markers ............................................................................................... 145
Configuring the Legend ......................................................................................... 146
Changing the Plot Background Color .................................................................... 147
Using Libraries ................................................................................................................... 148
What is a Library? ........................................................................................................ 148
Using String Libraries .................................................................................................. 148
Creating or Deleting a String Library Entry .......................................................... 148
Retrieving a String From the String Library .......................................................... 149
Using Fluid Libraries ................................................................................................... 150
Importing, Exporting, Deleting, and Renaming a Fluid Library Entry ................. 150
Exporting a Library ...................................................................................................... 151
Using Workspaces .............................................................................................................. 152
What is a Workspace ................................................................................................... 152
Applying a Workspace ................................................................................................. 152
Configuring a User Workspace .................................................................................... 153
Using a Window .................................................................................................... 153
Using Window Panes ............................................................................................. 154
Using Tabs ............................................................................................................. 155
Saving the User Workspace Configuration ........................................................... 157
Using Data Status Tooltips and Status Messages ............................................................... 158
Configuring Tool Tips and Field Descriptions ................................................................... 159

Describing the Case Using the Case Menu ..................................................... 161


Overview............................................................................................................................. 161

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WELLPLAN Training Manual Landmark

Entering Case Data ............................................................................................................. 162


Defining the Hole Section Geometry ........................................................................... 162
Hole Section Editor Menu ..................................................................................... 163
Defining a Work String ................................................................................................ 163
Managing Wellpath Data ............................................................................................. 166
Importing Wellpath Files ....................................................................................... 166
Entering Wellpath Data ......................................................................................... 167
Setting Wellpath Options ....................................................................................... 168
Viewing Wellpaths w/Tortuosity ........................................................................... 168
Viewing Wellpath w/Interpolation ........................................................................ 169
Defining the Active Fluid and Fluid Properties ........................................................... 169
Defining Drilling Fluids ......................................................................................... 169
Specify Circulating System Equipment ....................................................................... 171
Specifying Circulating System for Cementing Analysis ....................................... 172
Specifying Pore Pressure Data ..................................................................................... 173
Specifying Fracture Gradient Data .............................................................................. 173
Specifying Geothermal Gradient Data ......................................................................... 174
Defining String Eccentricity ........................................................................................ 175

Torque Drag Analysis................................................................................................... 177


Overview............................................................................................................................. 177
Workflow ............................................................................................................................ 178
Introducing Torque Drag Analysis ..................................................................................... 181
Starting Torque Drag Analysis .................................................................................... 181
Available Analysis Modes ........................................................................................... 182
Defining the Case Data ....................................................................................................... 184
Defining Operating Parameters .......................................................................................... 185
Specifying Weight Indicator Corrections, Analytical Models and Reporting of Mechanical
Limitations ................................................................................................................... 185
Enabling Sheave Friction Corrections ................................................................... 185
Why Use Bending Stress Magnification Factor? ................................................... 186
Why Use the Stiff String Model? .......................................................................... 186
Including Viscous Drag Calculations .................................................................... 187
Specifying Multiple Fluids or Surface Pressure .......................................................... 187
How does Fluid Flow Change the Forces and Stresses on the Workstring? ......... 188
How Does Surface Pressure Change the Forces And Stresses On the Workstring? 189
Using Standoff Devices ............................................................................................... 189
Calibrating Coefficients of Friction Using Field Data........................................................ 191
Starting the Calibrate Friction Analysis Mode ............................................................ 191
Recording Actual Load Data ....................................................................................... 192
Calibrating Coefficients of Friction ............................................................................. 192
Predicting Maximum Measured Weight and Torque ......................................................... 194
Starting Drag Chart Analysis ....................................................................................... 194
Defining Operating Conditions and the Analysis Depth Interval ................................ 194
Advanced Options .................................................................................................. 195

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Landmark WELLPLAN Training Manual

Analyzing Drag Chart Results ..................................................................................... 196


Tension Point Chart ............................................................................................... 196
Torque Point Chart ................................................................................................. 197
Using the Sensitivity Plot ...................................................................................... 198
Analyzing Critical Measured Depths.................................................................................. 200
Start Normal Analysis .................................................................................................. 200
Defining Operating Conditions .................................................................................... 201
Analyzing Normal Analysis Results ............................................................................ 201
Analyzing Normal Analysis Results Using Plots .................................................. 202
Using Tables to Analyze Results ........................................................................... 206
Analyzing Results Using Reports .......................................................................... 208
Analysis Mode Methodology.............................................................................................. 209
Normal Analysis .......................................................................................................... 209
Calibrate Friction Analysis .......................................................................................... 211
Drag Chart Analysis ..................................................................................................... 212
Top Down Analysis ..................................................................................................... 214
Supporting Information and Calculations........................................................................... 217
Additional Side Force Due to Buckling ....................................................................... 217
Sinusoidal Buckling Mode ..................................................................................... 217
Helical Buckling Mode .......................................................................................... 217
Axial Force .................................................................................................................. 218
Buoyancy Method .................................................................................................. 219
Pressure Area Method ............................................................................................ 219
Bending Stress Magnification (BSM) .......................................................................... 220
Buoyed Weight ............................................................................................................ 221
Critical Buckling Forces .............................................................................................. 222
Straight Model Calculations .................................................................................. 223
Curvilinear Model .................................................................................................. 223
Loading and Unloading Models ............................................................................ 224
Drag Force Calculations .............................................................................................. 226
Fatigue Calculations .................................................................................................... 228
Establish A Fatigue Endurance Limit For The Pipe .............................................. 229
Derate The Fatigue Endurance Limit For Tension ................................................ 229
Friction Factors ............................................................................................................ 232
Models ......................................................................................................................... 233
Pipe Wall Thickness Modification Due to Pipe Class ................................................. 233
Sheave Friction ............................................................................................................ 234
Side Force for Soft String Model ................................................................................. 235
Soft String Model ......................................................................................................... 237
Stiff String Model ........................................................................................................ 237
Stress ............................................................................................................................ 239
Von Mises Stress ................................................................................................... 239
Radial Stress .......................................................................................................... 240
Transverse Shear Stress ......................................................................................... 240
Hoop Stress ............................................................................................................ 240
Torsional Stress ...................................................................................................... 240

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Bending Stress ....................................................................................................... 240


Buckling Stress ...................................................................................................... 240
Axial Stress ............................................................................................................ 241
Stretch .......................................................................................................................... 242
Stretch due to axial load ......................................................................................... 242
Stretch due to buckling .......................................................................................... 242
Stretch due to ballooning ....................................................................................... 243
Tortuosity ..................................................................................................................... 244
Torque .......................................................................................................................... 244
Twist ............................................................................................................................ 246
Viscous Drag ................................................................................................................ 247
References........................................................................................................................... 250
General ......................................................................................................................... 250
Bending Stress Magnification Factor .......................................................................... 250
Buckling ....................................................................................................................... 250
Fatigue ......................................................................................................................... 251
Sheave Friction ............................................................................................................ 251
Side Force Calculations ............................................................................................... 251
Stiff String Model ........................................................................................................ 252

Hydraulics Analysis ...................................................................................................... 253


Overview............................................................................................................................. 253
Workflow ............................................................................................................................ 254
Introducing Hydraulic Analysis.......................................................................................... 257
Starting Hydraulics Analysis ....................................................................................... 257
Available Analysis Modes ........................................................................................... 258
Defining the Case Data ....................................................................................................... 260
Optimizing Bit Hydraulics.................................................................................................. 261
Using Graphical Analysis Mode .................................................................................. 261
Entering Pump Specifications ................................................................................ 261
Analyzing Results .................................................................................................. 262
Numerical Optimization .............................................................................................. 269
Determining the Minimum Flow Rate................................................................................ 272
Starting the Hole Cleaning Operational Analysis ........................................................ 272
Entering Analysis Data ................................................................................................ 273
Analyzing Results ........................................................................................................ 273
Analyzing Results Using Plots .............................................................................. 273
Analyzing Results Using the Operational Report .................................................. 276
Determining the Maximum Flow Rate ............................................................................... 277
Starting Annular Velocity Analysis Mode ................................................................... 277
Defining Pump Rates ................................................................................................... 278
Analyzing Results ........................................................................................................ 278
Analyzing Results Using Plots .............................................................................. 278
Analyzing Results Using Tables ............................................................................ 280
Determining the Bit Nozzle Sizes....................................................................................... 282

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Starting the Pressure: Pump Rate Range Analysis Mode ............................................ 282
Defining the Pump Rate Range ................................................................................... 282
Specifying the Nozzle Configuration .......................................................................... 284
Specifying Depths to Calculated ECD ......................................................................... 285
Analyzing Results ........................................................................................................ 285
Using the Pressure Loss Plot ................................................................................. 286
Using the Pressure Loss Report ............................................................................. 287
Fine Tuning Hydraulics ...................................................................................................... 288
Starting Pressure Pump Rate Fixed Analysis Mode .................................................... 288
Defining the Pump Rate to Analyze ............................................................................ 288
Analyzing Results ........................................................................................................ 289
Analyzing Results Using Plots .............................................................................. 289
Calculating a Tripping Schedule......................................................................................... 293
Starting Swab/Surge Tripping Schedule Analysis ....................................................... 293
Defining Analysis Constraints ..................................................................................... 293
Analyzing Results ........................................................................................................ 294
Using Reports to Analyze Results ......................................................................... 294
Analyzing Pressures and ECDs While Tripping................................................................. 296
Starting Swab/Surge Pressure and ECD Analysis Mode ............................................. 296
Defining Operations Constraints ................................................................................. 296
Analyzing Results ........................................................................................................ 297
Using Plots to Analyze Results .............................................................................. 297
Using Reports to Analyze Results ......................................................................... 298
Supporting Information and Calculations........................................................................... 300
Backreaming Rate (Maximum) Calculation ................................................................ 300
Bingham Plastic Rheology Model ............................................................................... 300
Bit Hydraulic Power .................................................................................................... 304
Bit Pressure Loss Calculations .................................................................................... 305
Derivations for PV, YP, 0-Sec Gel and Fann Data ...................................................... 305
ECD Calculations ........................................................................................................ 306
Graphical Analysis Calculations .................................................................................. 307
Hole Cleaning Methodology and Calculations ............................................................ 307
Bit Impact Force .......................................................................................................... 314
Nozzle Velocity ........................................................................................................... 315
Optimization Planning Calculations ............................................................................ 315
Optimization Well Site Calculations ........................................................................... 316
Power Law Rheology Model ....................................................................................... 319
Pressure Loss Analysis Calculations ........................................................................... 324
Pump Power Calculations ............................................................................................ 325
Pump Pressure Calculations ......................................................................................... 326
Shear Rate and Shear Stress Calculations .................................................................... 326
Swab/Surge Calculations ............................................................................................. 327
Tool Joint Pressure Loss Calculations ......................................................................... 329
Weight Up Calculations ............................................................................................... 330
References........................................................................................................................... 331
General ......................................................................................................................... 331

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Bingham Plastic Model ................................................................................................ 331


Coiled Tubing .............................................................................................................. 331
Hole Cleaning .............................................................................................................. 331
Herschel Bulkley Model .............................................................................................. 332
Optimization Well Site ................................................................................................ 332
Power Law Model ........................................................................................................ 332
Rheology Thermal Effects ........................................................................................... 332
Surge Swab .................................................................................................................. 333
Tool Joint Pressure Loss .............................................................................................. 333

Well Control Analysis................................................................................................... 335


Overview............................................................................................................................. 335
Workflow ............................................................................................................................ 336
Introducing Well Control Analysis..................................................................................... 338
Starting Well Control Analysis .................................................................................... 338
Available Analysis Modes ........................................................................................... 339
Defining the Case Data ....................................................................................................... 340
Calculating the Expected Influx Volume............................................................................ 341
Starting Expected Influx Volume Analysis Mode ....................................................... 341
Specify Choke and Kill Line Use ................................................................................ 341
Defining the Circulating Temperature Profile ............................................................. 342
Determining the Type of Kick ..................................................................................... 343
Estimating Influx Volume ........................................................................................... 344
Analyzing Results ........................................................................................................ 347
Influx Volume Estimation Results Tab ................................................................. 347
Using Plots ............................................................................................................. 348
Circulating the Kick............................................................................................................ 349
Specifying Kill Method, and Choke/Kill Line Data .................................................... 349
Specify Choke and Kill Line Data ......................................................................... 349
Select Kill Method and Enter Operational Data .................................................... 350
Specify Kill Rate and Kick Data .................................................................................. 350
Analyzing Results ........................................................................................................ 351
Using Plots ............................................................................................................. 351
Animation .............................................................................................................. 357
Generating a Kill Sheet....................................................................................................... 359
Specify Kill Method, Operational Data, Slow Pumps and Choke/Kill Line Use ........ 359
Specify Choke and Kill Line Data ......................................................................... 359
Selecting Kill Method and Entering Operational Data .......................................... 359
Specifying Slow Pump Data .................................................................................. 360
Entering Kill Sheet Data .............................................................................................. 360
Specifying Kick Analysis Parameters .................................................................... 360
Analyzing Results ........................................................................................................ 362
Plots ....................................................................................................................... 362
Reports ................................................................................................................... 362
Analysis Mode Methodology.............................................................................................. 364

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Landmark WELLPLAN Training Manual

General Assumptions and Terminology ...................................................................... 364


Initial Influx Volume ............................................................................................. 364
Influx Properties Assumptions ............................................................................... 364
Influx Annular Volume and Height ....................................................................... 365
Choke Pressure and Influx Position ....................................................................... 365
Kill Methods .......................................................................................................... 365
Expected Influx Volume .............................................................................................. 366
Kick Tolerance ............................................................................................................. 367
Kill Sheet ..................................................................................................................... 371
Supporting Information and Calculations........................................................................... 372
Allowable Kick Volume Calculations ......................................................................... 372
Estimated Influx Volume and Flow Rate Calculations ............................................... 372
Gas Compressibility ..................................................................................................... 373
Influx Circulation Model for Kick While Drilling or After Pump Shutdown ............. 376
Influx Circulation Model for Swab Kicks ................................................................... 380
Kick Classification ....................................................................................................... 385
Kick While Drilling ............................................................................................... 385
Kick After Pump Shutdown ................................................................................... 386
Swab Kick .............................................................................................................. 386
Kick After Pump Shut Down Influx Estimation .......................................................... 386
Kick While Drilling Influx Estimation ........................................................................ 389
Kill Sheet ..................................................................................................................... 392
Pressure at Depth of Interest ........................................................................................ 396
Pressure Loss Analysis ................................................................................................ 396
Steady State Circulation Temperature Model .............................................................. 397
Viscosity and Compressibility of Methane .................................................................. 400
References........................................................................................................................... 403
General ......................................................................................................................... 403
Estimated Influx Volume and Flow Rate .................................................................... 403
Gas Compressibility (Z Factor) Model Calculations ................................................... 403
Steady State Temperature ............................................................................................ 403

Surge Analysis ................................................................................................................. 405


Overview............................................................................................................................. 405
Workflow ............................................................................................................................ 407
Introducing Surge Analysis ................................................................................................ 410
What is the Surge Module? .......................................................................................... 410
What is the Difference Between a Transient and Steady-State Model? ...................... 410
When Should I use the Transient Surge Model? ......................................................... 411
Starting Surge Analysis ............................................................................................... 412
Defining the Case Data ....................................................................................................... 414
Defining Formation Properties .................................................................................... 414
Defining the Properties of the Set Cement .................................................................. 414
Specifying Analysis Parameters Common to Surge, Swab, and Reciprocation Analysis .. 415
Defining the Wellbore Fluids and Specifying Pump Rates ......................................... 415

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WELLPLAN Training Manual Landmark

Using Standoff Devices ............................................................................................... 415


Analyzing Surge and Swab Operations .............................................................................. 416
Selecting the Surge/Swab Analysis Mode ................................................................... 416
Defining Analysis Parameters ..................................................................................... 417
Analyzing Surge and Swab Analysis Results ..................................................................... 418
Analyzing Results Using Plots .................................................................................... 418
Using Operation Plots ............................................................................................ 418
Using the Miscellaneous Plots ............................................................................... 424
Analyzing Results Using the Report ...................................................................... 426
Analyzing Reciprocating Operations.................................................................................. 427
Selecting the Reciprocation Analysis Mode ................................................................ 427
Defining Analysis Parameters ..................................................................................... 428
Analyzing Results ........................................................................................................ 428
Analyzing Results Using Plots .............................................................................. 429
Using Operation Plots ............................................................................................ 429
Using the Miscellaneous Plots ............................................................................... 436
Analyzing Results Using the Report ...................................................................... 438
Supporting Information and Calculations........................................................................... 439
Methodology ................................................................................................................ 439
Pressure and Temperature Behavior of Water Based Muds ........................................ 439
Viscosity Correlations of Oil Based Muds .................................................................. 440
Surge Analysis ............................................................................................................. 440
Two Analysis Regions ........................................................................................... 440
Connecting the Coupled-Pipe/Annulus and the Pipe-to-Bottomhole Regions ...... 443
Open Annulus Calculations ......................................................................................... 444
Mass Balance ......................................................................................................... 444
Momentum Balance ............................................................................................... 444
Coupled Pipe Annulus Calculations ............................................................................ 445
Pipe Flow ............................................................................................................... 445
Annulus Flow ......................................................................................................... 446
Pipe Motion ............................................................................................................ 446
Closed Tolerance ......................................................................................................... 447
References........................................................................................................................... 453
Transient Pressure Surge ............................................................................................. 453
Validation ..................................................................................................................... 453
Pipe and Borehole Expansion ...................................................................................... 453
Frictional Pressure Drop .............................................................................................. 453
Pressure and Temperature Fluid Property Dependence ............................................... 454

Cementing-OptiCem Analysis ................................................................................. 455


Overview............................................................................................................................. 455
Workflow ............................................................................................................................ 456
Introducing Cementing Analysis ........................................................................................ 457
What is Cementing? ..................................................................................................... 457
Starting Cementing Analysis ....................................................................................... 457

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Landmark WELLPLAN Training Manual

Defining the Case Data ....................................................................................................... 459


Specify the Volume Excess % ..................................................................................... 459
Defining the Cement Job .................................................................................................... 460
Defining the Cement Job Fluids .................................................................................. 460
Defining Spacers .................................................................................................... 460
Defining Cement Slurries ...................................................................................... 461
Specify the Standoff or Calculate the Centralizer Placement ...................................... 461
Defining the Cement Job ............................................................................................. 462
Defining Temperatures, Depths of Interest and Offshore Returns Information .......... 463
Specifying Additional Analysis Parameters ................................................................ 464
Analyzing Results ........................................................................................................ 465
What is the Circulating Pressure Throughout the Cement Job? ............................ 465
Is There Free Fall? ................................................................................................. 467
What is the Surface Pressure? ................................................................................ 467
Automatically Adjusting the Flowrate ................................................................... 468
Using Foamed Cement ........................................................................................... 471
References........................................................................................................................... 476

Critical Speed ................................................................................................................... 477


Critical Speed Course Overview......................................................................................... 477
Workflow ............................................................................................................................ 478
Introducing Critical Speed Analysis ................................................................................... 479
What is the Critical Speed Module? ............................................................................ 479
Why Use the Critical Speed Module? .......................................................................... 479
Critical Speed Limitations ........................................................................................... 480
Using Critical Speed ........................................................................................................... 481
Starting the Critical Speed Module .............................................................................. 481
Defining the Case Data ....................................................................................................... 483
Determining Critical Rotational Speeds ............................................................................. 483
Defining Analysis Parameters ..................................................................................... 483
Specifying the Boundary Conditions ........................................................................... 484
Specifying the Mesh Zone ........................................................................................... 484
Analyzing the Results .................................................................................................. 485
What are the Critical Rotational Speeds? .............................................................. 485
Non-Converged Solutions ...................................................................................... 486
Where in the BHA are the Large Relative Stresses Occurring? ............................ 487
What Kind of Stress is Causing the Large Relative Stress? .................................. 488
How Do I View the Large Relative Stress at Any Position on One Plot? ............. 489
Supporting Information and Calculations........................................................................... 491
Structural Solution ....................................................................................................... 491
Vibrational Analysis .................................................................................................... 491
Mass Matrix ................................................................................................................. 494
Damping Matrix ........................................................................................................... 494
Excitation Factors ........................................................................................................ 495
References........................................................................................................................... 498

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Bottom Hole Assembly ............................................................................................... 499


Overview............................................................................................................................. 499
Workflow ............................................................................................................................ 500
Introducing Bottom Hole Assembly Analysis .................................................................... 501
What is the Bottom Hole Assembly Module? ............................................................. 501
Why Should I Use the Bottom Hole Assembly Module? ............................................ 501
Bottom Hole Assembly Module Limitations ............................................................... 502
Starting Bottom Hole Assembly Analysis ................................................................... 502
Defining the Case Data ....................................................................................................... 504
Analyzing a Static Bottom Hole Assembly ........................................................................ 505
Defining Analysis Parameters for Static Analysis ....................................................... 505
Drillahead Solution ................................................................................................ 505
Specifying the Mesh Zone ........................................................................................... 506
Analyzing Results for the Static (in-place) Position .................................................... 506
Using the Quick Look Section of the BHA Analysis Data Dialog ........................ 506
Using Plots ............................................................................................................. 508
Using Predicted Plots ............................................................................................. 510
Using the BHA Report ........................................................................................... 515
Predicting How a Bottom Hole Assembly Will Drill Ahead.............................................. 521
Defining Analysis Parameters for Drillahead Analysis ............................................... 521
Analyzing Drillahead Results ...................................................................................... 522
Using the BHA Analysis Data Quick Look Results .............................................. 522
Supporting Information and Calculations........................................................................... 525
Analysis Methodology ................................................................................................. 525
Three Fundamental Requirements of Structural Analysis ..................................... 525
Defining the Finite Element Mesh ......................................................................... 525
Compute the Local Stiffness Matrix and the Global Stiffness Matrix .................. 526
Degrees of Freedom ............................................................................................... 531
Boundary Conditions ............................................................................................. 531
Constructing the Wellbore and Bottom Hole Assembly Reference Axis .............. 534
Calculating the Solution ......................................................................................... 535
Bit Tilt and Resultant Side Force ........................................................................... 535
Drillahead Solutions .............................................................................................. 538
Bit Coefficient ........................................................................................................ 539
Formation Hardness ............................................................................................... 540
References........................................................................................................................... 541

Stuck Pipe Analysis ...................................................................................................... 543


Overview............................................................................................................................. 543
Workflow ............................................................................................................................ 544
Introducing Stuck Pipe Analysis......................................................................................... 546
What is the Stuck Pipe Module? .................................................................................. 546
Why Should I Use the Stuck Pipe Module? ................................................................ 546
Starting Stuck Pipe ....................................................................................................... 547
Defining the Case Data ....................................................................................................... 548

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Landmark WELLPLAN Training Manual

Adding a Jar to the Workstring .................................................................................... 548


Determining the Location of the Stuck Point ..................................................................... 549
Defining Analysis Parameters and Viewing Results of Stuck Point Analysis ............ 549
Determining the Surface Measured Weight Required to Activate the Jar.......................... 550
Describing the Jar Analysis Mode ............................................................................... 550
Selecting the Jar Analysis Mode .................................................................................. 551
Defining Analysis Parameters and Viewing Results of Jar Analysis .......................... 551
Analyzing the Output Section ................................................................................ 552
Determining if the Required Measured Weight Yields the String...................................... 554
Describing the Yield Analysis Mode ........................................................................... 554
Selecting the Yield Analysis Mode ............................................................................. 554
Defining Analysis Parameters and Viewing Results of Yield Analysis ...................... 554
Analyzing the Output ............................................................................................. 555
Determining if the Required Force at Backoff Connection Can be Achieved ................... 558
Describing the Backoff Analysis Mode ....................................................................... 558
Selecting the Backoff Analysis Mode ......................................................................... 558
Defining Analysis Parameters and Viewing Results of Backoff Analysis .................. 559
Analyzing the Output ............................................................................................. 559
Supporting Information and Calculations........................................................................... 562
Stuck Point Algorithm ................................................................................................. 562
Stuck Pipe Yield Analysis Algorithm .......................................................................... 562
Stuck Pipe Jar Analysis Calculations ........................................................................... 564
Stuck Pipe Backoff Analysis Calculations .................................................................. 566
References........................................................................................................................... 567

Notebook ............................................................................................................................. 569


Overview............................................................................................................................. 569
Starting Notebook ........................................................................................................ 569
Notebook Analysis Modes ........................................................................................... 570
Miscellaneous Mode ........................................................................................................... 572
Linear Weight .............................................................................................................. 572
Blockline Cut Off Length ............................................................................................ 573
Leak Off Test ............................................................................................................... 573
Fluids Mode ........................................................................................................................ 574
Mix Fluids .................................................................................................................... 574
Dilute /Weight Up ........................................................................................................ 574
Fluid Compressibility .................................................................................................. 575
Hydraulics Mode................................................................................................................. 576
Pump Output ................................................................................................................ 576
Annular ........................................................................................................................ 576
Pipe .............................................................................................................................. 577
Nozzles ......................................................................................................................... 578
Buoyancy ..................................................................................................................... 578
Analysis Mode .................................................................................................................... 579
WorkString ................................................................................................................... 579

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WELLPLAN Training Manual Landmark

Maximum String Length ........................................................................................ 579


String Weight ......................................................................................................... 580
Elongation .............................................................................................................. 580
Volumes and Heights ................................................................................................... 581
Lag Times .................................................................................................................... 582
Spot a Pill ..................................................................................................................... 583
Block Line Work ......................................................................................................... 584
Rig Capacity ................................................................................................................ 584
Calculations ........................................................................................................................ 586
Block Line Cut Off Length .......................................................................................... 586
Dilute/Wt Up Fluid ...................................................................................................... 586
Fluid Buoyancy ............................................................................................................ 586
Fluid Compressibility .................................................................................................. 587
Leak Off Test ............................................................................................................... 587
Mix Fluids .................................................................................................................... 587
Pump Output ................................................................................................................ 588
Nozzle Area ................................................................................................................. 588

xxiv Contents August 2004


Chapter 1
Introduction
What is WELLPLAN?
WELLPLAN is a drilling engineering software system to assist with
solving engineering problems during the design and operational phases
of drilling and completing wells. WELLPLAN is comprised of several
modules including Torque Drag Analysis, Hydraulics, Well Control,
Surge, OptiCem-Cementing, Bottom Hole Assembly, Critical Speed,
Stuck Pipe, and Notebook.

WELLPLAN can be used in the office or at the well site. WELLPLAN


can be installed on a network for use by several individuals, or on an
individual “stand alone” computer. Regardless of the installation
location or type, data can be transferred between installations. In
addition, WELLPLAN is integrated with other LANDMARK software
and data can be shared between a variety of LANDMARK software
packages. Refer to Chapter 2, “The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM)
Database” on page 27 for more information.

Training Course and Manual Overview


The purpose of this manual is to provide you a reference for entering
data and performing an analysis during the class. Perhaps more
importantly, you can refer to it after the class is over to refresh your
memory concerning analysis steps. This manual contains technical
information concerning the methodology and calculations used to
develop this software. If you require more technical information than
what is presented in this manual, please ask you instructor. The on-line
help is very useful, and may assist you while using the software.

This training class is designed to be flexible to meet the needs of the


attendees. In this manual, there may be information regarding a module
that you do not have.

The training course begins with a quick introduction. Following the


introduction, time will be spent covering the concepts and features
common to all WELLPLAN modules. In this section you will learn how
to navigate the system, enter data, and produce output. After these
concepts and features have been reviewed, you will begin to look at the
individual modules (Torque Drag Analysis, Hydraulics, Well Control,

Landmark WELLPLAN 25
Chapter 1: Introduction

Surge, OptiCem-Cementing, Bottom Hole Assembly, Critical Speed,


Stuck Pipe, and Notebook.)

Licensing
FLEXlm is a licensing method common to all Landmark products. It
provides a single licensing system that integrates across PC and network
environments. FLEXlm Licensing files and FLEXlm Bitlocks are
supported for Landmark Drilling and Well Services applications. Please
refer to the EDT Summary Level Release Notes for more information.

26 WELLPLAN Landmark
Chapter 2
The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM)
Database

Overview

Many of Landmark’s drilling applications use a common database and


data structure—the Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) database—to
support the different levels of data that are required to use Landmark’s
drilling and production software.

The Engineer’s Desktop is Landmark’s Drilling, Well Services,


Production, and Economics integration platform. The Engineer’s
Desktop applications access the EDM database. EDM provides a
common database schema that allows for common data access, enables
naturally integrated engineering workflows, and reduces data entry
duplication across applications.

A significant advantage of the EDM database is improved integration


between Landmark's Drilling and Well Services products, and the
Production and Economics products. Integrated Engineering
applications on EDM allow for improved Plan vs. Actual comparisons
and complete store of design iterations from Prototype to Plan to
Actual.

In this chapter, you will be introduced to:

‰ Logging in to the database

‰ Data structure

‰ Common data

‰ Data locking

‰ Importing and exporting data

Landmark WELLPLAN 27
Chapter 2: The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database

Logging In To the Database

Any Landmark drilling software using the Engineer’s Data Model


(EDM) will require you to login. This dialog is used to select the
database and to provide a user id and password.

Starting WELLPLAN
You can start WELLPLAN in two ways:

z Use the Start Menu. Select WELLPLAN using Landmark


Engineer’s Desktop 2003.11 > WELLPLAN.

z Double-click any desktop shortcut you have configured.

The following login screen appears when you launch WELLPLAN:

Select the database you want


to use from the drop-down
User will default to the list.
last user name entered.

28 WELLPLAN Landmark
Chapter 2: The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database

Describing the Data Structure

The EDM database has a hierarchical data structure to support the


different levels of data that are required by different drilling suite
applications. EDM uses the following hierarchical levels.

Database

Company Hierarchical database structure of the


Project EDM database.
Site

Well

Wellbore

Design

Case

Hierarchical Level Description

Database The Database is the highest level in the Well


Explorer hierarchy. You can only work in one
database at a time. Refer to “Working at the
Database Level” on page 64 for more
information.

Company Company is the second highest data level in


the hierarchy. You can define several
companies within the database you are using.
Each company must have a unique name. If
you work for an operator, most likely you
may have only one company. If you work for
a service company, you may have several
companies. Refer to “Working at the
Company Level” on page 68 for more
information.

Landmark WELLPLAN 29
Chapter 2: The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database

Hierarchical Level Description

Project Project is the data level directly beneath


company and each project within a company
must have a unique name. A project can be
thought of as a field or as a group of sites. A
project has one system datum (mean sea level,
lowest astronomical tide, etc.) that is used to
define 0 TVD for the project. Within the
project, wellbores can be referenced to the
project level system datum or to additional
datums specified at the well level. Refer
to“Using Datums in EDM” on page 48 or
“Working at the Project Level” on page 75 for
more information.

Site Site is the data level directly beneath the


Project level and each site within a project
must have a unique name. A site is a
collection of one or more wells that are all
referenced from a local coordinated system
centered on the site location. A site can be a
single land well, an offshore sub-sea well, a
group of well drilled from an onshore pad, or
a group of wells drilled from an offshore
platform. Refer to “Working at the Site Level”
on page 79 for more information.

Well Well is the data level directly beneath the Site


level and each well within a site must have a
unique name. A well is simply a surface
location. A well can have more than one
wellbore associated with it. For example,
there may be the original wellbore with one or
more sidetracks tied on to it at different kick-
off depths. Refer to “Working at the Well
Level” on page 85 for more information.

Wellbore Wellbore is the data level directly beneath the


Well level and each wellbore within a well
must have a unique name. A wellbore is a
compilation of one or more sections
originating at the surface and continuing to a
depth. A wellbore can be the original well
drilled from the surface or a sidetrack drilled
from a parent wellbore. If a well has an
original hole and two sidetracks, the well has
three wellbores. Refer to “Working at the
Wellbore Level” on page 92 for more
information.

30 WELLPLAN Landmark
Chapter 2: The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database

Hierarchical Level Description

Design Design is the data level directly beneath the


Wellbore level and each design within a
wellbore must have a unique name. A design
can be thought of as a design phase.
Associated with each design are a pore
pressure group, a fracture pressure group, a
temperature gradient and a wellpath. A design
may have several cases associated with it, but
each case will use the same pore pressure
group, fracture pressure group, temperature
gradient and wellpath. A design can be
categorized as prototype, planned or actual.
You may have several different versions of
prototype designs. For example, assume the
geologist wants to analyze two different
formation fracture gradients. This could
easily be accomplished by having two
prototype designs that are identical except for
the fracture gradient group. Landmark’s
StressCheck, Casing Seat and COMPASS
applications routinely use designs. Refer to
“Working at the Design Level” on page 98 for
more information.

Case (WELLPLAN only) Case is the data level directly beneath the
Design level and each case within a design
must have a unique name. A case can be
thought of as a snapshot of the state of the
well. For example, you may use two cases to
analyze the affects of varying the mud weight
or changing the BHA. Associated with each
case are an assembly, a hole section and one
or more fluids. Cases are commonly used in
Landmark’s WELLPLAN application.
StressCheck and COMPASS do not use cases.

Note: The Event hierarchy...

In the OpenWells, PROFILE, and Data Analyzer well explorer, you will find the
Event level directly beneath the Wellbore level. For more information about
Events, refer to the OpenWells online help.

Landmark WELLPLAN 31
Chapter 2: The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database

Associated Components
Additional data components that can be associated ("linked") with
Designs and Cases include Wellpaths, Pore Pressure Groups, Fracture
Gradient Groups, Geothermal Gradient Groups, Hole Section Groups,
Assemblies, Fluids, and Catalogs. These components are used to define
the drilling problem that you want to analyze.

All associated items, with the exception of fluids, are automatically


created and associated by Well Explorer (you cannot manually create or
associate these items) with the design or case. Fluids can be
created/associated in WELLPLAN only, using the Fluid Editor.

Catalogs function differently than the other components, primarily


because Catalogs are not associated with a Design or Case. Catalogs are
used as a selection list to design a casing, tubing, liner, or drillstring.
Refer to “Working With Catalogs” on page 110 for more information.

There are several additional data components that are associated with
Designs or Cases. These are:

Associated with Designs:

Wellpaths
A wellpath is a series of survey tool readings that have been observed in
the same wellbore and increase with measured depth. All Cases within
the same design use the same wellpath.

Pore Pressure Groups


A Pore Pressure group is a set of pore pressures that define the pore
pressure regime over a depth range from surface to some vertical depth.
All Cases within the same design use the same pore pressure.

Fracture Gradient Groups


A Fracture Gradient is a set of fracture pressures that define the fracture
gradient regime over a depth range from surface to some vertical depth.
All Cases within the same design use the same fracture gradient.

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Chapter 2: The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database

Geothermal Gradient Groups


A Geothermal Gradient is a set of undisturbed earth temperatures that
define the temperatures over a depth range from the surface to some
vertical depth. All Cases within the same design use the same
geothermal gradient.

Associated with Cases:

Hole Section Groups


A Hole Section defines the wellbore as the workstring would see it. For
example, a hole section may contain a riser, a casing section, and an
open hole section. A hole section can also have a tubing section or a drill
pipe section depending on the situation. Multiple cases may use the
same hole section.

Assemblies
An Assembly defines the workstring. There are several types of
workstrings, including coiled tubing, casing, drillstrings, liners, and
tubing strings. Multiple cases may use the same assembly.

Fluids
A Fluid defines a drilling, cementing, or spacer fluid. A Fluid is linked
to a Case and a Case can have more than one fluid linked to it. One fluid
can be linked to multiple cases.

Copying and Pasting Associated Items


All of these associated items, with the exception of fluids, are
automatically created and associated ("linked") by the Well Explorer to
the design or case. (You cannot manually create or link these items.)
Fluids can be created/linked in WELLPLAN only, using the Fluid
Editor.

All these items are visible in Well Explorer so that you can copy and
paste them using the right-click menu. For example, when you copy a
wellpath and paste it into a different design, the wellpath that currently
exists for the target design is deleted. Well Explorer replaces the old
wellpath with the copy of the new one.

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Again, fluids are the exception. Only the WELLPLAN Fluid Editor can
delete fluids, so after pasting a fluid, the original fluid still exists. The
original fluid is no longer linked to anything. This can’t be seen in Well
Explorer, but WELLPLAN can access this. Note that if the destination
case, or the fluid you are trying to replace is locked, a message appears
and the paste is not completed.

Rules for Associating Components


The rules for associating components are listed below.

For Definitive Surveys, Pore Pressure Groups, Fracture Gradient


Groups, Geothermal Gradient Groups, Assemblies, and Hole Sections:

• Each component can only be associated with one Design or


Case.
• When one component is copied and pasted, an actual copy is
made.
• When one component is pasted, the component it replaces will
be deleted (unless it is locked).
• If the destination for the paste is locked (Design or Case) or the
item to be replaced is locked, a message appears and the paste is
not completed.
• If the design is locked, all it’s associated items are also locked.

For Fluids:

• When a fluid is copied and pasted, an actual copy is made.


• When a fluid is pasted, the one is replaces will NOT be deleted.
• Fluids can only be deleted using the Fluid Editor in
WELLPLAN.
• If the destination case is locked or the fluid to be replaced is
locked, a message appears and the paste is not completed.

34 WELLPLAN Landmark
Chapter 2: The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database

Common Data

Common data stored in the EDM database and available for use by
StressCheck, CasingSeat, WELLPLAN, OpenWells, and COMPASS in
database mode include:

• Unit system
• Pipe catalog
• Connections catalog
• Pore pressure
• Fracture Gradient
• Temperature Gradient
• Surveys
• All fields in Well Explorer Properties dialogs
• General data, such as Well Name, Well Depth, Vertical Section
information

Note: Several additional fields are common to two or more


applications, but not all.

Drilling applications may share other data not listed.

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Chapter 2: The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database

Data Locking

You can prevent other people from making changes to data by locking
data at various levels and setting passwords. Users can only open the
data item in read-only mode; to keep changes, they will have to use
Save As or Export.

How Locking Works


You can lock Company properties only, or you can lock properties for
all levels below Company (Project, Site, Well, Wellbore, Design, and
Case). Passwords can be set to prevent unlocking.

By default, no passwords are set, and the "locked" check box on all
Properties dialogs can be toggled on and off at will with no security to
prevent users from doing something they shouldn’t.

In the Well Explorer, if a data item is locked a small blue "key" appears
in the corner of its icon. When you open a locked data item, you will see
the message "This Design is locked and therefore Read-Only. Changes
to this Design will not be saved to the database. To keep your changes,
use the Save As or Export options."

Locking Company Properties


In the Properties dialog for the company whose data you want to protect,
there are two buttons, Company Level and Locked Data, and a
checkbox, Company is locked.

When you click the Company Level button, you are prompted to set a
password to protect Company properties (and only the Company
properties). This password will then be required if a user wants to
"unlock" company properties and make changes.

Once the password is set, toggle the Company is locked checkbox on to


lock the company properties and prevent unauthorized changes to the
data.

Locking Levels Below Company


When you click the Locked Data button on the Company Properties
dialog, you are prompted to set a password. This password will then be

36 WELLPLAN Landmark
Chapter 2: The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database

required if a user wants to "unlock" any level below the company


(projects, sites, wells, wellbores, designs, and cases).

All levels are locked individually—that is, you can lock a Well, but this
doesn’t mean that anything below it is locked.

Once the Locked Data password is set, you can lock properties for any
data level below Company and prevent unauthorized changes to the
data. Open the Properties dialog for the data level you want to lock and
toggle the "locked" checkbox on. (For example, to lock a Wellbore,
open the Wellbore Properties dialog and toggle Wellbore is locked on.)

Note: Locked Designs...

When a design is locked, all associated items (Pore Pressure, Fracture Gradient,
Geothermal Gradient, and Wellpath) are locked with it.

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Simultaneous Activity Monitor (SAM)

The 2003.11 release of EDM (the Engineer's Data Model) supports full
concurrency for multiple applications using the same data set through
the Simultaneous Activity Monitor (SAM). For in-depth information on
SAM, refer to the EDM Administration Utility help.

If the Simultaneous Activity Monitor has not been configured, the


following message will appear: "WELLPLAN could not connect to the
SAM server. Please verify that the settings are configured correctly in
the administration utility, and that the SAM server is running."

The Simultaneous Activity Monitor consists of a Messaging Server that


notifies the user with an open application of all data currently open in
other applications. The SAM icon appears in the application Status Bar
as follows:

Icon Message Description


A green SAM icon in the status bar indicates that the
Messenger service is active.

A blue SAM icon with a red X on it indicates that the


Messenger Service is not currently active.

No Icon When no icon appears in the application status bar this


indicates that the Simultaneous Activity Monitor has not
been configured for the application.

If a data item is open, an icon will appear as follows:

z A red SAM icon indicates that one or more users on other PC’s
have this item open and the current user is restricted to read-only
access.

A blue SAM icon indicates that one or more users on the current PC
have this item open but the current user still has full read-write access.
A user must be careful when making changes to the date though this
method enables data to automatically flow between applications.

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Concurrent Use of Same Data By Multiple Users

The 2003.11 release supports concurrency for multiple users on the


same data set. The Simultaneous Activity Monitor (SAM) is the service
used to regulate concurrent access to the EDM database.

z By default, the SAM server is enabled and connected and you will
see a green "SAM" icon in the status bar of your application.

z If the SAM service is configured but not connected, the "SAM"


icon will appear with a red "X" drawn through it. Consult your
System Administrator.

z If the SAM service is not configured, there will be no SAM icon in


the status bar.

For in-depth information on SAM, refer to the EDM Administration


Utility help.

A good practice for any multi-user environment is to frequently use the


F5 refresh key to refresh the Well Explorer contents. Data updates (e.g.,
inserts, updates, deletions) are not always automatically recognized in
other EDT sessions and simultaneously run EDT applications.

How the Well Explorer Handles Concurrent Users


Basically, the Well Explorer and the Simultaneous Activity Monitor
handle concurrency like this: If a user on a different machine has a
Design open (first one to open the Design gets it in Read/Write mode),
then all other users can only open that Design in Read-Only mode. If no
one on any other machine has Read/Write access to the Design, then you
get Read/Write access.

This is the SAM icon:

The red "SAM" icon indicates that one or more users on other PC’s have
this item open and you are restricted to opening it in Read-Only mode.
You cannot save any changes to the database, but you can use Save As
and rename the item.

The blue "SAM" icon indicates that one or more users on the current PC
have this item open, but you can still open it in Read/Write mode. You
can save changes to the database.

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These SAM icons will appear on a Design (COMPASS, WELLPLAN,


StressCheck, CasingSeat) or a Well (OpenWells) in the Well Explorer.

Same User on Same Computer


If the same user has a Design open in one EDT application and then
opens the same Design in another EDT application on the same
machine, the blue "SAM" icon will appear in the Well Explorer of the
second application. This indicates that this user has the Design "locked
for use in Read-Write mode", and has it open in more than one
application. However, because it IS the same user, he/she can Save
changes to the database made from either application.

Multiple Users, Different Computers


The first user to open a Design or Case in that well gets control, and the
Design or Case is then "locked for use in Read/Write mode." A red
"SAM" icon indicates that more than one user is working with the
Design or Case at the same time. However, only the first user can make
changes; all other users open the Design or Case in Read-Only mode.
They can Save As, but not Save.

After the user who had access to the Design or Case in Read/Write mode
closes the Design or Case, the red "SAM" icon goes away, and the
Design or Case is available again. Read-only users will have to close the
Design or Case and re-open to gain control.

(WELLPLAN only) A user can save Cases under a Design that is


currently "locked for Read/Write use" by someone else.

Reload Notification
If you are working with any of the data in the following list, and a user
with read/write privileges saves changes to the database, you will
receive a notification indicating that another user has changed the data
you are working with.

You will have the opportunity to use the changes saved to the database
by the other user. You will also have the opportunity to save the data you
are working with using the Save As option. If you do not save your data
using Save As, your changes will be overwritten by those made by the
other user. (Your changes will only be overwritten if the other user saves
his changes, and you indicate you want to use those changes when you
receive notification.) Keep in mind that if you have read privileges, any

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Chapter 2: The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database

changes you make are only stored in memory and are not written to the
database unless you save your data using Save As.

Items that are refreshed in this manner are: Design, Definitive Survey
(Wellpath), Pore Pressure, Fracture Gradient, Geothermal Gradient,
Assemblies (Casing Scheme)

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Chapter 2: The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database

Importing and Exporting Data

WELLPLAN provides you with EDM database import and export


functionality, as well as flat file import and export functionality.

Importing Data into the EDM Database


You can import data from one EDM database into another EDM
database, or you can import a DEX file.

Note: Importing WELLPLAN and COMPASS legacy data...

WELLPLAN and COMPASS legacy data must be imported into the EDM
database using the Data Migration Toolkit. See the PDF file "Using the Data
Migration Toolkit" in the Landmark Engineer’s Desktop 2003.11\Documentation
folder for details.

Importing EDM Well Data from Another Database


To import well data from one EDM database to another, follow these
steps:

1. In the Well Explorer, select the EDM database canister.

2. From the Well Explorer right-click menu, select Import. The


following dialog box opens:

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Chapter 2: The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database

3. Select the .XML file containing the well data you want to import,
and click Open. (Well data can be saved in .XML format using the
Export command in the Well Explorer; see page 45 for details.)

Note: XML file naming...

EDM Data Transfer File imports are not supported from paths containing
apostrophes or filenames containing apostrophes. Make sure that you do not use
apostrophes in filenames or directory names.

4. The well data will be imported into the database.

Importing a DEX File Into the Database


To import a DEX file into the EDM database, follow these steps:

1. Select File > Data Exchange > Import. The following dialog box
opens:

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2. Specify the filename for the well information in DEX format you
want to import, and click Open. The following dialog appears.

3. Use the arrow buttons to move the desired data items into the lower
list box. Single arrow buttons move the highlighted file(s). Double
arrow buttons move all files. (Use the upward facing arrows to
remove items from the desired selection.)

4. Click OK to start the import.

Note: Data imported to memory...

The data will be imported into memory and displayed in the main window. The
data has not yet been saved to the database. You may make changes now, if you
wish.

5. When you are ready to save the changes to the database, select
File > Save. The Save As dialog opens, allowing you to specify
where in the hierarchy to place the newly imported design, and to
name the design. Click Save. The newly created design will appear
in the Well Explorer tree.

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Exporting Data From the EDM Database


You can export well data from the EDM database in .XML format; this
data can then be imported directly into another EDM database. You can
also export data in DEX format.

Exporting Data in XML Format


To export well data for import into another database, follow these
steps:

1. In the Well Explorer, select the company, project, site, well,


wellbore, design, or case whose data you want to export and right-
click to open the pop-up menu. Select Export. The following
dialog box opens:

2. Specify a filename for the information you want to export, and click
Save. The parent and child data, and any linked pore pressures,
fracture gradients, etc. will be saved to the .XML file you
specified.

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Exporting Well Data in DEX Format


1. Select File > Data Exchange > Export from the main menu. The
following dialog box opens:

2. Specify a filename for the well information you want to export in


DEX format, and click Save. If this is the first time you have saved
DEX data using the specified filename, the export is complete at
this point. If the specified file already existed, the following dialog
opens to allow you to specify which objects you want to export.

3. Use the arrow buttons to move the desired data items into the lower
list box. Single arrow buttons move the highlighted file(s). Double
arrow buttons move all files. (Use the upward facing arrows to
remove items from the desired selection.)

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4. Click OK to start the export. The data will be saved to the .dxd file
you specified.

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Using Datums in EDM

Definition of Terms Associated With Datums


Datum terms are defined below, and are grouped by the Properties
dialog in which they are found.

Project Properties

System Datum:
The System Datum is set in the Project Properties > General dialog, and
represents absolute zero. It is the surface depth datum from which all
well depths are measured, and all well depths are stored in the database
relative to this datum. Usually the System Datum is Mean Sea Level,
Mean Ground Level, or Lowest Astronomical Tide, but it can also be the
wellhead, rigfloor, RKB, etc.

Elevation:
The Elevation is set in the Project Properties/General dialog, and
represents the elevation above Mean Sea Level. (If Mean Sea Level is
selected as the System datum, Elevation is grayed out.)

Well Properties

Depth Reference Datum(s):


The Depth Reference Datum represents zero MD. It is sometimes
known as the local datum, and is measured as an elevation from the
System Datum. You can define one or more Depth Reference Datums
for a well in the Depth Reference Tab (Well Properties Dialog). For each
Depth Reference Datum, you must specify the elevation above or below
the System Datum.

The selected default Depth Reference datum in the list box will be the
viewing datum in all applications (the viewing datum can be changed
‘on the fly’ only in OpenWells and COMPASS.)

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Chapter 2: The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database

You can’t delete or change the elevation of a Depth Reference datum


once it is referenced by a Design.

Offshore check box:


Check to indicate that this is an offshore well; leave unchecked to
indicate a land well.

Subsea check box: (offshore well)


Check to indicate that this offshore well is subsea.

Ground Elevation: (land well)


This is the elevation of the ground above the System Datum; it is set in
the Depth Reference Tab (Well Properties Dialog).

Water Depth: (offshore well)


This is the total depth of the column of water (MSL to mudline); it is
referenced to Mean Sea Level.

Mudline Depth: (only for offshore subsea well)


This is the depth below system datum (MSL/LAT etc.) of the wellhead
flange.

Wellhead Depth: (subsea well)


This is the distance from the wellhead to the system datum, and is used
in some calculations where this is the hanging depth for casing leads
when set. To determine wellhead depth:

Wellhead Depth (to rig floor) = Depth Reference Datum + Wellhead


Depth

Wellhead Depth (set in the Well Properties > Depth Reference tab) is
positive for offshore subsea and negative for wellheads above MSL (i.e.,
onshore or offshore platform). So, it does not matter in the above
calculation whether it is offshore or subsea. Depth Reference Datum is
always positive. Both wellhead depth and wellhead elevation are
distances from the system datum to the flange.

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Wellhead Elevation: (platform and land wells)


This is the height above system datum (MSL/LAT) of the wellhead
flange (surface casing). It may happen that for some land wells using
ground level as the system datum that the user may have to enter a
negative value because the wellhead 'cellar' is often below the ground.

Air Gap (calculated)


This is the distance from the system datum to the rig floor, and is used
in some calculations for hydrostatic head. Air Gap is always positive. To
calculate air gap, the application uses:

z Air Gap (offshore wells) = Depth Reference Datum – Elevation

z Air Gap (land wells) = Depth Reference Datum – Ground Level

Elevation is set on the Project Properties > General tab and ground level
is set in the Well Properties > Depth Reference dialog.

Design Properties

Depth Reference Information:


From the drop-down list of defined Depth Reference datums, select the
datum you want to reference for this Design. Once you select a datum,
the Datum Elevation, Air Gap, current System Datum, Mudline Depth,
and Mudline TVD are all updated/calculated and displayed adjacent to
the rig elevation drawing on the Well Properties > Design Properties tab.

Setting Up Datums for Your Design


1. Using the Project Properties > General dialog, select the System
Datum you want to use.

2. Using the Project Properties > General dialog, in the Elevation


field, enter the value the System Datum is above Mean Sea Level.
If your System Datum is below Mean Sea Level, this number will
be negative. If your System Datum is Mean Sea Level, Elevation is
grayed out.

3. If the well is offshore, use the Well Properties > Depth Reference
dialog to:

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Chapter 2: The Engineer’s Data Model (EDM) Database

a) Check Offshore, and enter the Water Depth below the System
Datum.

b) If the well is subsea, check Subsea and enter the Wellhead Depth
below the System Datum.

4. If the well is a land well, use the Well Properties > Depth Reference
tab, make sure Offshore is unchecked, and enter the Ground Level
elevation above the System Datum.

5. Using the Well Properties > Depth Reference tab, define the Depth
Reference Datum (s) you want to use, such as RKB or Rigfloor.
Type the elevation above the System Datum in the Elevation field,
and specify the effective Date for the datum.

6. Import or create a design for this well.

7. In the Design Properties dialog, General tab, select the Depth


Reference Datum you want to use for this design from the drop-
down list of datums you defined in Step 5.

Changing the Datum


(WELLPLAN Only) If a Design was created using one Depth Reference
datum, and the Depth Reference datum is changed, then when the
Design is opened any depths that become negative will be changed to
zero, and all depth-related properties will be adjusted accordingly.

(StressCheck and CasingSeat Only) When you create a design and save
it for the first time, the EDM database keeps track of the Depth
Reference Datum that was set at the time. This "original" Depth
Reference Datum is not displayed; however, if you or someone else
changes the Depth Reference Datum in the Well Properties dialog, and
you then attempt to open that design, a warning message will appear.
You are warned that you are trying to change to a datum that is different
from the datum in which you originally saved the data, and any
calculations will be invalid unless you change your inputs (see details
here). You are given the choice to open the design/case in the original
datum, or to convert to the new datum. If you choose to convert your
data, the data will be adjusted. However, the change is NOT saved to
the database until you save the design, at which time the new datum
becomes the "original" datum.

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How this works:

If datum is same as original datum:


If you open a design or case where the Depth Reference Datum (set at
the Design level) is the same as the datum the data was originally saved
in, the design/case will open normally.

If datum is different than the original datum:


If you open a design or case where the Depth Reference Datum (set at
the Design level) is different from the original datum, the following
occurs:

1. The application checks to see if the well is a slant hole. If positive


inclination exists in wellpaths whose depths would become negative
after the datum shift, the program cannot make the adjustments; a
message pops up to inform you of this. Click Open to open the
design in the original datum; if you click Cancel, the design will not
open at all.

2. For wells other than slant holes, the program will issue this
message: "The currently selected design datum is different to the
datum with which the design was created. The application will then
attempt to adjust the data, but some data might be shifted or
removed. If you open the design, we strongly suggest that you
review your input data; any changes will not be saved to the
database until you explicitly save your data. Please select "Open" to
review the design using the datum with which it was created."

If you want to open the Design with the original elevation, select
Open. If you want to convert the data to the new elevation, select
Adjust. Open is the default.
• If you enter "Open": Data is loaded to the original design datum,
but the Depth Reference Datum set in the Design will NOT
change to match the original datum.

• If you enter "Adjust": Well Explorer loads the data to the new
Wellbore datum and attempts to adjust the data; however, some
data may be shifted or removed. The program will resolve the
deltas in the first depths of column data (strings, wellpaths,

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columns, etc.) to adjust for the new gap and read zero depth on
the first line.

Note: After Opening a Design...

Once you open the design you should review your input data; remember that the
changes will not be saved to the database until you explicitly save your data.

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54 WELLPLAN Landmark
Chapter 3
Using the Well Explorer

Overview

In this chapter, you will become familiar with using the Well Explorer.
You will expand your knowledge of the hierarchical levels of the EDM
database you discussed in the last chapter.

In this section of the course, you will become familiar with:

‰ Components of the Well Explorer

‰ Data levels accessible using the Well Explorer

‰ Items associated with each data level

‰ Creating a new company

‰ Creating a new project

‰ Creating a new site

‰ Creating a new well

‰ Creating a new wellbore

‰ Creating a new design

‰ Creating a new case

‰ Catalogs

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Chapter 3: Using the Well Explorer

Describing the Well Explorer

The Well Explorer allows you to browse the Engineer’s Data Model
(EDM) database at seven hierarchical levels: companies, projects, sites,
wells, wellbores, designs, and cases. Using the tree-like interface, you
can perform basic file management tasks within the Well Explorer.

The Well Explorer display will vary slightly from one application to
another. For example, Drilling applications that do not use Cases (such
as StressCheck, CasingSeat, and COMPASS) will not display Cases in
their Well Explorer. Production products (TOW, DSS, and ARIES) use
the Desktop Navigator to navigate through production hierarchical
entities.

The Well Explorer is shown in the following figure.


Click to display or hide the Well
Explorer (located on the main toolbar)
The Recent Bar displays the last selected
data items; use it to quickly open recently
used items.

Well Explorer

The currently selected data item is


a Case in this example.

The Associated Data Viewer


displays items associated with
the selected data item. (A case in
this example.) You can open the
associated item’s editor by Word document is linked to the selected
double-clicking on the item in the Design as an “attached document”.
viewer.

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Components of the Well Explorer

The Tree
The hierarchical tree functions much like the Microsoft Windows
Explorer. You can view and manipulate different levels within the
EDM data model hierarchy, in a fashion similar to a directory tree.
Operations are:

• Left mouse button is used to expand or contract branches of the


data tree and to select. Click the + sign to expand the hierarchy and
click the - sign to contract it. Refresh the display with the F5 key.

• The right mouse button has a context-sensitive menu. Depending


on the hierarchical level you have highlighted (Company, Project,
Site, Well, Wellbore, Design, Case, Wellpaths, Pore Pressure
Groups, Fracture Gradient Groups, Geothermal Gradient Groups,
Hole Section Groups, Assemblies, Fluids, and Catalogs) the menu
will populate with all of the relevant options. (New data item, New
Attachment, Copy, Paste, Delete, Properties, etc.)

• On-Demand Editing: By double-clicking on the Wellpath, Pore


Pressure, Fracture Gradient. or Geothermal Gradient, you can
open their respective spreadsheets directly from the Well Explorer
for editing. Alternatively, you can right-click on these items and
select Open.

Associated Data Components


Data components that are associated with a design or case are displayed
in the Associated Data Viewer at the base of the Well Explorer.

Data Components Associated With a Design


Data components that can be associated with a design are: Attached
documents, Fracture Gradient Groups, Pore Pressure Groups,
Geothermal Gradient Groups, and the Wellpath associated with the
design. The data items associated to the design are used in all the cases
below the design in the hierarchy.

By double-clicking on the Geothermal Gradient, Wellpath, Pore


Pressure, or Fracture Gradient, you can open their respective
spreadsheets directly from the Well Explorer for editing. Alternatively,
you can right-click on these items and select Open.

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Data Components Associated With a Case


Data components that can be associated with a Case are: Attached
Documents, Assemblies, Hole Sections, and Fluids. The associated
items can be used in more than one case. WELLPLAN is the only
Landmark Drilling software application that uses Cases, so associating
data to a Case pertains only to WELLPLAN.

Note: If you change a fluid, assembly, or hole section that is used in


more than one case...

the change affects all cases associated to that fluid, assembly, or hole section.

Attached Documents
You can "attach" any kind of file or shortcut created in Windows to the
selected data item (Design Case, etc.) in the Well Explorer tree.
Attached documents are associated with the selected data item, will be
displayed in the Associated Data Viewer at the base of the Well
Explorer, and can be launched in their native applications by double-
clicking. You can attach Word documents, Excel spreadsheets, pictures
(GIF, TIFF, JPG, PowerPoint, etc.), or other file types with a recognized
extension. For example, if you have a Design selected in the Well
Explorer, you can attach a map of the rigsite in JPG format.

Attachments can be stored in the database as a copy, or as a link to a disk


file.

z Link: Only the link to the disk file is stored in the database. Any
edits you make are saved to the original disk file. You can edit the
document directly from the Well Explorer, or you can edit the disk
file from it’s disk location; the changes are reflected in both places.
When stored as a link the attachment can only be accessed by users
whose contact to the attachment is not limited by their access to the
machine or network access. Attachments stored as a link can be
edited by any user with access to the original document through the
link. When an attachment is added as a link, it can only be viewed
on the machine in which the attachment was initially added. For all
other users the shortcut is visible and acts as a placeholder to
inform users that it exists. Any information on the shortcut should
be placed in the properties page description field, since the
properties of the shortcut are visible in the preview pane for all
users. Landmark recommends use of UNC file paths to avoid
problems with inconsistently mapped network drives. In the
Associated Data Viewer, the icon representing a Linked document

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is shown as a paperclip with a small arrow in the lower left corner.


This is the default behavior.

z Copy: The document is copied to the database. Once copied, the


document has no relationship with the original disk file; if you
make changes to the Well Explorer copy, those changes are not
reflected in the disk file, and vice-versa. Attachments stored in the
database cannot be directly edited. When a change is made to the
attachment it is stored locally and must be re-added to the database
and either renamed or the existing attachment replaced. In the
Associated Data Viewer, the icon representing a Copied document
is shown as a paperclip.

Attached documents can be copied from one data item to another using
the right-click Copy option, saved to another name using Save As, and
deleted (if copied) or detached (if linked) using Delete. To view the
current properties of the attachment, select Properties from the right-
click menu.

To Attach a Document
1. With the selected data item (Design, for example) selected in the
tree, right-click and select New Attachment.

2. A dialog box will open, allowing you type a Description of the


document, and Browse for the Attachment path to the document’s
location. Click the Save attachment as a link/shortcut only
checkbox if you want to save the attachment as a link. If you leave
this box unchecked the document will be copied.

3. Click OK. The attached document will appear in the Associated


Data Viewer at the base of the Well Explorer.

To Delete an Attached Document


1. In the Associated Data Viewer, select the attachment you want to
delete.

2. Right-click and select Delete. If it is a Copied attachment, the


document will be deleted. If it is a Linked attachment, only the link
will be deleted from the database; the disk file will still exist.

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To Copy an Attached Document to Another Data Item


1. In the Associated Data Viewer, select the attachment you want to
copy.

2. Right-click and select Copy. In the Well Explorer, navigate to the


desired data item (a Case, for example). Right-click and select
Paste. (Or, drag and drop the attachment from one data item to
another.) The Associated Data Viewer for that data item will
display the copied attachment.

The Recent Bar


To save time, you can use the Recent bar to select a recently used
Design, Case, or Catalog, instead of browsing for the desired item in
the Well Explorer.

The Recent bar is usually displayed near the top of the application
window along with the rest of the toolbars.

To display the list of recently used designs, cases, or catalogs, click on


the drop-down list. Select the item you want to use from the list, and it
will be displayed in the main window.

Displaying/Hiding the Well Explorer and Recent Bar


By default, the Well Explorer and Recent Bar are displayed. To toggle
between displaying and hiding the Well Explorer and Recent Bar, select
View > Well Explorer, or click the icon on the Database toolbar.

Refreshing the Well Explorer


Press the F5 key to refresh the Well Explorer.

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Positioning the Well Explorer


By default, the Well Explorer is normally found just below the menu
bar, on the left side on the main window. However, the Well Explorer is
“undockable,” which means it can be moved around the application
frame and adjusted to fit your needs.

To undock the Well Explorer, click anywhere on the Well Explorer’s


light gray border and drag it away from its present position. When the
toolbar is attached to any edge of the application frame (such as the
menu bar) and then moved away from it, its border changes. At this
point you can release the mouse button. The Well Explorer resides in a
palette window that “floats” above the application frame. You can
move the Well Explorer to another portion of the screen by clicking
anywhere in its light gray border or title bar and then dragging it.

To re-dock the Well Explorer, drag it to any edge of the application


frame. When the Well Explorer approaches a valid docking position, its
border suddenly changes, at which point you can release the mouse
button.

Tracking Data Modifications


You can track modification of data using the Audit tab on the Properties
dialog for each data type (using the Well Explorer, right click on
Company, Project, Site, Well, Wellbore, Design, Case, Catalog,

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Wellpath, Pore Pressure, Fracture Pressure, Geothermal Gradient, Hole


Section, Assemblies, or Fluids, then click the Audit tab).
This information indicates who created the
company, project, site, well, wellbore,
design, etc. Also displayed is the date the
item was created as well as the application
that was used to create the item.

This information indicates


who modified the company,
project, site, well, wellbore,
design, etc. Also displayed
is the date the item was
modified as well as the
application that was used to
modify the item.

Type comments as
desired to assist with
tracking the use of the
software. New
comments are
appended to existing
comments.

Drag and Drop Rules


"Drag and drop" in the Well Explorer functions somewhat like the
Microsoft Windows Explorer. You can use drag and drop to copy
Companies, Projects, Sites, Wells, Wellbores, Designs, Cases, as well as
associated data items and attached documents.

All drag and drop operations copy the data; data is never cut or moved.

z To copy - Drag and drop the item to copy it from one location and
paste it into another. The item and all associated data will be copied
and pasted.

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You can drag and drop associated items (Wellpaths, Pore Pressures,
Fracture Gradients, Geothermal Gradients, Hole Sections, Assemblies,
etc.) into open Designs or Cases from the Associated Data Viewer at the
base of the Well Explorer. The application will automatically update
itself with the copied data.

Some rules:

z You cannot drag and drop an Actual Design. However, if you copy
a Wellbore, any Actual Designs under that Wellbore are copied.
This is also true for copying done at the Well, Site, Project, and
Company level.

z You cannot drag a Wellpath from the Associated Data Viewer into
an Actual Design.

z If you drag a Planned or Prototype Design to a different Project,


targets will not be copied with the Design. As a result, the plan will
no longer have any targets associated with it.

z Depending where a Design sidetrack Wellbore is dropped, Plan and


Survey tie-on information may be lost, and as a result, survey
program may be missing information.

z (COMPASS only) If a Survey is dropped onto a Wellbore or Actual


Design in another Company, the Survey will lose its tool
information.

z You cannot drag and drop Catalogs. Instead, you must use the right-
click menu Copy and Paste functions

Well Explorer Right-Click Menus


When you click on something in the Well Explorer (a Well, Design,
etc.), right-clicking brings up a menu of options pertinent to that

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hierarchical level. The options on each hierarchical level are discussed


below.

Working at the Database Level


When a Database is selected on the Well Explorer, the following right-
click menu items are available:
Command Description
New Company Choosing this option displays the Company Properties dialog.
(page 64)

Instant Case Use Instant Case to quickly create a new case. Choosing this
command displays the Instant Case dialog box, which allows
you to quickly select the hierarchy you want -
Company, Project, Site, Well, Wellbore, Design, and Case- from
drop-down lists of existing database entries. After making your
selections, click OK to create the Case. (page 65)

Export Use Export to make a copy of all libraries and write them to an
XML file. This XML file can be sent to another user so that they
can use any libraries you may have created. (page 66)

Import The Import command allows you to import .xml files, libraries,
and workspace files into the database that was exported using the
Export command. See “Import (Database Level)” on page 66 for
more information. (page 66)

Properties The Properties command allows you to specify the real-time


configuration information for the database.

Well Name Choosing this option displays a sub menu from which you can
select how to name the wells in your project. (page 67)

Wellbore Name Choosing this option displays a sub menu from which you can
select how to name the wellbores in your project. (page 68)

Refresh Use this command to refresh (update) the Well Explorer tree
with any changed information. Pressing the F5 key is another
way to refresh. (page 68)
Expand All To expand all levels below the Database level. (page 68)

Collapse All Use this command to collapse all levels below the Database
level. (page 68)

New Company (Database Level)


To create a new company, select the database canister and right-click;
select New Company. The Company Properties dialog opens. The
fields and controls on the Company Properties dialog are explained in
detail on page 71.

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If you want to “lock” the data and


prevent changes to the company-only
data, set the Company Level
password; to prevent changes to the
company data and all levels below it,
set the Locked Data password.
Toggle “Company is locked:” on after
setting passwords.

Instant Case (Database Level)


Use this dialog to quickly and easily create the hierarchy required to
start a case, from the company all the way down to the design. This
allows you to enter minimal information and the effort of going through
the individual property dialogs at each level of the hierarchy.

Select the Company, Project, and Site from


the drop-down list of existing companies,
projects, or sites. You can also enter a new
name for the data level.

Enter the name of the Well,


Wellbore, and Plan.

Specify datum information.

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Export (Database Level)


The Export command allows you to export all libraries (fluid and string)
that you have created to an xml file. You can provide the xml file to
another user. That user can import the file containing the libraries and
can then use the libraries you created. Refer to “Using Libraries” on
page 148 for more information.

Import (Database Level)


The Import command allows you to import a .xml file containing data,
libraries, or workspaces into the database that was exported using the
Export command. If the import file contains analysis data, the entire
hierarchy of the Well (Company, Project, and Site, and well as any
child data, such as Wellbore, Design, etc.) are included in the file.

When you select Import, the Import well dialog opens, prompting for
the XML filename to import. Type the filename, or browse for the file.
Click Open. The Well hierarchical data will be imported into the EDM
database.

Properties (Database Level)


Use the Properties command to access the Real-Time Configuration tab.
This tab is used to specify real-time mnemonics for log curves that are
going into the EDM database via OpenWire for use in real-time Torque
and Drag/Hydraulics analyses in WELLPLAN. When you set the real-
time configuration properties at the database level, every company
within the database will inherit those real-time properties. However, you
can change the real-time properties for an individual company within
the database by right-clicking on the company and selecting Properties
> Real Time Configurations tab.

Real-Time Configuration Properties...

You must have correctly specified log mnemonics prior to initiating data transfer
using OpenWire. If the mnemonics are not correctly specified, the data transfer
will not occur.

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Real-Time Mnemonics are Case Sensitive...

Real-time mnemonics are case sensitive. Be sure to type them into the Real-Time
Configuration tab just as they will appear in the WITSML 1.2 data from your
service provider.

Mnemonics are case


sensitive! Be sure to type
them just as they will
appear in the WITSML 1.2
data.

Well Name (Database Level)


Choosing this option displays a sub menu from which you can select
how to name the wells in your project. The options are:

z Common Name - Short/abbreviated well name given to well for


day-to-day reference.

z Legal Name - Formal well name assigned for documentation


purposes.

z Universal Identifier - A coded well name that varies from region to


region.

Note: You can choose only one of the naming options Common Name,
Legal Name, or Universal Identifier. You can use Slot Name in
conjunction with the other naming conventions.

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Wellbore Name (Database Level)


Choosing this option displays a sub menu from which you can select
how to name the wellbores in your project. The options are:

z Common Name - Short/abbreviated well name given to well for


day-to-day reference.

z Legal Name - Formal well name assigned for documentation


purposes.

z Universal Identifier - A coded well name that varies from region to


region.

Note: You can choose only one of the naming options Common Name,
Legal Name, or Universal Identifier.

Refresh (Database Level)


Use this command to update the Well Explorer tree to show any
additions, changes, and deletions.

Expand All (Database Level)


This command expands all nodes below the selected level in the Well
Explorer tree.

Collapse All (Database Level)


This command collapses all nodes below the selected level in the Well
Explorer tree.

Working at the Company Level


In the Well Explorer, when you right click on a company, the right click
menu displays the following choices:

Command Description
New Project Create a new project for the selected company (page 69).

New Displays the Attachment Properties dialog. (page 70)


Attachment

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Paste Paste copied company information from the Clipboard


(page 70).

Rename Activates the selected data item in the Tree, enabling you to edit
the name. (page 70)

Delete Delete the selected company and all associated child information
(page 70).

Export Export the selected company’s hierarchical information to an


XML file (page 71).

Properties View or edit the selected company’s properties (page 71).

Expand All To expand all levels below the company level in the Well
Explorer (page 74).

Collapse All Collapses all levels below the company level in the Well
Explorer. (page 74)

New Project (Company Level)


To create a new project, select a Company and right-click; select New
Project. The Project Properties dialog opens.

The fields and controls on the Project Properties dialog are explained in
detail on page 77.

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New Attachment (Company Level)


Use this dialog to associate a document or picture (Word, Excel, text
file, JPG, etc.). Document can be of any type with a recognized
extension.

Enter text that


provides detailed
descriptive Use the Browse
information about button to navigate
this attachment. to the location of
the file. If you
know the path,
you can enter it
without using the
Browse button.

Check the Save attachment as a link/shortcut only box if you want to save the attachment
as a link only. If you check this box, only the link to the disk file is stored in the database. Any
edits you make are saved to the original disk file. You can edit the document directly from the
Well Explorer, or you can edit the disk file from its disk location; the changes are reflected in
both places. In the Associated Data Viewer, the icon representing a Linked document is shown
as a paperclip with a small arrow in the lower left corner.

Paste (Company Level)


Use this command to paste (insert) the contents of the Clipboard at the
location currently selected in the Well Explorer.

In order for this function to be effective you must have Copied (saved)
company data to the Clipboard.

Rename (Company Level)


Use this command to rename the item. You can also rename the data
hierarchy item by highlighting it and the clicking once on it. Type the
new name in the box that appears around the current name.

Delete (Company Level)


Use this command to remove the selected Company from the database.
A confirmation box will open, asking if you are sure you want to delete
the company and all its associated data. Click Yes or No, as
appropriate.

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Export (Company Level)


Use this command to export the selected Company’s data in XML
format. Includes any child information associated with the Company. A
dialog will open, allowing you to supply a directory and filename for
the XML file.

Properties (Company Level)


Selecting this command allows you to view or edit Company
properties. The Company Properties dialog opens.

Company Properties Dialog


The Company Properties dialog is used to create a new company and to
provide information regarding creation and modification of the
company. This dialog contains three tabs: General, Real Time
Configuration, and Audit.

General Tab (Company Properties Dialog)


Use to specify a unique company name that identifies the company, and
to provide additional information related to the company. This tab is
also used to lock the company and/or associated data to protect against
undesired changes to the data associated with the company. A company
name is required. Additional information on this dialog is used for
informational and reporting purposes and is not required.

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The following fields are present:

Details

• Company—Type the name of the company. The company name


uniquely identifies the company, and no two companies can have
the same name.

If the “Company is locked” box is checked...

you will not be able to edit any of the fields.

• Division—Type the division of the company.

• Group—Type the company group.

Contact

• Representative—Type the name of the company representative.

• Address—Type the company’s address.

• Telephone—Type the telephone number of the company or the


company representative.

Company is Locked Checkbox

Check this box to prevent editing of the company data. If this box is
checked and either a Company Level or Locked Data password has
been specified, you will be prompted for the password before you can
uncheck this box.

Passwords

• Locked Data—Click to specify a password to “lock” all data


associated with the company, including all projects, sites, wells,
wellbores, scenarios, and cases.

To change the locked data password: go to the Well Explorer and


right click on the Company, select Properties, select General tab,
and then click the Locked Data password button. Enter the old
password and the new password (twice), then click OK.

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• Company Level—Click to specify a password to “lock” only the


company data. The company level password is only active if the
“Company is locked” box is checked on the Company Properties >
General tab.

Real Time Configurations Tab


Use the Real-Time Configuration tab to specify real-time mnemonics
for log curves that are going into the EDM database via OpenWire for
use in real-time Torque and Drag/Hydraulics analyses in WELLPLAN.
When you set the real-time configuration properties at the company
level, only this company within the database will inherit those real-time
properties. You can specify real time configurations for all companies
within the database at the database level. Refer to “Properties (Database
Level)” on page 66.

Real-Time Configuration Properties...

You must have correctly specified log mnemonics prior to initiating data transfer
using OpenWire. If the mnemonics are not correctly specified, the data transfer
will not occur.

Real-Time Mnemonics are Case Sensitive...

Real-time mnemonics are case sensitive. Be sure to type them into the Real-Time
Configuration tab just as they will appear in the WITSML 1.2 data from your
service provider.

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Audit Tab (Company Properties Dialog)


Use Audit Tab to display when the company was created and to identify
the last modification date as well as the person that modified the data.
The Audit tab fields are detailed in “Tracking Data Modifications” on
page 61.

You can re-open the Company Properties dialog at any time to view or
edit the data by right-clicking on the company name in the Well
Explorer and selecting Properties from the right-click menu.

Expand All (Company Level)


Select this command to expand all nodes in the Well Explorer below
the selected Company.

Collapse All (Company Level)


Select this command to collapse all nodes in the Well Explorer below
the selected Company.

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Working at the Project Level


In the Well Explorer, when you right click on a project, the right click
menu displays the following choices:

Command Description
New Site Create a new site for the selected project (page 76).

New Displays the Attachment Properties dialog. Refer to “New


Attachment Attachment (Company Level)” on page 70 for more information.

Copy Copy the selected project data to the Clipboard (page 76).

Paste Paste copied project information (page 76).

Rename Activates the selected data item in the Tree, enabling you to edit
the name. (page 77)

Delete Delete the selected project and all associated child information
(page 77).

Export Export the selected project’s hierarchical information to an XML


file (page 77).

Properties View or edit the project properties (page 77).

Expand All To expand all levels below the project level in the Well Explorer
(page 79).

Collapse All To collapse all levels below the project level in the Well
Explorer. (page 79)

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New Site (Project Level)


To create a new site, select a project and right-click; select New Site.
The Site Properties dialog opens.

The fields and controls on the Site Properties dialog are explained in
detail on page 81.

New Attachment (Project Level)


Use this dialog to associate a document or picture (Word, Excel, text
file, JPG, etc.). The document can be of any type with a recognized
extension. Refer to “New Attachment (Company Level)” on page 70
for more information.

Copy (Project Level)


Use this command to copy the selected project from the Well Explorer
and save it to the Clipboard.

This command is disabled if nothing has been selected.

Paste (Project Level)


Use this command to paste (insert) the contents of the Clipboard at the
location currently selected in the Well Explorer.

In order for this function to be effective you must have Copied (saved)
project data to the Clipboard.

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Rename (Project Level)


Use this command to rename the item. You can also rename the data
hierarchy item by highlighting it and the clicking once on it. Type the
new name in the box that appears around the current name.

Delete (Project Level)


Use this command to remove the selected project from the database. A
confirmation box will open, asking if you are sure you want to delete
the project and all its associated data. Click Yes or No, as appropriate.

Export (Project Level)


Use this command to export the selected Project’s data in XML format.
Includes the hierarchical information above and any child information
associated with the Project. A dialog will open, allowing you to supply
a directory and filename for the XML file.

Properties (Project Level)


Selecting this command allows you to view or edit Project properties.
The Project Properties dialog opens.

Project Properties Dialog


The Project Properties dialog is used to create a new project and to
provide information regarding creation and modification of the project.
This dialog contains two tabs: General and Audit.

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General Tab (Project Properties Dialog)


Use to specify a unique project name that identifies the project, and to
provide additional information related to the project. This tab is also
used to lock the project and/or associated data to protect against
undesired changes to the data associated with the project. A project
name is required. Additional information on this dialog is used for
informational and reporting purposes and is not required.

The following fields are present:

Details

• Project—Type the name of the project. Project names must be


unique within a company.

If the “Project is locked” box is checked...

you will not be able to edit any of the fields.

• Description—Type a description of the project.

• System Datum Description drop-down list—Select a system


datum from the drop-down list or type a new datum. The system
datum describes absolute zero height or depth for the project, and
is the depth from which all wellbore depths are measured.

• Elevation —This value indicates where the System Datum is


relative to Mean Sea Level. For example, if you selected Lowest
Astronomical Tide, the value would be negative because LAT
would be below MSL. If you select Mean Sea Level, the Elevation
field below is grayed out.

Project is Locked Checkbox

Check this box to prevent editing of the project data. If this box is
checked and a Locked Data password has been specified, you will be
prompted for the password before you can uncheck this box. (See
“Data Locking” on page 36 for details on data locking.)

Audit Tab (Project Properties Dialog)


Use Audit Tab to display when the project was created and to identify
the last modification date as well as the person that modified the data.

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The Audit tab fields are detailed in “Tracking Data Modifications” on


page 61.

You can re-open the Project Properties dialog at any time to view or
edit the data by right-clicking on the Project name in the Well Explorer
and selecting Properties from the right-click menu.

Expand All (Project Level)


Select this command to expand all nodes in the Well Explorer below
the selected Project.

Collapse All (Project Level)


Select this command to collapse all nodes in the Well Explorer below
the selected Project.

Working at the Site Level


In the Well Explorer, when you right click on a site, the right click
menu displays the following choices:

Command Description
New Well Create a new well for the selected site (page 80).

New Displays the Attachment Properties dialog. Refer to “New


Attachment Attachment (Company Level)” on page 70 for more information.
Copy Copy the selected site data to the Clipboard (page 81).

Paste Paste copied site information (page 81).

Rename Activates the selected data item in the Tree, enabling you to edit
the name. (page 81)
Delete Delete the selected site and all associated child information
(page 81).

Export Export the selected site’s hierarchical information to an XML


file (page 81).

Properties View or edit the site properties (page 81).

Expand All To expand all levels below the site level in the Well Explorer
(page 84).

Collapse All To collapse all levels below the project level in the Well
Explorer. (page 84)

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New Well (Site Level)


To create a new well, select a site and right-click; select New Well. The
Well Properties dialog opens.

The fields and controls on the Well Properties dialog are explained in
detail on page 87.

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New Attachment (Site Level)


Use this dialog to associate a document or picture (Word, Excel, text
file, JPG, etc.). The document can be of any type with a recognized
extension. Refer to “New Attachment (Company Level)” on page 70
for more information.

Copy (Site Level)


Use this command to copy the selected site from the Well Explorer and
save it to the Clipboard.

Paste (Site Level)


Use this command to paste (insert) the contents of the Clipboard at the
location currently selected in the Well Explorer.

In order for this function to be effective you must have Copied (saved)
site data to the Clipboard.

Rename (Site Level)


Use this command to rename the item. You can also rename the data
hierarchy item by highlighting it and the clicking once on it. Type the
new name in the box that appears around the current name.

Delete (Site Level)


Use this command to remove the selected site from the database. A
confirmation box will open, asking if you are sure you want to delete
the site and all its associated data. Click Yes or No, as appropriate.

Export (Site Level)


Use this command to export the selected Site’s data in XML format.
Includes the hierarchical information above and any child information
associated with the Site. A dialog will open, allowing you to supply a
directory and filename for the XML file.

Properties (Site Level)


Selecting this command allows you to view or edit Site properties. The
Site Properties dialog opens.

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Site Properties Dialog


The Site Properties dialog is used to create a new site and to provide
information regarding creation and modification of the site.

General Tab (Site Properties Dialog)


Use to specify a unique site name that identifies the site, and to provide
additional information related to the site. This tab is also used to lock
the site and/or associated data to protect against undesired changes to
the data associated with the site. A site name is required. Additional
information on this dialog is used for informational and reporting
purposes and is not required.

The following fields are present:

Details

• Site—Type the name of the site. Site names must be unique within
a project. The site name should not be the rig name because rigs
are mobile. The site is not mobile.

If the “Site is locked” box is checked...

you will not be able to edit any of the fields.

• District—Type the district information for the site.

• Block—Type the block for the site.

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Security

• Tight Group Name - This is the security designation for this Site,
based on the current user’s access rights. UNRESTRICTED is the
default. Be careful - if you restrict this field, certain users will not
be able to view this Site. Tight groups are created in the EDM
Administration Utility through the EDM Security plug-in. They
are assigned in the Well Explorer at the site or well level.

Azimuth Reference

• North Reference - Indicate whether azimuth is specified from True


North or Grid North.

Site is Locked Checkbox

Check this box to prevent editing of the site data. If this box is checked
and a Locked Data password has been specified, you will be prompted
for the password before you can uncheck this box. (See “Data Locking”
on page 36 for details on data locking.)

Location Tab (Site Properties Dialog)


Use this Tab to specify site location information. All information on
this tab is optional, and is used for general information and reporting
purposes.

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Location

• Lease Name.—Type the name of the lease where the well is


located.

• County—Type the county where the well is located.

• State/Province—Type the state or province where the well is


located.

• Country—Type the country where the well is located.

Audit Tab (Project Properties Dialog)


Use Audit Tab to display when the site was created and to identify the
last modification date as well as the person that modified the data. The
Audit tab fields are detailed in “Tracking Data Modifications” on
page 61.

You can re-open the Site Properties dialog at any time to view or edit
the data by right-clicking on the Site name in the Well Explorer and
selecting Properties from the right-click menu.

Expand All (Site Level)


Select this command to expand all nodes in the Well Explorer below
the selected Site.

Collapse All (Site Level)


Select this command to collapse all nodes in the Well Explorer below
the selected Site.

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Working at the Well Level


In the Well Explorer, when you right click on a well, the right click
menu displays the following choices:

Command Description
New Wellbore Create a new wellbore for the selected well (page 85).

New Displays the Attachment Properties dialog. Refer to “New


Attachment Attachment (Company Level)” on page 70 for more information.

Copy Copy the selected well data, and all associated data, to the
Clipboard (page 86).
Paste Paste copied well information, including all associated data
(page 86).

Rename Activates the selected data item in the Tree, enabling you to edit
the name. (page 86)

Delete Delete the selected well and all associated child information
(page 87).
Export Export the selected well hierarchical information to an XML file
(page 87).

Properties View or edit the well properties (page 87).

Expand All To expand all levels below the well level in the Well Explorer
(page 92).

Collapse All To collapse all levels below the project level in the Well
Explorer. (page 92)

New Wellbore (Well Level)


To create a new wellbore, select a well and click New Wellbore. The

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Wellbore Properties dialog opens.

The fields and controls on the Wellbore Properties dialog are explained
in detail on page 95.

New Attachment (Well Level)


Use this dialog to associate a document or picture (Word, Excel, text
file, JPG, etc.). The document can be of any type with a recognized
extension. Refer to “New Attachment (Company Level)” on page 70
for more information.

Copy (Well Level)


Use this command to copy the selected well from the Well Explorer and
save it to the Clipboard.

Paste (Well Level)


Use this command to paste (insert) the contents of the Clipboard at the
location currently selected in the Well Explorer.

In order for this function to be effective you must have Copied (saved)
well data to the Clipboard.

Rename (Well Level)


Use this command to rename the item. You can also rename the data
hierarchy item by highlighting it and the clicking once on it. Type the
new name in the box that appears around the current name.

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Delete (Well Level)


Use this command to remove the selected well from the database. A
confirmation box will open, asking if you are sure you want to delete
the well and all its associated data. Click Yes or No, as appropriate.

Export (Well Level)


Use this command to export the selected Well’s data in XML format.
Includes the hierarchical information above and any child information
associated with the Well. A dialog will open, allowing you to supply a
directory and filename for the XML file.

Properties (Well Level)


Selecting this command allows you to view or edit Well properties. The
Well Properties dialog opens.

Well Properties Dialog


The Well Properties dialog is used to create a new well and to provide
information regarding creation and modification of the well. This
dialog contains the tabs: General, Depth Reference, and Audit.

General Tab (Well Properties Dialog)


Use to specify a unique well name that identifies the well, and to
provide additional information related to the well. This tab is also used
to select the unit system, lock the well and/or associated data to protect
against undesired changes to the data associated with the well. A well
name is required. Additional information on this dialog is used for
informational and reporting purposes and is not required.

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The following fields are present:

Details

• Well (Common)—Type the name the well is commonly known by.


This name will be used to identify the well using this software.

If the “Well is locked” box is checked...

you will not be able to edit any of the fields.

• Well (Legal)—Type the legal name of the well.

• Description—Type a short description of the well.

• Location String —Type, edit or view a short description of the


geographic description.

Unique Well Identifier

• U.W.I.—Type the Universal Well identifier for the well.

• Type—from the drop-down list, select the type of U.W.I: API,


HES/TKT, IODAS, etc.

• Well No.—Type the well number.

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Security

z Tight Group Name - This is the security designation for this Site,
based on the current user’s access rights. UNRESTRICTED is the
default. Be careful - if you restrict this field, certain users will not
be able to view this Site. Tight groups are created in the EDM
Administration Utility through the EDM Security plug-in. They are
assigned in the Well Explorer at the site or well level.

Active Unit System

z Well Units - Select the preferred well units for this well. When a
Design or Case is opened below this Well level, those units will be
used. You may choose from API or SI, plus any custom-defined
unit systems. Note that once you hit Apply, the well units you
selected will be applied to all designs and cases under that well,
whether they are open or not.

Well is Locked Checkbox

Check this box to prevent editing of the well data. If this box is checked
and a Locked Data password has been specified, you will be prompted
for the password before you can uncheck this box. (See “Data Locking”
on page 36 for details on data locking.)

Depth Reference Tab (Well Properties Dialog)


Use this Tab to specify datums for use in defining wellbore datums.

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Elevations above, Depths below: [System Datum]

This read-only label indicates what the current System Datum is, and
states that all elevations are measured ABOVE the System datum, and
all depths are measured BELOW the System datum. (The System datum
is specified on the General Tab (Project Properties).)

A drop-down list box below the label contains all defined Depth
Reference datums. Select the Depth Reference datum you want to use to
view and calculate data. If you do not specify a Depth Reference datum
here, a "Default Datum" with zero elevation above System datum will
be used.

Information about each datum includes:

z Datum - Type, edit or view the name of the datum.

z Default - When checked on, indicates that this is the default datum.
All Designs created below this Well will inherit the default datum.

z Elevation - Type, edit or view the elevation above the System


Datum (this must be a positive number). Note that if you have a
design associated with this datum, you cannot edit this field. If no
design is associated with this datum, you can edit the elevation.

z Rig Name - Type, edit, or view the name of the rig.

z Date - Type the date the datum was created. The program uses the
date field to determine which is the newest datum, and then uses
that datum as the default for new wellbores.

Configuration

z For a Land well - If the well is a land well, type the value for the
Ground Elevation above the System Datum (must be a positive
number). Leave Offshore unchecked.

z For an Offshore well - If the well is an offshore well:

• Check the Offshore checkbox to indicate it is an offshore well.

• Type the Water Depth (MSL to mudline). This is the column of


water.

• Type the Wellhead Elevation (positive above the System


Datum).

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z For an Offshore well that is Subsea - If the well is an offshore


well subsea:

• Check the Offshore checkbox.

• Check the Subsea checkbox (Offshore must be checked before


this option becomes available).

• Type the Water Depth (MSL to mudline). This is the column of


water.

• Type the Wellhead Depth. (positive below the System Datum


specified on the General Tab (Project Properties)).

Summary

In the Summary area, a graphic depicts the selected configuration


(onshore, offshore, or offshore subsea), and displays current values. The
following values are calculated and/or displayed:

z Datum - This is the default datum selected in the Well


Properties/Depth Reference dialog.

z Datum Elevation - This is the elevation of the default datum above


the System Datum.

z Air Gap - Air Gap measured to MSL is calculated and displayed.


Air Gap is the distance from ground level/sea level to the rig floor,
and is used in some calculations for hydrostatic head. Air Gap is
always positive. The application calculates Air Gap as follows:

• (Air Gap, offshore wells) = Datum Elevation – Elevation (of the


System Datum relative to Mean Sea Level).

• (Air Gap, land wells) = Datum Elevation – Ground Level


(relative to the System Datum).

Elevation is set in the Project Properties > General dialog. Ground Level
is set in the Well Properties > Depth Reference dialog. Datum Elevation
is the elevation for the Depth Reference Datum. Datum Elevation is
always positive. If you change the datum selection, the Air Gap updates
automatically.

Note that if you change the datum and it causes a negative air gap to be
calculated, a warning message will appear, informing you that you
cannot select this datum.

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[System Datum] - Display the current System Datum.

Mudline Depth (MSL) - (Offshore only) Display the distance from


MSL to the sea bed, which is

Water Depth – Elevation (System Datum offset from MSL, which is set
in the Project Properties dialog).

Mudline TVD - (Offshore only) Display the distance from the Depth
Reference Datum to the sea bed (datum Elevation + Water Depth).

Audit Tab (Well Properties Dialog)


Use Audit Tab to display when the well was created and to identify the
last modification date as well as the person that modified the data. The
Audit tab fields are detailed in “Tracking Data Modifications” on
page 61.

You can re-open the Well Properties dialog at any time to view or edit
the data by right-clicking on the Well name in the Well Explorer and
selecting Properties from the right-click menu.

Expand All (Well Level)


Select this command to expand all nodes in the Well Explorer below
the selected Well.

Collapse All (Well Level)


Select this command to collapse all nodes in the Well Explorer below
the selected Well.

Working at the Wellbore Level


In the Well Explorer, when you right click on a wellbore, the right click
menu displays the following choices:

Command Description
New Design Create a new design for the selected wellbore (page 93).

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New Create a design or case based on an OpenWells report.


Design/Case
from
OpenWells

New Displays the Attachment Properties dialog. Refer to “New


Attachment Attachment (Company Level)” on page 70 for more information.

Copy Copy the selected wellbore data to the Clipboard (page 94).
Paste Paste copied wellbore information (page 94).

Rename Activates the selected data item in the Tree, enabling you to edit
the name. (page 94)

Delete Delete the selected wellbore and all associated child information
(page 95).

Export Export the selected wellbore’s hierarchical information to an


XML file (page 95).
Properties View or edit the wellbore properties (page 95).

Expand All To expand all levels below the wellbore level in the Well
Explorer (page 97).

Collapse All To collapse all levels below the project level in the Well
Explorer. (page 97)

New Design (Wellbore Level)


To create a new design, select a wellbore and right-click; select New
Design. The Design Properties dialog opens.

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The fields and controls on the Design Properties dialog are explained in
detail on page 99.

New Design/Case from OpenWells


Use this dialog to bring a selected Casing Report, Fluids Report, or
Daily Operations Report over from OpenWells to WELLPLAN and
save the data as a case.

New Attachment (Wellbore Level)


Use this dialog to associate a document or picture (Word, Excel, text
file, JPG, etc.). The document can be of any type with a recognized
extension. Refer to “New Attachment (Company Level)” on page 70
for more information.

Cut (Wellbore Level)


Use this command to cut the selected wellbore from the Well Explorer
and save it to the clipboard.

Copy (Wellbore Level)


Use this command to copy the selected wellbore from the Well
Explorer and save it to the Clipboard.

Paste (Wellbore Level)


Use this command to paste (insert) the contents of the Clipboard at the
location currently selected in the Well Explorer.

In order for this function to be effective you must have Copied (saved)
wellbore data to the Clipboard.

Rename (Wellbore Level)


Use this command to rename the item. You can also rename the data
hierarchy item by highlighting it and the clicking once on it. Type the
new name in the box that appears around the current name.

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Delete (Wellbore Level)


Use this command to remove the selected wellbore from the database.
A confirmation box will open, asking if you are sure you want to delete
the wellbore and all its associated data. Click Yes or No, as appropriate.

Export (Wellbore Level)


Use this command to export the selected Wellbore’s data in XML
format. Includes the hierarchical information above and any child
information associated with the Wellbore. A dialog will open, allowing
you to supply a directory and filename for the XML file.

Properties (Wellbore Level)


Selecting this command allows you to view or edit Wellbore properties.
The Wellbore Properties dialog opens.

Wellbore Properties Dialog


The Wellbore Properties dialog is used to create a new wellbore and to
provide information regarding creation and modification of the
wellbore. This dialog contains two tabs: General and Audit.

General Tab (Wellbore Properties Dialog)


Use to specify a unique wellbore name that identifies the wellbore, and
to provide additional information related to the wellbore. This tab is
also used to lock the wellbore and/or associated data to protect against
undesired changes to the data associated with the wellbore. A wellbore
name is required. Additional information on this dialog is used for
informational and reporting purposes and is not required.

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The following fields are present:

Details

• Wellbore—Type the name that will be used to identify the


wellbore. The name must be unique.

If the “Wellbore is locked” box is checked...

you will not be able to edit any of the fields.

Sidetrack from an Existing Wellbore

• Parent Wellbore—If the wellbore is a sidetrack, select the


wellbore that contains the starting point.

Wellbore is locked checkbox

Check this box to prevent editing of the wellbore data. If this box is
checked and a Locked Data password has been specified, you will be
prompted for the password before you can uncheck this box. (See
“Data Locking” on page 36 for details on data locking.)

Audit Tab (Wellbore Properties Dialog)


Use Audit Tab to display when the wellbore was created and to identify
the last modification date as well as the person that modified the data.
The Audit tab fields are detailed in “Tracking Data Modifications” on
page 61.

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You can re-open the Wellbore Properties dialog at any time to view or
edit the data by right-clicking on the Wellbore name in the Well
Explorer and selecting Properties from the right-click menu.

Expand All (Wellbore Level)


Select this command to expand all nodes in the Well Explorer below
the selected wellbore.

Collapse All (Wellbore Level)


Select this command to collapse all nodes in the Well Explorer below
the selected Wellbore.

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Working at the Design Level


In the Well Explorer, when you right click on a design, the right click
menu displays the following choices:

Command Description
New Case (WELLPLAN only) Create a new case for the selected design
(page 98).

New Displays the Attachment Properties dialog. Refer to “New


Attachment Attachment (Company Level)” on page 70 for more information.

Copy Copy the selected design data to the Clipboard (page 99).
Paste Paste copied design information (page 99).

Rename Activates the selected data item in the Tree, enabling you to edit
the name. (page 99)

Delete Delete the selected design and all associated child information
(page 99).

Export Export the selected design’s hierarchical information to an XML


file (page 99).

Properties View or edit the design properties (page 100).

Expand All To expand all levels below the design level in the Well Explorer
(page 102).

Collapse All To collapse all levels below the project level in the Well
Explorer. (page 102)

New Case (Design Level)


To create a new case, select a design and right-click; select New Case.
The Case Properties dialog opens.

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The fields and controls on the Case Properties dialog are explained in
detail on page 104.

New Attachment (Design Level)


Use this dialog to associate a document or picture (Word, Excel, text
file, JPG, etc.). The document can be of any type with a recognized
extension. Refer to “New Attachment (Company Level)” on page 70
for more information.

Copy (Design Level)


Use this command to copy the selected design from the Well Explorer
and save it to the Clipboard.

Paste (Design Level)


Use this command to paste (insert) the contents of the Clipboard at the
location currently selected in the Well Explorer.

In order for this function to be effective you must have Copied (saved)
design data to the Clipboard.

Rename (Design Level)


Use this command to rename the item. You can also rename the data
hierarchy item by highlighting it and the clicking once on it. Type the
new name in the box that appears around the current name.

Delete (Design Level)


Use this command to remove the selected design from the database. A
confirmation box will open, asking if you are sure you want to delete
the design and all its associated data. Click Yes or No, as appropriate.

Export (Design Level)


Use this command to export the selected Design’s data in XML format.
Includes the hierarchical information above and any child information
associated with the Design. A dialog will open, allowing you to supply
a directory and filename for the XML file.

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Properties (Design Level)


Selecting this command allows you to view or edit Design properties.
The Design Properties dialog opens.

Design Properties Dialog


The Design Properties dialog is used to create a new design and to
provide information regarding creation and modification of the design.
This dialog contains two tabs: General and Audit.

General Tab (Design Properties Dialog)


Use to specify a unique design name that identifies the design, and to
provide additional information related to the design. This tab is also
used to lock the design and/or associated data to protect against
undesired changes to the data associated with the design. A design
name is required. Additional information on this dialog is used for
informational and reporting purposes and is not required.

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The following fields are present:

Details

• Design—Type the name that will be used to identify the design.


The name must be unique.

If the “Design is locked” box is checked...

you will not be able to edit any of the fields.

• Version—Type the version of the design.

• Phase—Select the phase of the design from the drop-down list box
(Prototype, Planned or Actual). The list of phases that appear in
the combo box is filtered; you can only have one design marked as
"Planned" and one marked as "Actual." The Planned or Actual
option is removed from the drop-down list box if another design
for the same Wellbore already has it set. You can have as many
Prototype (the default) designs as desired.

• Effective Date—Select the date from the drop-down list box. A


calendar dialog will open. Use the arrow buttons on the calendar
dialog to move to the desired month, then click on the day. The
date you selected will populate the field.

Click arrows to
change to desired
month.

Click on the desired


day

Depth Reference Information

Select the Depth Reference datum you want to use for this Design from
the drop-down list of Depth Reference datums that were defined at the
Well level. All other fields are display-only or calculated:

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Design is locked checkbox

Check this box to prevent editing of the design data. If this box is
checked and a Locked Data password has been specified, you will be
prompted for the password before you can uncheck this box. (See
“Data Locking” on page 36 for details on data locking.)

Audit Tab (Design Properties Dialog)


Use Audit Tab to display when the design was created and to identify
the last modification date as well as the person that modified the data.
The Audit tab fields are detailed in “Tracking Data Modifications” on
page 61.

You can re-open the Design Properties dialog at any time to view or
edit the data by right-clicking on the Design name in the Well Explorer
and selecting Properties from the right-click menu.

Expand All (Design Level)


Select this command to expand all nodes in the Well Explorer below
the selected design.

Collapse All (Design Level)


Select this command to collapse all nodes in the Well Explorer below
the selected Well.

Working at the Case Level (WELLPLAN Only)


In the Well Explorer, when you right click on a case, the right click
menu displays the following choices:

Command Description
Open Open the selected case (page 103).
Close Close the currently open case (page 103).

Clear Active Clear the active workspace (page 103).


Workspace

New Displays the Attachment Properties dialog. Refer to “New


Attachment Attachment (Company Level)” on page 70 for more information.
Copy Copy the selected case data to the Clipboard (page 103).

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Paste Paste copied case information (page 99).

Rename Activates the selected data item in the Tree, enabling you to edit
the name. (page 99)

Delete Delete the selected case and all associated child information
(page 104).
Export Export the selected case’s hierarchical information to an XML
file (page 104).

Properties View or edit the case properties (page 104).

Open (Case Level)


Use this command to open the selected Case.

Close (Case Level)


Use this command to close the currently open Case. When prompted,
click Yes or No to indicate whether or not to save changes made to the
case.

Clear Active Workspace (Case Level)


Use this command to clear the active workspace. The active workspace
is stored in the database and contains the configuration and layout of
the tabs. If you are using a Module Workspace, this option will not
remove the workspace. If you no longer want to use the Module
Workspace, you must right-click on it in the Well Explorer, and select
Delete from the right-click menu.

New Attachment (Case Level)


Use this dialog to associate a document or picture (Word, Excel, text
file, JPG, etc.). The document can be of any type with a recognized
extension. Refer to “New Attachment (Company Level)” on page 70
for more information.

Copy (Case Level)


Use this command to copy the selected case from the Well Explorer and
save it to the Clipboard.

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Paste (Case Level)


Use this command to paste (insert) the contents of the Clipboard at the
location currently selected in the Well Explorer.

In order for this function to be effective you must have Copied (saved)
design data to the Clipboard.

Rename (Case Level)


Use this command to rename the item. You can also rename the data
hierarchy item by highlighting it and the clicking once on it. Type the
new name in the box that appears around the current name.

Delete (Case Level)


Use this command to remove the selected case from the database. A
confirmation box will open, asking if you are sure you want to delete
the case and all its associated data. Click Yes or No, as appropriate.

Export (Case Level)


Use this command to export the selected Case’s data in XML format.
Includes the hierarchical information above and any child information
associated with the Case. A dialog will open, allowing you to supply a
directory and filename for the XML file.

Properties (Case Level)


Selecting this command allows you to view or edit Case properties. The
Case Properties dialog opens.

Case Properties Dialog


The Case Properties dialog is used to create a new case and to provide
information regarding creation and modification of the case. This
dialog contains four tabs: General, Job, Contact, and Audit.

General Tab (Case Properties Dialog)


Use to specify a unique case name that identifies the case, and to
provide additional information related to the case. This tab is also used
to lock the case and/or associated data to protect against undesired

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changes to the data associated with the case. A case name is required.
Additional information on this dialog is used for informational and
reporting purposes and is not required.

The following fields are present:

Details

• Case—Type the name that will be used to identify the case. The
name must be unique.

If the “Case is locked” box is checked...

you will not be able to edit any of the fields.

• Description—Type a description of the case.

Case is locked checkbox

Check this box to prevent editing of the case data. If this box is checked
and a Locked Data password has been specified, you will be prompted
for the password before you can uncheck this box. (See “Data Locking”
on page 36 for details on data locking.)

Job Tab (Case Properties Dialog)


Use to specify information about the case, particularly for cementing
jobs. Additional information on this dialog is used for informational
and reporting purposes and is not required.

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The following fields are present:

Job Details

• Date—You must select the date from the calendar. To enable the
calendar, click the downward arrow or press F4. A calendar dialog
will open. Use the arrow buttons on the calendar dialog to move to
the desired month, then click on the day. The date you selected will
populate the field. If this case is a cement job, this will be the date
the cement job was run.

Click arrows to
change to desired
month.

Click on the desired


day

• Description—Type a short description of the job.

• Pipe Size—Type the pipe size. Although the pipe size can be
specified independent of the String Editor, the pipe size will
default from the outside diameter of the first casing listed in the
String Editor.

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Contact Tab (Case Properties Dialog)


Use to specify contact information about the case. Additional
information on this dialog is used for informational and reporting
purposes and is not required.

The following fields are present:

Contact Details

• Company—Type the name of the company associated with this


case.

• Representative—Type the name of the person to contact about this


case within the company.

• Address—Type the address of the representative or the address of


the company for this case.

• Telephone—Type the telephone number for the representative or


the company.

Audit Tab (Case Properties Dialog)


Use Audit Tab to display when the case was created and to identify the
last modification date as well as the person that modified the data. The
Audit tab fields are detailed in “Tracking Data Modifications” on
page 61.

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You can re-open the Case Properties dialog at any time to view or edit
the data by right-clicking on the Case name in the Well Explorer and
selecting Properties from the right-click menu.

Working With Design- and Case-Associated Components


There are several data components that are associated at either the
Design or Case level; they are used to define the drilling problem that
you want to analyze. Associated components include:

• Wellpaths
• Pore Pressure Groups
• Fracture Gradient Groups
• Geothermal Gradient Groups
• Hole Section Groups
• Assemblies
• Fluids
The components listed above are associated to a Design or a Case. One
component can be associated to multiple designs or cases. You can
copy and paste components from one case to another using the item's
right-click menu.

For conceptual information and associated rules, see “Associated


Components” on page 32 and “Rules for Associating Components” on
page 34.

About Associated Items and Well Explorer


All of these associated items, with the exception of fluids, are
automatically created and associated ("linked") by Well Explorer to the
design or case. (You cannot manually create or link these items.) Fluids
can be created/linked in WELLPLAN only, using the Fluid Editor.

However, all these items are visible in Well Explorer so that you can
copy and paste them using the right-click menu. For example, when you
copy a wellpath and paste it into a different design, the wellpath that
currently exists for the target design is deleted. Well Explorer replaces
the old wellpath with the copy of the new one.

Again, fluids are the exception. Only the WELLPLAN Fluid Editor can
delete fluids, so after pasting a fluid, the original fluid still exists. The
original fluid is no longer linked to anything. This can’t be seen in Well
Explorer, but WELLPLAN can access this. Note that if the destination

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case, or the fluid you are trying to replace, is locked, a message appears
and the paste is not completed.

Wellpaths
A wellpath is a series of survey tool readings that have been observed
in the same wellbore and increase with measured depth. All Cases
within the same design use the same wellpath.

Pore Pressure Groups


A Pore Pressure group is a set of pore pressures that define the pore
pressure regime over a depth range from surface to some vertical depth.
All Cases within the same design use the same pore pressure.

Fracture Gradient Groups


A Fracture Gradient is a set of fracture pressures that define the fracture
gradient regime over a depth range from surface to some vertical depth.
All Cases within the same design use the same fracture gradient.

Geothermal Gradient Groups


A Geothermal Gradient is a set of undisturbed earth temperatures that
define the temperatures over a depth range from the surface to some
vertical depth. All Cases within the same design use the same
geothermal gradient.

Hole Section Groups


A Hole Section defines the wellbore as the workstring would see it. For
example, a hole section may contain a riser, a casing section, and an
open hole section. A hole section can also have a tubing section or a
drill pipe section depending on the situation. Multiple cases may use
the same hole section or every case can have a different hole section.

Assemblies
An Assembly defines the workstring. There are several types of
workstrings, including coiled tubing, casing, drillstrings, liners, and
tubing strings. Multiple cases may use the same assembly or every case
can have a different assembly.

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Fluids
A Fluid defines a drilling, cementing, or spacer fluid. A Fluid is linked
to a Case and a Case can have more than one fluid linked to it. One
fluid can be linked to multiple cases.

You can also create a fluid directly in WELLPLAN, using the Fluid
Editor.

Creating a New Fluid


1. From the WELLPLAN main menu, select Case > Fluid Editor. The
Fluid Editor dialog displays.

2. Click New. A dialog prompts you to provide the fluid name.

3. Specify the name of the fluid and click OK. The Fluid Editor,
populated with default data, displays.

4. Enter fluid data as needed.

5. Activate the fluid by selecting it and clicking Activate.

6. Save the Case.

7. Go to the Well Explorer and press F5 go refresh. You should see the
fluid is now listed in the Associated Data Viewer for that Case.

Associating a Fluid to a Case


You can associate an existing fluid to a case by highlighting the fluid
and using the right-click menu. On the right-click menu, select Copy.
Next, click on the case you want and use the right-click menu to Paste
(link) the fluid to the case.

Working With Catalogs


Catalogs are used as a selection list to design a casing, tubing, liner or
drillstring. Catalogs are not linked to a Design or Case. Read-only
catalogs are distributed with the software. Additional catalogs can be
created and these catalogs will allow changes. You can copy and paste a
catalog (including read-only catalogs) using the right-click menu;
copied catalogs are editable and can be customized. Custom catalogs
are useful because the catalog content can be customized to the

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available pipes or other drilling products. You can also lock a catalog to
prevent changes.

You can create, copy, delete, export, and import catalogs, as well as
view their properties. Additionally, in WELLPLAN only, you can open,
save, or close a catalog.

The following catalogs are available:

• Accelerator
• Bits
• Casing Shoes
• Casing/Tubing
• Casing/Tubing Connectors
• Coiled Tubing
• Centralizer
• Coiled Tubing
• Drill Collar
• Drill Pipe
• Eccentric Stabilizer
• Heavy Weight
• Hole Openers
• Jar
• Mud Motor
• Mud Pumps
• MWD
• Packers
• Port Collars/Diverter Subs/Circulating Subs
• Stabilizer
• Subs
• Underreamers

For details about the fields in the various catalogs, see the online Help.

Creating a New Catalog


To create a new catalog:

1. In the Well Explorer, right click on the catalog category


(Accelerators, Centralizers, etc.) and select New. The Catalog
Properties dialog displays.

2. Specify the name of the catalog on the Catalog Properties dialog.


You may enter data into the new catalog using the drilling software,

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or the Catalog Editor (to access Catalog Editor, select Start >
Programs > Landmark Engineer’s Desktop > Tools > Catalog
Editor.)

Copying a Catalog
To copy an existing catalog (read-only or otherwise) and paste it as a
new, customizable catalog:

1. Right click on the catalog you want to copy and select Copy.

2. Navigate back to the root of the catalog type, and right click; select
Paste.

3. The catalog will be copied to this location, and the contents will be
editable. By default, the name will be the same as the original,
except for the number one appended to the end of the name. This
number increments with subsequent copies. To change the default
name, right-click on the catalog and select Properties from the
right-click menu. In the Properties dialog, type the desired catalog
name in the Name field.

Deleting a Catalog
You cannot delete catalogs that are locked, and you can never delete
API catalogs. Be careful not to delete a catalog other database users
may need. To delete a catalog:

1. In the Well Explorer, right-click on the catalog you want to delete


and select Delete.

2. You will be asked to confirm the delete; click Yes to proceed. The
catalog will be deleted.

Exporting a Catalog
A catalog can be exported in XML format. You can then import it into a
different database EDM database.

1. In the Well Explorer, right-click on the catalog you want to export


and select Export.

2. A dialog appears, allowing you to provide a directory and filename


for the catalog, which will be saved as an XML file.

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3. Click Save to proceed with the export.

Importing a Catalog
You can import a catalog that has been exported in XML format from a
EDM database.

1. In the Well Explorer, navigate to the root of the catalog tree and
right click; select Import.

2. A dialog appears, allowing you to provide a directory and filename


for the catalog, which will be saved as an XML file.

3. Click Save to proceed. The catalog will be imported.

File naming...

EDM Data Transfer File imports are not supported from paths containing
apostrophes or filenames containing apostrophes. Make sure that you do not use
apostrophes in filenames or folder names.

Opening a Catalog
To open a catalog (WELLPLAN only):

1. In the Well Explorer, select the catalog you want to open and right-
click; select Open.

2. The catalog will open in the main window.

You can open a catalog in the Catalog Editor. To do so, select Start >
Programs > Landmark Engineer’s Desktop > Tools > Catalog
Editor.

Saving a Catalog
To save a catalog (WELLPLAN only):

1. With the catalog you want to save open in the main window, go to
the Well Explorer and right-click; select Save.

2. The catalog will be saved to the database.

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Closing a Catalog
To close a catalog (WELLPLAN only):

1. With the catalog open in the main window, go to the Well Explorer
and right-click; select Close.

2. If you have not yet saved the changes, you will be prompted to save
before closing.

3. The catalog will be closed.

Catalog Properties Dialog


The Properties dialog for ALL catalogs contains the two tabs: General
and Audit. These tabs are the same for all catalogs. The example below
shows the Properties dialog for an API Drill Collar catalog.

General Tab (Catalog Properties Dialog)


Use to specify a unique name that identifies the catalog, and to provide
additional information related to the catalog. This tab is also used to
lock the catalog to protect against undesired changes to the data
associated with the catalog. A catalog name is required.

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The following fields are present on the General tab for all Catalog
Properties dialogs:

Details

• Name—Type the name of the catalog. This must be unique.

• Description—Type a short description of the catalog.

Catalog is locked checkbox

The default catalogs distributed with the software are read-only and
locked. (A blue key beside the name of the catalog indicates that it is
locked.) The contents of the default catalogs cannot be changed.

Catalogs are exempt from the locked data password.

Audit Tab (Catalog Properties Dialog)


Use Audit Tab to display when the catalog was created and to identify
the last modification date as well as the person that modified the data.
The Audit tab fields are detailed in “Tracking Data Modifications” on
page 61.

You can re-open the Properties dialog for the catalog at any time to
view or edit the data by right-clicking on the catalog name in the Well
Explorer and selecting Properties from the right-click menu.

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Chapter 4
Concepts and Tools

Overview

In this chapter, you will become familiar with using basic WELLPLAN
features.

In this section of the course, you will become familiar with:

‰ Accessing the online documentation and tools

‰ Menus and menu bars

‰ Toolbars

‰ Configuring units

‰ Converting MD to TVD, or TVD to MD using the Convert Depth


dialog

‰ Converting Field or Cell Units using the Convert Unit dialog

‰ Defining tubular properties

‰ Workspaces

‰ Libraries

‰ Using the Data Dictionary to change field names and descriptions

‰ Viewing and configuring plots

‰ Accessing the online help

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Accessing Online Documentation and Tools

WELLPLAN is installed with online documentation to assist you with


using the product. This documentation can be found by using the Start
Menu. The default installation will create a program group titled
Landmark Engineer’s Desktop 2003.11. From there, you can select the
software you want to use, the Documentation sub-group, or the Tools
sub-group.

Using the Documentation sub-group, you may select:

z Help - This selection provides access to the online help for all the
EDT software applications. The online help is also accessible from
all windows, and dialogs in the software.

z Release Notes - This selection provides access to the release notes


for all the EDT software applications. Release notes provide useful
information about the current release, including: new features, bug
fixes, known problems, and how to get support when you need it.

z User Guides - This selection provides access to the EDT


Installation Guide.

z Integrated EDM Workflows - There are several documented


workflows involving WELLPLAN. Refer to this document for
suggested workflow steps.

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Using the Main Window

The WELLPLAN Main Window is shown below. In this example, the


Well Explorer is displayed on the left. The Well Schematic on the right
is not displayed because the Case data has yet to be specified. In many
cases, data entry and reviewing analysis are performed in separate
windows that you can view simultaneously within the Main Window.
There are several distinct areas within the Main Window as shown in the
following figure.
Title Module Toolbar
Bar Wizard Toolbar
Standard
Toolbar Window Title Bar Graphic Toolbar

Menu Bar

Associated Data
Viewer

Status Bar Tabs

Using the Well Explorer


For information on the Well Explorer, refer to “Using the Well
Explorer” on page 55.

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Using the Menu Bar

After a case has been created or opened, the menu bar has more
selections. We will begin to look at these options more closely

The menu bar provides access to all tools available within the software.
It is organized as follows:

Select... To...

File Use the File Menu to create new companies, projects,


wells, wellbores, designs, cases and catalogs, delete
projects, wells, cases and catalogs, access import/export
functions, access print functions, and exit WELLPLAN.

Edit Use the Edit Menu to undo changes; cut, copy, and
paste information, and also specify or view information
related to the active window’s contents. Use the Report
Header Setup option to specify the title to use on the
output, and to specify the logo (bitmap) to place on the
output.

Modules Use the Modules Menu to access the various


WELLPLAN modules, including: Torque Drag,
Hydraulics, Well Control, Surge, Cementing-OptiCem,
Critical Speed, Bottom Hole Assembly, Stuck Pipe and
Notebook.

Case Use the Case Menu to enter data that will be used for all
analysis modes associated with the selected analysis
module. Therefore, the contents of the Case Menu will
vary depending on the module chosen (i.e. Torque
Drag, Hydraulics, Surge, Well Control, etc.).
The Case Menu has dialogs and spreadsheets for
gathering information pertaining to the case you are
defining. Most of the information entered in this menu’s
options will be used for many or possibly all modules
and module analysis modes. Some Case menu options
are only available for gathering information pertaining
to specific WELLPLAN modules. Also, the menu
options available may vary by analysis mode. You must
enter information on all dialogs visible in the Case
menu for the selected analysis mode before you can
proceed with the analysis.

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Select... To...

Parameter Use the Parameter Menu to enter analysis parameters


for the chosen analysis mode. The contents of the
Parameter Menu vary depending on the analysis mode
chosen.The Parameter Menu will be discussed in detail
later in the course.

Hole Section The Hole Section Menu is only available when the
Case > Hole Section Editor is active. Use this menu to
access catalog details for a hole section.

String The String Menu is only available when the Case >
String Editor is active. Use this menu to display the
catalog or specific information about a workstring
component.

View The View menu is used to calculate results or toggle


auto-calculation; toggle on and off several window
components; display plots, tables, and reports for
analysis; and display schematics, fluid plots, and survey
plots.

Tools The Tools Menu is used to add, remove, edit, and select
unit systems. You can also use this menu to specify
grade, material, and class tubular properties.

Help Access the online Help, current version info.

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Working With Units

Configuring Unit Systems


Use the Tools > Unit System dialog to add, remove, edit, and switch
unit systems. The unit system for the design is stored at the Well level.
All unit systems are stored in the database.

The Unit System dialog always contains two or more tabs arranged
along its upper left corner, one for each available unit system stored in
the database. The two left-most tabs are always API and SI. When this
dialog is opened, the tab containing the unit system associated with the
active well highlights.

Most numerical dialog fields and spreadsheet cells are associated with a
physical parameter such as depth, stress, or temperature, and each
physical parameter is expressed in a unit. To switch to a different unit
system, simply select another tab and then click OK.

The status bar at the bottom of the screen displays the name of the unit
system currently in use. Unit system is set at the Well level, and affects
all wellbores, designs, and cases below it.

Active unit set is


selected using the
drop-down list.
Click New to create a
unit system.

Click Edit to edit a unit


set you have created.
You can not edit the
API or SI unit sets.

Click Delete to delete a unit set that you


have created.

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Converting MD to TVD, or TVD to MD


Use the Convert Depth dialog to convert between measured depth (MD)
(TVD). All conversions are based on the deviation specified in the Case
> Wellpath > Wellpath Editor.

To access the Convert Depth dialog, press the F9 key while using any
spreadsheet or dialog within WELLPLAN, except for the dialogs
associated with the Well Explorer (Company properties, well properties,
etc.)

Using the Convert Depth Dialog will not change your data...

The converted value is view-only, and therefore will not be written to the cell/field
after the dialog is closed.

Using the Convert Depth Dialog:


1. Access a spreadsheet of dialog within WELLPLAN. For this
example, access Case > Hole Section Editor.

2. Click in the Hole Section Depth (MD) field, or any other field.

3. Press F9. The Convert Depth dialog is displayed.

4. Type a depth into the MD field to convert MD to TVD, or type the


depth into the TVD field to convert a TVD to MD.

5. Click the MD to TVD if you are converting MD to TVD button, or


click the TVD to MD button if you are converting TVD to MD.

6. If you were converting MD to TVD, the TVD associated with the


specified MD is displayed. Otherwise, the MD associated with the
specified TVD is displayed.

7. Click the X in the upper-right corner of the dialog to close the


Convert Depth dialog.

Converting Field or Cell Units


Use this dialog to view data entered into a field or cell in another unit.
This process does not change the unit system. To change the unit
system, use Tools > Unit Systems.

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Access the Convert Unit dialog by pressing F4 when an editable


spreadsheet cell or dialog field is selected.

Using the Units Dialog:


1. Access a spreadsheet of dialog within WELLPLAN. For this
example, access Case > String Editor.

2. Click in an OD field, or any other field.

For this example, click in the OD field.

3. Press F4. The Convert Units dialog is displayed.

Note that the default value


and unit is based on the
entry in the String Editor.

4.

Select another unit and the


converted value will be
displayed. Click OK to
close the dialog. The value
in the String Editor will not
be changed.

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Chapter 4: Concepts and Tools

Defining Tubular Temperature Deration, Grade,


Material and Class

Tubular properties can be changed using the Tools menu. Tubular


properties include temperature deration, material, grade and class.
These properties are used to describe the well tubulars and other
components used in the wellbore and workstring editors. You can add
additional properties, edit existing properties, or delete entire rows as
you can with any spreadsheet in the system.

Temperature Deration
Use the Tools > Tubular Properties > Temperature Deration
spreadsheet to specify the temperature deration schedules for materials
by specifying temperatures and their associated yield correction factors.

Material
Use the Tools > Tubular Properties > Material dialog to compile a list
of material types and associated properties. Material is used to define the
density of the material, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio for tubular
and other components. This list is used as a selection list while defining
a grade on the Tools > Tubular Properties > Grade spreadsheet.

You must enter a unique name to identify the material. To define this
material, enter a description of the material, and the Young’s Modulus,
Poisson’s Ratio, and density of the material.

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To insert a row add to the bottom of the existing list. You must
enter data in each column.

Tubular Grades
The Tools > Tubular Properties > Grade spreadsheet consists of two
spreadsheets. Use the grades section of the spreadsheet to compile a list
of grades and associated properties. This list is used as a selection list
while defining a component using catalogs. Use the Section Types drop-
down list to select the section types that have this material grade.

You must enter a unique name to identify the grade. To define the grade,
specify the material, minimum yield strength, fatigue endurance limit,
and ultimate tensile strength.

Rows cannot be inserted into or deleted from the Grades section of the
spreadsheet.

To Insert a Row into the Section Types List:


Enter data in the last blank row of the list, or highlight a row in the list
and use Edit > Insert Row(s).

To Delete a Row in the Section Types List:


Highlight the row in the list you want to delete and use Edit > Delete
Row(s).

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Chapter 4: Concepts and Tools

The section types listed can use the selected


grade.

Select section type from


this drop-down list.

Class
Use Tools > Tubular Properties > Class dialog to compile a list of
tubular classes and associated properties. This list is used as a selection
list while defining a component using catalogs.

You must enter a unique name to identify the class. To define the class,
you must specify the wall thickness, and enter a short description. The
wall thickness percentage is used to calculate the existing outside
diameter of the tubular using the Pipe Wall Thickness Modification Due
to Pipe Class Calculations.

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To insert a row add to the bottom of the


existing list. You must enter data in each
column

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Chapter 4: Concepts and Tools

Using Halliburton Cementing Tables

Click Tools > Halliburton Cementing Tables to access an online


version of the traditional Redbook. You can use the Cementing Tables
to determine hole capacities, tubular/casing displacements,
tubing/casing strength and dimensions, volumes between tubing and
casing, etc.

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Configuring Sound Effects

Use Tools > Sound Effects to toggle (on or off) any sound effects
related to WELLPLAN program operation. When the menu option is
checked, sound effects are on. When the menu option is unchecked,
sound effects are off.

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Chapter 4: Concepts and Tools

Using the Online Help

The Help Menu has several available options. Help can be accessed by
pressing the F1 key, selecting Help from the Menu bar, or by clicking
the Help button available on many dialogs.

Contents displays the online help topics grouped together in a logical


format.

Use About WELLPLAN to determine what version and build number


you are using. This is very helpful information if you are contacting
WELLPLAN support.

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Chapter 4: Concepts and Tools

Using Tool Bars

After a case has been created or opened, you can see that the toolbar
choices on the Main Window have been expanded. Toolbars have
buttons you can use to quickly perform common operations, such as file
management commands and engineering functions.

There are several toolbars. Each toolbar is outlined by a single line, so


you can tell what is included in each toolbar. Toolbars are normally
found just below the menu bar, but they can be “undocked” and moved
to other areas within the application window. They can also be removed
from view using View > Toolbars. Toolbar buttons are grayed out when
they are not applicable to what you are currently doing.

Enabling Toolbars
Use View > Toolbars command to enable or disable the Standard,
Module, Wizard and Graphics toolbars. To enable or disable a toolbar,
simply click the appropriate check box, which will either add it or
remove it from the screen.

Click to turn on the toolbar.

By default, all toolbars are normally displayed directly below the menu
bar. Although the print preview toolbar will not be displayed until you
select File > Print Preview. However, all toolbars are dockable, which
means they can be moved around the screen and adjusted to fit your
needs.

To move a toolbar, click anywhere on the toolbar’s light grey border and
drag it away from its original position. After you release the mouse
button, the toolbar resides in a palette window which “floats” above the
application frame. After a toolbar has been undecked, it can be moved
to another portion of the screen by clicking anywhere in its light gray
border, or title bar and then dragging it. To re-dock an undocked toolbar,
simply drag it to any edge of the application frame. When the toolbar
approaches a valid docking position, its border will suddenly change. At
this point, you can release the mouse button. After you release the

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Chapter 4: Concepts and Tools

mouse button, the positions of any overlapping toolbars will be adjusted


to accommodate the new toolbar.

Using the Standard Toolbar


The Standard toolbar provides easy access to common file management
and printing commands.

Help
Print Preview Paste
Copy Calculate
Cut
Print Undo Auto Calculate

New

Open Case Maximize/Restore

Save Active Case or Catalog Toggle Status Message Window


Well Explorer

Recent Bar

Using the Module Toolbar


The Module toolbar provides access to the engineering modules. You
can also access the engineering modules by using the Modules Menu.

Notebook Surge
Well Control OptiCem - Cementing
Hydraulics Critical Speed
Bottom Hole Assembly

Torque Drag Stuck Pipe

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Using the Graphics Toolbar


The Graphics toolbar provides access to graphical functions and is only
available when a plot is active in the current window. If the Graphics
Toolbar is grey, click once on the plot and the toolbar selections will
become available. Refer to “Configuring Plot Properties” on page 138
for more information.

Grid View Legend


Data Reader Line
Rescale Swap Axis

Properties

Turns off the functions enabled by some Graphics toolbar buttons

Using the Wizard Toolbar


The Wizard toolbar provides access to analysis modes, and data entry
forms.
Mode drop-down list Wizard drop-down
to select desired list to guide you
analysis mode. through data entry.

Previous
Next

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Chapter 4: Concepts and Tools

Using Wellpath Plots and Schematics

Using Well Schematics


The Well Schematics are accessed using View > Schematics. There are
three schematics to choose from including full-scale and not-to-scale.

The Schematic is a tool to display a graphical image of the active


wellbore and workstring defined using the case menu. On the
Schematic, the workstring components will be defined, and casing shoes
will be indicated. By default the well schematic is displayed when you
open a case.

Right-click anywhere on the schematic and select


Header On/Off to turn display or remove the
heading information.

Riser

Casing

Open hole
section

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Chapter 4: Concepts and Tools

Viewing Wellpath Plots


Several different wellpath plots are available, regardless of the
engineering analysis you are performing. These plots include:

• Vertical section
• Plan view
• Dogleg severity
• Inclination
• Azimuth
• Absolute tortuosity
• Relative tortuosity
• Build-plane curvature
• Walk-plane curvature

Accessing Wellpath Plots


Wellpath plots can be accessed by:

• Right-click on the Case > Wellpath > Editor and select a survey
plot.
• Similarly, you can right-click on the Case > Wellpath > View
w/Interpolation or Case > Wellpath > View w/Tortuosity editors
to view the survey plots.
• Use View > Wellpath Plots and select the desired plot.

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Printing and Print Preview

Printing or preview printing of output is very similar to other software


you are probably familiar with.

Use File > Print to print the current plot or view.

Use File > Print Preview to preview the item prior to printing it.

Use File > Page Setup to set the margins of the page prior to printing.

Use File > Print Setup to select and configure the printer, sand to select
the page size and orientation.

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Chapter 4: Concepts and Tools

Configuring Plot Properties

Plot toolbar

Properties button

Changing Curve Line Properties


To alter the appearance of a curve on the plot, click the right mouse
button when the cursor is on the curve line. Using the menu that opens,
you can hide the line, freeze the line, or change the appearance of the
line. When you hide a line, it disappears from the plot. Freeze line is a
useful feature for sensitivity analysis. When you freeze the line, and then
alter some of the analysis data that the plot is based on, the frozen line
will be displayed along with the analysis data.

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Use line properties to change line


color, width, and style.

Using Freeze Line


Freeze Line is a very useful feature for sensitivity analysis. When a line
is “frozen”, you can specify a unique name for the line that will be
displayed in the legend. When the analysis data is changed, the frozen
line will remain on the plot along with the new curve data. This enables
easy comparison of results for sensitivity analysis.

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Chapter 4: Concepts and Tools

Using the Plot Properties Tabs


This Plot Properties dialog has tabs for customizing the currently active
pane or the currently active view within the pane, such as plots or tables.
You must have a view currently active before you can select this option.

Use the Plot Properties


tabs to change many
aspects of an active plot or
table.

Accessing the Plot Properties Tabs


This section describes how to configure, and customize plots. There are
seven property tabs containing many different configuration options.
You may also customize a line or curve on the plot by moving the cursor
over the line, and clicking the right mouse button.

You can access the Plot Properties tabs four ways:

z Click the right mouse button on the plot (but not over a line) a list
of the associated plots, maximize/minimize options, graph/grid and
an option to access plot properties will appear for your selection.

z Double-click on any plot.

z Use Edit > Properties when a plot is active.

z Click on the plot and then selecting the Properties button on the
Plot toolbar.

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Changing the Scale


Use the Plot Properties > Scale tab to define axis limits.

Click Auto to allow the axis range to be calculated based on the


limits of the data being displayed. This is the default.

Click Fixed Scale to specify a


fixed number of units per inch (or
cm) on the printed page for the X
and Y axis.

Click Fixed Range to specify


range limits.

Click Use the same scale for


both axes to choose the largest
of the two specified (X and Y)
scales, and use this scale for both
axis.

Configuring the Axis


Use the Plot Properties > Axis tab to define how and where the axis
will be displayed.

Click Draw axis


at the edges of
the graph
to keep the axis
lines at the edges
of the graph.

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Changing the Grid


Use the Plot Properties > General/Grid tab to define the grid, tick
marks, and graph border.

Mark Show Grid to display a grid on the plot.

Specify the number of minor tick marks.

Specify the spacing of the major tick


marks when printing the plot.

Mark Border around the graph to include a thin black line


around the outside of the plot area.

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Changing the Axis Labels


Use the Plot Properties > Labels tab to specify axis labels (text).

Type labels for the X


and Y axes in their
respective fields.

Changing the Font


Use the Font tab to specify fonts for axis labels, and tick labels.

Click Axis Label to specify axis label font.

Click Tick Label to specify tick font.

Click Data Labels to specify data label font.

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Changing the Line Styles


Use the Plot Properties > Line Styles tab to specify color, style and
width of lines used for the axis and the grid.

You can specify one set Click... to


of lines for displaying on display
the screen and another available
set for printing. colors.

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Using Data Markers


Use the Plot Properties > Markers tab to specify the use, size and
frequency of data point markers.

Mark Show Data Markers to turn on data markers or


symbols. The default setting is unchecked (no data
symbols).

Click Every
to specify the
frequency of the
data markers. You
must specify a
numeric value to
indicate the
frequency to place
data markers.

Mark Always one at the end to assure the last


point on the curve always has a marker even if the
frequency specified means the point would not have
a marker.

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Configuring the Legend


Use the Legend tab to specify whether a legend should be displayed, and
to customize legends, including title, font, and location.

Mark Show Legend to display a legend.


Specify the number of columns the legend box
should use. This is only relevant if several
curves are represented in the legend.

Specify the title displayed in the legend.

Click Font to customize the font


used for the legend.

Mark Show all lines to specify that all lines should


be shown.

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Changing the Plot Background Color


Use the Plot Properties > Background tab to specify the background
color or a bitmap for plots. This tab is only available when a plot is the
currently active view.

Check this box if you


want the background
Click Color to select a color or bitmap
color for the background. applied only to the
grid area of the plot.

Click Bitmap to use a Mark Center to


bitmap as the display the bitmap in
background. You must the center of the plot.
specify the location of the
bitmap.
Mark Stretch to Fit to
stretch the bitmap to
Mark Maintain Aspect fill the plot.
Ratio if you want to
stretch the bitmap to fit
the grid or graph but
maintain the same
dimension ratio.

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Using Libraries

What is a Library?
A Library (Libraries) is a WELLPLAN tool. You can use this tool to
store work strings or fluids for future use. Once a work string or fluid is
stored in a library, you can retrieve (import) it quickly and easily to
create a new fluid or work string based on the retrieved string or fluid.
For example, you can use a workstring library to store commonly used
assemblies. Once a workstring is imported from a library, you can edit
it to meet your current objectives.

A library should not be confused with a catalog. A catalog contains a


collection of similar workstring components that can be used to build a
workstring. For example, there are jar catalogs, or drill pipe catalogs. A
library is used to store the complete workstring, not a certain type of
workstring component.

You can use the fluid library to store commonly used fluids. Each fluid
entry in the library includes all the data required to define that fluid, such
as rheological model, weight, gel strength, etc. As with workstring
library entries, once you have imported a fluid from a library into the
case you are working with, you can edit the data as desired.

Using String Libraries

Creating or Deleting a String Library Entry


1. Using the Case > String Editor, input the string.

2. Click the Export button to export the string to the library. This will
not remove the string from the String Editor. A copy of the string
is added to the string library.

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3. Specify the Assembly Name in the dialog that appears and click
Export.

Click the Delete button


to delete the highlighted
string library entry.

Retrieving a String From the String Library


1. Using the Case > String Editor, click the Import button to export
the string to the library.

2. A message will appear indicating that any current string data will
be overwritten. Click Yes to continue.

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3. Highlight the string that you want to use from the list of string
library entries.

4. Click Import and the String Editor will be filled with data from
the library entry you selected.

Using Fluid Libraries

Importing, Exporting, Deleting, and Renaming a Fluid Library Entry


1. Using the Case > Fluid Editor, input the fluid.

2. Click the Library button.

3. Using the Import/Export Fluids dialog, select the wellbore fluids


you want to move to the library, or select the library fluid(s) you

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want to move to the wellbore fluids. Use the arrows to move the
fluids after you have selected them.

Click the Delete key to


delete the highlighted
fluids from either the library
or the wellbore fluid list.

Click the Rename key to


rename the highlighted
fluids from either the library
or the wellbore fluid list.

Exporting a Library
Libraries can be shared with other users by exporting them at the
database level.

1. Right-click on the database icon in the Well Explorer.

2. Select Export from the menu.

3. Specify the file name of the library export file.

4. Click Save. The file will be saved with the extension .lib.xml.

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Using Workspaces

What is a Workspace
A workspace is a template for how you want tabs, panes, arrangement
of plots within panes, etc. to appear in WELLPLAN. No default data is
stored in workspace.

There are three types of workspaces:

z System Workspace - System Workspaces are read-only, and are


shipped with the EDM database. You may apply them, but not alter
them. There is a separate System Workspace for each module.

z Module Workspace - Module Workspaces will apply


automatically when you activate a given module (Hydraulics,
Surge, etc.). To save a workspace as a Module Workspace, select
File > Workspace > Save As Default. It will automatically apply
the module tool tip name as the default module workspace name.
You may import new module workspaces or delete them, but you
cannot edit the name of any module workspace. Module
workspaces are stored on a per-user basis. There is one module
workspace per module. To delete a module workspace, right-click
on it in the Well Explorer and select Delete from the right-click
menu.

z User Workspace - You can save any workspace as a User


Workspace, so long as it has a unique name. Workspaces always
have a .ws.xml extension. To save a workspace as a user workspace,
select File > Workspace > Save, or right-click on the workspace in
the tree and select New. Provide a name and click OK. You can
import and export user workspaces. Importing user workspaces is
an add/replace function; that is, if the name already exists on the
target, the imported workspace will overwrite it. When exporting,
you must give the workspace a .ws.xml extension.

Applying a Workspace
Any of the three workspaces can be applied to the currently opened case.
Workspaces can only be applied to open cases. To apply a workspace,
select File > Workspace > Apply. You can also apply a workspace by
double-clicking on the workspace in the Well Explorer.

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Configuring a User Workspace


A user workspace is configured by creating and populating tabs using
windows and window panes. This section discusses this process.

Using a Window
Each open case occupies one window, and each window belongs to one
case. A window can contain one or more screen layers, which are
selected using the tabs along the bottom edge of the window. Each layer
contains one or more window panes, and each pane can contain different
contents. In addition, each pane may contain scroll bars, which become
active when the contents are too large to fit inside the frame. The frame
governs the amount and location of the screen space taken up by each
window. It is the thin gray border around each pane and around the
window.

Windows exist in one of three states:

• Maximized - the window takes up all of the available space within


the application frame
• Minimized - an icon within the application frame
• Restored - original size and position

If a window is in its restored state, it will have a Title Bar. The Title Bar
is the thick colored band along the top of the window. The center of the
title bar contains the name of the active spreadsheet, table, plot, or
schematic, and the name of the case to which the window belongs. The
left edge of the title bar contains the Window Control Menu, and the
right edge contains three buttons. The first is the Minimize button, the
second is the Maximize button, and the third is the close button. At any
given time there is one and only one active window, and it belongs to the
active case. A colored title bar denotes the active window; all others are
gray.

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Window Title Bar Window panes (2) Scroll bar

Tabs Window splitter Scroll bar

Using Window Panes


Each window contains one or more layers, and each layer can contain
different information. A pane frames information, such as a well
schematic, spreadsheet, table or plot. Light gray dividers denote panes.
By default, each layer contains only one pane, but you can split this into
up to four panes using the window splitters located at the ends of the
scroll bars.

To vertically split the screen, the splitter is in the lower left corner of the
windowpane. To horizontally split the screen, the splitter is in the upper
right corner of the windowpane

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Using Tabs
Each window contains one or more layers (tabs), and each layer can
contain different information. Only one layer is visible at any given
time. To switch between layers, use the mouse to select the associated
tab. Tabs are arranged along the lower left edge of the window, a region
that they share with the window's horizontal scroll bars. You can control
the amount of space allocated to each using a splitter. As you drag this
splitter left and right, the amount of room available in which to display
tabs grows and shrinks. If there is not enough room to display all of the
tabs, you can scroll through them using the tab scroll buttons.

Note that you can add, delete, rename and re-order tabs using the View
> Tabs dialog. You can also double-click the tab, and the Rename Tab
dialog opens.

Adding and Naming Tabs


Use View > Tabs to add, delete, rename, and rearrange window tabs.

Use the arrow buttons to


move the highlighted tab to
another position in the tab
list.

To Add a Tab
1. Use View > Tabs to access the Tab Manager dialog.

2. Click New. The new tab appears at the bottom of the list and is
highlighted. It also appears as the right-most tab at the bottom of
the well file window.

3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for each tab you want created.

4. When finished, click OK.

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Renaming a Tab
1. Use View > Tabs to access the Tab Manager dialog.

2. Double-click the tab you want renamed. The Rename Tab dialog
appears.

3. Type the new name in the Tab Name field.

4. Click OK. The Rename Tab dialog closes.

Repositioning a Tab
1. Use View > Tabs to access the Tab Manager dialog.

2. Highlight the tab name in the list to be repositioned.

3. Do one of the following:

• Click to move the tab to the top of the list. The tab will be placed
in the left-most position of the active window.

• Click to move the tab up one level in the list. Each level up
places the tab one position to the left in the active window.

• Click to move the tab down one level in the list. Each level down
places the tab one position to the right in the active window.

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• Click to move the tab to the bottom of the list. The tab will be
placed in the right-most position of the active window.

4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each tab you want repositioned.

5. When finished, click OK.

Saving the User Workspace Configuration


After you have configured the workspace, you can save the
configuration for future use with the File > Workspace > Save option.

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Using Data Status Tooltips and Status Messages

Click View > Status Messages to toggle the functionality between


active and inactive. If the option is active, a check mark will be visible
beside the option. If this option is active, the last engineering analysis
error (if any) will be displayed as a tooltip when the mouse is placed
over a calculated field in a Quick Look section of a dialog. If the dialog
doesn’t have a Quick Look section, this option does not apply.

When View > Status Messages is active, a message window at the


bottom of the active window indicating any error messages generated
from analysis results.

Status messages and


Tool Tips indicate that
Pump Pressure can not
be zero.

Tool Tip

Status Message

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Configuring Tool Tips and Field Descriptions

You can configure the tool tip and descriptions for many fields in
WELLPLAN. This is a convenient feature that can be used to re-label
fields in another language, or to change the description for other reasons.

For example:

1. Access the Case > Geothermal Gradient dialog.

2. Place the cursor in the Surface Ambient field.

Notice the field name.

3. Press F7.

4. Using the Data Dictionary dialog that appears, change the Custom
Description and Custom Label for this field.

Change the field description


and label.

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5.

Notice the field label as


changed on the Case >
Geothermal Gradient dialog.

6.

Notice the tool tip for this field has


also changed.

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Describing the Case Using the Case
Menu

Overview

In this section of the course, you will become familiar with entering data
that describes the general characteristics of the Case. Data input using
the Case menu will be used in all analysis modes of a particular analysis
module. Therefore, the contents of the Case menu vary depending on the
analysis module you are using. In this chapter, only the Case menu items
that are used in more than one analysis module will be discussed. The
Case menu options that are available in only one analysis module will
be covered during the discussion of that particular module.

The Case is defined or created using the Well Explorer. Please refer to
“Working at the Case Level (WELLPLAN Only)” on page 102 for more
information on creating a Case. After a Case is created, use the Case
menu to describing the Case. This chapter discusses the use of the Case
menu to define some of the properties of the Case. In this section of the
course, you will become familiar with:

‰ Defining the hole section

‰ Defining the workstring

‰ Managing wellpath data

‰ Defining and activating drilling fluids

‰ Specifying circulating system equipment

‰ Specifying pore pressure data

‰ Specifying fracture pressure data

‰ Specifying geothermal temperature data

‰ Defining string eccentricity

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Entering Case Data

The Case menu (a selection on the menu bar) is used to enter data
including hole sections, workstring, fluid, etc. The contents of the Case
menu will change depending on the module you have selected because
modules require different information about the well. Later, we will use
the Parameter menu to enter additional data specific to the analysis type
you are performing.

It is recommended that you begin entering data in the first menu item
available on the case menu and work your way down the menu
selections. You can use the Wizard Toolbar to enter data in the proper
order.

Defining the Hole Section Geometry


The Case > Hole Section Editor is used to define the inner
configuration of the well including the components of the hole section
and the material properties of the components. Open hole sections are
also defined using the Hole Section Editor. The well configuration can
be entered entirely using the Hole Section Editor or can be copied from
another Case using the Well Explorer. Refer to “Working With Design-
and Case-Associated Components” on page 108 for more information
about copying associated items.

The Hole Section is associated to a particular Case. Refer to “Associated


Data Components” on page 57 for more information concerning the
Well Explorer and linked data items.

Since a Design (as defined in the Well Explorer, “Working at the Design
Level” on page 98) can have multiple Cases, you need to enter data into
the Hole Section Editor to define the well profile and well depth of a
particular Case for analysis. The hole section configuration is common
for all WELLPLAN modules while analyzing the Case the hole section
is associated to.

You must enter the hole section information from the surface down to
the bottom of the well. When you make a selection from a Section Type
cell (other then Open Hole), a dialog specific to that section type
appears. You must fill in the data in the dialog in order for that section
type to be recorded in that cell. You also must fill in all editable cells in
the spreadsheet row.

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Each row
defines a
section of the
hole.
Volume Excess % is
For cased sections, specify the effective hole diameter of the hole calculated based on
into which the casing is inserted. (Do NOT enter the casing OD.) effective hole
This diameter is used for surge calculations to compute elastic diameter.
properties. For open hole sections, the effective hole diameter is
used to represent the actual size of the hole.

Note: Using the effective hole diameter...

For cased sections, specify the effective hole diameter of the hole into which the
casing is inserted. (Do NOT enter the casing OD.) This diameter is used for surge
calculations to compute the elastic properties. For open hole sections, the effective
hole diameter is used to represent the actual size of the hole. Volume Excess % is
calculated based on effective hole diameter.

If you import a caliper log into WELLPLAN, you should double-check the values
for any rows labeled Open Hole. The Import Caliper Log function takes the number
of blocks specified by the user and creates the same number of rows in the
spreadsheet, averaging the individual measured hole diameters into each section
described in the spreadsheet. Logs that start at the bottom of the casing may not
continue all the way to the top of the well, in which case the first geometry may
need to be added to the top of the outer geometry table after performing the import.
Washed out portions of a well may cause the caliper to record values such as
-999.0, which represents an unknown value. If any value is blank, you must enter
an appropriate diameter by typing it into the spreadsheet.

Hole Section Editor Menu


When the Hole Section Editor is visible, the menu bar has an additional
menu option available. This menu option titled Hole Section is used to
access the catalog.

Defining a Work String


The Case > String Editor is used to define all types of tubular work
strings and their components. Casing, liner, tubing, coiled tubing, and

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drill strings are all defined using this spreadsheet. Strings can be entered
from the top down or from the bottom up. You must specify the length
of the section and several other defining properties of the section that
will be used in further analysis. String depth is an important item on this
form, and indicates the bit depth used in many of the analysis modes.

When you make a selection from a Section Type cell, a dialog specific
to that section type appears. You must fill in the data in the dialog in
order for that section type to be recorded in that cell. You also must fill
in all editable cells in the spreadsheet row.

Workstrings can be entered entirely, or can be copied from another Case


using the Well Explorer. Refer to “Associated Data Components” on
page 57 for more information.

Since a Design (as defined in the Well Explorer, “Working at the Design
Level” on page 98) can have multiple Cases, you need to enter data in
this editor to define the workstring of a particular Case. The workstring
configuration is used for all WELLPLAN modules while analyzing the
Case the workstring is associated to.

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Select string entry order. Select from


Top-to-Bottom, or Bottom-To-Top.
Click on a component, then use String >
Catalog to access the catalog for a Click the Export button to export a string
component or use String > Data to edit to the library. Click the Import button to
the data for a component. import the string from the library. The
String Name field on this spreadsheet is
Enter string depth. It will the unique identifier for the string when
be used in many analysis importing or exporting from/to a library.
modes. Refer to “Using Libraries” on page 148.

To edit or view information concerning a particular component, click


any data cell pertaining to the component and then use String > Data.

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Use Tools > Tubular


Properties to edit the tubular
material types, material
properties, grades, or classes
available for selection on the
drop-down list.

You can change much of the information describing the component on


the Data dialog, however these changes are not made to the catalog entry
corresponding to the component. You must use the Well Explorer to
change the catalog entry. Refer to “Working With Catalogs” on
page 110 for more information. On the component data dialog there are
some material property cells that can not be edited. This information is
related to the grade, class and material selected for the component from
the drop-down lists. Use Tools > Tubular Properties to add or edit
component material types, grades, or class.

Managing Wellpath Data


The Case > Wellpath menu item has a submenu. Use these menu
choices to enter wellpath data, apply tortuosity to the wellpaths, and
define survey calculation methods.

Importing Wellpath Files


You can import survey data points using File > Import > Wellpath
File. This is useful if you have wellpath data from a source other than
another Landmark software product.

A wellpath file must meet the following requirements to be imported


using this option.

• The data must be in ASCII format or reside in the Windows


Clipboard.

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• The data must be in columns, each separated by a comma, tab,


or blank space. If you are using the Clipboard to import from
Excel, use “Tab” as the column delimiter.
• Each row must have the same format.
• The measured depth, inclination and azimuth must be in a
supported unit.

Specify data units.


Specify data order.

Import from a file or


from the Clipboard.

Entering Wellpath Data


Use Case > Wellpath > Editor to enter wellpath data points. You must
specify measured depth, inclination, and azimuth. The rest of the
information displayed in the non-editable cells will be calculated for
you. Wellpath data is calculated using the minimum curvature method.

The checkbox is disabled for


non-actual designs. For actual
designs, you can click on the box
and WELLPLAN generates a
definitive survey path from actual
surveys (i.e. enter surveys in
OpenWells and use this to
generate from this entered data).
After selecting the box, the
definitive survey becomes locked
(since it is calculated). If the box
is not checked, the definitive
survey editor returns to its
previous state.
Enter MD, INC, and AZ. The
remaining fields are calculated

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Setting Wellpath Options


Use Case > Wellpath > Options to add tortuosity to a wellpath, or to
interpolate between data points. You can add tortuosity to wellpath data
points. Tortuosity is designed to apply a “rippling” to a planned wellpath
to simulate the variations found in actual surveys. Tortuosity should
never be applied to actual survey data.

The three tortuosity methods available are sine wave, random


inclination dependent azimuth, and random inclination and azimuth.
The sine wave modifies the inclination and azimuth of the survey based
on the concept of a sine wave shaped ripple running along the wellbore.
The random methods apply random variation to the inclination and
azimuth. This method is based on SPE 19550. Refer to the online help
or to “Tortuosity” on page 244 for more information.

Magnitude is the maximum variation of angle


that will be applied to the inclination and
azimuth of the native (untortured) wellpath.

Select one
tortuosity method.

For the Sine Wave method this is the


wavelength of the ripple. For the Random
methods, the Angle Change Period is used to
normalize the measured depth distance
between wellpath points.

Wellpath data is calculated at the


interval specified.

Viewing Wellpaths w/Tortuosity


Case > Wellpath > View w/Tortuosity data is only available if
tortuosity has been applied using the Case > Wellpath > Options
dialog. This spreadsheet displays a read-only view of the wellpath that
had tortuosity applied.

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Most cells in this


spreadsheet are
read-only.

Viewing Wellpath w/Interpolation


The survey data displayed using Case > Wellpath > View
w/Interpolation is a read-only view of the interpolated survey data set.
If interpolation is not applied in the Case > Wellpath > Options dialog,
a default interval of 30 ft will be used. Interpolated survey data is added
to the surveys specified in the Case > Wellpath > Editor.

Most cells in this


spreadsheet are
read-only.

Defining the Active Fluid and Fluid Properties

Defining Drilling Fluids


Use Case > Fluid Editor to define drilling fluids, including muds,
cements, spacers, etc. All fluids analyzed using WELLPLAN must be
defined using this editor. Most analysis modules will use the fluid
marked as active on this editor. Surge and Cementing have the option of

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using more than one fluid in the analysis by specifying the fluids used
on the Parameter > Job Data dialog. However, the fluids must be
defined using Case > Fluid Editor before the fluid can be selected using
the Parameter > Job Data dialog. Refer to “Defining the Wellbore
Fluids and Specifying Pump Rates” on page 415 for the use of the
Parameter > Job Data dialog in Surge. Refer to “Defining the Cement
Job Fluids” on page 460 for the use of the Parameter > Job Data dialog
in Cementing.

Four rheology models are available, including: Power Law, Bingham


Plastic, Newtonian, and Herschel Bulkley. For each model you can
choose to enter PV/YP data or Fann data. For more information on
rheology models, refer to “Power Law Model” on page 332, “Bingham
Plastic Model” on page 331, or “Herschel Bulkley Model” on page 332.

Click Activate to activate the Check the Cement box


selected fluid. Data for the to define a cement.
selected fluid is displayed in
the dialog.

Click Library to access the


fluid library. Refer to “Using
Libraries” on page 148 for
more information.

Refer to the online help


for detailed field
descriptions.

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Specify Circulating System Equipment


Use the two tabs on the Case > Circulating System dialog to specify
surface equipment and mud pumps data. On the Surface Equipment tab,
you may choose one of four pre-defined surface equipment
configurations.

Enter the rated


maximum working
To enter the expected pressure.
pressure loss through
the surface
equipment, click
Select the
Specify Pressure
category of
Loss.
surface
To calculate it, click equipment that
Calculate Pressure you want to use
Loss. from the drop-
down list. You
don’t need to
select or specify a
surface
equipment
To calculate the pressure loss, you must select/specify the configuration if
surface equipment configuration. you specify the
pressure loss.

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Use the Case > Circulating System > Mud Pumps tab to enter
information pertaining to all pumps available. You may indicate which
pump(s) are currently active by clicking the Active check box.

Rather than input all the data for the mud pump, you can
select a pump from the catalog. Click Add from Catalog
to select a pump from the catalog.

Check this box to specify active pump.


Insert a new row by entering data in the
next empty row, or by highlighting a
row and pressing the Insert key on
your keyboard.

Delete a row by highlighting it and


pressing the Delete key on your
keyboard.

Specifying Circulating System for Cementing Analysis


When using the OptiCem Analysis module, the circulating system
dialog is different than the dialog used for the other analysis modules.
When using OptiCem, use the Case > Circulating System dialog to
specify whether you want to include surface iron in the analysis, and if

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so, to specify information about the surface iron. This dialog is also used
to specify the pump volume per stroke.

Specifying Pore Pressure Data


Use the Case > Pore Pressure spreadsheet to define the pore pressure
profile as a function of vertical depth. You may enter either pressure or
EMW (ppg) for a vertical depth and the other value will be calculated
based on vertical depth. You may enter several rows of data to define
many pore pressure gradients. The depths specified on this spreadsheet
are automatically used as depths of interest on the plots.

Note: Defining Pore Pressure...

Although pore pressure are defined using the Case menu, pore pressures are linked
to the Design level. Therefore, any changes to the pore pressure for one Case will
affect all Cases linked to the same Design. Refer to “Working With Design- and
Case-Associated Components” on page 108 for more information.

You can copy/paste pore


pressure data from an Excel
spreadsheet or from another
case within WELLPLAN.
Enter Pore Pressure and EMW is calculated.
or

Enter EMW and Pore Pressure is calculated.

Specifying Fracture Gradient Data


Use the Case > Frac Gradient spreadsheet to define the fracture
pressure profile as a function of vertical depth. You may enter either

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pressure or EMW (ppg) for a vertical depth and the other value will be
calculated based on vertical depth. You may enter several rows of data
to define many fracture gradients.The depths specified on this
spreadsheet are automatically used as depths of interest on the plots.

Note: Defining Fracture Gradients...

Although fracture gradients are defined using the Case menu, fracture gradients are
linked to the Design level. Therefore, any changes to the fracture gradient for one
Case will affect all Cases linked to the same Design. Refer to “Working With
Design- and Case-Associated Components” on page 108 for more information.

You can copy/paste pore


fracture gradient data from
an Excel spreadsheet or
from another case within
WELLPLAN. Enter Frac Pressure and EMW is calculated.

or

Enter EMW and Frac Pressure is calculated.

Specifying Geothermal Gradient Data


Use the Case > Geothermal Gradient tabs to define the geothermal
temperature profile as a function of depth. The Standard tab is used to
specify basic formation temperature data. The well temperature at total
depth can be specified, or it can be calculated from a gradient.

Click here to specify temperature at TD.


Click here to specify a
gradient to use to calculate
temperature.

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The Additional tab can be used to add temperatures to characterize a


non-linear formation or seawater profile. These temperatures must be
entered on a true vertical depth basis. Intermediate temperatures are
linearly interpolated between specified points.

Enter temperatures based on TVD.

Defining String Eccentricity


Use the Case > Eccentricity spreadsheet to specify the eccentricity ratio
of the annuli at different depths. Eccentricity reduces the pressure drop
for annular flow.

The Hydraulics module will automatically calculate eccentricity using


the tool joint diameter regardless of what is entered in the eccentricity
spreadsheet. If you specify eccentricity in the spreadsheet, and the
calculated tool joint eccentricity is less than the specified eccentricity,
the calculated tool joint eccentricity will be used for the engineering
calculations. If you check the Concentric Annulus box, the string will
be centered in the wellbore regardless of the wellbore deviation or the
calculated tool joint eccentricity.

An eccentric annulus ratio is defined by specifying the displacement


from the centerline divided by the radial clearance outside the moving
pipe. First define the eccentricity for each annular section and then its
eccentric value. Define the annular section by specifying a depth in the
Depth cell for the row, and then specify an eccentric value for the
section. A value of zero is concentric and a value of 1 is fully eccentric.

You can use the WELLPLAN Torque Drag module Position Plot to
determine the position of the string in the wellbore. The position in the
wellbore can be used to determine the eccentricity. Remember, you
must use a stiff string analysis to generate a Position plot.

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Check the Concentric Annulus box to indicate the entire


string is concentric in the annulus. If this box is checked,
data in the spreadsheet will not be used.

Enter eccentricity =
1 to indicate string
positioned against
the wellbore

Note: Defining Eccentricity...

The Eccentricity spreadsheet is only available when you are using the Herschel
Bulkley rheology model. Select the rheology model on the Case > Fluid Editor >
Standard Muds tab. If you are using the Herschel Bulkley rheology model, and
the Eccentricity spreadsheet is still not available, try opening the Hole Section
Editor and then reopening the Eccentricity spreadsheet.

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Torque Drag Analysis

Overview

Torque Drag Analysis predicts and analyzes the torque and axial forces
generated by drill strings, casing strings, or liners while running in,
pulling out, sliding, backreaming and/or rotating in a three-dimensional
wellbore. The effects of mud properties, wellbore deviation, WOB and
other operational parameters can be studied.

At the end of this chapter you will find the methodology used for each
analysis mode. The methodology is useful for understanding data
requirements, analysis results, as well as the theory used as the basis for
the analysis. Supporting calculations and references for additional
reading are also included in this chapter.

In this section of the course, you will become familiar with all aspects
of using the Torque Drag Analysis module, including:

‰ Available analysis modes

‰ Defining operating parameters

‰ Calibrating coefficients of friction using field data

‰ Using drag charts to predict the maximum measured weight and


torque expected for a depth range

‰ Analyzing critical measured depths where torque and drag may be a


problem

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Workflow

The following is a suggested workflow. Many other workflows can be


used.

‰ Open a Case using the Well Explorer. Refer to “Using the Well
Explorer” on page 55 for instructions on using the Well Explorer.

‰ Define the hole section geometry and friction factors. (Case > Hole
Section Editor) Use advanced friction factors (click Advanced
button on Parameters > Run Parameters dialog) to specify
different friction factors for different operations in cased and open
hole.

‰ Define the workstring. Use the same dialog to define all


workstrings (drillstrings, tubing, liners, and so forth)
(Case > String Editor)

‰ Enter deviation (wellpath) data. (Case > Wellpath > Editor)

‰ Define the fluid used. (Case > Fluid Editor)

‰ Specify calculation methods, weight indicator corrections, and


mechanical limitations to analyze. (Case > Torque Drag Setup
Data)

‰ Optional: Specify fluid columns if more than one fluid is present in


the string, the fluid system is circulating, there is surface pressure
applied to the string, or different fluid densities exist in the annulus
and string. (Parameter > Fluid Columns)

‰ Optional: Record actual load data recorded while drilling. This


information is useful for calibrating coefficients of friction or for
comparing to predicted data. (Parameter > Actual Loads)

‰ Optional: Specify standoff device parameters. (Parameter >


Standoff Devices)

‰ Optional: Calibrate coefficients of friction if actual load data is


available. Calibrating coefficients of friction is recommended if
actual load data is available.

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1.) Access the Calibrate Friction analysis mode. (Select Calibrate


Friction from the Mode drop-down list.)

2.) Specify actual load information and view calculated coefficients


of friction. (Parameter > Calibration Data)

‰ Determine the maximum measured weight and torque expected


over a depth range.

1.) Access the Drag Chart analysis mode. (Select Drag Chart from
the Mode drop-down list.)

2.) Specify the analysis parameters. (Parameter > Run


Parameters)

3.) Evaluate measured weights to determine if string tensile limit is


exceeded. (View > Plot > Tension Point Chart)

4.) Evaluate string torque to determine if make-up torque is


exceeded. (View > Plot > Torque Point Chart)

5.) Use the View > Plot > Sensitivity Plot Tension plot to quickly
view the measured weights using various friction factors. If you
have actual data, you can use this plot to determine which friction
factor best matches the actual data. Use advanced friction factors
(click Advanced button on Parameters > Run Parameters
dialog) to specify different friction factors for different
operations in cased and open hole.

‰ Analyze in detail the depths that encounter high measured weights


or torques.

1.) Access the Normal Analysis or Top Down Analysis mode.


(Select Normal Analysis from the Mode drop-down list. If this
is a coiled tubing operation, select Top Down Analysis from the
drop-down list instead.)

2.) Specify the operating modes and parameters to analyze.


(Parameter > Mode Data)

3.) Determine if buckling, fatigue, exceeding of torque limit,


exceeding 100% of yield, or exceeding the yield strength safety
factor occurs. (View > Table > Summary Loads)

4.) Investigate the loads occurring at specific depths during an


operation. (View > Table > Load Data > Tripping In, Tripping

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Out, Rotating On Bottom, Rotating Off Bottom, Sliding or


Backreaming)

5.) Investigate the stresses occurring at specific depths during an


operation. (View > Table > Stress Data > Tripping In, Tripping
Out, Rotating On Bottom, Rotating Off Bottom, Sliding or
Backreaming)

6.) Determine if the forces in the string are near the tensile limit or
if the string is buckling. (View > Plot > Effective Tension)

7.) Determine if the string torque is near the make-up torque limit.
(View > Plot > Torque Graph)

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Introducing Torque Drag Analysis

The Torque Drag Analysis module predicts the measured weights and
torques while tripping in, tripping out, rotating on bottom, rotating off
bottom, slide drilling, and backreaming. This information can be used to
determine if the well can be drilled or to evaluate hole conditions while
drilling a well. The module can be used for analyzing drillstrings, casing
strings, liners, tieback strings, tubing strings, and coiled tubing.

The Torque Drag Analysis module includes both soft string and stiff
string models. The soft string model is based on Dawson’s cable model.
In this model, the work string is treated as an extendible cable with zero
bending stiffness. Friction is assumed to act in the direction opposing
motion. The forces required to buckle the string are determined, and if
buckling occurs, the mode of buckling (sinusoidal, transitional, helical,
or lockup) is indicated. The stiff string model includes the increased side
forces from stiff tubulars in curved hole, as well as the reduced side
forces from pipe wall clearance. For more information, refer to
“Supporting Information and Calculations” on page 217 or
“References” on page 250.

Starting Torque Drag Analysis


There are two ways to begin the Torque Drag module:
z Select Torque Drag from the Modules menu, and then select the
appropriate analysis mode.

z Click the Torque Drag button and then select the appropriate
analysis mode from the drop-down list.

The contents of the Case and Parameter menus vary depending on the
analysis mode you select.

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Choose Torque Drag Analysis from the Module menu or by clicking


the Torque Drag Module button.

Select desired Torque Drag Analysis mode


from submenu or from Mode drop-down list.

Available Analysis Modes


The Torque Drag Module has four available analysis modes. The
analysis modes are described in the following text.

• Normal Analysis: Use the Normal Analysis mode to calculate


the forces, torques, and stresses acting on the work string while
the bit is at a particular depth in the wellbore for a number of
common drilling load conditions. This analysis calculates
surface loads based on bit forces you specify. Refer to “Normal
Analysis” on page 209 for more information.

• Calibrate Friction: Use the Calibrate Friction analysis mode to


calculate the coefficient of friction for cased and open hole
sections using actual load data acquired while drilling. The
calculated coefficient of friction can be used the torque and drag
analysis. If you have access to actual load data, it is
recommended that you calibrate the coefficients of friction and

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use the calibrated coefficients in your analysis. Refer to


“Calibrate Friction Analysis” on page 211 for more information.

• Drag Chart: Use the Drag Chart analysis mode to plot the
surface torque and measured weight from drilling operations
while the bit traverses a range of depths in the wellbore. Refer to
“Drag Chart Analysis” on page 212 for more information.

• Top-Down Analysis: Use Top-Down Analysis to calculate the


string forces based on loads and torque applied at the surface or
at the bottom of the string. (When loads are applied at the bottom
of the work string, this analysis is very similar to the Normal
Analysis but there is more flexibility over movement and end
conditions.) If the surface loads are input, the bit forces are
calculated and vice versa. You can specify if the string is
rotating, and reciprocating during tripping operations. Refer to
“Top Down Analysis” on page 214 for more information.

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Defining the Case Data

Refer to “Entering Case Data” on page 162 for instructions on entering


data into the Case menu options.

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Defining Operating Parameters

Specifying Weight Indicator Corrections, Analytical Models and


Reporting of Mechanical Limitations
Use Case > Torque Drag Setup to specify weight indicator corrections,
analytical models and to select reporting of mechanical limitations.

Check this box to include sheave friction


in all measured weight calculations. If
you want to enable this model, you must
also specify the Lines Strung and the
Mechanical Efficiency values.

Check box to use Bending Stress


Magnification corrections.

The Stiff String model computes the additional side force


from stiff tubulars bending in a curved hole as well as the
reduced side forces from pipe straightening due to
pipe/hole clearance.

Check box to select the viscous fluid torque and


drag model. The viscous fluid effects cause
differing torque and drag on the string depending
on the pipe rotation and trip speeds. The
magnitude depends strongly on the fluid rheology
model chosen in the fluid editor.

Specify the length that you want the contact forces


reported for.

Check boxes for limitations you are


interested in.

Enabling Sheave Friction Corrections


When the Enable Sheave Friction Correction model, it is applied to all
measured weight calculations. You must specify the lines strung and the
mechanical efficiency. Friction estimates from pick-up and slack-off

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loads are underestimates because uneven distribution of dynamic loads


to drilling lines are caused by friction in the block sheaves.

Martin-Decker–type deadline weight indicators do not account for this


problem. Actual pick-up loads are therefore always greater than
indicated while slack-off loads are always less than indicated. When you
use pick-up or slack-off hook load measurements as the basis for friction
factor determinations, this error source results in pick-up friction factors
that are too low and slack-off friction factors that are too high. Errors in
hook-load determination can be of the order of 20 percent due to this
error source (depending on lines strung), and the effect on friction factor
determinations can therefore be significant and worth correcting. Refer
to “Sheave Friction” on page 234 for more information.

Why Use Bending Stress Magnification Factor?


In both tensile and compressive axial load cases, the average curvature
between the tool joints is not changed, but the local changes of curvature
due to straightening effects of tension or the buckling effects of
compression may be many times the average value. Therefore to
accurately calculate the bending stress in the pipe body requires the
determination of these local maximum curvatures.

The quantity bending stress magnification factor (BSMF) is defined as


the ratio of the maximum of the absolute value of the curvature in the
pipe body divided by the curvature of the hole axis. This factor can be
applied as a multiplier on the bending stress calculations to more
accurately calculate the bending stress in a work string that has tool
joints with outside diameters (OD) greater than the pipe body. This
modified bending stress is then used in the calculation of the von Mises
stress of the pipe. BSMF is useful because when a drill string with tool
joint OD greater than the body OD is subjected to either a tensile or
compressive axial load, the maximum curvature of the drillpipe will
exceed that of the hole axis curvature. The drillpipe sections conform to
the wellbore curvature primarily through contact at the tool joints.

BSMF is applied to the calculated bending stresses when you mark the
Use Bending Stress Magnification check box on the Case > Torque
Drag Setup dialog. Refer to “Bending Stress Magnification Factor” on
page 250 for more information.

Why Use the Stiff String Model?


On the Case > Torque Drag Setup Data dialog, check the Use Stiff
String Model to use the stiff string model in the calculations. The stiff

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string model computes the additional side force from stiff tubulars
bending in a curved hole as well as the reduced side forces from pipe
straightening due to pipe/hole clearance. This model is complex, and
therefore takes a significantly longer time to run than the Soft String
model. The Normal Analysis Position Graph plots and the Single
Position plot are only available with the Stiff String model because the
soft string model assumes that the pipe is always positioned at the center
of the hole. For more information, refer to “Stiff String Model” on
page 237.

Including Viscous Drag Calculations


On the Case > Torque Drag Setup Data dialog, check the Use Viscous
Torque and Drag to include viscous fluid effects in the calculations.
The viscous fluid effects cause differing torque and drag on the string
depending on the pipe rotation and trip speeds. The magnitude depends
strongly on the fluid rheology model chosen in the fluid editor. Refer to
“Viscous Drag” on page 247 for more information.

Specifying Multiple Fluids or Surface Pressure


The Parameter > Fluid Columns tabs are used to define the density of
the fluids in the annulus and the string. Data entered on these tabs
overrides data entered on the Case > Fluid Editor. You can also define
a surface pressure to apply to the annulus. If you are not applying
pressure at the surface, and you are using one fluid in the string and
annulus, enter the fluid information on the Case > Fluid Editor.

Use the Fluid Columns tabs if:

z There is more than one fluid in the annulus

z There is surface pressure applied to the annulus

z The fluid density in the annulus and string are different

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Tabs for entry of fluid columns in string and


annulus.

Define a surface pressure to


be applied to the annulus.
Define a flow rate. This flow rate will be
applied to all analysis modes.

Use this tab is used to define the density


of the fluids in the annulus. You can also
define a surface pressure to be applied to
the annulus. If you do not enter data here,
the mud weight entered in the Fluid Editor
dialog becomes the default entry.

How does Fluid Flow Change the Forces and Stresses on the Workstring?
Fluid flow changes the forces and stresses on the work string in three
ways.

z The calculated Pump Off Force is an additional compressive force


at the end of the string caused by the acceleration of fluid through
the bit jets. The calculations for bit impact force are used to
determine this force.

z Forces and stresses in the drill string are caused by the differential
between the pipe and annulus fluid pressures from the hydraulic
system, including bit and MWD / motor pressures losses.

z Fluid shear forces act on the work string as a result of shear stresses
caused by the frictional flow in the pipe and annulus.

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How Does Surface Pressure Change the Forces And Stresses On the
Workstring?
z Surface pressure in the string acts as an additional axial force.

z Surface pressure in the annulus acts as an additional compressive


force.

Using Standoff Devices


Use the Parameter > Standoff Devices dialog to describe standoff
devices. You must check the Use Standoff Devices box to use these
devices in the analysis. If the box is not checked, the devices will not be
used. WELLPLAN can model both rotating and non-rotating devices.
The model assumes that accurate placement of the devices has been
determined so that the drillstring does not contact the wellbore in the
interval where the devices are used. Each row of the table refers to a
single type of device placed on consecutive sections of pipe. If more
than one type of device is used, define each type on a separate row in the
table.

Note: Wellbore to string friction in sections where standoff devices


are used is relative...

For example, assume the wellbore friction (input using Case > Hole Section
Editor) is 0.2. If the standoff device friction is 0.5, then the friction factor used in
the calculations would be 0.2 X 0.5 = 0.1. This approach allows for accurate
friction determination when using drag charts and moving the string between
cased and open hole sections with different wellbore friction factors.

Note: Standoff Device Placement...

The model assumes the devices have been placed so that the string does not
contact the wellbore in the interval where the devices are used. The analysis does
not determine device placement.

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Check box if you want Use Frequency columns to specify


to use standoff the number of devices per joint.
devices. (A unit is a joint.)

Each row of the table


refers to a single type of
standoff device placed
on consecutive
sections of pipe. If more
than one type of device
is used, define each
type on a separate row
in the table.
The unit weight is added to
the string weight for analysis
purposes.

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Calibrating Coefficients of Friction Using Field Data

Coefficients of friction along the wellbore can be calculated from actual


data collected while drilling. This provides a means of calibrating the
model against actual field results. In order to use this analysis mode, you
must collect a series of weights and torques at the wellsite. Some of this
data is obtained with the string inside the casing shoe, and other
information is obtained in the open hole section. When gathering actual
field data, it is best if friction reduction devices are not being used. Over
the sections where the devices are used, the effects of the friction
devices must included in the calibrated friction factors.

You must calculate the coefficient of friction in the cased hole section
first, then the open hole. This is required because data recorded in the
open hole section includes the combined effects of friction between the
string and the casing as well as the friction between the string and the
open hole. Therefore, the coefficient of friction for the cased hole must
be determined before that of the open hole.

The reliability of the data collected is important. Spurious values for any
weight may prevent calculating a solution or may result in an inaccurate
solution. It is important that the drillstring is completely inside the
casing shoe when you are recording weights for calculating the
coefficient of friction inside the casing. It is also important that the string
is not reciprocated while recording rotating weights, and vice versa. You
may not want to rely on one set of data, but make a decision based on a
number of weight readings taken at different depths inside the casing
and in the open hole section.

It is important to realize that hole conditions may also effect the


coefficient of friction calculated. If the actual weights recorded include
the effects of a build up of cuttings, the BHA hanging up downhole, or
other hole conditions. Because the recorded weights include these
effects, the calculated coefficient of friction will also.

Starting the Calibrate Friction Analysis Mode

Select Calibrate Friction


from Mode drop-down
list.

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Recording Actual Load Data


Use the Parameter > Actual Loads dialog to record actual load data
encountered at certain depths. This information can be used to calculate
coefficients of friction using the Calibrate Friction analysis or it can be
displayed in the Drag Chart analysis graphs to compare actual values
with calculated values.

The actual load data consists of rows or information with one row per
measured depth. You can record data for any measured depth. It may be
useful to record this information just inside the casing shoe, or at total
depth just prior to setting casing. It is not necessary to specify all values
for each row. However, the measured depth must always be specified,
and must always increase. The trip in and trip out measured weights, and
rotating off bottom torque values are required to calibrate the coefficient
of friction. Other values are input for plotting actual load data on
applicable plots.

Required input for calibrating coefficient of friction

Calibrating Coefficients of Friction


Use the Parameter > Calibration Data dialog to specify the
parameters required to calibrate the coefficients of friction.

You may calculate the coefficient of friction using the following two
methods. The difference between the methods is that one method used
an actual load input on the Parameter > Actual Loads dialog and the
other method requires the input of the load directly onto the Parameter
> Calibration Data dialog.

z Be sure the use actual load check box is not checked and enter a bit
MD. You must also enter at least one of the following: tripping out
measured weight, tripping in measured weight, or rotating off
bottom torque. The calculated coefficient of friction is based on the
selected measured weights and/or torque values you entered for the
specified bit MD.

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z Be sure the Use Actual Load check box is marked and select an
actual load. You can select, deselect, or alter any of the measured
weight or torque values recorded for this actual load. The calculated
coefficient of friction is based on the selected measured weights
and/or torque values.

The coefficient of friction can be calculated for the


cased hole section, the open hole section, or be
combined for both open and cased hole.

When selecting from actual loads


(entered on actual loads editor),
be sure box is checked and select
desired depth from drop-down list.

View the calculated average coefficient of friction


used in analysis. The average coefficient of
friction is calculated for the cased, open hole, or
combined hole section selected.

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Predicting Maximum Measured Weight and Torque

The Drag Chart Analysis predicts the measured weights and torques that
will be experienced while operating the work string over a range of
depths. The calculations performed for this analysis are similar to those
used in the Normal Analysis except the calculations are performed over
a range of depths. (A Normal Analysis calculates results for a single bit
depth.) As in the Normal Analysis, you may select the operational
modes by checking appropriate boxes on the Run Parameters dialog.
Refer to “Drag Chart Analysis” on page 212 for more information.

You can use coefficients of friction that you calculated using Calibrate
Friction, the coefficients specified on the Hole Section Editor, or those
entered on the Run Parameters dialog.

Starting Drag Chart Analysis

Select Drag Chart


from drop-down list.

Defining Operating Conditions and the Analysis Depth Interval


The Parameter > Run Parameters dialog is used to specify the
analysis parameters for a Drag Chart Analysis. On this dialog you
indicate the depth interval that you want to analyze. You also select the
operational modes you want to analyze, and the forces acting at the
bottom of the work string for each of the operational modes. You must
also indicate the coefficient of friction that you want to use.

Typically the depth range chosen would correspond to the expected run
of a given string, or to a complete hole section if the drill string
configuration was to remain unchanged throughout the hole section.
Keep in mind that the drag chart analysis assumes that only one string,

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

and only one set of operating parameters (fluid, WOB, and so forth) are
used through the entire analysis depth range.

Be sure to enter
interval to analyze.

Use Torque/tension Point


Distance From Bit to specify the
depth along the drill string,
expressed as the distance from the
bit, for any point of interest in the
string. The torque or tension at this
point is displayed on the drag chart
torque and tension plots. If you do
not specify a depth, the torque or
tension will be calculated at the
surface. For example, if you are
interested in the torque in a
component that is 80 feet from the
bit, enter 80 into this field. In this
example, the torque generated in
this component will be displayed in
the graph.

Click Advanced to specify coefficients


of friction associated with different
operating modes.

Advanced Options
Click the Advanced button to specify coefficients of friction associated
with different operation modes. You must specify both cased and open
hole friction factors for each operating mode. Only those operations
specified on the Parameter > Mode Data dialog (Normal Analysis

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mode), the Parameter > Run Parameters dialog (Drag Chart Analysis
mode) are accessible on the Advanced Options dialog.

Analyzing Drag Chart Results


There are no reports available for a drag chart analysis. All output is in
graphical form.

Tension Point Chart


The View > Plot > Tension Point chart shows tension at the point in the
string (as indicated by the Torque/Tension Point Distance from Bit
specified on the Parameters > Run Parameters dialog) or the surface
measured weight for all operating modes selected on the Parameter >
Run Parameters dialog. This analysis covers only the measured depth
interval specified on the Parameter > Run Parameters dialog.

Use this plot to determine how much overpull you can place on the
string before the string will fail. Similarly, you can determine how much
compressive force can be applied to the string before the string will yield
as a result of buckling. From the graph, you can determine the load that
will fail the work string, but you will not be able to determine where the
failure occurred.

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Buckling occurs in
sliding and rotating on
bottom operating
modes at the
corresponding bit
depths.

Minimum
measured weight
to avoid buckling

Slackoff while Overpull while tripping


tripping in at out when the bit is at
3500 ft MD. 4,000 ft MD.

Torque Point Chart


The View > Plot > Torque Point chart displays the maximum torque
found at the surface or at a user specified point in the work string for all
rotary operating modes selected on the Parameters > Run Parameters
dialog. The Torque Point chart covers only the measured depth interval
specified on the Run Parameters dialog. For reference, the makeup
torque limit is displayed on the graph. The torque limit is derated for
tension.

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Makeup torque as input on Case >


Hole Section Editor for each
component.

Using the Sensitivity Plot


This plot displays the measured weights using different friction factors
for the operations selected on the Run Parameters dialog. One operation
is displayed on the plot at a time. The measured weights for all other
operations selected in the Run Parameters Dialog can be viewed through
the right-click mouse option. If the operation is not selected in the Run
Parameters dialog, the respective right-click option will be disabled
(greyed out). Only the measured depth interval specified on the Run
Parameters dialog is covered.

The plot displays the measured weights over the specified interval using
the friction factors specified on the Case > Hole Section Editor. In
addition, the measured weight is calculated using a friction factor that is
twenty percent greater and twenty percent less than the cased hole

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friction factor specified on the Hole Section Editor while the open hole
friction factor is varied between 0.1 and 0.4.

Note: In order to display this plot...

To display this plot, you must check the Enable Sensitivity Plot box on
Parameter > Run Parameters dialog. If this box is not checked, the View > Plot
> Sensitivity Plot Tension plot will not be available.

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Analyzing Critical Measured Depths

Normal Analysis calculates the torque, drag, normal force, axial force,
buckling force, neutral point, stress and other forces and stressed for a
work string in a three-dimensional wellbore. With a Normal Analysis,
all calculations are performed with the bit at one position in the wellbore
(as indicated on Case > String Editor), and with one set of operational
parameters. You may choose to perform the analysis using either the
soft or stiff string model.

Normal Analysis mode calculates the forces acting along the string and
at the surface for several operating conditions, including:

z Tripping in (with and without rotating)

z Tripping out (with and without rotating)

z Rotating on bottom

z Rotating off bottom

z Backreaming

z Sliding drilling

Based on the API material specifications of pipe class, material, and


grade, the following special load cases are also calculated.

z Maximum weight on bit to avoid sinusoidal buckling

z Maximum weight on bit to avoid helical buckling

z Maximum overpull to not exceed yield with the utilization factor


while tripping out of hole

Start Normal Analysis

Select Normal
Analysis from drop-
down list.

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

Defining Operating Conditions


Use the Parameter > Mode Data dialog to specify many of the analysis
parameters required to perform a Normal Analysis. You may specify
which operating mode you want to analyze by checking the appropriate
box. The operating modes available include tripping in, tripping out,
rotating on bottom, rotating off bottom, sliding, and backreaming.
Depending on the operating modes selected, you will be required to
specify operating parameters related to that operating mode. The
operating parameters may include WOB or Overpull, torque at bit,
tripping speed, or rotational speed while tripping.

Specify the operating mode you want to analyze by


checking the appropriate box or boxes.

Trip speed is not used in the analysis unless a


non-zero RPM is entered.

Specify the coefficient of friction


you want to use.

Click Advanced to specify coefficients


of friction associated with different
operating modes. Refer to “Advanced
Options” on page 195 for more
information.

Analyzing Normal Analysis Results


Results for a Normal Analysis are presented in tables, plots, and reports.
All results are available using the View Menu. In many cases, the same
analysis results are presented in more than one form. For example, string
tension data can be found in reports, plots, and tables. In general, the
plots or tables present the data in a clearer, more concise format than the
reports do. Depending on the number of operating modes selected, the
reports can get very long and difficult to read unless you print them.

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Because of time restraints, this course does not discuss every available
report, table and plot. If you have specific questions about a plot, table
or report, ask your instructor or refer to the online help for more detail.

Analyzing Normal Analysis Results Using Plots


There are several plots containing analysis results for a normal analysis.
These include:

• Effective Tension
• True Tension Graph
• Torque Graph
• Side Force Graph
• Fatigue Graph
• Stress Graphs (for all operating modes)
• Position Graphs (only available if using stiff string model)

Using the Effective and True Tension Plots

The Effective Tension plot displays the The True Tension plot displays the
tension as calculated using the buoyancy tension as calculated using the
method. Use this plot to determine when pressure area method. Use this data for
buckling may occur. stress analysis.

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Using the Effective Tension Plot


The View > Plot > Effective Tension graph displays the tension in all
sections of the work string for the operating modes specified on the
Normal Analysis Mode Data dialog as calculated using the buoyancy
method. (Refer to “Buoyancy Method” on page 219 for more
information.) The graph includes data for measured depths from the
surface to the string depth specified on the Case > String Editor. The
effective tension can be used to determine when buckling may occur. On
the plot are curves indicating the loads required to buckle (helical or
sinusoidal) the work string. When the effective tension load line for a
particular operation mode crosses a buckling load line, the string will
begin to buckle in the buckling mode corresponding to the buckling load
line.

The plot also indicates the tension limit for the work string component
at the corresponding measured depth. If the effective tension curve for a
particular operating mode exceeds the tension limit curve, the work
string is in danger of parting at that point.

Using the True Tension Plot


The View > Plot > True Tension graph displays the tension in all
sections of the work string for the operating modes specified on the
Normal Analysis Parameter > Mode Data dialog as calculated using
the pressure area method. The graph includes data for measured depths
from the surface to the string depth specified on the Case > String
Editor. This data should only be used for stress analysis. If you want to
determine when a worksting will fail due to tension, refer to the View >
Plot > Effective Tension Graph.

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Using the Torque Graph

Component torque is input on


the Case > String Editor.

The View > Plot > Torque Graph displays the torque in all sections of
the workstring for the operating modes specified on the Parameter >
Mode Data dialog for Normal Analysis. Data is included for measured
depths from the surface to the string depth specified on the Case >
String Editor spreadsheet.

Make-up torque limit is also specified on this plot. The make-up torque
is derated for tension and will therefore change with string depth. If the
torque curve for a particular operating mode exceeds the torque limit at
the same measured depth, the tool joints for the workstring are liable to
over-torque or break.

Torque limits for workstring components are specified on the Case >
String Editor spreadsheet. Drilling fluid information is specified on the
Case > Fluid Editor dialog, unless fluid information was specified on
the Fluids Column dialog. The analysis also uses information specified
on the Case > Wellpath Editor and Case > Hole Section Editor, and
the Case > Torque Drag Setup Data and Parameter > Mode Data
dialogs.

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Using the Fatigue Plot


The View > Plot > Fatigue Graph presents the bending or buckling
stress as a ratio of the fatigue limit.

High level of
bending or
buckling
stresses

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Using Tables to Analyze Results


Tables are a very useful form of viewing analysis results. Tabular results
are organized in a way that makes it easy to quickly find the information
you are looking for.

Using the Summary Loads Table


The View > Table > Summary Loads table contains information
pertaining to all sections of the work string and is a good place to begin
your analysis. This table contains a load summary for the operating
modes specified on the Normal Analysis Mode Data dialog. The View
> Report > Summary Report contains similar information. For each
operating mode, the following information is provided: stress mode
indicator, buckling mode indicator, torque at rotary table, windup,
surface measured weight, total stretch, and neutral point.

Stress column. An S indicates Buckling Column. An H


VonMises stress failure, a T indicates indicates helical buckling and
exceeding make-up torque and an F an S indicates sinusoidal
indicates fatigue. buckling.

What are the Loads For a Particular Operating Mode?


For information on an individual operating mode, use View > Table >
Load Data. The View > Report > Detail Report contains similar data.
Information presented on the table includes measured depth, component
type, distance from bit, internal pressure, external pressure, axial force
(pressure area and buoyancy method), drag, torque, twist, stretch,

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sinusoidal buckling force, helical buckling force, buckling mode flag,


and stress mode flag.

The data in this table pertains to only one operating mode. In this
case, it is the Tripping In operating mode.

The data in this table represents calculations at various


depths.

What are the Stresses For a Particular Operating Mode?


Use View > Table > Stress Data and select an operating mode.This
table contains information pertaining to all sections of the work string.
Data for each operating mode is specified on a separate table. This table
contains information similar to the View > Plot > Stress Graph,
including; measured depth, component type, distance from bit, hoop
stress, radial stress, torsional stress, shear stress, axial stress, buckling

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

stress, bending stress, BSMF, von Mises stress, von Mises stress ratio,
and fatigue ratio.
The data in this table pertains to only
one operating mode. In this case, it is
the Tripping In operating mode.

The data in this table represents calculations at various


depths.

Analyzing Results Using Reports


Reports are another form of presenting normal analysis results.
However, if you will be analyzing more than one operating mode, using
plots or tables is an easier way to view the results.

Using the Detailed Report


Most of the information presented on the View > Report > Detail
Report is available on tables, or in graphical form on plots. However,
the Detail Report also includes the operating parameters and case data
(as specified on the report options dialog) used in the analysis. Plots and
tables do not include this information.

When you are generating a report for an analysis of several operating


modes, the information for each operating mode is separate from all
other operating modes. For example, all tripping in analysis is kept
separate from the tripping out analysis. Because there is a lot of data
presented on the Detailed Report, it is recommended that reports be
limited to analysis of one or two operating modes at a time. Otherwise
the reports can get very long and difficult to read.

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Analysis Mode Methodology

Each of the next four sections covers one of the analysis modes available
in the Torque Drag module. In each section, the major analysis steps for
the analysis mode are discussed. Within the analysis steps there may be
a reference to a calculation. The name of the calculations are presented
in italic for recognition. Many calculations apply to more than one
analysis mode. To avoid duplicating information, the calculations are
presented alphabetically in the section titled Supporting Information
and Calculations. If you require more information about a particular
calculation, please refer to “Supporting Information and Calculations”
on page 217.

Normal Analysis
In a Normal Analysis the calculations are performed for a work string,
in a three-dimensional wellbore, at one bit depth, and with one set of
operational parameters. If any of these items change (different bit depth,
different work string, different mud weight, and so forth) then the
Normal Analysis must be re-run.

A Normal Analysis can investigate six load cases or operating


conditions. These six load cases consist of tripping out, tripping in,
rotating on bottom, rotating off bottom, sliding, and backreaming.
During the analysis the following steps are performed.

1. The first step is to initialize all load cases with the loads at the bit,
including torques and axial force. These parameters are input on the
Normal Analysis Mode Data dialog. For a Normal Analysis, the
loads at the bit must be input, so the surface loads can be calculated.

2. For both soft and stiff string models, the work string is broken into
segments (elements) with a length equal to either a minimum of 30
feet or to the component length. This defines the segment to be
analyzed. After the analysis of a segment is complete, the segment
above is analyzed. This procedure is repeated until the entire string
has been analyzed.

For each segment, the following steps are performed:


a) Interpolate the survey data at start and end of segment using the
surveys entered in the Survey Editor (on the Case menu).
Calculate the build rate, turn rate and dogleg severity. The

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minimum curvature method is used for all survey calculations. If


the surveys had tortuosity applied, the “tortured” surveys are
used.

b) Determine the wellbore at this depth, and modify the tubular


wall thickness based on the Pipe Wall Thickness Modification
Due to Pipe Class calculations (page 233).

c) Compute the weight per foot of the segment in fluid and at the
wellbore angle using the Buoyed Weight calculations (page 221).
Because the work string is lying in a wellbore surrounded by
fluids, there are resultant hydrostatic pressures acting on all
interior and exterior surfaces of the pipe. The Buoyed Weight
calculations determine the resultant weight of the segment
considering the hydrostatic pressures acting on it.

d) Determine the force required to buckle the segment in the


wellbore using the Critical Buckling Force calculations
(page 222). The critical buckling force is the axial force required
to be exerted on a work string to initiate buckling. Buckling first
occurs when compressive axial forces exceed a critical buckling
force. The axial force computed using the Buoyancy Method
(Axial Force calculations, page 218) is used to compare with the
critical buckling force to determine the onset of buckling. This is
because the critical buckling force calculations are based on the
same assumptions regarding hydrostatic pressure.

e) Calculate the normal (side) force using the Side Force


calculations for the Soft String Model (page 235), or for the Stiff
String Model (page 237). The side force or normal force is a
measurement of the force exerted by the wellbore onto the work
string.

f) Calculate the drag acting on the segment using the Drag Force
calculations (page 226). The magnitude of the drag force is
influenced by the selection of Friction Factor.

g) Determine the axial forces acting on the segment using the Axial
Force calculations (page 218). Axial forces act along the axis of
the work string.

h) If buckling occurs, determine the additional side force due to


buckling by using the Additional Side Force calculations
(page 217).

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i) Calculate string torque using the Torque calculations (page 244).


Any input bit torque will be added to calculated torque.

j) Determine stresses using the Stress calculations (page 239).

k) Perform Fatigue calculations (page 228).

l) Perform Twist calculations (page 246) and Stretch calculations


(page 242).

3. Apply Sheave Friction Correction calculations (page 234) to


tension at the surface. This correction is only made if specified on
the Torque Drag Setup dialog.

4. Compute pick up and slack off for tripping load cases.

5. Calculate maximum weight on bit to buckle (sinusoidal and helical)


the work string, and maximum allowable overpull.

Calibrate Friction Analysis


Calibrate Friction Analysis calculates the coefficient of friction along
the wellbore using actual (field) data collected while drilling. This
provides a means of calibrating the program model against actual field
results. The following are an overview of the calculations performed.

1. The work string is broken into the minimum of 30 feet, or the


component length. This is the segment to be analyzed. After the
analysis of a segment is complete, the segment above it will be
analyzed. This procedure is repeated until the entire string has been
analyzed.

a) Interpolate survey at start and end of segment. Calculate build


rate, turn rates and dogleg severity. The minimum curvature
method is used for all survey calculations. If the surveys had
Tortuosity (page 244) applied, the “tortured” surveys are used.

b) Determine the wellbore at this depth, and apply Pipe Wall


Thickness Modification Due to Pipe Class calculations
(page 233).

c) Compute the weight per foot of the segment in fluid and at the
wellbore angle using the Buoyed Weight calculations (page 221).
Because the work string is lying in a wellbore surrounded by
fluids, there are resultant hydrostatic pressures acting on all

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

interior and exterior surfaces of the pipe. The Buoyed Weight


calculations determine the resultant weight of the segment
considering the hydrostatic pressures acting on it.

d) Estimate the coefficient of friction for either the cased hole, or


the open hole, or both. For each of the load cases, the following
steps (1 through 5) are performed until the calculated torque and
hookloads match the input or field values. If the values don’t
match, another coefficient of friction is estimated, and the
following steps are performed again.

1. Calculate the normal (side) force using the Side


Forcepage 235 calculations for the soft string model or for
the stiff string model. The side force or normal force is a
measurement of the force exerted by the wellbore onto the
work string.

2. Calculate the drag acting on the segment using the Drag


Force calculations (page 226). The magnitude of the drag
force is influenced by the selection of the Friction Factor.

3. Determine the axial forces acting on the segment using the


Axial Force calculations (page 218). Axial forces act along
the axis of the work string.

4. Calculate string torque using the Torque calculations


(page 244).

5. Apply Sheave Friction Correction calculations (page 234)


to tension at the surface. This correction is only made if
specified on the Torque Drag Setup dialog.

Drag Chart Analysis


Drag Chart Analysis performs essentially the same analysis steps as
performed in the Normal Analysis. However, in a Drag Chart analysis,
you can specify a range of bit depths. (A Normal Analysis is performed
at a single bit depth.) For each bit depth in the Drag Chart Analysis, the
largest torque or measured weight occurring anywhere in the work
string is recorded. This information is then available in graphical output.
The following is a brief overview of the calculations.

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1. Begin with the first bit depth. The first step is to initialize all load
cases with the loads at the bit, including torques and axial force.
These parameters are input on the Run Parameters Data dialog.

2. Next, the work string is broken into the minimum of 30 feet, or the
component length. This is the segment that will be analyzed. After
the analysis of a segment is complete, the segment above it will be
analyzed. This procedure is repeated until the entire string has been
analyzed.

a) Interpolate survey at start and end of segment. Calculate build,


turn rates, and dogleg severity. The minimum curvature method
is used for all survey calculations. If the surveys had tortuosity
applied, the “tortured” surveys are used.

b) Determine the wellbore at this depth, and apply Pipe Wall


Thickness Modification Due to Pipe Class calculations
(page 233).

c) Compute the weight per foot of the segment in fluid and at the
wellbore angle using the Buoyed Weight calculations (page 221).
Because the work string is lying in a wellbore surrounded by
fluids, there are resultant hydrostatic pressures acting on all
interior and exterior surfaces of the pipe. The Buoyed Weight
calculations determine the resultant weight of the segment
considering the hydrostatic pressures acting on it.

d) Determine the force required to buckle the segment in the


wellbore using the Critical Buckling Force calculations
(page 222). The critical buckling force is the axial force required
to be exerted on a work string to initiate buckling. Buckling first
occurs when compressive axial forces exceed a critical buckling
force. The axial force computed using the Buoyancy Method is
used to compare with the critical buckling force to determine the
onset of buckling.

e) Calculate the normal (side) force using the Side Force


calculations for the Soft String Model (page 235), or for the Stiff
String Model (page 237). The side force or normal force is a
measurement of the force exerted by the wellbore onto the work
string.

f) Calculate the drag acting on the segment using the Drag Force
calculations (page 226). The magnitude of the drag force is
governed by the selection of Friction Factor (page 232).

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g) Determine the axial forces acting on the segment using the Axial
Force calculations (page 218). Axial forces act along the axis of
the work string.

h) If buckling occurs, determine the additional side force due to


buckling by using the Additional Side Force calculations
(page 217).

i) Calculate string torque using the Torque calculations (page 244).

3. Apply Sheave Friction Correction calculations (page 234) to


tension at the surface. This correction is only made if specified on
the Torque Drag Setup dialog.

4. Determine the measured weight at the surface, and the maximum


torque at any point in the work string with the bit at the specified
depth. Repeat the calculations with the next bit depth.

Top Down Analysis


Top Down Analysis allows the specification of string forces from the
surface. You can use this mode to determine downhole forces acting on
the work string when you know the surface forces. This analysis mode
is in many ways the opposite of the Normal Analysis. A Normal
Analysis calculates the forces at the surface based on known forces
acting at the bit.

You may want to use this analysis mode to analyze coiled tubing
operations. In the case of coiled tubing, you are driving tubing into the
hole with known injector forces at the surface. This analysis mode
provides a means of determining the tension or compression forces
acting on the tubing downhole. You can specify a tension (positive) or
compressive (negative) injector force at the surface.

You can also use this analysis mode to analyze stuck pipe situations.
When a pipe is stuck downhole, you know the forces at the surface, but
the downhole loads must be estimated. You may want to know the
required surface forces to achieve a specific force to trip a jar. You may
want to apply a tension or torque at the surface, and from the resulting
pipe stretch or twist, you can calculate the stuck point.

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1. The first step is to initialize with the loads at the surface, including
torques and axial force. These parameter are input on the Top Down
Analysis Mode Data dialog.

2. Next, the work string is broken into the minimum of 30 feet, or the
component length. This is the segment that will be analyzed. After
the analysis of a segment is complete, the segment below it will be
analyzed. This procedure is repeated until the entire string has been
analyzed (from the surface down the string).

a) Interpolate survey at start and end of segment. Calculate build


and turn rates, and the dogleg severity. The minimum curvature
method is used for all survey calculations. If the surveys had
tortuosity applied, the “tortured” surveys are used.

b) Determine the wellbore at this depth, and apply Pipe Wall


Thickness Modification Due to Pipe Class calculations
(page 233).

c) Compute the weight per foot of the segment in fluid and at the
wellbore angle using the Buoyed Weight calculations (page 221).
Because the work string is lying in a wellbore surrounded by
fluids, there are resultant hydrostatic pressures acting on all
interior and exterior surfaces of the pipe. The Buoyed Weight
calculations determine the resultant weight of the segment
considering the hydrostatic pressures acting on it.

d) Determine the force required to buckle the segment in the


wellbore using the Critical Buckling Force calculations
(page 222). The critical buckling force is the axial force required
to be exerted on a work string to initiate buckling. Buckling first
occurs when compressive axial forces exceed a critical buckling
force. The axial force computed using the Buoyancy Method is
used to compare with the critical buckling force to determine the
onset of buckling.

e) Calculate the normal (side) force using the Side Force


calculations for the Soft String Model (page 235), or for the Stiff
String Model (page 237). The side force or normal force is a
measurement of the force exerted by the wellbore onto the work
string.

f) Calculate the drag acting on the segment using the Drag Force
calculations (page 226). The magnitude of the drag force is
governed by the selection of Friction Factor (page 232).

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g) Determine the axial forces acting on the segment using the Axial
Force calculations (page 218). Axial forces act along the axis of
the work string.

h) If buckling occurs, determine the additional side force due to


buckling by using the Additional Side Force calculations
(page 217).

i) Calculate string torque using the Torque calculations (page 244).


Any input bit torque will be added to the calculated torque.

j) Determine stresses using the Stress calculations (page 239).

k) Perform Fatigue calculations (page 228).

l) Perform Twist calculations (page 246) and Stretch calculations


(page 242).

3. Apply Sheave Friction Correction calculations (page 234) to


tension at the surface. This correction is only made if specified on
the Torque Drag Setup dialog.

4. Compute the pick up and slack off.

5. Calculate maximum weight on bit required to buckle (sinusoidal


and helical) the work string, and maximum allowable overpull.

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Supporting Information and Calculations

The calculations and information in this section are presented in


alphabetical order using the calculation or topic name. The material
contained in this section is intended to provide you more detailed
information and calculations pertaining to many of the steps presented
during the descriptions of the analysis mode methodologies.

If the information in this section does not provide you the detail you
require, please refer to “References” on page 250 for additional sources
of information pertaining to the topic you are interested in.

Additional Side Force Due to Buckling


Once buckling has occurred, there is an additional side force due to
increased contact between the wellbore and the work string. For the soft
string model, the following calculations are used to compute the
additional side force. These calculations are not included in a stiff string
analysis because the stiff string model considers the additional force due
to buckling in the derivation of the side force.

Sinusoidal Buckling Mode


No additional side force due to buckling is added.

Helical Buckling Mode

2
rFaxial
Fadd =
4 EI

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Where:

Fadd = Additional side force

Faxial = Axial compression force calculated


using the buoyancy method
E = Young’s modulus of elasticity
I = Moment of Inertia
r = Radial clearance between wellbore and work string

Axial Force
There are two calculation methods to determine the axial force: the
buoyancy method and the pressure area method. In checking for the
onset of buckling, the buoyancy method is used. This is because the
Critical Buckling Force calculations (page 222) are based on the same
assumptions regarding hydrostatic pressure. For stress calculations, the
pressure area method is used.

Both methods predict the same measured weight at the surface because
there is no hydrostatic force acting at the surface. Below the surface, the
axial force calculated using each method will be different.

Consider a work string “hanging in air,” or more specifically, in a


vacuum. Some of the string weight is supported at the bottom by a force
(specifically, the weight on bit). In this situation, the upper portion of the
string is in axial tension, and the lower portion of the string is in axial
compression. Somewhere along the string there is a point where the
axial force changes from tension to compression, and the axial stress is
zero. This is the neutral point.

In this simple case, the distance from the bottom of the string up to the
neutral point can be calculated by dividing the supporting force at the
bottom (specifically, the weight on bit) by the weight of the string per
unit length. In other words, the weight of the string below the neutral
point is equal to the supporting force.

In a normal drilling environment, the string is submerged in a fluid. The


fluid creates hydrostatic pressure acting on the string. Two different
neutral points can be calculated as a result of the handling of the
hydrostatic forces. The buoyancy method includes the effects of
buoyancy, while the pressure area method does not.

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The pressure area method computes the axial forces in the work string
by calculating all the forces acting on the work string, and solving for
the neutral point using the principle of equilibrium. Using this method,
the axial force and axial stress is exactly zero at the neutral point.

Using the buoyancy method, the axial force at the neutral point is not
zero. The axial force and stress is equal to the hydrostatic pressure at the
depth of the neutral point. Because hydrostatic pressure alone will never
cause a pipe to buckle, the buoyancy method is used to determine if and
when buckling occurs.

Buoyancy Method
The buoyancy method is used to determine if buckling occurs.

[ ]
Faxial = ∑ LWair Cos (Inc ) + Fdrag + ∆Farea − Fbottom − WWOB + FBS

Pressure Area Method


The pressure area method is used to calculated stress.

[ ]
Faxial = ∑ LWair Cos (Inc ) + Fdrag + ∆Farea − Fbottom − WWOB

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L = Length of drillstring hanging below point (ft)


W air = W eight per foot of the drillstring in air (lb/ft)

Inc = Inclination (deg)


F bottom = Bottom pressure force, a com pression force due to
fluid pressure applied ov er the cross sectional
area of the bottom com ponent
F area = Change in force due to a change in area at junction
between two com ponents of different cross sectional
areas, such as the junction between drill pipe and
heav y weight or heav y weight and drill collars.
If the area of the bottom com ponent is larger the
force is a tension, if the top com ponent is larger
the force is com pression.
W WOB = W eight on bit (lb) (0 for tripping in & out)

F drag = Drag force (lb)

FBS = Buckling Stability Force = PressExternal*AreaExternal –


PressInternal*AreaInternal
Pipe: Area External =
π/4*(0.95*BOD*BOD + 0.05*JOD*JOD)
AreaInternal =
π/4*(0.95*BID*BID + 0.05*JID*JID)
Collar: AreaExternal = π/4*(BOD*BOD)
AreaInternal = π/4*(BID*BID)
PressExternal = AnnulusSurfacePress +
Σ (AnnulusPressGrad * TVD)
PressInternal = StringSurfacePress +
Σ (StringPressGrad * TVD)

Bending Stress Magnification (BSM)


Bending stress magnification (BSM) will be applied to the calculated
bending stresses if you have checked the BSM box on the Torque Drag
Setup Data dialog. The magnitude of the BSM is reported in the stress
data table of the Normal Analysis Detail Report, and in the Top Down
Analysis Detail Report.

When a drill string is subjected to either tensile or compressive axial


loads, the maximum curvature of the drillpipe body exceeds that of the
hole axis curvature. The drillpipe sections conform to the wellbore
curvature primarily through contact at the tool joints. In both tensile and
compressive axial load cases the average curvature between the tool
joints is not changed, but the local changes of curvature due to

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

straightening effects of tension or the buckling effects of compression


may be many times the average value. Therefore, to accurately calculate
the bending stress in the pipe body requires the determination of these
local maximum curvatures.

The bending stress magnification factor (BSM) is defined as the ratio of


the maximum of the absolute value of the curvature in the drillpipe body
divided by the curvature of the hole axis. The BSM is applied as a
multiplier on the bending stress calculation. This modified bending
stress is then used in the calculation of the von Mises stress of the
drillpipe.

Buoyed Weight
The surface pressure and mud densities input on the Fluids Column tabs,
or the mud weight input on the Fluid Editor are used to determine the
pressure inside and outside of the work string. Using the equations listed
below, these pressures are used to determine the buoyed weight of the
work string. The buoyed weight is then used to determine the forces and
stresses acting on the work string in the analysis.

WBuoy = WAir − WFluid


WFluid = (MWAnnular ∗ AExternal) − (MWInternal ∗ AInternal )

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

For components with tool joints

= π 4 ∗ [0.95 ∗ (OD Body ) + 0.05 ∗ (OD Jo int )2 ]


2
A External
A Internal = π 4 ∗ [ 0 .95 ∗ (ID Body ) + 0 . 05 ∗ (ID Jo int )2 ]
2

Note: The constants 0.95 and 0.5 are used to assume that 95% of the
component length is pipe body, and 5% is tool joint.

For components without tool joints

A Internal = π 4 ∗ (ID Body )2

AExternal = π 4 ∗ (OD Body )


2

Where:

OD Body = Outside diameter of component body


OD Jo int = Outside diameter of tool joint
ID Body = Inside diameter of component body
ID Jo int = Inside diameter of tool joint
AExternal = External area of the component
AInternal = Internal area of the component
WFluid = Weight per foot of displaced fluid
W Buoy = Buoyed weight per foot of component
MW Annular = Annular mud weight at component depth in the wellbore
MWInternal = Internal mud weight at component depth inside the component

Critical Buckling Forces


The critical buckling force is the axial force required to be exerted on a
work string to initiate buckling. Buckling first occurs when compressive
axial forces exceed a critical buckling force. The axial force computed
using the Buoyancy Method is used to compare with the critical
buckling force to determine the onset of buckling.

222 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

The critical buckling forces can be found listed by component type and
measured depth in the sinusoidal buckling and helical buckling columns
of the Normal Analysis Detail Report or the Top Down Analysis Detail
Report. The values in these two columns can be compared to the Drill
String Axial Force - Buoyancy column to determine if the component is
bucked at that depth. If the compressive force indicated in the Buoyancy
column exceeds that of either the sinusoidal buckling or helical buckling
column, the component is buckled. If buckling occurs, an S indicating
sinusoidal buckling, an H indicating helical buckling, or an L indicating
lockup will be listed in the B column.

Different critical buckling forces are required to initiate the sinusoidal


and helical buckling phases. Calculations for the critical buckling force
also vary depending on the analysis options selected on the Torque Drag
Setup Data dialog.

Straight Model Calculations


The Straight Model divides the work string into 30 foot sections. The
inclination and azimuth of these sections change along the well as
described by the wellpath data and the approximate 3D well shape.
However, each 30 foot section is assumed to be “straight” or of constant
inclination. By contrast, the curvilinear model takes into account the
inclination (build or drop) change within each 30 foot section.

Critical Inclination to Select Buckling Model

[
Θ c = Sin −1 (1 . 94 2 ) ∗ r ∗ (W EI )
2 13
]
If (Inc > Θ C ) , then:
F S = 2[Sin (Inc )EIW / r ]
12

If (Inc < Θ C ) , then:

(
F S = 1 .94 EIW )
2 13

Curvilinear Model
For a torque drag analysis, the work string is divided into 30 foot
sections. The straight model assumes each section is of constant
inclination. The curvilinear model takes into account the inclination
(build or drop) change within each 30 foot section.

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

In hole sections where there is an angle change, compression in the pipe


through the doglegs causes extra side force. The additional side force
acts to stabilize the pipe against buckling. An exception is when the
pipe is dropping angle.

In a build section of the well:

 2 EI κ   EI κ  EIW Sin (Inc )


2

FS =  +2   +
 r   r  r

In a drop section of the well:


rW Sin (Inc )
κ test =
EI

if (κ ≥ κ test ) then,
 2 EI κ   EI κ  EIW Sin ( Inc )
2

FS =  −2   −
 r   r  r

if (κ < κ test ) then,


 2 EI κ   EI κ  EIW Sin (Inc )
2

FS = −  +2   +
 r   r  r

Loading and Unloading Models


In SPE 36761, Mitchell derives the loading method. The idea presented
is that for compressive axial loads between 1.4 and 2.8 times the
sinusoidal buckling force, there is enough strain energy in the pipe to
sustain helical buckling, but not enough energy to spontaneously change
from sinusoidal buckling to helical buckling.

If you could reach in and lift the pipe up into a helix, it would stay in the
helix when you let go. In an ideal situation without external disturbances
the pipe would stay in a sinusoidal buckling mode until the axial force
reached 2.8 times the sinusoidal buckling force. At this point, the pipe
would transition to the helical buckling mode. This is the “loading”
scenario.

Once the pipe is in the helical buckling mode, the axial force can be
reduced to 1.4 times the sinusoidal buckling force, and the helical mode
will be maintained. If the axial force falls below 1.4 times the sinusoidal
buckling force, the pipe will fall out of the helix into a sinusoidal
buckling mode. This is the “unloading” scenario.

224 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

In the figure above, in stage 1 the compressive load is increased from the
force required for sinusoidal buckling to the threshold force where the
pipe snaps into a helically buckled state. This is the “loading” force.
Stages 2 and 3 represent the reduction of the compressive load to
another threshold force to snap out from helically buckled into a
sinusoidal buckled state. This is the “unloading” force.

Taking friction into consideration, we can imagine buckling friction acts


a bit like glue. It gives resistance when the pipe is pushed into buckling
(loading) and it also provides resistance to release the pipe from
buckling (unloading). But when the pipe is rotating the “glue” bond is
broken, and gives no resistance. Where friction is effective, the
transitions from sinusoidal to helical and vice versa are more explosive
because the pipe picks up more spring energy because the friction
prevents free pipe movement until the stored energy is enough to break
the friction bond.

Loading Model

FH = 2.828427 FS

Unloading Model

FH = 1.414FS

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

Where:

FS = C o m p r e s s io n fo r c e to in d u c e o n s e t o f s in u s o id a l b u c k lin g

FH = C o m p r e s s io n fo r c e to in d u c e o n s e t o f h e lic a l b u c k lin g
I = M o m e n t o f in e r tia l fo r c o m p o n e n t
E = Y o u n g ’s m o d u lu s o f e la s tic ity
W = T u b u la r w e ig h t in m u d
Inc = W e llb o r e in c lin a tio n
κ = C u r v a tu r e in th e v e r tic a l p la n e ( b u ild o r d r o p )
r = R a d ia l c le a r a n c e b e tw e e n w e llb o r e a n d w o r k s tr in g , in

ID C asin gInOpenHole OD ToolJoint


r = --------------------------------------------- – ----------------------------
2 2

Drag Force Calculations


The drag force acts opposite to the direction of motion. The direction of
the drag force is governed by the type of analysis being performed. The
drag force may be acting up the axis of the pipe, down the axis of the
pipe, or acting in a tangential direction resisting the rotation of the pipe.

The drag force is calculated using the following equation.

T
FD = FN ∗ µ ∗
V

Where:

T = Trip speed
RPM
A = Angular speed = diameter ∗ π ∗
60
V = Resultant speed = (T 2
+ A2 )
FN = Side or norm al force
µ = Coefficient of friction (friction factor)
FD = Drag force

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

The side force or normal force is a measurement of the force exerted by


the wellbore onto the work string. In the diagram below, the forces
acting on a small segment of work string lying in an inclined hole are
shown. In this simple diagram, the segment is not moving. From this
diagram we can see that the normal force acts in a direction
perpendicular to the inclined surface. The weight of the work string acts
downward in the direction of gravity. Another force, the drag force, is
also acting on the segment. The drag force always acts in the opposite
direction of motion. The segment does not slide down the inclined plane
because of the drag force. The magnitude of the drag force depends on
the normal force, and the coefficient of friction between the inclined
plane and the segment. The coefficient of friction is a means to define
the friction between the wellbore wall and the work string.

Where:

FN = Normal Force
FD = Drag Force
W = Weight of segment

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

Fatigue Calculations
WELLPLAN torque drag includes fatigue analysis because it is a
primary cause of drilling tubular failure. A fatigue failure is caused by
cyclic bending stresses when the pipe is run in holes with doglegs. The
source of fatigue failure is micro fractures between the crystal structures
of the material caused in the construction of the material. These cracks
are widened by successive stress reversals (tensile/compressive) in the
body of the cylinder. The following five steps are applied in the Torque
Drag analysis of fatigue loading and prediction.

Cyclic stresses are those components of stress that change and reverse
every time the pipe is rotated. In Torque Drag, only bending and
buckling stresses go through this reversal. In the stiff string model the
buckling stresses are integrated with the pipe curvature and hence
included in bending; the soft string model treats buckling stress
independent to bending stress and adds the two together for fatigue
analysis. Bending stresses are caused by pipe running through a curved
hole. On one side of the pipe is bent into tension and the other side of the
pipe is bent into compression (see diagram following). Bending stresses
are a maximum at the outside of the pipe body and undergo a simple
harmonic motion as the pipe rotates.

Apply Bending Stress Magnification Factor calculations (page 220).


Bending stress concentrates close to the tool joints in externally upset
pipe when the pipe is in tension. This magnifies the bending radius in
the section of pipe close to the tool joints.

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

Establish A Fatigue Endurance Limit For The Pipe


Fatigue endurance limit is not a constant value that is related to the yield
strength of the pipe. It cannot be associated with the material grade of
the pipe. There are also bending stress concentrations in the tubular due
to the design of tool-joints and the shape of upsets in the body of the pipe
apart from those considered in the bending stress magnification factor.

Drillpipe 25-35 Kpsi This is a general value for continuous


tubular steel.
Heavy Weight 18-25 Kpsi More stress concentration in tool joint
Drill Collars 12-15 Kpsi Includes drill collars and other non upset
BHA components, like jars, stabilizers,
MWD, and so forth.
Casings 5-20 Kpsi Depends on connectors:
5 for 8 round, 20 for premium

Non externally upset tubulars like collars and casing will have
maximum concentration of bending stress at the tool joint.

The fatigue endurance limit needs to be reduced if the steel is used in a


corrosive environment like saline (high chloride) or hydrogen sulfide
environment.

Derate The Fatigue Endurance Limit For Tension


The crack widening mechanism that causes fatigue is strongly
influenced by tension in the pipe. A simple empirical mechanism is used
to reduce the fatigue endurance limit for tensile stress as a ratio of the
tensile yield stress. This is known as the Goodman relation.

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

F AY = σ MY AE

If F AB > 0.0 then,

 FAB 
σ FL = σ FEL 1 −  (Tension)
 FAY 
Else,
σ FL = σ FEL (Compression)

R F = (σ BEND + σ BUCK )σ FL

AINTC =
π
4
(ID )B
2

AE = AEXT − AINT

AEXTP =
π
4
(0.95OD B
2
+ 0.05OD J
2
)
AINTP =
π
4
(0.95 ID B
2
+ 0.05 ID J
2
)
AEXTC =
π
4
(OD ) B
2

AINTC =
π
4
(ID )B
2

230 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

Where:

F AY = Axial force required to generate the yield stress, (lb)


F AB = Axial force (Buoyancy M ethod), (lb)
σ FL = Fatigue lim it, (psi)
σ MY = M inim um yield stress specified by G rade , (psi)
σ FEL = Fatigue endurance lim it, (psi) (For pipe and heav y weight,
this is input. All other com ponents assum e = 35,000 psi
σ BEND = Bending stress, (psi) (Corrected by BSM F)
σ BUCK = Buckling stress, (psi) (only if buckling occurs)
RF = Fatigue Ratio
AE = Effectiv e sectional area, in ( )
2

A EXT ( )
= External area of pipe, heav y weight or collar com ponent, in
2

= Internal area of pipe, heav y weight, or collar com ponent, (in )


2
A INT
= Pipe and heav y weight external area, (in )
2
A EXTP
= Pipe and heav y weight internal area, (in )
2
A INTP
= Collar external area, (in )
2
A EXTC
= Collar external area, (in )
2
A INTC
OD B = Body outside diam eter, (in)
OD J = Joint outside diam eter, (in)
ID B = Body inside diam eter, (in)
ID J = Joint inside diam eter, (in)

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

Compare The Cyclic Stress Against The Derated Fatigue


Endurance Limit
The fatigue ratio is the combined bending and buckling stress divided by
the fatigue endurance limit.

Some judgment is required in using the fatigue endurance limit (FEL),


because the limit is normally determined for a number of cycles of pipe
rotation. The number of cycles for the fatigue endurance limits is
approximately taken at 107 rotations; this is the level of cyclic stress
beyond which the material is immune to fatigue failure. This is normally
equivalent to the pipe drilling for 100000' at 60ft/hr at 100 rpm. The
relationship between fatigue stress (S) and number of cycles to failure
(N) is known as the S-N curve. The following chart is an idealized S-N
curve for G105 pipe that has a yield of 105 Kpsi and a fatigue endurance
limit of 30 Kpsi.

Using the chart you can see that a pipe may yield at a lower number of
cycles at an intermediate stress between the fatigue endurance limit and
the tensile stress limit.

Friction Factors
A friction factor is sometimes referred to as the coefficient of friction.
The friction factor represents the prevailing friction between the
wellbore or casing and the work string. Higher coefficients of friction

232 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

result in greater resistance to the movement of the work string as it is run


in, pulled out, or rotated in the wellbore. A friction factor of zero implies
there is no friction in the well, which is an impossible situation. A
friction factor of one suggests all of the normal (contact) force has been
translated into drag force. Refer to the Drag Force calculations
(page 226) for related information.

Friction depends on the two surfaces in contact, as well as the


lubrication properties of the drilling fluid. In addition to friction, the
results of physical mechanisms acting on the work string are reflected in
the selection of the friction factor. There are a number of physical
mechanisms, including stabilizer gouging, key seats, and swelling
formations, that contribute to the torque and drag of the work string.
These mechanisms can cause the hook loads and torques to be higher or
lower than expected. The wellbore path (doglegs or tortuosity) can also
contribute to the loading forces on a work string. Refer to Tortuosity in
this section (page 244) for more information.

Models
The Torque Drag module offers you the choice of two methods to use to
model the string in the wellbore. The soft string model has been the basis
of the WELLPLAN Torque Drag analysis for years. This model is
commonly used throughout the industry for this type of analysis. The
stiff string model was added to the module with the latest release of the
software.

Both models analyze the string in 30-foot sections. The primary


difference between the models is the method of calculating the normal
force acting on the string as a result of the string placement in the
wellbore. Each of the models are described in the following sections.

Pipe Wall Thickness Modification Due to Pipe Class


Drill pipe wall thickness is modified according to the class specified for
the pipe on the String Editor. The class specified indicates the wall
thickness modification as a percentage of the drillpipe outside diameter.
Drill pipe classes can be entered or edited on the Class option of the
Tubular Properties submenu of the Tools Menu.

The outside diameter is modified as follows:

Landmark WELLPLAN 233


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

ODnew = c ∗ ODold + IDold (1 − c )

Where:

OD new = Calculated outside diam eter based on pipe class


%WallThickn ess
c = and is based on pipe class specified
100
OD old = O utside diam eter as specified on the String Editor
ID old = Inside diam eter as specified on the String Editor

Sheave Friction
Sheave friction corrections are applied to all measured weight
calculations when you have indicated on the Torque Drag Setup Data
dialog that you want to apply this correction.

n(e − 1)(H r + Wtb )


Lr =
 1 
e1 − n 
 e 

n(1 − e )( H l + Wtb )
Ll =
(
1 − en )
Where:

234 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

Lr = Weight indicator reading while raising


Ll = Weight indicator reading while lowering

Hr = Hook load while raising, calculated in analysis


Hl = Hook load while lowering, calculated in analysis

Wtb = Weight of travelling block, user input


n = Number of lines between the blocks
e = Individual sheave efficiency

Side Force for Soft String Model


The side force or normal force is a measurement of the force exerted by
the wellbore onto the work string. In the diagram below, the forces
acting on a small segment of work string lying in an inclined hole are
shown. In this simple diagram, the segment is not moving. From this
diagram we can see that the normal force acts in a direction
perpendicular to the inclined surface. The weight of the work string acts
downward in the direction of gravity. Another force, the drag force, is
also acting on the segment. The drag force always acts in the opposite
direction of motion. The segment does not slide down the inclined plane
because of the drag force. The magnitude of the drag force depends on
the normal force, and the coefficient of friction between the inclined

Landmark WELLPLAN 235


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

plane and the segment. The coefficient of friction is a means to define


the friction between the wellbore wall and the work string.

FN = (FT ∆α Sin(Φ ))2 + (FT ∆Θ + WL Sin(Φ ))


2

Where:

FN = Normal or side force

FT = Axial force at bottom of section calculated using


Buoyancy Method
∆α = Change in azimuth over section length
Φ = Average inclination over the section
∆Θ = Change in inclination over section length
L = Section length
W = Buoyed weight of the section

Where:

FN= Normal Force


FD = Drag Force
W = Weight of segment

236 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

Soft String Model


The soft string model is based on Dawson’s cable model, or soft string
model. As the name implies, in this model the work string (such as
drillstring or casing, and so forth) is considered to be a flexible cable or
string with no associated bending stiffness. Since there is no bending
stiffness, there is no standoff between the BHA and the wellbore wall
due to stabilizers or other upsets.

When determining contact forces, the work string is assumed to lie


against the side of the wellbore. However, within the soft string analysis
it is actually considered to follow the center line of the wellbore. When
determining the contact or normal force, the contact between the string
and the wellbore is assumed to occur at the midpoint of each string
segment.

Stiff String Model


The stiff string model uses the mathematical finite element analysis to
determine the forces acting on the string. This model considers the
tubular stiffness and the tubular joint-to-hole wall clearance. The model
modifies the stiffness for compressive forces. Like the soft string model,
it calculates single point weight concentrations so determining the
contact force per unit area is not possible.

Stiff String analysis should be used to complete the following tasks:

• Evaluate a work string containing stiff tubulars run in a well with an


build rate of at least 15 deg/100 ft.
• Analyze running stiff casing in a well.
• Observe buckling using the Position Plot.
• Analyze work string containing upsets found on stabilizers or
friction reduction devices.

The stiff string model analyzes the string by dividing it into sections
(elements) equal to the lesser of the component length or 30 feet. The
model computes the side force at the center point of each element. The
side force is used to compute the torque and drag change from one
element to the next element.

The analysis of each element involves analyzing the nodes defining the
end points of each element. The detailed analysis of each node involves
creating a local mesh of 10 to 20 elements around the node. Each

Landmark WELLPLAN 237


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

element is given the same dimensions and properties as the


corresponding full drill string portion.

If the node length exceeds the maximum column-buckling load for the
section, the node is further broken into fractional lengths to keep each
section below the buckling threshold. This is why the analysis may take
considerably longer when large compressive loads are applied.

This short section is solved by solving each individual junction node for
moments and forces, then displacing it to a point of zero force. If this
position is beyond the hole wall, a restorative force is applied to keep it
in the hole. This process is repeated for each node in the short beam until
they reach their “relaxed” state.

The stiff string produces slightly different results when run “top down”
or “bottom up.” The difference is explained because the direction of
analysis is reversed. The length of beam selected for each stiff analysis
has been selected to optimize speed while maintaining reliable
consistent results.

The following illustrations depict an inclined beam section with length


L. P is the axial force, and Fv, F1, and F2 are the calculated ends or
contact forces caused by weight W.

M = End Moment

Fv = End Force
I

P
Fv

M1 M2
W

F1 F2
L

238 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

Stress
In the analysis, many stress calculations are performed using the
following equations. These calculations include the effects of:

z Axial stress due to hydrostatic and mechanical loading

z Bending stress approximated from wellbore curvature

z Bending stress due to buckling

z Torsional stress from twist

z Transverse shear stress from contact

z Hoop stress due to internal and external pressure

z Radial stress due to internal and external pressure

Calculated stress data is available on the Stress Graph, Summary Report


or Stress Data table.

σ ij = stress i = stress type j = location

Stress types: Location:


r = Radial 1 = outside pipe wall
s = Transverse shear 2 = inside pipe wall
h = Hoop
t = Torsion
a = Axial

Von Mises Stress

(σ − σ hj ) + (σ aj − σ rj ) + (σ hj − σ aj ) + 6σ sj + 6σ tj
2 2 2 2 2

σ VM =
rj

Note: The von Mises stress is calculated on the inside and outside of the
pipe wall. The maximum stress calculated for these two locations is
presented in the reports, graphs, and tables.

Landmark WELLPLAN 239


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

Radial Stress

σ r1 = − Pe
σ r 2 = − Pi

Transverse Shear Stress

2 Fn
σ s1 = σ s 2 =
A

Hoop Stress

[
σ h1 = 2 ri Pi − ri + ro Pe
2
( 2 2
) ] (r o
2
− ri
2
)
σ h2 = [(r + ro )P − 2 r P (r − ri )]
2 2 2 2 2
i i o e o

Torsional Stress

σ t 1 = 12 ro T J
σ t 2 = 12 ri T J

Bending Stress

σ bend 1 = ro EκM 68754.9


σ bend 2 = ri EκM 68754.9

Buckling Stress
(only calculated if buckling occurs)

240 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

σ buck 1 = ro R c Fa 2 I
σ buck 2 = − ri R c Fa 2 I

Axial Stress
(tension + bending + buckling)

σ a 1 = F a A + σ bend 1 + σ buck 1
σ a 2 = F a A + σ bend 2 + σ buck 2

Where:

ri = Inside pipe radius (in)

ro = O utside pipe radius (in), as m odified by the pipe class

Fn = Norm al (side) force, (lb)

Fa = Axial force (lb) as calculated with pressure area m ethod


T = Torque (ft-lb)
E = M odulus of elasticity (psi)
Pi = Pipe internal pressure (psi)
Pe = Pipe external pressure (psi)
κ = W ellbore curv ature as dogleg sev erity (deg/100ft) for
soft string m odel. Stiff string m odel calculates local
string curv ature.

J = Polar m om ent of inertia


W here:
(
J body = π 32 B od − B id
4 4
)
=π 32 (J − J id )
4 4
J jo int od

B od = body outside diam eter, in


B id = body inside diam eter, in
J od = joint outside diam eter, in
J id = joint inside diam eter, in

Landmark WELLPLAN 241


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

A = Cross sectional area of component


I = Moment of inertia
Rc = Maximum distance from workstring to wellbore wall (in)
M = Bending Stress Magnification Factor

Stretch
Total stretch in the work string is computed as the sum of three
components. These three components consider the stretch due to axial
load, buckling, and ballooning. Ballooning is caused by differential
pressure inside and outside of the work string.

Total Stretch = ∆LHL + ∆LBuck + ∆LBalloon

Stretch due to axial load


This term is based on Hooke’s Law. The first term reflects the constant
load in the string, while the second term reflects the linear change in the
load.

F ∗L ∆F ∗ L
∆LHL = +
A∗ E 2∗ A∗ E

Where:

∆LHL = Change in length due to the Hooke’s Law mechanism


F = Axial force as determined by the pressure area method
∆F = Change in pressure area axial force over component length
A = Cross sectional area of component
E = Young’s Modulus of component

Stretch due to buckling


If buckling occurs, the additional stretch in the buckled section of the
work string is calculated using the following equation.

242 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

r 2 ∗ F ∗ L r 2 ∗ ∆F ∗ L
∆LBuck = +
4∗ E ∗ I 8∗ E ∗ I

Where:

∆L Buck = Change in length due to buckling


F = Axial force as determined by the pressure area metho
∆F = Change in pressure area axial force over component l
E = Young’s Modulus of component
I = Moment of Inertia
r = Clearance between the wellbore wall and the
work string component

Stretch due to ballooning


Stretch due to ballooning is caused by differential pressure inside and
outside of the work string, and is defined by the following equation.

∆LBalloon =
−v∗L
(
E ∗ R −1
2
[( ) (
∗ ρ s − R 2 ∗ ρ a ∗ L + 2 ∗ Ps − R 2 ∗ Pa
)
)]

Where:

∆LBalloon = Change in length due to ballooning mechanism


L = Length of work string component element
R = Ration of component outside diameter/inside diameter
E = Young’s Modulus of component
ν = Poisson’s Ratio of component
ρs = Mud density inside work string component
ρa = Mud density in annulus at depth of work string component
Ps = Surface pressure, work string side
Pa = Surface pressure, annulus side

Landmark WELLPLAN 243


Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

Tortuosity
Wellbore tortuosity is a measure of the random meandering that occur
in a well during drilling operations.

In designing a well, tortuosity or rippling is not normally modeled


during directional well path planning. Typically, a wellpath file is
generated based on “ideal” trajectories which follow smooth paths
governed by the wellpath calculation method. WELLPLAN uses the
minimum curvature method.

Similarly, during actual drilling operations, “wiggle” may occur


between consecutive stations, even though the actual well path appears
to match the “ideal” plan at the station measurement point. The
recording of the well’s precise tortuosity can be captured only through
the use of closer and closer stations, although this may be impractical.

In both the design case and the operational case, the degree of tortuosity
is a factor on the overall loading (both torque and drag) on a particular
work string. The “smoother” the well, the less the frictional effects.

Modelling of wellbore tortuosity has been recognized as especially


significant at the planning stage, enabling more realistic load predictions
to be established.

Torque
Torque is calculated using the following equation.

A
τ = FN ∗ r ∗ µ ∗
V

Where:

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

T = Trip speed
RPM
A = Angular speed = diameter ∗ π ∗
60
V = Resultant speed = (T 2
+ A2 )
FN = Side or normal force

µ = Coefficient of friction
r = Radius of component (for collars the OD of the collar
is used for drill pipe, heavy weight and casing, the
OD of the tool joint is used for stabilizers the OD
of the blade is used)
FD = Drag force
τ = Torque

The side force or normal force is a measurement of the force exerted by


the wellbore onto the work string. In the diagram below, the forces
acting on a small segment of work string lying in an inclined hole are
shown. In this simple diagram, the segment is not moving. From this
diagram we can see that the normal force acts in a direction

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

perpendicular to the inclined surface. The weight of the work string acts
downward in the direction of gravity. Another force, the drag force, is
also acting on the segment. The drag force always acts in the opposite
direction of motion. The segment does not slide down the inclined plane
because of the drag force. The magnitude of the drag force depends on
the normal force, and the coefficient of friction between the inclined
plane and the segment. The coefficient of friction is a means to define
the friction between the wellbore wall and the work string.

Where:

FN = Normal Force
FD = Drag Force
W = Weight of segment

Twist
Twist in the work string is calculated along the string for each segment,
and is accumulated along the length of the work string. Twist is reported
as “windup” on the reports.

TL
Θ=
JG

Where:

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

Θ = Angle of twist (radians)


L = Length of com ponent
T = Torque (ft-lb)
E = M odulus of elasticity (psi)
E
G = M odulus of rigidity =
2 + 2ν
ν = Poisson’s ratio
J = Polar m om ent of inertia
W here:
Pipe:
J body = π 32 B od − B id ( 4 4
)
=π 32 (J − J id )
4 4
J jo int od

B od = Body outside diam eter, in


B id = Body inside diam eter, in
J od = Joint outside diam eter, in
J id = Joint inside diam eter, in
(J ∗J )
J =
body jo int

(.95 J jo int + . 05 J body )


Collar:
π
J =
32
(B 4
OD − B ID
4
)

Viscous Drag
Viscous drag is additional drag force acting on the work string due to
hydraulic effects while tripping or rotating. The fluid forces are
determined for “steady” pipe movement, and not for fluid acceleration
effects. You can elect to include viscous drag on the Torque Drag Setup
Data dialog.

The additional force due to viscous drag is calculated as follows. Note


that this drag force is added to the drag force calculated in Drag Force
Calculations.

∆P.π .( Dh2 − D p2 ).D p


∆Force =
4.( Dh − D p ).

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

There are no direct computations of fluid drag due to pipe rotation. The
method shown here derives from the analysis of the Fann Viscometer
given in Applied Drilling Engineering.

Compute the Shear Rate in the Annulus due to pipe rotation.

4.π .RPM / 60
SR =
(
D . 1 / D p2 − 1 / Dh2
2
p )
Given the shear rate, the shear stress is computed directly from the
viscosity equations for the fluid type. The 479 in the equations below is
a conversion from Centipoise to equivalent lb/100 ft2.

Bingham Plastic

τ t = YP + PV .SR / 479

Power Law

τ t = K .SR n / 479 if K is Cp or 4.79 if K is dyn/cm

Herschel Bulkley

τ t = ZG + K .SR n / 479 if K is Cp or 4.79 if K is dyn/cm

No consideration is made to laminar or turbulent flow in this derivation.


Additionally the combined hydraulic effects of trip movement and
rotation are ignored, which would accelerate the onset of turbulent flow.

Given the shear stress at the pipe wall (in lb/100ft2), the torque on the
pipe is computed from the surface area of the pipe and the torsional
radius.

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

∆Torque = τ t .2.π .L.( D p / 24) 2 / 100

In the case of rotational torque the forces are equal and opposite between
the pipe and the hole, although we are interested in the torque on the pipe
and not the reaction from the hole.

Where:

Dh = H ole D iam eter (in)

Dh = P ipe D iam eter (in)


∆P = A nnular pressure loss calculated according to
rheological m odel selected
Vp = Linear S peed of P ipe (ft/m in)
RPM = R otational S peed of P ipe (rev olutions/m in)
YP = Y ield P oint (lbs/100ft2)
PV = P lastic V iscosity (cp)
ZG = Z ero G el Y ield (lbs/100ft2)

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

References

General
“The Neutral Zones in Drill Pipe and Casing and Their Significance in
Relation to Buckling and Collapse”, Klinkenberg, A., Royal Dutch
Shell Group, South Western Division of Production, Beaumont, Texas,
March 1951.

“Drillstring Design for Directional Wells, Corbett, K.T., and Dawson,


R., IADC Drilling Technology Conference, Dallas, March 1984.

“Uses and Limitations of Drillstring Tension and Torque Model to


Monitor Hole Conditions”, Brett, J.F., Bechett, A.D., Holt, C.A., and
Smith, D.L., SPE 16664.

“Developing a Platform Strategy and Predicting Torque Losses for


Modelled Directional Wells in the Amauligak Field of the Beaufort Sea,
Canada”, Lesso Jr., W.G., Mullens, E., and Daudey, J., SPE 19550.

Bending Stress Magnification Factor


“Bending Stress Magnification in Constant Curvature Doglegs With
Impact on Drillstring and Casing”, Paslay, P.R., and Cernocky, E.P.,
SPE 22547.

Buckling
“A Buckling Criterion for Constant Curvature Wellbores”, Mitchell, R.,
Landmark Graphics, SPE 52901.

“A Study of the Buckling of Rotary Drilling Strings, Lubinski, A., API


Drilling and Production Practice, 1950.

“Drillpipe Buckling in Inclined Holes”, Dawson,R., and Paslay, P.R.,


SPE 11167, September 1982.

“Buckling Behavior of Well Tubing: The Packer Effect, by Mitchell,


R.F., SPE Journal, October 1982.

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

“Frictional Forces in Helical Buckling of Tubing”, Mitchell, R.F., SPE


13064.

“New Design Considerations for Tubing and Casing Buckling in


Inclined Wells”, Cheatham, J.B., and Chen, Y.C., OTC 5826, May
1988.

“Tubing and Casing Buckling in Horizontal Wells”, Chen, Y.C., Lin,


Y.H., and Cheatham, J.B., JPT, February 1989.

“Buckling of Pipe and Tubing Constrained Inside Inclined Wells”,


Chen, Y.C., Adnan, S., OTC 7323.

“Effects of Well Deviation on Helical Buckling”, Mitchell, R.F., SPE


Drilling & Completions, SPE 29462, March 1997.

“Buckling Analysis in Deviated Wells: A Practical Method,” SPE


Drilling & Completions, SPE 36761, March 1999.

Fatigue
“Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials”, by
Richard W.Herzberg, 3rd Edition 1989, Wiley.

Sheave Friction
“The Determination of True Hook and Line Tension Under Dynamic
Conditions”, by Luke & Juvkam-Wold, IADC/SPE 23859.

“Analysis Improves Accuracy of Weight Indicator Reading”, by


Dangerfield, Oil and Gas Journal, August 10, 1987.

Side Force Calculations


“Torque and Drag in Directional Wells – Prediction and Measurement”,
Johancsik, C.A., Friesen, D.B., and Dawson, Rapier, Journal of
Petroleum Technology, June 1984, pages 987-992.

“Drilling and Completing Horizontal Wells With Coiled Tubing”, Wu,


Jiang, and Juvkam-Wold, H.C., SPE 26336.

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Chapter 6: Torque Drag Analysis

Stiff String Model


“Background to Buckling”, Brown & Poulson, University of Swansea,
Section 3.4 Analysis of Elastic Rigid Jointed Frameworks (with sway).

“Engineering Formulas”, Gieck, Kurt, Fourth Ed. McGraw Hill 1983,


Section P13, Deflection of Beams in Bending.

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Chapter 7
Hydraulics Analysis

Overview

Hydraulics can be used to simulate the dynamic pressure losses in the


rig’s circulating system, and to provide analytical tools to optimize
hydraulics. In this chapter, you will become familiar with using the
Hydraulics module and with interpreting analysis results. To reinforce
what you learn in the class lecture, you will complete several exercises
designed to prepare you for using the module outside of class. The
information in this chapter can be used not only as a study guide during
the course, but also be used as a reference for future analysis.

At the end of this chapter you will find the methodology used for each
analysis mode. The methodology is useful for understanding data
requirements and analysis results, as well as the theory used as the basis
for the analysis. Supporting calculations and references for additional
reading are also included in this chapter.

In this section of the course, you will become familiar with all aspects
of using the Hydraulics module, including:

‰ Available analysis modes

‰ Defining operating parameters

‰ Optimizing Bit Hydraulics

‰ Determining the Minimum Flow Rate

‰ Determining the Maximum Flow Rate

‰ Determining the Bit Nozzle Sizes to Achieve Flow Rate

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Workflow

‰ Open a Case using the Well Explorer.

‰ Define the hole section geometry. (Case > Hole Section Editor)

‰ Define the workstring. Use the same dialog to define all


workstrings (drillstrings, tubing, liners, and so forth).
(Case > String)

‰ Enter wellpath (survey) data. (Case > Wellpath > Editor)

‰ Define the fluid used. (Case > Fluid Editor)

‰ Specify formation temperatures. (Case > Geothermal Gradient)

‰ Optional Step: Specify the eccentricity ratio of the annuli at


different measured depths. Eccentricity reduces the pressure drop
for annular flow. This information is useful for evaluating the
effects of eccentricity on a vertical well. For a deviated well, the
pipe is automatically assumed to be fully eccentric in the deviated
sections. (Case > Eccentricity)

‰ Specify the circulating system configuration. (Case > Circulating


System)

‰ Define the pore pressure gradients. (Not required for all analysis
modes.) (Case > Pore Pressure)

‰ Define the fracture gradients. (Not required for all analysis modes.)
(Case > Fracture Gradient)

‰ Determine bit total flow area for optimized hydraulics.

• Access the Graphical Analysis mode. (Select Graphical


Analysis from the Mode drop-down list.)

• Optional: Specify placement and frequency of standoff devices.


(Parameter > Standoff Devices)

• Specify the pump limits. (Parameter > Pump Limits)

• Determine the optimal bit nozzle total flow area for the
optimization method of your choice. (View > Plot)

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

‰ Determine the minimum flow rate required to clean the wellbore.

• Access the operational hole cleaning model. (Select Hole


Cleaning - Operational from the Mode drop-down list.)

• Enter operational and cuttings data. (Parameter > Transport


Analysis Data)

• Determine the minimum flow rate that will clean the hole. (View
> Plot > Operational)

‰ Determine the maximum flow rate.

• Access the Annular Velocity Analysis mode. (Select Annular


Velocity Analysis from the Mode drop-down list.)

• Optional: Specify placement and frequency of standoff devices.


(Parameter > Standoff Devices)

• Enter operational data. (Parameter > Rates)

• Determine the maximum flow rate that will not result in


turbulent annular flow. (View > Plot > Annular Pump Rate)

‰ Determine the bit nozzle sizes.

• Access the Pressure: Pump Rate Range analysis mode. (Select


Pressure: Pump Rate Range from the Mode drop-down list.)

• Optional: Specify placement and frequency of standoff devices.


(Parameter > Standoff Devices)

• Enter the minimum and maximum flow rates you determined in


the previous steps. (Parameter > Rates)

• Optional: Specify up to five depths you want ECD calculated at.


(Parameter > ECD Depths)

• Analyze bit hydraulics for the range of flow rates and specified
bit nozzle sizes. (View > Report > Pressure Loss) This step
may need to be repeated until the bit nozzle configuration is
optimized.

‰ Determine the tripping schedule that will not exceed a specific


pressure change while tripping the work string. (Select
Swab/Surge Tripping Schedule from the Mode drop-down list.)

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

‰ Calculate pressures and ECD occurring while tripping. (Select


Swab/Surge Pressure and ECD from the Mode drop-down list.)

‰ Fine tune hydraulics. (Select Pressure: Pump Rate Fixed from the
Mode drop-down list.)

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Introducing Hydraulic Analysis

When analyzing fluid hydraulics for a wellbore section, there are two
fundamental issues to investigate: hole cleaning and rate of penetration.
Hole cleaning is usually directly related to the flow rate and drilling
fluid properties. Rate of penetration is usually directly related to the bit
nozzle sizes. PDC bits are an exception where a specific flow rate is
required for acceptable rate of penetration, rather than hydraulic
horsepower. Because these drilling hydraulic parameters are inter-
related and affect each other, designing hydraulics can be very
complicated.

The WELLPLAN Hydraulics module is designed to assist the engineer


with the complicated issue of designing hydraulics. The module can be
used to optimize bit hydraulics, determine the minimum flow rate for
hole cleaning, determine the maximum flow rate to avoid turbulent
flow, analyze hydraulics for surge and/or swab pressures and to quickly
evaluate rig operational hydraulics.

The module provides several rheological models, including Bingham


Plastic, Power Law, Newtonian, and Herschel Bulkley. The chosen
rheological model provides the basis for the pressure loss calculations.
Refer to “Herschel Bulkley Model” on page 332, “Power Law Model”
on page 332, or “Bingham Plastic Model” on page 331 for more
information.

Starting Hydraulics Analysis


There are two ways to begin the Hydraulics Module:

z You can select Hydraulics from the Modules Menu, and then select
the desired analysis mode.

z You can also click the Hydraulics Button and then select the
appropriate desired mode from the drop down list.

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Choose Hydraulics Analysis from Module menu, or by clicking the


Hydraulics Module button.

Select desired Hydraulic Analysis mode


from submenu, or from Mode drop-down list.

Available Analysis Modes


z Pressure: Pump Rate Range: Calculate pressure losses for each
section in the workstring, annulus, the surface equipment and bit,
and ECDs for a specified range of flow rates. Refer to “Pressure
Loss Analysis Calculations” on page 324 for more information.

z Pressure: Pump Rate Fixed: Calculate pressure losses for each


section in the workstring, annulus, the surface equipment and bit
for one pump rate. Refer to “Pressure Loss Analysis Calculations”
on page 324 for more information.

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

z Annular Velocity Analysis: Calculate annular velocities at


specified flow rates and the critical flow rates for each section in
the work string.

z Swab/Surge Tripping Schedule: Calculate a tripping schedule


that will not exceed a specified pressure change while moving the
work string in or out of the hole. Refer to “Swab/Surge
Calculations” on page 327 for more information.

z Swab/Surge Pressure and ECD: Calculate the actual pressure and


ECD that occurs when the work string is tripped in or out of the
hole. Refer to “Swab/Surge Calculations” on page 327 for more
information.

z Graphical Analysis: Examine the effects of changing flow rate


and TFA on a number of hydraulics parameters.

z Optimization Planning: Calculate the flow rate and nozzle


configuration to optimize bit hydraulics based on several common
criteria. Refer to “Optimization Planning Calculations” on
page 315 for more information.

z Optimization Well Site: Determine nozzle configuration for


optimal hydraulics using recorded rig circulating pressures. These
calculations use Scott’s method, and only data specified on the
input dialog are used in the calculations. Refer to “Optimization
Well Site Calculations” on page 316 for more information.

z Weight Up: Calculate the amount of weight up or dilution material


required to adjust mud weight to a specific value. Refer to “Weight
Up Calculations” on page 330 for more information.

z Hole Cleaning Operational: Determine the cutting concentration


percentage, bed height, and critical transport velocity flow rate in
the wellbore using the current string, hole section, fluid and survey.
Refer to “Hole Cleaning Methodology and Calculations” on
page 307 for more information.

z Hole Cleaning Parametric: Determine the cuttings concentration


percentage, bed height, and critical transport velocity flow rate for a
range of pump rates for all inclinations from 0 to 90 degrees (in five
degree increments). This mode uses data specified on the input
dialog, and does not use the current string, hole section, or survey.
Refer to “Hole Cleaning Methodology and Calculations” on
page 307 for more information.

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Defining the Case Data

Refer to “Entering Case Data” on page 162 for instructions on entering


data into the Case menu options.

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Optimizing Bit Hydraulics

Using the Graphical Analysis mode, you can determine the optimum
flow rate and TFA resulting from specified criteria by examining a
series of available graphs. The range of flow rates over which to perform
the analysis begins at a very low flow rate and is limited on the high end
by the specified pump limits. Bit TFA (total flow area) is determined by
using a calculated pressure loss at the bit and the flow rate. The impact
force, nozzle velocity, and the hydraulic horsepower at the bit are
calculated once the TFA, pressure loss at the bit, and the flow rate are
determined. Refer to “Optimization Planning Calculations” on page 315
for more information.

Using Graphical Analysis Mode

Select Graphical Analysis


from drop down list.

Entering Pump Specifications


Enter data in the Parameter > Pump Limits dialog box to specify the
pump constraints that is used as a basis for the Graphical Analysis.

The Maximum Pump Pressure is the total system pressure loss. This
pressure loss will be used to determine the flow rate based on the
pressure loss calculations that pertain to the rheological model you have
selected. Refer to “Pressure Loss Analysis Calculations” on page 324
for more information.

The Maximum Pump Power establishes a boundary condition that will


be displayed as a line on the graphical output from this analysis.

Click the Default from Pump Data button to use the Maximum Pump
Pressure, and Maximum Pump Power calculated from the information
entered on the Circulating System, Mud Pumps tab. Refer to the “Pump

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Power Calculations” on page 325 for more information. The Default


from Pump Data button is available when you have specified a surface
equipment configuration on the Circulating System > Surface
Equipment tab and indicated at least one active pump on the
Circulating System > Mud Pumps tab.

Click Default from Pump


Data button to default from
active pumps listed on Case >
Circulating System > Mud
Pumps.

Analyzing Results

Analyzing Results Using Plots


All Graphical Analysis results are displayed in plots.

Using the Velocity @ Bit Plot


Use the View > Plot > Velocity @ Bit plot to determine the velocity of
the fluid through the bit for a range of flow rates and varied total flow
area (TFA). The following steps can be used to determine the TFA for a
specified flow rate or vice versa.

1. Look at the plot and determine the pump rate (x axis) and
corresponding TFA (right side Y axis). Keep in mind the pump rate
your pump(s) can produce.

2. Determine the velocity (left side Y axis) that corresponds to the


pump rate and TFA determined in Step 1.

The pump rate begins at zero and increases until the flow rate results in
parasitic pressure losses equal to 100% of the total system pressure loss.
(Essentially this case results in zero pressure loss at the bit.)

The bit velocity is calculated by first determining the pressure loss


through the bit. Pressure loss calculations are based on the rheological
model selected on the Case > Fluid Editor and assumes the total system
pressure loss is equal to the maximum pump pressure entered on the
Parameter > Pump Limits dialog. Based on the total system pressure

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

loss, as well as the workstring, fluid, and hole section information


entered into the Case > String Editor, Case > Fluid Editor, and Case
> Hole Section Editor, we can determine the pressure loss at the bit.
Knowing the pressure loss at the bit, the flow rate and TFA can be
calculated. The velocity at the bit can be determined.

This plot is used to determine


the bit velocity and required
flow rate or TFA given a flow
rate or TFA.

Using the Power Per Area Plot


Use the View > Plot > Power Per Area plot to determine the power per
area through the bit for a range of flow rates and varied total flow area
(TFA). The following steps can be used to determine the TFA, and
pump rate required to maximize bit power per area.

1. Look at the plot and determine the pump rate (x axis) corresponding
to the TFA in the legend.

2. Determine the Power/Area (right side Y axis) that corresponds to


the pump rate determined in Step 1. If the pumps you are using are
not capable of producing this pump rate, use the maximum pump
rate the pumps can produce.

The pump rate begins at zero and increases until the flow rate results in
parasitic pressure losses equal to 100% of the total system pressure loss.
(Essentially this case results in zero pressure loss at the bit.)

The power per area is calculated by first determining the pressure loss
through the bit. Pressure loss calculations are based on the rheological

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

model selected on the Case > Fluid Editor, and assume the total system
pressure loss is equal to the maximum pump pressure entered on the
Pump Limits dialog. Based on the total system pressure loss, as well as
the workstring, fluid, and wellbore information entered into the Case >
String Editor, Case > Fluid Editor, and Case > Hole Section Editor,
we can determine the pressure loss at the bit. Knowing the pressure loss
at the bit and the flow rate, the TFA can be calculated. From this, the
power per area of the bit can be determined.

Read maximum power per area and


corresponding pump rate from plot.

Read the TFA for the maximum power/area in the legend. Using this TFA,
read the pump rate. Use this pump rate to read the power/area.

Using the Impact Force Plot


Use the View > Plot > Impact Force plot to determine the impact force
of the fluid through the bit for a range of flow rates and varied total flow
area (TFA). The following steps can be used to determine the TFA and
pump rate required to maximize the impact force at the bit.

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

1. Look at the plot and determine the pump rate (x axis) corresponding
to the TFA in the legend. (This TFA is the TFA to maximize impact
force.)

2. Determine the impact force (right side Y axis) that corresponds to


the pump rate determined in Step 1. If the pumps you are using are
not capable of producing this pump rate, use the maximum pump
rate the pumps can produce.

The pump rate begins at zero and increases until the flow rate results in
parasitic pressure losses equal to 100% of the total system pressure loss.
(Essentially this case results in zero pressure loss at the bit.)

The impact force is calculated by first determining the pressure loss


through the bit. Pressure loss calculations are based on the rheological
model selected on the Case > Fluid Editor and assume the total system
pressure loss is equal to the maximum pump pressure entered on the
Pump Limits dialog. Based on the total system pressure loss, as well as
the workstring, fluid, and wellbore information entered into the Case >
String Editor, Case > Fluid Editor, and Case > Hole Section Editor,
we can determine the pressure loss at the bit. Knowing the pressure loss
at the bit and the flow rate, the TFA can be calculated. From this, the
impact force at the bit can be determined.

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Read maximum impact force and corresponding


pump rate from plot using the TFA in the legend.

Read the TFA for the maximum impact force in the legend. Using this TFA,
read the pump rate.

Using the Power Plot


Use the View > Plot > Power plot to determine the power of the fluid
through the bit for a range of flow rates and varied total flow area (TFA).
The following steps can be used to determine the TFA and pump rate
required to maximize power at the bit.

1. Look at the plot and determine the pump rate (x axis) corresponding
to the TFA in the legend.

2. Determine the Power (right side Y axis) that corresponds to the


pump rate determined in Step 1. If the pumps you are using are not
capable of producing this pump rate, use the maximum pump rate
the pumps can produce.

The pump rate begins at zero and increases until the flow rate results in
parasitic pressure losses equal to 100% of the total system pressure loss.
(Essentially this case results in zero pressure loss at the bit.)

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

The power at the bit is calculated by first determining the pressure loss
through the bit. Pressure loss calculations are based on the rheological
model selected on the Case > Fluid Editor and assume the total system
pressure loss is equal to the maximum pump pressure entered on the
Parameter > Pump Limits dialog. Based on the total system pressure
loss, as well as the workstring, fluid, and wellbore information entered
into the String Editor, Fluid Editor, and Hole Section Editor, we can
determine the pressure loss at the bit. Knowing the pressure loss at the
bit and the flow rate, the TFA can be calculated. Knowing the flow rate
and TFA, the power at the bit can be determined.

For any given flow


rate, the parasitic
pressure loss plus the
bit pressure loss is
equal to total system
pressure loss.

Using the TFA in the legend, read the flow rate.


Use this flow rate to determine the maximum bit
power.

Using the Pressure Loss Plot


Use the View > Plot > Pressure Loss plot to determine the pressure loss
through the bit for a range of flow rates and varied total flow area (TFA).
The following steps can be used to determine the TFA as well as the
pump rate required to achieve a certain pressure loss at the bit.

1. Look at the plot and determine the pump rate (x axis) corresponding
to the desired pressure loss at the bit (left side Y axis).

2. Determine the TFA (right side Y axis) that corresponds to the pump
rate determined in Step 1.

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

The pump rate begins at zero and increases until the flow rate results in
parasitic pressure losses equal to 100% of the total system pressure loss.
(Essentially this case results in zero pressure loss at the bit.) On this
particular plot, the combined pressure loss through the bit plus the
parasitic pressure loss should equal the total system pressure loss.

The first step in this analysis is determining the pressure loss through the
bit. Pressure loss calculations are based on the rheological model
selected on the Case > Fluid Editor, and assume the total system
pressure loss is equal to the maximum pump pressure entered on the
Case > Pump Limits dialog. Based on the total system pressure loss, as
well as the workstring, fluid, and hole section information entered into
the Case > String Editor, Case > Fluid Editor, and Case > Hole
Section Editor, we can determine the pressure loss at the bit. Knowing
the pressure loss at the bit and the flow rate, the TFA can be calculated.

For any flow rate the


parasitic pressure loss
plus bit pressure
losses equal the total
system pressure loss.

Using the desired bit


pressure loss, read
the required flow rate
and TFA- or use the
TFA and read the
required flow rate and
pressure loss.

Using the Power vs. Impact Force Plot


Use the View > Plot > Power vs Impact Force plot to determine the
maximum impact force, or bit power per area for a range of flow rates.

1. Look at the plot and determine the pump rate (X axis) corresponding
to the maximum impact force, or bit power per area.

2. Read the corresponding impact force or bit power per area from the
other curve on the plot.

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

The pump rate begins at zero and increases until the flow rate results in
parasitic pressure losses equal to 100% of the total system pressure loss.
(Essentially this case results in zero pressure loss at the bit.)

The first step in this analysis is determining the pressure loss through the
bit. Pressure loss calculations are based on the rheological model
selected on the Case > Fluid Editor and assume the total system
pressure loss is equal to the maximum pump pressure entered on the
Pump Limits dialog. Based on the total system pressure loss, as well as
the workstring, fluid, and hole section information entered into the Case
> String Editor, Case > Fluid Editor, and Case > Hole Section
Editor, we can determine the pressure loss at the bit. Knowing the
pressure loss at the bit and the flow rate, the TFA can be calculated.
Knowing the flow rate and TFA, the impact force or bit power per are
can be calculated.

Read maximum bit power/area and Read maximum impact force and
corresponding impact force and corresponding bit power/area and
pump rate. pump rate.

Numerical Optimization
This analysis mode is used for determining the flow rate and nozzle
configuration so you can achieve optimization with respect to one of the
following methods:

z Maximum hydraulic horsepower

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z Maximum bit jet impact force

z Maximum nozzle velocity

z Percent system pressure loss at the bit

This method is one of three analysis modes used by the Hydraulics


module for optimizing hydraulics. Graphical Analysis and Optimization
Well Site are the other two methods.

The flow rate and nozzles are calculated to fully use the available pump
pressure. Pump pressure is considered to be the sum of parasitic losses
(losses in the workstring, annulus, and surface lines) and the pressure
drop over the bit, and it is equal to the maximum pump pressure. After
the true optimum flow rate is determined, it can be increased slightly to
use all available pump pressure.

You can specify a minimum annular velocity to serve as a lower


boundary for the flow rate. At no point in the annulus will the flow rate
be lower than the specified minimum flow rate. The minimum annular
velocity will occur in the widest annulus section. Imposing this rule on
the optimization may result in a flow rate that does not generate the
optimum bit hydraulics.

You can also specify that turbulence in the annulus is not allowed, which
will put a limit on the maximum flow rate. Specifying that turbulence is
not allowed always limits the calculated flow rate, even if the flow rate
is less than the true optimum or if it forces a velocity that is less than the
specified minimum annular velocity. Imposing this rule on the
optimization may result in a flow rate that does not generate the
optimum bit hydraulics.

The calculation determines the nozzle sizes based on the number of


nozzles specified that will as closely as possible provide the required
TFA. You can restrict the freedom in nozzle selection by specifying a
non-zero value for minimum nozzle size, or by specifying another
number of nozzles. The final TFA may not be the exact optimal TFA
after the nozzle configuration is determined.

As discussed earlier, the result of the calculations (flow rate and


nozzles) may not necessarily match the optimum solution, but may be
restricted by the imposed limitations. To remove all restrictions that you
can control, you can specify the following in the Solution Constraints
dialog.

z Mark the Allow Turbulence in the Annulus check box.

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z Specify zero in the Minimum Annular Velocity field.

z Specify zero in the Minimum Nozzle Size field.

You can view a brief numerical summary of the optimization results for
each optimization method by looking in the Quick Look group box on
the Solution Constraints dialog (This is the same dialog that you entered
data pertinent to the analysis.). This information is presented in a tabular
format. For each optimization method, the optimal flow rate, nozzle
configuration, and TFA is presented.

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Determining the Minimum Flow Rate

The minimum flow rate is the rate that will clean the wellbore for a
specified rate of penetration, rotary speed, pump rate, bed porosity,
cuttings diameter, and size.

The Hydraulics module offers two hole cleaning analysis modes. These
modes are Hole Cleaning-Parametric and Hole Cleaning-Operational.
Although both modes are based on the same theory, the results and
usage of the modes are different. You should use the Hole Cleaning-
Operational analysis first to analyze your current Case. After
performing the Operational analysis, you may want to study the effects
of varying parameters using the Hole Cleaning-Parametric analysis
mode.

The operational analysis determines the percentage of cuttings in the


annulus of the current active case. The cuttings concentration
percentage, bed height, and minimum flow rate to avoid bed formation
is determined from the current inclination, annular diameters, and other
Case data.

Information entered on the Case > Fluid Editor, Case > String Editor,
Case > Wellpath Editor, and Case > Hole Section Editor will be used
to calculate annular volumes and hole inclination.

Starting the Hole Cleaning Operational Analysis

Select Hole Cleaning


Operational from the drop
down list.

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Entering Analysis Data


The Parameter > Transport Analysis Data dialog is used to specify
the analysis parameters that will be used in the Hole Cleaning-
Operational analysis.

Normal range is
0.1 to .25 inches. Enter the specific
gravity of the
A typical estimate formation being
of the porosity of drilled.
the cuttings bed is
36%.

Analyzing Results

Analyzing Results Using Plots

Using the Operational Plot


The View > Plot > Operational plot presents the following for each
measured depth in the wellbore:

• Inclination
• Minimum flow rate to avoid cuttings formation
• Suspended cuttings volume
• Bed height

The bed height and cuttings volume portions of the plot are calculated
using the flow rate specified on the Parameter > Transport Analysis
Data dialog (Operational). The minimum flow rate, and inclinations
portions of the plot are independent of the specified flow rate.

If there is a bed height forming, the total cuttings volume will begin to
become greater than the suspended cuttings volume in that portion of the

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wellbore. Also, you will notice that the bed height begins to form when
the minimum flow rate to avoid bed formation for a section of the well
is greater than the flow rate specified on the Transport Analysis Data
dialog (Operational). In order to avoid the formation of a cuttings bed in
that portion of the well, you must increase the specified flow rate to a
rate greater than the minimum flow rate to avoid bed formation.

Use the Rate of Penetration slider control to specify the rate at which
the formation is being drilled. This value is used to determine the
amount of cuttings produced per time increment — in effect a cuttings
flow rate. When you specify a value here it has the same effect as
specifying a value in the Rate of Penetration field in the Parameter >
Transport Analysis Data dialog. The new value you specify with the
slider will appear in the Rate of Penetration field the next time you open
the Transport Data dialog.

This analysis uses the data input on the Fluid Editor, String Editor,
Wellpath Editor, Hole Section Editor and the Transport Analysis
(Operational) Data dialog.

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Read each plot


using the same
Y axis.

Rate of Penetration slider can be Pump Rate slider can be used to


used to change the ROP and change the pump rate and
immediately view the results in the immediately view the results in the
plots. The ROP used in the plots is plots. The rate used in the plots is
specified here. specified here.

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Analyzing Results Using the Operational Report

Configuring Report Options


The View > Report Options dialog is used to specify additional
information to include on the report. Using this dialog, you can include
or exclude much of the information defining the case you are analyzing.

Check boxes to include


desired information on the
report.

Using the Operational Report


The View > Report > Operational report is a representation, in table
form, of the information available on the View > Plot > Operational
plot, as well as some additional information. From the report, you can
determine the minimum pump rate (flow rate when a cuttings bed will
begin to form). For the flow rate specified on the Parameter >
Transport Analysis Data dialog (Operational), you can also determine
the cuttings volume, bed height, and equivalent mud weight over the
entire wellbore using the MD Calculation Interval you specify on the
Transport Analysis Data dialog (Operational).

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Determining the Maximum Flow Rate

Annular Velocity can be used to determine the flow regime and critical
velocity for each section in the annulus for a range of flow rates. Critical
velocity is the velocity resulting from the critical flow rate.

For the Power Law and Bingham Plastic rheology models, the critical
flow rate is the flow rate required to produce a Reynold’s number
greater than the critical Reynold’s number for laminar flow. The
Reynold’s number is dependent on mud properties, the velocity the mud
is traveling, and on the effective diameter of the work string or annulus
the mud is flowing through. Based on the calculated Reynold’s number
and the rheological model you are using, it is possible to determine the
flow regime of the mud. For regimes where the Reynold’s number lies
between the critical values for laminar and turbulent flow, a state of
transitional flow exists.

For the Herschel Bulkley rheology model the critical flow rate is the
flow rate required to exceed the Ga number corresponding to laminar
flow. The Ga number is dependent on mud properties, the velocity the
mud is traveling, and on the effective diameter of the work string, or
annulus the mud is flowing through. Based on the calculated Ga number
and the rheological model you are using, it is possible to determine the
flow regime of the mud. For regimes where the Ga number lies between
the critical values for laminar and turbulent flow, a state of transitional
flow exists.

Starting Annular Velocity Analysis Mode

Select Annular
Velocity from drop
down list.

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Defining Pump Rates


Use the Parameter > Rates dialog to enter the range of flow rates to
analyze.

When specifying the range


and increment, keep in mind
that up to 15 flow rates can be
analyzed at a time.

Analyzing Results
The analysis results are available using the View Menu.

Analyzing Results Using Plots

Using the Annular Velocity Plot


Use the View > Plot > Annular Velocity plot to determine the velocity
of the fluid in the annulus for any measured depth in the wellbore for the
range of flow rates you specified on the Parameter > Rates dialog. This
graphical analysis calculates the annular velocity across each annulus
section and compares the profile with the critical velocity. Note that
when an annular velocity curve crosses the critical velocity curve, then
the flow regime for that annulus section moves from laminar to either
transitional or turbulent flow.

The fluid velocity is calculated based on the rheological model selected


on the Case > Fluid Editor. Cross-sectional flow areas are determined
from information input on the Case > String Editor and the Case >
Hole Section Editor.

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Annular Velocity vs
Measured Depth for
each flow rate
analyzed

Annular velocity exceeding laminar flow

Using the Annular Pump Rate Plot


Use the View > Plot > Annular Pump Rate plot to determine the pump
rate that causes fluid flow outside of the laminar flow regime for any
depth in the wellbore. Pump rates greater than the critical flow rate curve
at any depth indicate that the flow regime moves out of laminar flow and
into transitional or turbulent flow. The plot does not distinguish
transitional from turbulent flow.

The calculations are based on the rheological model selected on the


Case > Fluid Editor. Cross-sectional flow areas are determined from
information input on the Case > String Editor and the Case > Hole
Section Editor.

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Pump rates (at a given measured


depth) greater than the Critical
Pump Rate will result in transitional
or turbulent flow.

Analyzing Results Using Tables

Using the Annulus Information Table


Use the View > Table > Annulus Information table to view pressure
losses, and critical flow rates for a range of specified flow rates. You can
use this table to determine the flow regime, critical pump rate, annular
velocity, and pressure loss for all annular cross-sectional areas.

This table presents information calculated based on the range of flow


rates specified on the Parameter > Rates dialog, Case > Fluid Editor,
Case > String Editor, Case > Wellpath > Editor and the Case > Hole
Section Editor.

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Pressure Loss, Average Velocity and


Flow rates are specified
Reynolds number are calculated using
on the Rates dialog.
the rheology model specified on Fluid
Editor.

Flow regimes can be


turbulent, laminar, or
transition.

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Determining the Bit Nozzle Sizes

You have determined the minimum and maximum flow rates as well as
an idea of the bit total flow area you would need to optimize bit
hydraulics. The next step is to determine the actual bit nozzle sizes to
achieve the most efficient bit hydraulics yet still maintain the flow rate
within the minimum and maximum rates you determined.

Starting the Pressure: Pump Rate Range Analysis Mode

Select desired mode


from drop down list.

Defining the Pump Rate Range


The Parameter > Rates dialog is used to specify pump information to
calculate system pressures losses for a range of pump rates. The range
of pump rates is determined by the Minimum, Maximum, and Increment
Pump Rate specified in the Pump Rate section of the dialog. The
Minimum Pump Rate specifies where the pressure loss analysis
calculations begins. This rate will be increased by the Increment Pump
Rate until the Maximum Pump Rate is reached or five rates (including
the Minimum and Maximum Rates) have been analyzed.

In the Pumping Constraints control group of the dialog, enter the


maximum pump discharge pressure of which the pump is capable. If you
are using more than one pump, enter the minimum of all active pump’s
maximum pump pressures. You must also enter the Maximum Pump
Power the pump can produce. Refer to the “Pump Power Calculations”
on page 325 for more information.

Press the Default from Pump Data button to use the Maximum Pump
Pressure, and Maximum Pump Power calculated from the information

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entered on the Circulating System > Mud Pumps tab. Refer to the
“Pump Pressure Calculations” on page 326 for more information. The
Default from Pump Data button is available when you have specified
a surface equipment configuration on the Circulating System >
Surface Equipment tab, and indicated at least one active pump on the
Circulating System > Mud Pumps tab.

Check the Include Tool Joint Pressure Losses box to include tool joint
pressure losses in the calculations. Tool joint pressure losses are
sometimes referred to as minor pressure losses. Pressure losses due to
tool joint upset in the annulus are accounted for in the calculations by
considering the cross-sectional area change in the annulus regardless of
whether or not this box is checked. However, in these calculations the
length of the tool joint is not considered. Refer to “Tool Joint Pressure
Loss Calculations” on page 329 for more information.

Check the Use String Editor box to use the nozzle configuration
entered for the bit component on the Case > String Editor. Click the
Nozzles button to gain access to the Nozzles dialog. On the Nozzles
dialog, you may view the nozzle configuration currently on the Case >
String Editor or you may enter a different nozzle configuration for use
in this analysis

Specify the range of pump


rates to analyze.

Enter pump data.

Roughness affects friction


Check box to include tool joint pressure losses in
pressure losses turbulent flow only. The
nominal value of surface
Mark this check box to roughness for new steel
update the fluid rheology pipe is 0.0018 inches. Old
using the formation or corroded pipe can have
temperature defined in the values up to .0072 inches.
Geothermal Gradient This factor is more
dialog. important in deep wells
Check box to use String Editor
nozzles, or click the Nozzles using old tubulars.
button to use other nozzles.

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Specifying the Nozzle Configuration


The Nozzles dialog is accessible via the Nozzles button. The Nozzles
dialog consists of two tabs. One tab displays the current nozzle
configuration specified on the Case > String Editor, and the other tab
allows specification of different nozzle configurations for analysis. If a
tested nozzle configuration results are favorable, you may copy this
configuration to the bit specified in the String Editor.

Four nozzles sizes can be


specified and the Total Flow
Area will be calculated.

Specify the Total Flow Area if


you want to use a certain TFA
rather than nozzles sizes.

The Local tab can be used to specify any nozzle configuration you want
to analyze. If you determine this configuration is optimal, then you may
copy the nozzle configuration to the String Editor. The advantage to
changing the nozzles using this tab rather than the String Tab is that the
String Editor nozzles will not be altered unless you click the Copy to
String button.

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Four nozzles sizes can be


specified and the Total Flow
Area will be calculated.

Specify the Total Flow Area if


you want to use a certain TFA
rather than nozzles sizes.

Click Copy to String to copy


nozzles to String Editor.

Specifying Depths to Calculated ECD


On the Parameter > ECD Depths dialog, enter up to five measured
depths you would like ECD (equivalent circulating density) calculated.
ECD may be calculated at any depth. Commonly ECD is calculated at
the last casing shoe. The ECD of the mud is the mud weight that would
exert the circulating pressures under static conditions at the specified
depth.

Enter up to five depths to


calculated ECD.

Analyzing Results
Results for the Pressure: Pump Rate Range analysis are presented in a
plot and a report. All results are available using the View Menu.

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Using the Pressure Loss Plot


The View > Plot > Pressure Loss plot displays the system pressure loss,
as well as bit, string and annulus pressure losses for the range of flow
rates specified on the Parameter > Rates dialog. Each curve on the
graph represents one type of pressure loss.

Pressure loss calculation are based on the rheological selected on the


Case > Fluid Editor. Annular volumes are calculated based on
information entered on the Case > String Editor and the Case > Hole
Section Editor.

Maximum pump pressure is indicated on plot. The maximum pump pressure


is input on the Case > Circulating System > Mud Pumps tab.

Separate curves for bit,


string, annulus, and system
pressure losses

Check these boxes to include the effects of tool joint


pressure losses and/or mud temperature effects. You can
also indicate if you want to include these effects and
pressure losses by checking the appropriate boxes on the
Parameter > Rates dialog.

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Using the Pressure Loss Report

Configuring Report Options


The View > Report Options dialog is used to specify what additional
information to include on the report. Using this dialog, you can include
or exclude much of the information defining the case you are analyzing.

Check boxes to include


desired information on the
report.

The View > Report > Pressure Loss report will sum the total pressure
loss and the hydraulic power across each work string section, both inside
the string and in the annulus. For example, inside the work string the
total pressure loss across the entire drill pipe section is calculated, then
across the HWDP section, then the drill collar section. Similarly, in the
annulus, it calculates the pressure drop across the entire drill pipe
section, the HWDP section and so forth. The pressure losses through the
surface equipment are shown along with the total system pressure loss
at the specified flow rate.

Finally, the report splits the annulus into separate sections based on a
change in either the wellbore effective diameter and/or a change in the
outside diameter of the work string. For each annular section, the report
displays the following information:

• Hole OD
• Pipe OD
• Pressure loss
• Average velocity
• Reynolds number
• Critical flow rate
• Flow regime (laminar, transitional, or turbulent)

This information is presented for each of the flow rates you specify on
the Parameter > Rates dialog.

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Fine Tuning Hydraulics

The pressures in the circulating system will be calculated at the flow rate
specified on the Rate Dialog using the rheological model selected on the
Fluid Editor. You can analyze the pressure (dynamic and static pressures
combined) at any depth from surface to TD in the work string, annulus
or at the bit. The static pressure losses are those due to the hydrostatic
pressure of the mud. The dynamic pressure losses are the frictional
pressure losses that occur during circulation of the mud at a specified
flow rate. You can analyze these pressure losses in the Pressure Pump
Rate Range report also. You can also analyze the ECD (Equivalent
Circulating Density) at any depth.

Starting Pressure Pump Rate Fixed Analysis Mode

Select Pump
Rate Fixed from
drop down list.

Defining the Pump Rate to Analyze


Pump Rate is the only input required and is the only flow rate used to
calculate the pressure losses. Pressure loss information can be used to
optimize hydraulics based on several optimization criteria.

A summary of the analysis results is displayed in the Quick Look section


of the Parameter > Rate dialog. For more information on the data
presented in the Quick Look section, refer to the online help.

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The Quick Look section displays a


summary of the analysis.
Enter flow rate to
analyze.

Use String Editor nozzles,


or specify your own using
the Nozzles Button.

Use this slider to specify the total flow area,


Use this slider control to specify the pump rate
rather than use the total flow area of the bit
instead of entering a value in the Pump Rate
specified on the String Editor Spreadsheet. The
field located at the top of this dialog. You can
slider range is from 0 to 4 square inches of flow
specify any value between 1 and 2,500 gpm.
area. If the Use String Editor Bit Nozzles box is
The value you define with this control is
checked, using this slider will not impact the
displayed in the Pump Rate field.
calculations.

Analyzing Results
In addition to the information in the Quick Look section, there are two
plots available:

• Pressure Loss vs. Measured Depth


• ECD vs. Depth.

These plots are available via the View menu.

Analyzing Results Using Plots

Using the Pressure vs. Depth Plot


You can use the View > Plot > Pressure vs Depth plot to display the
combined (hydrostatic and frictional) pressure losses through the
workstring, annulus, or through the bit at any depth in the wellbore.

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However, this graph does not show what portion of the pressure loss is
due to static versus dynamic losses.

The plot also indicates the casing shoe setting depth, as well as the pore
pressure and fracture gradients for all measured depths in the wellbore.

The information presented on the plot pertains to the flow rate you
specified on the Parameter > Rate dialog. The pressure losses are
calculated based on the rheological method specified on the Case >
Fluid Editor. The shoe setting depth is retrieved from the Case > Hole
Section Editor, and the pore pressure and fracture gradient information
is found on the Case > Pore Pressure and Case > Fracture Gradient
spreadsheets.

Annular pressure is between the pore and


fracture pressures.

Casing shoe

Use the slider to change


flow rate if you want to
analyze another rate.
When you specify a
value here, it has the
same effect as
specifying a value in the
Pump Rate field in the
Rate dialog. The new
value you specify with
the slider will appear in
the Pump Rate field the
next time you open the Bit pressure loss
dialog.

Changing the Display of Data on This Plot


Right-click anywhere on the plot, and select the alternate view from the
right-click menu. You can also display the ECD vs. Depth plot by using
View > Plot > ECD vs Depth.

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To display the
pressure loss plot
versus TVD, or if you
want to view the data
expressed as ECD
rather than pressure,
right-click anywhere
on the plot and select
the alternate view you
want to display from
the right-click menu.

Using the ECD vs. Depth Plot


Use the View > Plot > ECD vs Depth plot to determine the equivalent
circulating density (ECD) in the annulus at any measured depth in the
wellbore. The plot displays the pore pressure and fracture gradient
expressed as a density for all measured depths. The shoe setting
measured depth is also be indicated.

The ECD is the density that will exert the circulating pressure under
static conditions. The pore pressure and fracture gradients are displayed
as densities to facilitate comparison.

The pressure losses are calculated based on the rheological method


specified on the Case > Fluid Editor. The shoe setting depth is retrieved
from the Case > Hole Section Editor and the pore pressure and fracture
gradient information is found on the Case > Pore Pressure and Case >
Fracture Gradient spreadsheets.

You can change the way the data is presented on this plot by selecting
another view from the right-click menu. Refer to “Changing the Display
of Data on This Plot” on page 290.

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ECD in the annulus for the


current flow rate.

Pore pressure

Casing shoe

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Calculating a Tripping Schedule

The Swab/Surge Tripping Schedule analysis assists with determining


the rate to trip in or out of the hole without exceeding a pressure change
(Allowable Trip Margin) you specify. The surge or swab pressure
changes in the well can be calculated with or without flow through an
open-ended workstring or without flow through a closed-ended
workstring. You must specify the length of a stand of drill pipe or
casing, and the Allowable Trip Margin. The Allowable Trip Margin is
the maximum change in ECD at the bit or casing shoe that you are
willing to accept. Specifying a large value allows large tripping speeds,
whereas a low value only allows low tripping speeds.

Moving a work string is accompanied by a displacement of the mud in


the hole that can result in pressure changes. Depending on the direction
of the string movement, and the resulting mud displacement, these
changes may add to the pressure exerted by the mud. If the pipe
movement is downward, this may result in a surge pressure. If the pipe
movement is upward, this may result in a swab pressure. These pressure
changes may impair the stability of the hole through removal of the filter
cake or may result in a blowout by dropping below the pore pressure, or
may cause lost circulation by exceeding the fracture pressure and
fracturing the formation.

Starting Swab/Surge Tripping Schedule Analysis

Select Swab/Surge
Tripping Schedule from
drop down list.

Defining Analysis Constraints


Enter data in the Parameter > Operations Data dialog box to specify
the conditions you want to use to calculate a Surge/Swab Tripping
Schedule. For both swab and surge analysis, you can use a closed or
open ended string by checking the appropriate boxes. You may perform

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an analysis with the end open and closed at the same time. If you are
using an open ended string, you may also specify a flow rate. The stand
length is used to used to calculate the tripping schedule as time per
stand.

Check the Use String Editor box to use the nozzle configuration
entered for the bit component on the Case > String Editor. Press the
Nozzles button to gain access to the Nozzles dialog. On this dialog, you
may view the nozzle configuration currently on the Case > String
Editor, or you may enter a different nozzle configuration for use in this
analysis.

Enter the maximum pressure


change that you will allow during
tripping out of the hole.

Enter the length of a stand of


drillpipe.
Use String Editor nozzles, or
specify your own using the
Nozzles button.

Analyzing Results

Using Reports to Analyze Results

Using the Swab/Surge Report


The View > Report > Swab/Surge report indicates the minimum
allowable trip time per stand of pipe based on an allowable trip margin
specified in ppg or psi. Depending on the situation, there could be one
value for all stands or there could be a number of values for different sets
of stands.

If you specify a high value for the allowable trip margin, it is possible
that the minimum time per stand (10 seconds) will not reach the

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allowable trip margin. In that case, the trip schedule produced will
indicate that all stands can be tripped at the minimum time per stand.

Conversely, if you specify a very small value for the allowable trip
margin, it is possible that even at the maximum time per stand (200
seconds), the allowable trip margin will still be exceeded. In that case,
the trip schedule will show that all stands should be tripped at the
maximum time per stand (200 seconds).
In order to maintain a .5 ppg trip margin, the
stands should be tripped at the time/stand
indicated.

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Analyzing Pressures and ECDs While Tripping

The Swab/Surge Pressure and ECD analysis assists with determining


the pressures and ECD at the bit, casing shoe and bottom of the hole as
the pipe is tripped in or out of the hole at speeds ranging from 10 seconds
per stand to 200 seconds per stand. The pressure and ECD calculations
can be performed with or without flow through an open ended
workstring, or without flow through a closed ended workstring. You
must specify the length of a stand of drill pipe.

Moving a work string causes a displacement of the mud in the hole that
can result in pressure changes. Depending on the direction of the string
movement, and the resulting mud displacement, these changes may add
to the pressure exerted by the mud. If the pipe movement is downward,
this may result in a surge pressure. If the pipe movement is upward, this
may result in a swab effect. These pressure changes may impair the
stability of the hole through removal of the filter cake, or may even
result in a blowout by dropping below the pore pressure or may cause
lost circulation by exceeding the fracture pressure and fracturing the
formation.

Starting Swab/Surge Pressure and ECD Analysis Mode

Select Swab/Surge
Pressure and ECD from
mode data drop down
list.

Defining Operations Constraints


Enter data in the Parameter > Operations Data dialog box to specify
the conditions you want to use to analyze Surge/Swab Pressures and
ECDs. For both swab and surge analysis, you can use a closed or open
ended string by checking the appropriate boxes. You may perform an
analysis with the end open and closed at the same time. If you are using
an open ended string, you may also specify a flow rate. The stand length
is used to used to calculate the tripping schedule as time per stand.

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Check the Use String Editor box to use the nozzle configuration
entered for the bit component on the String Editor. Press the Nozzles
button to gain access to the Nozzles dialog. On this dialog, you may
view the nozzle configuration currently on the Case > String Editor or
you may enter a different nozzle configuration for use in this analysis.

Check closed if you don’t want fluid


flow through the pipe.

Enter the length of a stand of


drillpipe.

Use String Editor nozzles, or specify


your own using the Nozzles Button.

Analyzing Results

Using Plots to Analyze Results


There are four available plots:

• Swab Open End


• Swab Closed End
• Surge Open End
• Surge Closed End

Use these plots to determine the pressures and ECD (equivalent


circulating density) to expect for trip speeds ranging from zero to 200
seconds per stand while tripping in or out. These plots pertain to
swabbing or surging with an open or closed ended workstring. If the
workstring is open ended, you may specify a flow rate through the string
on the Parameter > Operations Data dialog. If you specified a flow
rate greater than zero, the calculated pressure and ECD will include the
effects of this flow rate.

These plots will display the pressure and ECD at the bit, at the casing
shoe (as the bit passes the shoe) and at total depth (TD).

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

If the bit is at total depth (TD), the curves will overlay, and it may appear
that the curves are missing from the plot.

The bit depth is obtained from the Case > String Editor, and the stand
length is specified on the Operations Data Dialog. The casing shoe
depth is retrieved from the Case > Hole Section Editor.

You may want to review the Swab/Surge report for additional


information.

ECD values read


on this scale.

Read pressure on this scale.

Using Reports to Analyze Results

Using the Swab/Surge Report


This report indicates the minimum allowable trip time per stand of pipe.
Depending on the situation, there could be one value for all stands or
there could be a number of values for different sets of stands.

If you specify a high value for the allowable trip margin, it is possible
that the minimum time per stand (10 seconds) will not reach the
allowable trip margin. In that case, the trip schedule produced will
indicate that all stands can be tripped at the minimum time per stand.

Conversely, if you specify a very small value for the allowable trip
margin, it is possible that even at the maximum time per stand (200
seconds), the allowable trip margin will still be exceeded. In that case,

298 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

the trip schedule will show that all stands should be tripped at the
maximum time per stand (200 seconds).

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Supporting Information and Calculations

The calculations and information contained in this section provide


details pertaining to many of the steps previously presented during the
descriptions of the analysis mode methodologies. These calculations
and information are presented in alphabetical order using the calculation
or topic name.

If the information in this section does not provide you the detail you
require, please refer to “References” on page 331 for additional sources
of information pertaining to the topic you are interested in.

Backreaming Rate (Maximum) Calculation

 Qcrit | DP 
BR max = ROP max 
 (Qcrit | DP − Qmud ) 

Where:
BR max = Maximum backreaming rate (ft/hr)
ROP max = Maximum rate of penetration (ft/hr)
Qcrit = Critical flow rate (gpm)
Qmud = Mud flow rate (gpm)
DC = Drill collar ID (in)
DP = Drill pipe ID (in)

Bingham Plastic Rheology Model

Shear Stress – Shear Rate Model

τ = τ y + Kγ

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Average Velocity in Pipe

 4  Q 
V p =   2 
 π  D 

Average Velocity in Annulus

 4  Q 
Va =   
2 
π
  DH − DP 
2

Apparent Viscosity for Annulus

 DH 2 − DP 2 
PVaa = PV + 62.674773(YP)(DH − DP ) 

 Q 

Apparent Viscosity for Pipe

 D3 
PVap = PV + 62.674773(YP) 
 Q 

Modified Reynolds Number for Annulus

 
Ra = 1895.2796( ρ )(DH − DP )
Q 
 aa H (
 PV D 2 − D 2
P ) 

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Modified Reynolds Number for Pipe

 Q 
R p = 1895.2796( ρ ) 
 PV D 
 ap 

Pressure Loss in Annulus


If Ra > 2000 , then

.0012084581(ρ .75 )(PV .25 )(Q1.75 )L


Pa =
( DH − DP )
1.25
(D H
2
− DP )
2 1.75

If laminar flow, then

  YP   .0008488263(PV )Q 
Pa = (.053333333)  +   L
  DH − DP
 2
(
  (DH − DP ) DH − DP
2 2
) 


Pressure Loss in Pipe


If R p > 2000 , then

.0012084581(ρ .75 )(PV .25 )(Q 1.75 )L


Pp =
D 4.75

If laminar flow, then

  YP   .0008488263(PV )Q 
Pp = (.053333333)  +   L
 D  D4 

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Critical Velocity and Flow in Annulus

 ρ  ( D H − D P )2
(2000 + PVx ) + Rc PV x + 1.066(YPx )
2

 gc  2 Rc
Vca =
ρ
2(DH − DP )
gc

π 
Qca = Vca  (DH − DP )
2

4

Critical Velocity and Flow in Pipe

 ρ  D2
(2000 + PV x ) + Rc PV x + 1.066 (YPx )
2

 gc  2 Rc
Vca =
ρ
2D
gc

π 
Qca = Vca   D 2
4

Where:
D = Pipe inside diameter (ft)
DP = Pipe outside diameter (ft)
DH = Annulus diameter (ft)
K (
= Consistency factor lb ft sec
2 n
)
Vp = Average fluid velocity for pipe (ft/sec)
Va = Average fluid velocity for annulus (ft/sec)
Vca = Critical velocity in annulus (ft/sec)
Vcp = Critical velocity in pipe (ft/sec)

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

L = Section length of pipe or annulus (ft)


P = Pressure loss in pipe or annulus lb ft 2 ( )
Q = Fluid flow rate ( ft 3 sec )
Qca = Critical flow rate in annulus ( ft 3 sec )
Qcp = Critical flow rate in pipe ft 3 sec ( )
γ = Shear rate (1/sec)
τ (
= Shear stress lb ft
2
)
ρ = Weight density of fluid lbm ft( 3
)

Rp = Reynolds number for pipe

Ra = Reynolds number for annulus

PVaa = Apparent viscosity for annulus


PVap = Apparent viscosity for pipe (cp )
PV = Plastic viscosity (cp )
PV x = Plastic viscosity (lb sec ft 2 ) = (PV 47880.26)
(
YP = Yield point lb 100 ft 2 )
YPx = Yield point (lb ft 2 )

Bit Hydraulic Power


Bit Hydraulic Power is calculated using the flow rate entered in the input
section of the Rate dialog.

Bit Hydraulic Power can be used to select nozzle sizes for optimal
hydraulics. Bit Hydraulic Power is not necessarily maximized when
operating the pump at the maximum pump horsepower. Bit Hydraulic
Power is calculated using the following equation:

QPb
Bit Hydraulic Power (hp) = .
1714

Where:

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Q = Circulation rate, gpm


Pb = Pressure loss across bit nozzles, psi

Bit Pressure Loss Calculations


Bit Pressure Loss represents the pressure loss through the bit, and is
calculated as follows.

ρV 2
∆Pbit =
2C d2 g c

Where:

ρ = Fluid density, (lb ft 3 )


V = Fluid velocity, (ft/sec)

Cd = Nozzle coefficient, .95

gc = 32.17 ( ft / sec 2 )

P = Pressure (lb ft 2 )

Derivations for PV, YP, 0-Sec Gel and Fann Data

Derive PV, YP, and 0-Sec Gel from Fann Data

PV = Θ 600 − Θ 300

YP = 2Θ 300 − Θ 600

0 − SecGel = Θ 3

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Derive Fann Data from PV, YP, and 0-Sec Gel

Θ 300 = PV + YP

Θ 600 = 2 PV + YP

Θ 3 = 0 − SecGel

ECD Calculations

Ph + Pf
ECD =
.052( Dtvd )

Ph = Wmud Dtvd (.052)

∆P
Pf = ∑ (∆Dmd )
∆L

Where:
ECD = Equivalent circulating density, (ppg)
Wmud = Fluid weight, (ppg)
Ph = Hydrostatic pressure change to ECD point. (psi)
Pf = Frictional pressure change to ECD point (psi)
∆P
= Change in pressure per length along the annulus section (psi/ft).
∆L
This is a function of the pressure loss model chosen.

Dtvd = True vertical depth of point of interest, (ft)

∆Dmd = Annulus section length (ft)


0.052 = conversion constant from (ppg)(ft) to psi

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Graphical Analysis Calculations


Although the Graphical Analysis and Optimization Planning analysis
modes both optimize bit hydraulics, the methods used are different.
Because the methods are different, the results may also be different.

The following steps outline the general procedure used to perform a


Graphical Analysis.

1. A total system pressures loss is specified on the Pump Limits dialog.

2. A maximum flow rate is determined that will cause the parasitic


pressure loss to equal the total system pressure loss. (This will
represent zero pressure loss through the bit, or infinite bit TFA.)

3. The increment flow rate is established as the maximum flow rate


divided by 100.

4. The initial analysis flow rate is set to 0.1 gpm.

5. At the analysis flow rate, the pressure loss through the drillstring,
annulus and surface equipment is calculated. These combined
pressure losses are the parasitic pressure losses at this flow rate.

6. The parasitic pressure loss is subtracted from the maximum pump


pressure to determine the pressure loss at the bit.

7. The pressure loss through the bit and the flow rate are used to
calculate the bit TFA (total flow area).

8. The Impact Force, Nozzle Velocity, and Bit Hydraulic Power are
calculated from the bit TFA, pressure loss at the bit, and the flow
rate.

9. The next analysis flow rate is determined by adding the increment


flow rate to the existing analysis flow rate and then steps five
through nine are repeated.

10. The results are presented in several graphical formats via the
Hydraulics Analysis View Menu.

Hole Cleaning Methodology and Calculations


The Hole Cleaning model is based on a mathematical model that
predicts the critical (minimum) annular velocities/flow rates required to

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

remove or prevent a formation of cuttings beds during a directional


drilling operation. This is based on the analysis of forces acting on the
cuttings and its associated dimensional groups. The model can be used
to predict the critical (minimum) flow rate required to remove or prevent
the formation of stationary cuttings. This model has been validated with
extensive experimental data and field data.

By using this model, the effects of all the major drilling variables on
hole cleaning have been evaluated and the results show excellent
agreement between the model predictions and all experimental and field
results.

The variables considered for hole cleaning analysis include

• Cuttings density
• Cuttings load (ROP)
• Cuttings shape
• Cuttings size
• Wellpath
• Drill pipe rotation rate
• Drill pipe size
• Flow regime
• Hole size
• Mud density
• Mud rheology
• Mud velocity (flow rate)
• Pipe eccentricity

Calculations and equation coefficients to describe the interrelationship


of these variables were derived from extensive experimental testing.

Calculate n, K,τ y , and Reynold’s Number

n=
(3.32)(log10)(YP + 2 PV )
(YP + PV )
K=
(PV + YP)
511
τ y = (5.11K )n
ρVa ( 2−n ) (DH − DP )
n

RA =
(2 3)G fa K

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Concentration Based on ROP in Flow Channel

Co =
(V D 2
1471 )
(V D )
r B

1471 + Qm
2
r B

Fluid Velocity Based on Open Flow Channel

24.5Qm
Va =
DH − DP
2 2

Coefficient of Drag around Sphere


If Re < 225 then,

22
CD =
Ra

else,
C D = 1.5

Mud carrying capacity

D 
4 g  c ( ρ c − ρ )
= 
12 
CM
3 ρC D

Settling Velocity in the Plug in a Mud with a Yield Stress

1
 4 gDc1+ bn ( ρ c − ρ  2 − b ( 2 − n )
U sp =  1− b 
 3 aK b ρ c 

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Where:
a = 42 .9 − 23 . 9 n
b = 1 − 0 . 33 n

Angle of Inclination Correction Factor

0.66
 5 
C a = (sin (1.33α ))  
1.33

 DH 

Cuttings Size Correction Factor

C s = 1.286 − 1.04 Dc

Mud Weight Correction Factor


If ( ρ < 7.7) then

C m = 1.0

else

C m = 1.0 − 0.0333( ρ − 7.7 )

Critical Wall Shear Stress

2n
τwc = [ag sin(∝)( ρc − ρ ) Dc ρ b / 2 ] 1+ b

2n − 2b + bn

Where:
a = 1.732

b = -0.744

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Critical Pressure Gradient

Pgc = 2τwc
ro 2
rh [1− ( ) ]
rh

Total Cross Sectional Area of the Annulus without Cuttings Bed

AA =
2
(
π DH − DP
2
)
4 144

Dimensionless Flow Rate

n
1 b
2(1 + 2n) 2−( 2− n )b rp 2 rp 2−( 2−n )b
∏ g c = ∏[8 × ] × (1 − ( ) )(1 − ( ) ]
1 rh rh
(a)
b

Where:
a = 16

b =1

Critical Flow Rate (CFR)

1 c
ρgc1 / c rh
( )
c + n 2−c( 2− n)
Qcrit = r h [ ∏ gc
2
1
]
( )
Kρ c −1

Correction Factor for Cuttings Concentration

C BED = 0.97 − (0.00231µ a )

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Cuttings Concentration for a Stationary Bed by Volume

 Q 
C bonc = C BED 1.0 − m (1.0 − φ B )(100)
 Qcrit 

Where:

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

DB = Bit diameter
DH = Annulus diameter
DP = Pipe diameter
DTJ = Tool joint diameter

DC = Cuttings diameter
τy = Mud yield stress
G fa = Power law geometry factor
RA = Reynolds number

ρ = Fluid density
ρc = Cuttings density
Va = Average fluid velocity for annulus
VR = Rate of penetration, ROP

VCTV = Cuttings travel velocity


Vso = Original slip velocity
VSV = Slip velocity
VCTFV = Critical transport fluid velocity

VTC = Total cuttings velocity


K = Consistency factor
n = Flow behavior index
a, b, c = Coefficients

YP = Yield point
PV = Plastic viscosity
QC = Volumetric cuttings flow rate
Qm = Volumetric mud flow rate

Qcrit = Critical flow rate for bed to develop


Co = Cuttings feed concentration
CD = Drag coefficient
Cm = Mud carrying capacity

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

CA = Angle of inclination correction factor


CS = Cuttings size correction factor
C mud = Mud weight correction factor
C BED = Correction factor for cuttings concentration
Cbonc = Cuttings concentration for a stationary bed by volume
U sp = Settling velocity
Us = Average settling velocity in axial direction
U mix = Average mixture velocity in the area open to flow

α = Wellbore angle
φB = Bed porosity
µa = Apparent viscosity
λp = Plug diameter ratio

g = Gravitational coefficient
r0 = Radius of which shear stress is zero
rp = Radius of drill pipe
rh = Radius of wellbore or casing
Pgc = Critical frictional pressure gradient
τ wc = Critical wall shear stress

Bit Impact Force


Impact force is calculated using the flow rate entered in the input section
of the Rate dialog.

Impact force is a parameter that can be used to select nozzle sizes for
optimal hydraulics. Impact force is calculated using the following
equation:

 ρ 
Im pact Force (lbf) = 
 g VQ
 c

Where:

314 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

ρ (
= Density of fluid lb ft
3
)
3
Q = Circulation rate ( ft / s )
2
gc = Gravitational constant, 32.17 ft sec
V = Velocity through the bit (ft/sec)

Nozzle Velocity
Velocity is calculated using the flow rate entered in the input section of
the Rate Dialog. This is not necessarily the maximum velocity that can
be achieved through the bits.

Nozzle velocity is a parameter that can be used to select nozzle sizes for
optimal hydraulics. Velocity is calculated using the following equation.

Q
Nozzle Velocity (ft/sec) =
2.96A

Where:

Q = Circulation rate, gpm


2
A = Total flow area of bit, in

Optimization Planning Calculations


Although the Graphical Analysis and Optimization Planning analysis
modes both optimize bit hydraulics, the methods used are different.
Because the methods are different, the results may also be different.

The following steps outline the general procedure used to perform a


Optimization Planning.

1. Determine the optimum flow rate.

2. If the optimum flow rate is below the minimum annular velocity


specified on the Solution Constraints dialog, increase it until all
annulus sections have a velocity greater than, or equal to, the
minimum allowed.

Landmark WELLPLAN 315


Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

3. If turbulent flow is not allowed (as specified on the Solution


Constraints dialog), and any annulus section is in turbulent flow,
decrease the optimum flow so that no annulus sections are in
turbulent flow. This may place the optimum flow rate below the
minimum annular velocity. If there is a conflict between the
minimum velocity and the flow regime, the controlling factor is the
flow regime.

4. Select the actual bit jets from the optimum TFA (total flow area),
and the number of nozzles and minimum nozzle diameter specified
on the Solution Constraints Dialog.This will almost always result in
a TFA greater than the optimum.

5. If the total system pressure drop is less than the maximum pump
pressure specified on the Solution Constraints Dialog, increase the
flow rate to use 100% of the allowed pump pressure. If the increase
will violate the annular flow regime, it is ruled that the increase is
not allowed. (The flow regime is controlling.)

Optimization Well Site Calculations

∆PparaL = ∆PsysL − ∆PbitL

∆PparaH = ∆PsysH − ∆PbitH

ρQ H 2
∆PbitH =
2g cC 2 A2

ρQ L 2
∆PbitL =
2 g cC 2 A2

log(∆PparaH ∆PparaL )
S=
log(QH QL )

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

∆PparaH ∆PparaL
K= s
= s
QH QL

∆P = KQ s

1
 ∆Pmax  S
QHP =  
 K (S + 1) 

1
 2∆Pmax  S
QIF =  
 K (S + 2 ) 

Calculate parasitic pressure loss for optimum power

∆PparaHP @ QHP

Calculate parasitic pressure loss for impact force

∆PparaIF @ QIF

Calculate pressure loss allowed for bit @ optimum flow rates

∆PbitoptHP = ∆Pmax − ∆PparaHP

∆PbitoptIF = ∆Pmax − ∆PparaIF

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Calculate bit total flow area (TFA) for each bit pressure loss at
optimum flow rates

ρQHP 2
AHP =
2 g c C 2 ∆PbitopHP

ρQIF 2
AIF =
2 g c C 2 ∆PbitopIF

Using the maximum number of nozzles and the minimum Nozzle size,
determine the number and size of the nozzles to equal the two total flow
area values.

Where:

QL = Low flow rate, ( ft3


sec )
= High flow rate, ( ft sec )
3
QH
Q HP = Flow rate at optim um horsepower, ( ft 3
sec )
= Flow rate at optim um im pact force, ( ft sec )
3
Q IF

A = Bit TFA used for the pressure tests, ( ft )


2

A HP = Bit TFA for optim um power, ( ft ) 2

= Bit TFA for im pact force, ( ft )


2
A IF
ρ = Fluid weight, (lbm ft )
3

C = Shape factor, .95 for bit

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

gc = Gravitational constant, ( ft sec 2 )


S = Power law exponent for parasitic pressure loss
K = Power law coefficient for parasitic pressure loss,

(lbf )(
ft 2 sec ft 3 )
S

∆ Pmax = Maximum allowed total system pressure loss, lbf ( ft 2 )


∆ Ppara = Parasitic pressure loss at specific flow rate, lbf ( ft 2 )
∆ Psys (
= Total system pressure loss at specific flow rate, lbf ft 2)
∆ PbitH = Bit pressure loss at pressure test high flow rate, (lbf ft )
2

∆ PbitL = Bit pressure loss at pressure test low flow rate, (lbf ft )2

∆ PparaH = Parasitic pressure loss at pressure test high flow rate,


(lbf ft 2 )
∆ PparaL = Parasitic pressure loss at pressure test low flow rate,
(lbf ft 2 )
∆ PparaHP = Parasitic pressure loss at flow rate Q HP , (lbf ft 2 )
∆ PparaIF = Parasitic pressure loss at flow rate Q IF , (lbf ft 2 )

Power Law Rheology Model

Rheological Equation

τ = Kγ n

Flow Behavior Index

 YP + 2 PV 
n = 3.32192809 log 
 YP + PV 

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Consistency Factor

YP + 2 PV
K=
(
(100) 1022 n )

Average Velocity in Pipe

 4  Q 
V p =   2 
 π  D 

Average Velocity in Annulus

 4  Q 
Va =   
2 
 π  DH − DP 
2

Geometry Factor for Annulus

 (2n + 1) 
n

 (8)
n −1
G fa = 
 2n 

Geometry Factor for Pipe

 (3n + 1) 
n

 (8)
n −1
G fp = 
 4n 

Reynolds Number for Pipe

ρV p (2−n ) (D n )
Rp =
g c G fp K

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Reynolds Number for the Annulus

ρV a ( 2 − n ) ( D H − D P )
n

RA =
g c (2 3)G fa K

Critical Reynolds Number for Pipe


Laminar Boundary = 3470 – 1370n
Turbulent Boundary = 4270 – 1370n

Critical Reynolds Number for Annulus


Laminar Boundary = 3470 – 1370n
Turbulent Boundary = 4270 – 1370n

Friction Factor for Pipe

Laminar

16
Fp =
Rp

Transition

log(n ) + 3.93
a=
50

1.75 − log(n )
b=
7

RL = 3470 − 1370n

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

 16   ( RP − RL )   a   16  
F p =   +    b − 
  R 
 RL   800   RT   L 

Turbulent

log(n ) + 3.93
a=
50

1.75 − log(n )
b=
7

a
Fp = b
RP

Friction Factor for Annulus

Laminar

24
Fa =
RA

Transition

log(n ) + 3.93
a=
50

1.75 − log(n )
b=
7

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

RL = 3470 − 1370n

 24   ( R A − RL )   a   24  
Fa =   +    b − 
  R 
 RL   800   RT   L 

Turbulent

log(n ) + 3.93
a=
50

1.75 − log(n )
b=
7

a
Fa = b
RA

Pressure Loss in Pipe

ρ 2
P=
2
V p F p L 
gc D

Pressure Loss in Annulus

ρ  2 
P= Va Fa L 
2

gc  DH − DP 

Where:

Landmark WELLPLAN 323


Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

D = Pipe inside diameter (ft)


DP = Pipe outside diameter (ft)
DH = Annulus diameter (ft)
Vp = Average fluid velocity for pipe (ft/sec)

Va = Average fluid velocity for annulus (ft/sec)

L = Pipe or annulus section length (ft)


P = Pipe or annulus pressure loss lb ft ( 2
)
Q = Fluid flow rate ( ft 3
sec )
τ = Shear stress on walls lb ft ( 2
)
n = Flow behavior index
 lb 
= Consistency factor  2 sec 
n
K
 ft 

ρ = Fluid density (lbm ft 3 )

RP = Reynolds number for pipe


RA = Reynolds number for annulus
RL = Reynolds number at Laminar flow boundary
Fp = Friction factor for pipe

Fa = Friction factor for annulus

Gp = Geometry factor for pipe

Ga = Geometry factor for annulus


PV = Plastic viscosity
YP = Yield point
gc = Acceleration due to gravity, 32.174 (ft/sec)

Pressure Loss Analysis Calculations


The following general analysis steps are used to determine pressure
losses in the various segments of the circulating system. The annular
velocity or critical velocity calculations are performed within the
pressure loss calculations.

1. The first step is to Calculate PV, YP, 0-Gel and Fann Data as
required. The Bingham Plastic and Power Law pressure loss

324 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

calculations require PV/YP data. If Fann data is input, PV/YP/0-Sec


Gel can be calculated. Herschel Bulkley requires Fann data. If Fann
data not is input on the Fluid Editor, it can be calculated from
PV/YP/0-Sec Gel data.

2. Calculate work string and annular pressure losses are based on the
rheological model selected using the Bingham Plastic rheology
model calculations, Power Law rheology model calculations or
Herschel-Bulkley rheology model calculations.

3. Calculate the bit pressure loss.

4. Calculate tool joint pressure losses, if required as specified on the


Rate Dialog or the Rates Dialog.

5. Determine mud motor, or MWD pressure losses as input on the


Mud Motor Catalog or the MWD Catalog.

6. Calculate the pressure losses in the surface equipment using the


pipe pressure loss equations for the selected rheological model.

7. Calculate the total pressure loss by adding all pressure losses


together.

8. Calculate ECD if required.

Pump Power Calculations


If you are using more than one pump, the maximum pump power should
be calculated as follows.

(HPN )(Pmin )
HPs = ∑
Pmax

Where:

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

N = 1 to num ber of pum ps


Pmin = M inim um pum p pressure of all m axim um pum p
discharge pressure ratings for pum ps activ e in the
system and the surface equipm ent.
Pmax = M axim um pum p pressure rating for each pum p, 1 thru n
HP s = M axim um pum p horse power for the system

Pump Pressure Calculations


If you have more than one active pump specified on the Circulating
System, Mud Pumps tab, the Maximum Pump Pressure will be set equal
to the minimum value entered for Maximum Discharge Pressure for any
of the active pumps.

Shear Rate and Shear Stress Calculations

Shear Stress

τ .. = (0.01065)Θ

Shear Rate

γ = (1.70333)RPM

Where:

 lbf 
τ =  2 
 ft 
 1 
γ = 
 sec 

Θ = Fann dial reading, (deg)


RPM = Fann Speed, (rpm )

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Swab/Surge Calculations
The WELLPLAN Swab/Surge model calculates the annulus pressures
caused by the annular drilling fluid flow induced due to the movement
of the string. During tripping operations, the pressures throughout the
well will increase or decrease depending on whether the work string is
being lowered or raised.

A pressure increase due to a downward pipe movement is called a surge


pressure, whereas the pressure increase due to an upward pipe
movement is called a swab pressure.

The swab/surge calculations do not model fluid wave propagation or


consider gel strength of the mud.

Ls tan d
Vtrip =
Ttrip

If the pipe closed, then Q pipe = 0.0

If the pipe is open and the pumps off, then

Aopen
Aratio =
(A
open + Aann )

Q pipe = (Vtrip )( Aclosed − Aopen )( Aratio )

If there is a surge situation, then Q pipe is negative (up the string).

If there is a swab situation, then Q pipe is positive (down the string).

If the pipe is open, and the pumps are on then,

Q pipe = Qrate

The flow rate induced by the pipe movement is:

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Qinduce = Vtrip Aclosed

If there is a surge situation, then Qinduce is positive (up the annulus).

If there is a swab situation, then Q is negative (down the


induce
annulus).

Qann = Qinduce + Q pipe

The annular flow rate, Qann , is then used to perform frictional pressure
loss calculations to determine the annulus pressure profile.

If the first component is a bit then,

Aopen = ATFA

2
π 
Aclosed =  ODbit 
4 

If the first component is not a bit then,

2
π 
Aopen =  ID pipe 
4 

2
π 
Aclosed =  OD pipe 
4 

Where:

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

V trip = Trip v elocity

L s tan d = Stand length


V trip = Trip tim e per stand

Q pipe = Pipe flow rate


Q induce = Flow rate induced by pipe m ov em ent
Q rate = Pum p flow rate

Q ann = Annular flow rate

A closed = Pipe closed area


A open = Pipe open area
A ratio = Ratio of pipe open area to com bined pipe and annulus ope
ATFA = Bit total flow area, TFA

Tool Joint Pressure Loss Calculations

ρKV 2
∆P =
2

Where:

ρ = F luid density
V = F luid v elocity in the pipe
K = T ool-joint loss coefficient as a function of
the R eynolds num ber (R ) in the pipe body
R = R eynold’s num ber for the pipe

If R < 1000;
K = 0.0

If 1000 < R <= 3000;


K = (1.91) log( R ) − 5.64

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

If 3000 < R <= 13,000;


K = 4.66 − (1.05 log( R ))

If R > 13,000;
K = 0.33

Weight Up Calculations

D f − Di
Va = Vi
Da − D f

Where:

Va = Additive volume

Vi = Initial volume

Di = Initial density

Df = Final density

Da = Additive density

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

References

General
Lubinski, A., et. al., “Transient Pressure Surges Due to Pipe Movement
in an Oil Well”, Revue de L’Institut Francais du Petrole, May – June
1977.

White, F. M., “Fluid Mechanics”, McGraw Hill, Inc., 1979.

Wilkinson, W.L., “Non-Newtonian Fluids”, Pergamon Press, 1960.

Bingham Plastic Model


Bourgoyne, A. T., Chenevert, M. E., Millheim, K. K., Young Jr., F. S.
“Applied Drilling Engineering”, SPE Textbook Series: Volume 2.

Coiled Tubing
McCann, R. C., and Islas, C. G. “Frictional Pressure Loss during
Turbulent Flow in Coiled Tubing.” SPE 36345.

Hole Cleaning
Clark, R. K., Bickham, K. L. “A Mechanistic Model for Cuttings
Transport.” SPE paper 28306 presented at the SPE 69th Annual
Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, September 25–28.

Luo, Yuejin and P. A. Bern, BP Research Centre; and D. B.Chambers,


BP Exploration Co. Ltd. “Flow-Rate Predictions for Cleaning Deviated
Wells.” IADC/SPE 23884.

Luo, Yuejin, P. A. Bern, D. B.Chambers, BP Exploration. “Simple


Charts to Determine Hole Cleaning Requirements in Deviated Wells.”
IADC/SPE 27486.

Peden, J. M., Heriot-Watt U., Yuejin Luo. “Settling Velocity of Various


Shaped Particles in Drilling and Fracturing Fluids.” SPE/IADC 16243.

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Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Rabia, H. Rig Hydraulics. Entrac Software: Newcastle, England (1989):


Chapter 5.

Herschel Bulkley Model


“The YPL Rheology Model.” BPA Research Note PRN9303,
93085ART0027.

“Improved Hydraulic Models or Flow in Pipe and Annuli Using the


YPL Rheology Model.” BPA Bluebook Report F93-P-12,
93026ART0243.

Optimization Well Site


Scott, K.F., "A New Approach to Drilling Hydraulics", Petroleum
Engineer, Sept. 1972.

Power Law Model


Milheim, Keith K., Amoco Production Co.; Said Sahin Tulga, DRD
Corp. “Simulation of the Wellbore Hydraulics While Drilling, Including
the Effects of Fluid Influxes and Losses and Pipe Washouts.” SPE
11057 (1982).

Schuh, F., Engineering Essentials of Modern Drilling, Energy


Publications Division of HBJ.

Rheology Thermal Effects


Annis, M. R. Journal of Petroleum Technology, August 1967.

Chapman, A. J., Heat Transfer. McMillan Press. 1967.

Combs, G. D. and Whitmire, L. D. Oil & Gas Journal, 30 September


1968.

Dropkin, E. and Omerscales, S. “Heat transfer by Natural Convection by


Fluid Confined by Parallel Plates.” ASME, February 1965.

Hiller, K. H. Journal of Petroleum Technology, July 1963.

Sorelle, J. Ardiolin, Bukley. “Mathematical Field Model Predicts


Downhole Density Changes in Static Drilling Fluids.” SPE 11118.

332 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 7: Hydraulics Analysis

Wilhite G. P. “Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients in Stem and Hot water


Injection Wells.” Journal of Petroleum Technology, May 1967.

Surge Swab
Burkhardt, J. A. “Wellbore Pressure Surges Produced in Pipe
Movement.” Journal of Petroleum Technology, June 1961.

Clark, E. H. Jr. “Bottom-Hole Pressure Surges While Running Pipe.”


Petroleum Engineering, January 1955.

Fontenot, J. E., Clark R. K. “An Improved Method for Calculating Swab


and Surge Pressures and Circulating Pressures in a Drilling Well.” SPE
4521 (1974).

Schuh, F. J. “Computer Makes Surge-Pressure Calculations Useful.” Oil


& Gas Journal, 3 August 1964.

Tool Joint Pressure Loss


Denison, Pressure Losses Inside Tool Joints Can Alter Drilling
Hydraulics", E.B., Oil & Gas Journal, Sept. 26, 1977, pg. 66.

Milheim, Keith, Amoco Production Co., Tulga, Sahin, DRD


Corporation, Tulsa, OK., “Simulation of the Wellbore Hydraulics While
Drilling, Including the Effects of Fluid Influxes and Losses and Pipe
Washouts”, SPE 11057, 1982.

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334 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 8
Well Control Analysis

Overview

Well Control Analysis calculates the expected influx volume, assists


with casing design in terms of shoe settings depths and expected
conditions resulting from an influx, generates kill sheets, determines
maximum safe drilling depth, and determines the maximum allowable
influx volume.

Well Control Analysis analyzes three different influx types: oil, water,
and gas. The default influx type is gas. If the influx type is gas, the
analysis assumes the influx is a single, methane gas bubble. Dispersed
gas influxes are not modeled. The influx density is the density of
methane at the current temperature and pressure. The compressibility
factor, Z, is based on the critical temperature and pressure of methane.

Refer to “General Assumptions and Terminology” on page 364 for more


information.

At the end of this chapter you will find the methodology used for each
analysis mode. The methodology is useful for understanding data
requirements, analysis results, as well as the theory used as the basis for
the analysis. Supporting calculations and references for additional
reading are also included in this chapter.

In this section of the course, you will become familiar with all aspects
of using the Well Control Analysis module, including:

‰ Available analysis modes

‰ Defining operating parameters

‰ Calculating the expected influx volume.

‰ Simulating the circulation of a kick

‰ Generating a kill sheet.

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Workflow

The following is a suggested workflow. Many other workflows can be


used.

‰ Open a Case using the Well Explorer. Refer to “Using the Well
Explorer” on page 55 for instructions on using the Well Explorer.

‰ Define the hole section geometry. (Case > Hole Section Editor)

‰ Define the workstring. Use the same dialog to define all


workstrings (drillstrings, tubing, liners, and so forth)
(Case > String)

‰ Enter deviation (wellpath) data. (Case > Wellpath > Editor)

‰ Define the fluid used. (Case > Fluid Editor)

‰ Define the geothermal gradient. (Case > Geothermal Gradient)

‰ Specify the circulating system equipment. (Not required for all


modes.) (Case > Circulating System)

‰ Specify the pore pressure gradient. (Not required for all modes.)
(Case > Pore Pressure)

‰ Specify the fracture gradient. (Not required for all modes.) (Case >
Fracture Gradient)

‰ Specify the choke and kill line usage, the kill method, and the slow
pump information. (Case > Well Control Setup - All of this
information is not required for each analysis mode. The Well
Control Setup dialog has three tabs and all tabs are not required for
all analysis modes.)

‰ Specify the circulating temperature. (Parameter > Temperature


Distribution)

‰ Determine the type of kick and bottom hole pressure at the time of
influx. (Parameter > Kick Class Determination)

‰ Calculate the expected influx volume. (Parameter > Influx


Volume Estimation)

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

‰ Simulate the circulation of a kick, including pressure analysis, safe


drilling depths, etc. (Parameter > Kick Tolerance) Then use the
plots or animation available on the View menu.

‰ Generate a kill sheet. (Parameters > Kill Sheet) Then use the Kill
Sheet or Kill Graph available using the View menu.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Introducing Well Control Analysis

The Well Control Analysis Module can be used to calculate the expected
influx volume, assist with casing design in terms of shoe setting depths
to handle pressures associated with controlling an influx (kick),
expected conditions resulting from an influx, generate kill sheets,
determine maximum safe drilling depth, and maximum allowable influx
volume.

Well Control Analysis analyzes three different influx types: oil, water,
and gas. The default influx type is gas. If the influx type is gas, the
analysis assumes the influx is a single, methane gas bubble. Dispersed
gas influxes are not modeled. The influx density is the density of
methane at the current temperature and pressure. The compressibility
factor, Z, is based on the critical temperature and pressure of methane.

Starting Well Control Analysis


There are two ways to begin the Well Control module:

z You can select Well Control from the Modules Menu, and then
select the appropriate analysis mode.

z You can also click the Well Control button and then select the
appropriate analysis mode from the drop down list.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Select desired Well Control


Analysis mode from Choose Well Control Analysis from the Modules
submenu, or from Mode Menu, or by clicking the Well Control Button.
drop-down list.

Available Analysis Modes


The Well Control Module has three available analysis modes. Each
analysis mode will be discussed in this course.

z Expected Influx Volume: Use this analysis mode to predict the


volume of an influx while drilling or after pump shut down.

z Kick Tolerance: Use this analysis mode to simulate the circulation


of a kick while drilling, a swab kick or after the pumps have shut
down.

z Kill Sheet: Use this analysis mode to quickly generate a standpipe


pressure schedule.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Defining the Case Data

Refer to “Entering Case Data” on page 162 for instructions on entering


data into the Case menu options.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Calculating the Expected Influx Volume

The Expected Influx Volume analysis mode predicts the volume of an


influx while drilling or after the pumps have been shut down. The
calculation is a function of bottom hole pressure, crew reaction times,
equipment performance (closing BOPs and so forth), drilling rate of
penetration, and reservoir properties. Refer to “General Assumptions
and Terminology” on page 364 for more information.

Starting Expected Influx Volume Analysis Mode

Select Expected
Influx Volume
from drop-down
list.

Specify Choke and Kill Line Use


For the Expected Influx Volume analysis mode, the Case >
Well Control Setup dialog contains only the Choke/Kill tab. Use the
Choke/Kill tab to specify choke and kill line usage, and sizes. This tab
is not accessible unless the well is specified as offshore and as subsea on
the Well Properties dialog. Choke and kill line information is used to
calculate pressure loss in these areas. Only on subsea wells is the
pressure loss in the choke and kill lines significant. If the well is a land
well, you do not need to enter data into the Choke/Kill tab to use the
Expected Influx Volume analysis mode.

For other Well Control analysis modes, the Case > Well Control Setup
dialog contains additional tabs. These tabs are not applicable to the
Expected Influx Volume analysis, so these tabs are absent when using
this analysis mode.

Click the radio button to indicate to indicate the choke mode


configuration you are using. If you are not using a kill line, do not enter
the kill line ID. You only need to enter the ID of the lines in use.

The Choke/Kill Line Length defaults to the length of the riser (specified
on the Case > Hole Section Editor) plus the air gap specified on the

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Design Properties > General tab. You many enter another value if you
wish.

Click here to indicate choke


and/or kill line pressure loss.

Choke/Kill line length defaults to riser length plus


elevation, but you can change it.

Enter ID of lines in use.

Defining the Circulating Temperature Profile


Use the Parameter > Temperature Distribution dialog to select the
temperature model you want to use for the temperature calculations. The
calculated temperatures are used to calculate gas pressures and volumes,
but are not used to modify the density or rheology parameters of the
drilling mud.

The Steady State Circulation model performs a heat transfer calculation


between the fluids in the annulus and the fluids in the string to determine
their respective temperature profiles. This model is the most realistic
temperature model offered. Refer to “Steady State Temperature” on
page 403 for more information.

The Geothermal Gradient model assumes the annulus and string


temperature profiles are identical to the formation temperature profile.
This selection uses the temperatures specified on the Case >
Geothermal Gradient

The Constant Temperature model assumes the mud is one temperature


through the entire wellbore and string. This model is the least accurate.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Steady State Circulation model is


the most realistic model offered.

Geothermal Gradient uses


temperature data input on the
Case > Geothermal Gradient
dialog.

Determining the Type of Kick


The information on the Parameter > Kick Class Determination dialog
is used to calculate the bottom hole pressures, influx volume, and kick
tolerance and kick type at the moment an influx occurs.

The initial mud gradient refers to the mud in the well when the kick
occurred. The circulation flow rate is the pump rate during drilling prior
to the influx and the kick interval gradient is the pore pressure gradient
for the area of the formation that produced the kick.

The Quick Look section displays the calculated kick type as determined
from the bottom hole pressures. The Quick Look section also displays
the circulating and static bottom hole pressures, and the calculated
pressure at the depth where the kick occurred.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

The three types of kicks are a kick while drilling, a kick after pump shut
down, and a swab kick.

Initial Mud Gradient


defaults from Case >
Fluid Editor.

Kick Interval Gradient defines the pore


pressure where the kick occurred

Quick Look section displays the type of kick that


occurred. In this case, it is a “Kick While Drilling”.

Kick While Drilling


When a kick is taken while drilling, the pore pressure is higher than the
dynamic bottom hole pressure.

Kick After Pump Shut Down


When a kick is taken after the circulation pumps have been shut down,
the pore pressure is lower than the dynamic bottom hole pressure but
higher than the static bottom hole pressure.

Swab Kick
When a kick is taken while tripping out of the hole, the pore pressure is
lower than the static bottom hole pressure.

Estimating Influx Volume


The Parameter > Influx Volume Estimation tabs are used to specify
information required to determine the volume of the influx. The volume
of the influx depends on the kick detection method, reservoir properties,
crew reaction times, and the kick class determined using the Parameter
> Kick Class Determination dialog.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Setup Tab
The information displayed on the Parameter > Influx Volume
Estimation > Setup tab is a summary of the results from the Kick Class
Determination dialog. You can not edit the information displayed on
this tab. This tab is not available when the kick is determined to be a
“kick while swabbing”.

This tab displays a summary of the


results from the Parameter > Kick
Class Determination dialog.

You can not edit the information


displayed on this tab.

Kick Detection Method Tab


Use the Parameter > Influx Volume Estimation > Kick Detection
Method tab to define the type of kick detection in use. You can choose
from flow rate or volume variation methods. This information is used to
help determine the influx size. This tab will not be available when the
kick is determined to be a “kick while swabbing”.

If you are using the Flowrate Variation method, you must enter the
minimum flow difference that can be detected between the flow rate in
and the flow rate out.

For the Volume Variation method, you must enter the minimum
increase in pit volume that can be practically detected. Because the
change in volume is not instantaneous, you must also specify a
Detection Time Delay. Detection time delay occurs primarily due to the
performance of the shale shakers being used. Detection time is a
function of flow rate, screen size, mud density, plastic viscosity, and
expected cuttings removal performance.

Flow rate detection methods have no detection time delay because the
change in flow rate is noticed immediately.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Enter the minimum Flowrate or


Volume Variation that can be
detected.

Detection Time Delay


applies only to the Volume
Variation method.

Reservoir Tab
The Parameter > Influx Volume Estimation > Reservoir tab defines
the reservoir properties used to determine the size of the influx. This tab
is not be available when the kick is determined to be a “kick while
swabbing.”

Enter the total measured depth thickness of


the reservoir. This is used if the kick occurs
while drilling or after pump shutdown.

Enter the measured depth length of the


reservoir that has been drilled. This is only
used if the kick is determined to occur after
pump shutdown. Because this is a kick
while drilling, this field is not accessible.

Reaction Times Tab


The Parameter > Influx Volume Estimation > Reaction Times tab is
used to specify crew reaction times during various events typical after
taking a kick. This tab will not be available if the kick is determined to
be a “kick while swabbing.” These reaction times will be used to
determine influx size. You may set some of these reaction times to zero
to model certain types of events. An example might be a hard shut-in.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Enter the reaction times for the


various activities.

Analyzing Results
The only results available for the Expected Influx Volume analysis
model are displayed on the Parameter > Influx Volume Estimation >
Results tab. There are no plots, reports, or tables that display analysis
results. However, there is a View > Temperature Distribution plot
available for viewing wellbore temperatures.

Influx Volume Estimation Results Tab


The Parameter > Influx Volume Estimation > Results tab displays
the results of the influx size estimation based on the information entered
on other Influx Volume Estimation tabs.

Total influx volume after detection and closing the


well in.
Influx volume when first detected using
the specified Kick Detection Method.

The Detection Time is the


calculated time to detect the influx.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Using Plots

Temperature Distribution Plot


The Temperature Distribution plot indicates the temperature profile as
calculated based on the temperature model specified on the Parameter
> Temperature Distribution dialog.

If you are using the steady state circulation model, this plot will display
separate curves indicating the geothermal gradient, as well as the
calculated string temperature and annular temperature.

The Title Bar indicates the


temperature model used.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Circulating the Kick

The Kick Tolerance analysis mode is used to simulate the circulation of


a kick while drilling, a swab induced kick, or a kick after the pumps have
shut down. This analysis provides several plots to analyze the results.
Using these plots, you can:

• Determine wellbore pressures for depths of interests while


circulating a kick.
• Determine the maximum pressure at each point in the wellbore.
• Determine the allowable influx volume based on formation
breakdown pressure.
• Calculate the maximum pressure for various influx sizes at
several wellbore depths.
• Estimate shoe setting depth based on formation breakdown
gradients.
• Calculate the wellbore pressures in the well assuming all mud in
the well has been displaced by gas.
You can select the Kick Tolerance analysis mode from the Modules
menu, or from the Mode drop-down list.

Choose Kick
Tolerance analysis
mode from Modules
Menu, or from Mode
drop-down list.

Specifying Kill Method, and Choke/Kill Line Data


For the Kick Tolerance analysis mode, the Case > Well Control Setup
dialog contains two tabs. Other Well Control analysis modes may
contain different tabs on this dialog.

Specify Choke and Kill Line Data


The information entered into the Case > Well Control Setup dialog for
the Expected Influx Volume analysis will continue to be used for the
Kick Tolerance analysis. Since both analysis modes use the information
entered into this tab, remember that if you change the information, it will
be changed for all analysis modes.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Select Kill Method and Enter Operational Data


The Case > Well Control Setup > Operational tab is used to specify
kill method, BOP and casing pressure rating, and leakoff test results.
You can choose to use either the Driller’s Method, or the Wait and
Weight Method. If you choose to use the Driller’s Method, a message is
added to the reports advising the pressure data is based on the
assumption it is only valid for the second circulation when the kill mud
is pumped down the string to the bit. For the Wait and Weight Method,
the pressure data is based on the assumption the kill mud is pumped
down the string while the kick is circulated out.

Select kill method.

Specify Kill Rate and Kick Data


The information input on the Parameter > Kick Tolerance dialog is
used to simulate the circulation of an influx taken while drilling or after
pump shutdown.

For a swab kick, tripping the work string back to the bottom of the hole
is simulated. In this scenario, a worst case situation of passing the influx
bubble with the BHA is analyzed at every depth.

The information presented in the Setup section of the Kick Tolerance


dialog was determined based on information input on the Parameter >
Kick Class Determination dialog. The Kill Rate is the flow rate that
will be used to circulate out the influx.

The influx volume can be determined using the Estimated Influx


Volume analysis mode or you can input another volume. The Depth of
Interest is the depth in the well that you are interested in analyzing.
Usually this will be a casing shoe depth. The Depth Interval to Check

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

pertains to the Safe Drilling Depth analysis. This is the depth interval
past the current measured depth that you want to analyze.

WELLPLAN uses corresponding


density and viscosity, depending on
the type of influx you select.
Kill rate to circulate out the influx

Setup section is
based on Kick Class
Determination dialog
results.

The Swab Analysis


Options are only
available for swab kicks.

Influx volume can be determined using the Enter measured depth that you are
Estimated Influx Volume analysis mode. interested in analyzing.

Analyzing Results
The Kick Tolerance analysis mode has several plots that can be used to
analyze the results. These plots can be used to analyze annular pressure
as the influx is circulated, allowable kick volumes, safe drilling depths,
as well as pressure resulting from fully evacuating the annulus and
filling it with gas.

The Kick Tolerance analysis also provides a schematic to view the


position and size of the kick as it is circulated out.

Using Plots

Pressure at Depth Plot


The View > Plot > Pressure at Depth plot displays how the pressure at
a specified depth of interest in the annulus varies as the kill mud is
pumped into the well. This plot assumes the bit is at the string depth
specified on the Case > String Editor. You may choose one Depth of
Interest on the Parameter > Kick Tolerance dialog. The plot also

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

assumes a constant influx volume, which is specified on the same


dialog.

The various peaks and valleys on the plot reflect the different annular
areas that result in changing lengths of annular fluids and the impact on
the pressure calculations.

Depth of interest

Fracture pressure at
depth of interest.

Pore pressure at
depth of interest.

Changing the Data Displayed on This Plot


To change the data displayed on the View > Plot > Pressure at Depth,
right-click anywhere on the plot (except on a curve), and select a
different plot from the right-click menu. Using the right-click menu, you
can display the pressure or EMW at the surface, mud line or ground

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

level, shoe, and at the depth of interest specified on the Parameter >
Kick Tolerance dialog.

Maximum Pressure Plot


The View > Plot > Maximum Pressure plot depicts the annular
pressures that will occurs at any measured depth with an influx of
constant volume in the well. Although you can determine from this plot
what the maximum pressure will be at all measured depths, you can not
determine when the high pressure was encountered as the influx was
circulated out of the well.

You may use this plot to determine casing burst service loads or shoe
setting depths.

Casing shoe depth

The maximum annular pressure is less than


fracture pressure.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

To Display This Plot Using EMW


Right-click anywhere on the plot (except on a curve), and select EMW
from the right-click menu.

Allowable Kick Volume Plot


The View > Plot > Allowable Kick Volume plot displays the maximum
pressure encountered during kick circulation at a specified depth of
interest for a range of influx volumes. The pore pressure and fracture
pressure at the depth of interest are also displayed on the plot for
reference.

This curve indicates


annular pressure at
specified depth as a
function of influx volume.

The maximum allowable kick


volume is displayed at the
bottom of the plot.

To Display This Plot Using EMW


Right-click anywhere on the plot (except on a curve), and select EMW
from the right-click menu.

Safe Drilling Depth Plot


The View > Plot > Safe Drilling Depth plot shows the maximum
pressure at a depth of interest using a constant influx volume as the
wellbore depth is increased using the specified depth interval past the
current measured depth. You may want to use this plot to determine how
far ahead you can drill with the casing shoe depth specified as the depth
of interest. The plot includes pore pressure and fracture gradients to
assist with determining maximum allowable pressures.

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Depth of interest

Maximum annular pressure at depth of interest.

To Display This Plot Using EMW


Right-click anywhere on the plot (except on a curve), and select EMW
from the right-click menu.

Formation Breakdown Gradient Plot


The View > Plot > Formation Breakdown Gradient plot displays the
maximum annular pressure, expressed as a gradient, that occurs as a
result of the specified influx size. You can use this plot to determine the

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maximum pressure (expressed as a gradient) that you can encounter


without exceeding the formation fracture gradient.

Maximum pressure

Fracture gradient

Full Evacuation to Gas Plot


The View > Plot > Full Evacuation to Gas plot displays the pressure
that will occur at any measured depth in the well as a result of entirely
filling the annulus with methane. You can use this plot to determine if

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the annular pressure resulting from fully evacuating the wellbore with
methane will fracture the open hole section.

Casing shoe

Notice the open hole annular pressure


exceeds the fracture pressure.

Animation

Schematics
The View > Animation > Schematic is an animated simulation of the
process of circulating the influx to the surface. In this animation, you
can “see” the influx occurring, and then watch as the influx is circulated
out of the well.

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Use these buttons to start or stop the This information displays the
animation and to move between animation data represented in the
points. animation.

Kick in original position

Grid Data
Use View > Animation > Grid Data to view several calculations as a
function of the volume pumped while circulating the influx.

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Generating a Kill Sheet

The Kill Sheet analysis can help pre-plan a course of action in the event
of a kick. This can be very helpful, especially since taking a kick can be
a very serious and stressful time. It is recommended that as much of the
information required for the Kill Sheet analysis is entered prior to taking
a kick. This significantly reduces the information that will be required
to gather and input after a kick has occurred. The Kill Sheet analysis can
quickly generate a standpipe pressure schedule and a report of useful
information.

Select Kill Sheet


from Mode drop-
down list.

Specify Kill Method, Operational Data, Slow Pumps and Choke/Kill


Line Use
For the Kill Sheet analysis mode, the Case > Well Control Setup dialog
contains three tabs.

Specify Choke and Kill Line Data


The information entered into the Case > Well Control Setup >
Choke/Kill Line tab for the Expected Influx Volume and Kick
Tolerance analysis will continue to be used for the Kill Sheet analysis.
Because the analysis modes use the information entered into this tab,
remember that if you change the information, it will be changed for all
analysis modes.

Selecting Kill Method and Entering Operational Data


The Case > Well Control Setup > Operational tab is used to specify
kill method, BOP and casing pressure rating, and leakoff test results.
You can choose to use either the Driller’s Method, or the Wait and
Weight Method. If you choose to use the Driller’s Method, a message is
added to the reports advising the user that the pressure data is based on
the assumption it is only valid for the second circulation when the kill
mud is pumped down the string to the bit. For the Wait and Weight

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Method, the pressure data is based on the assumption the kill mud is
pumped down the string while the kick is circulated out.

Specifying Slow Pump Data


Use the Case > Well Control Setup > Slow Pumps tab to specify the
slow pump information. Slow pump data can be entered only for those
pumps entered on the Case > Circulating System dialog.

The pumps available in


the drop-down list were
defined using Case >
Circulating System.

Entering Kill Sheet Data


The Parameter > Kill Sheet tabs are used to collect information that
will be used to generate a kill sheet.

Specifying Kick Analysis Parameters


Use the Parameter > Kill Sheet dialog to specify analysis parameters
to use in the kill sheet calculations. On this dialog, specify:

z Kick Parameters: Including the measured depth of the kick, pit


gain, trip margin, and shut-in drillpipe and casing pressures. This
information will be used to generated the kill sheet, and pump
schedule.

z Mud Weight Up Data: Specify mud volumes (other than inside


the string or in the annulus), and information defining the weight
material and mixing capacities. This data will be used in the kill
sheet generation.

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z String and Annular Volumes: Specify the string and annular


volumes. You can enter the volumes on this tab, or you can click
the Default from Editors button to have this information
automatically calculated from data input on the Case > String
Editor and Case > Hole Section Editor.

z String Volumes: Specify the string volumes. You can specify these
directly, or you can copy them automatically from the Case > String
Editor.

z Pump Details: Identify the slow circulation data for the pump used
to kill the well. This section of the dialog displays, in read only
format, the information chosen from data entered on the Case >
Well Control Setup > Slow Pumps tab. If the pump information
you want to use is not available by clicking the button, then you
must enter pump information on the Slow Pumps tab first. After the
pump information is entered, you may view and select the
appropriate pump on this dialog.

Enter the shut-in drill


pipe and casing
pressure after the well
has been closed.

Enter the amount of


weighting material that
can be mixed per unit of
time.

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Analyzing Results

Plots
The View > Plot > Kill Graph plot indicates the desired stand pipe
pressure as the kill mud is pumped down the string until it reaches the
annulus. This plot changes based on the kill method selected.

Initial circulating pressure

Final circulating pressure

Reports

Kill Sheet Report


The View > Report > Kill Sheet report summarizes much of the input
information. It also reports many additional types of information
including:

z Summary of weak links

z Weight up requirement for kill mud and trip margin

z Pump stroke schedule

z Volumes and capacities

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The pump stroke schedule can be used in well control operations to use
drillpipe pressure schedules to maintain the bottomhole pressure at the
proper value. During well control operations, the bottomhole pressure
must be maintained at a value slightly higher than the formation pressure
during kill operations.

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Analysis Mode Methodology

The first section in this chapter discusses general analysis assumptions,


and terminology used in the Well Control Module. The remaining
sections cover one of the analysis modes available in the Well Control
Analysis Module. In each section, the major analysis steps for the
analysis mode are discussed. Within the analysis steps there may be a
reference to a calculation. The title of the calculations is presented in
italics for recognition. Many calculations apply to more than one
analysis mode. To avoid duplicating information, the calculations are
presented in alphabetical order in the section titled “Supporting
Information and Calculations” on page 372. While reading through the
methodology for a particular analysis mode you will notice calculation
titles/names in italic. If you require more information about a particular
calculation, please refer to the Supporting Information and Calculations
section for additional information.

General Assumptions and Terminology

Initial Influx Volume


Initial influx volume refers to the influx volume taken from the time a
kick first develops through the time the kick has been brought under
control (that is, when the well has been shut in). In designing for the
“worst case,” the initial influx volume is the maximum expected influx
volume. Of course, the volume of the influx changes once well kill
procedures are instigated and the circulation of the influx up the annulus
begins.

Naturally, the size of the initial influx volume is dependent on how


quickly the kick is detected and controlled. Smaller kicks will result in
lower pressures exerted within the wellbore as the kick is circulated out
of the well. Designing the well to withstand the appropriate maximum
initial influx volume minimizes the risk to the well.

Influx Properties Assumptions


The type of influx can be oil, gas, or salt water. If this influx type is Gas
or unspecified, WELLPLAN Well Control assumes the influx is a single
bubble of “pure” methane gas. Assuming the influx to be composed of
entirely methane gas is a conservative or “worst case” assumption.
Methane is the lightest gas likely to be encountered in any great

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quantities. Methane gas exhibits the fastest gas migration up the


wellbore annulus because of the large difference in its density compared
with the significantly heavier drilling mud.

In practice, a gas influx disperses into separate bubbles as it expands and


rises through the well. WELLPLAN Well Control assumes the influx
remains a single gas bubble in order to predict the worst possible
pressure conditions.

WELLPLAN does not model soluble gas kicks. In soluble gas kicks, the
gas initially goes into solution with the drilling fluid (mud), and remains
in solution until near the surface. These types of kick are difficult to
detect, and are not handled by the Well Control Module.

Influx Annular Volume and Height


Smaller annular capacities between the work string and the wellbore
have “longer” influx lengths for a given initial influx volume. This
reduces the overall effect of the hydrostatic column on the bottom of the
hole. In order to maintain a constant bottom hole pressure, higher choke
pressures are required at the surface.

The height of the influx equates to the overall length of the influx in the
annulus. It is affected by the annular volume and the gas compressibility
(expansion). The length and location of the influx in the wellbore
impacts the combined effect of the hydrostatic gas/mud column in the
annulus. An influx located high in the annulus, or a large (“long”) influx
has higher associated choke pressures.

Choke Pressure and Influx Position


The position of the top of the influx also affects the choke pressure
requirements. As the influx rises, the hydrostatic effect of the mud
column above the gas influx reduces. As the influx rises in the annulus,
higher choke (surface) pressures are required to maintain the bottom
hole pressure. This effect is combated by allowing the gas to expand by
opening the choke. A constant bottom hole pressure is required to
prevent further influxes into the wellbore.

Kill Methods
The initial mud weight and the bottom hole pressure affect the choice of
kill method. The common methods used are the “Driller’s Method” and

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the “Wait and Weight Method.” Both of these methods maintain


constant bottom hole pressure.

The safest method is the “Wait and Weight” method which can circulate
the influx out of the well and kill the well in one circulation. However,
concerns about gas migration can result if the “wait” period is too long.
In this situation, the “Driller’s Method” may be used instead. The
“Driller’s Method” kills the well in a minimum of two circulations. The
first circulation circulates out the influx, and the second circulation fills
the wellbore with kill mud. Higher choke pressures are required during
the first circulation of the “Driller’s Method” to maintain a constant
bottom hole pressure.

Expected Influx Volume


During the drilling of a reservoir, a “kick” is taken when the pore
pressure of the formation being drilled exceeds the effective bottom hole
(circulating or hydrostatic) pressure exerted by the drilling mud. This
results in formation fluids entering the well. The Expected Influx
Volume analysis can be used to determine the volume of the influx. It is
important to point out that the influx is assumed to be a single, methane
gas bubble.

The maximum size of the influx depends on several factors, including:

• The pressure difference between the reservoir formation


pressure and the effective bottom hole pressure. Based on this
pressure difference, the Kick Classification calculations are used
to determine the kick type.
• The reservoir characteristics, including porosity, permeability,
and so forth
• The rate of penetration through the reservoir which determines
how much of the reservoir is exposed
• The type and accuracy of the equipment used to detect the influx
(flowrate or volume change detection)
• How quickly the well is shut in based on crew reaction times
The following are general steps performed during the analysis to
determine the size of the influx. After you have determined the influx
size, you can determine the effects a kick this size will have by using the
Kick Tolerance analysis mode.

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1. The first step is to determine the temperature profile in the well. You
can choose from three temperature profiles on the Temperature
Distribution > Temperature Model tab.

a) The Steady State Circulation model is the most realistic as the


effect of circulation is included in the model. Refer to “Steady
State Circulation Temperature Model” on page 397 for details.

b) The Geothermal Gradient model assumes the temperature


profile of the drilling fluid to be the same as the surrounding rock
formation. The profile is based on specified surface and total
depth temperatures, or on a surface temperature combined with
a geothermal gradient.

c) The Constant Temperature model is the least realistic and


assumes one temperature throughout the well.

2. The next step is to determine the type of kick that is occurring. The
type of kick is determined by the pressure difference between the
reservoir formation pressure specified on the Pore Pressure dialog
and the effective bottom hole pressure. The dynamic bottom hole
pressures are determined by the same algorithms used by Pressure
Loss Analysis calculations. The rheological model and fluid
parameters that impact the analysis are specified on the Fluid
Editor.

WELLPLAN Well Control analysis defines three Kick


Classifications including: Kick While Drilling, Kick After Pump
Shutdown, and Swab Kick. Estimated influx volumes can be
determined for a “Kick While Drilling” or for “Kick After Pump
Shutdown.” If the kick is determined to be a “Swab Kick,” an
estimated influx volume can not be determined. Refer to Kick
Classification for more information.
3. Based on the kick class, the volume of influx is calculated using
either the Kick While Drilling Influx Estimation calculations, or the
Kick After Pump Shut Down Influx Estimation calculations.

Kick Tolerance
Use this analysis mode to simulate the circulation of a kick while
drilling, a swab induce kick or after the pumps have shut down.

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1. The first step is to determine the temperature profile in the well. You
can choose from three temperature profiles on the Temperature
Distribution > Temperature Model tab.

a) The Steady State Circulation model is the most realistic as the


effect of circulation is included in the model. Refer to “Steady
State Circulation Temperature Model” on page 397 for details.

b) The Geothermal Gradient model assumes the temperature


profile of the drilling fluid to be the same as the surrounding rock
formation. The profile is based on specified surface and total
depth temperatures, or on a surface temperature combined with
a geothermal gradient.

c) The Constant Temperature model is the least realistic and


assumes one temperature throughout the well.

The next step is to determine the type of kick that is occurring using
the Kick Classification calculations. WELLPLAN Well Control
analysis defines three kick classifications including: Kick While
Drilling, Kick After Pump Shutdown, and Swab Kick. The type of
kick is determined by the pressure difference between the reservoir
formation pressure specified on the Pore Pressure Dialog and the
effective bottom hole pressure. The dynamic bottom hole pressures
are determined by the same algorithms used by Pressure Loss
Analysis calculations. The rheological model and fluid parameters
that impact the analysis are specified on the Fluid Editor.
2. After the kick class is determined, you can choose from several
analysis related to wellbore pressures during a kick. For the kicks
while drilling or kicks after pump shutdown, the Pressure Loss
calculations are performed by the same method used in
WELLPLAN Hydraulics. Pressure loss calculations are required
for these kick types to determine the annular and choke frictional
pressure losses resulting from pumping kill mud through the
annulus. The following analyses are available.

• Pressure at Depth: This analysis determines the pressure at a


specified depth as well as the volume of kill mud pumped. This
analysis is not available for Swab Kicks because this type of kick
is circulated without pumping kill mud. The results of this
analysis are available on the Pressure at Depth Plot. To
determine the volume of pumped, and the influx volume as the
influx is circulated, the Influx Circulation Model for Kick While
Drilling or Kick After Pump Shutdown calculations are
performed. After the volume of the influx (and therefore the

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height of the influx in the annulus) is known, the Pressure at


Depth of Interest calculations can be performed. The analysis
uses several parameters input on the Kick Tolerance Dialog,
including Kill Rate, Total Influx Volume, Depth of Interest, and
Kill Mud Gradient. Total Influx Volume can be calculated using
the Expected Influx Volume Analysis Mode. Fracture Gradient
and Pore Pressure data at the Depth of Interest when plotted if
available. This plot can be used to determine if the pressure at the
Depth of Interest will remain within the wellbore pore and
fracture pressures.
• Maximum Pressure: This analysis determines the maximum
pressure at points along the wellbore along with the associated
measured depth (from surface to maximum measured depth).
The results of this analysis are available on the Maximum
Pressure Plot. To determine the pressures in the well as a
function of volume pumped, and the influx volume as the influx
is circulated, the Influx Circulation Model for Kick While
Drilling or Kick After Pump Shutdown or Influx Circulation
Model for Swab Kicks calculations are performed. The analysis
use several parameters input on the Kick Tolerance Dialog,
including: Kill Rate, Total Influx Volume, and Kill Mud
Gradient. Total Influx Volume can be calculated using the
Expected Influx Volume Analysis Mode. Fracture Gradient and
Pore Pressure data at the Depth of Interest are plotted when
available, and the measured depth location of the last casing
shoe.This plot can be used to determine if the pressure at any
wellbore depth below the last casing shoe will remain within the
wellbore pore and fracture pressures.
• Allowable Kick Volume: This analysis determines the pressure
for several influx volumes. The influx volume increment is
calculated as the annulus volume from the kick measured depth
to the measured depth of the shoe, divided by eight. The first
influx volume used in the calculations is equal to the influx
volume increment. Each succeeding influx volume is the last
influx volume plus the influx volume increment. The analysis
continues until the last influx volume fills the annulus from the
kick measured depth to the measured depth of the last casing
shoe. The results of this analysis are available on the Allowable
Kick Volume Plot. To determine the pressures resulting from the
various influx volumes, the Influx Circulation Model for Kick
While Drilling or Kick After Pump Shutdown or the Influx
Circulation Model for Swab Kicks calculations are performed.
The analysis used several parameters input on the Kick
Tolerance dialog, including: Kill Rate, Depth of Interest, and
Kill Mud Gradient. Fracture Gradient and Pore Pressure data at

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the Depth of Interest are plotted when available. The Allowable


Kick Volume plot can be used to determine the maximum influx
volume taken at the current bit measured depth that will not
exceed the wellbore fracture gradient at the depth of interest.
• Safe Drilling Depth: This analysis determines the pressure
resulting from an influx taken at several measured depths as the
well is drilled past the current measured depth. The results of this
analysis are available on the Safe Drilling Depth Plot. This
analysis is performed by moving the bit location ahead, taking a
kick and performing an Influx Circulation Model for Kick While
Drilling or Kick After Pump Shutdown or Influx Circulation
Model for Swab Kicks. The analysis uses several parameters
input on the Kick Tolerance dialog, including Kill Rate, Total
Influx Volume, Depth Interval to Check, and Kill Mud Gradient.
Total Influx Volume can be calculated using the Expected Influx
Volume Analysis Mode. Fracture Gradient and Pore Pressure
data at the Depth of Interest are plotted when available. This plot
can be used to determine the maximum depth where pressures
related to the Total Influx Volume will remain within the
wellbore pore and fracture pressures.
• Formation Breakdown Gradient: This analysis determines the
pressure gradient in the wellbore at depths in the wellbore
between the casing shoe measured depth and the kick measured
depth. Influx Circulation Model for Swab Kicks or Influx
Circulation Model for Kick While Drilling or Kick After Pump
Shutdown calculations are performed to determine the pressures.
The results of this analysis are available on the Formation
Breakdown Gradient Plot. This plot can be used to determine if
the pressure gradient at any location in the wellbore below the
casing shoe will be outside the safety zone between the wellbore
pore and fracture pressure gradients. For this analysis the Kill
Rate, Total Influx Volume, and Kill Mud Gradient parameters
input on the Kick Tolerance dialog. Total Influx Volume can be
calculated using the Expected Influx Volume Analysis Mode. In
addition to the measured depth location of the last casing shoe,
Fracture Gradient and Pore Pressure data will be plotted if
available. This plot can be used to determine if the pressure
gradient at any location in the wellbore below the casing shoe
will be outside the safety zone between the wellbore pore and
fracture pressure gradients.

• Full Evacuation to Gas: This analysis determines the pressure


in the wellbore assuming the entire wellbore annulus is filled
with methane gas. The pressure in the wellbore is due to the
hydrostatic pressure of the gas as determined by the gas density

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resulting from the wellbore temperature at that depth. The results


of this analysis are available on the Full Evacuation to Gas plot.
The analysis does not any parameters input on the Kick
Tolerance dialog. Fracture gradient and pore pressure data are
plotted when available.

Kill Sheet
Refer to the “Kill Sheet” on page 392.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Supporting Information and Calculations

Allowable Kick Volume Calculations


This analysis determines the pressure for several influx volumes. The
influx volume increment is calculated as the annulus volume from the
kick measured depth to the measured depth of the shoe, divided by eight.
The first influx volume used in the calculations is equal to the influx
volume increment. Each succeeding influx volume is the last influx
volume plus the influx volume increment. The analysis continues until
the last influx volume fills the annulus from the kick measured depth to
the measured depth of the last casing shoe. The results of this analysis
are available on the allowable kick volume plot.

To determine the pressures resulting from the various influx volumes,


the Influx Circulation Model for Kick While Drilling or Kick After Pump
Shutdown or the Influx Circulation Model for Swab Kicks calculations
are performed. The analysis uses several parameters input on the Kick
Tolerance Dialog, including Kill Rate, Depth of Interest, and Kill Mud
Gradient.

Estimated Influx Volume and Flow Rate Calculations


The influx model is:

kt
tD =
φµcRw2

If (t D > 10 ) then,
 t  4πhk∆P 
V =  D  
 ln(t D )  µ 
 1 1  4πhk∆P 
Q =  − 2 
 
 ln(t D ) ln(t D )  µ 

else

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 2     1  1.5  t D   
( )
2
t
V =    t D0.5 + D  +  0.5 t D +   2πRw2 hφc
 π  2 
   6π   
  16   

 1 tD  
0.5
t   2πhk∆P 

Q =  0.5 0.5 − 0.5  +  0.5 + D
   
 tD π 4π   8   µ 


Refer to the Viscosity And Compressibility Of Methane calculations.

Where:

V ( )
= Influx v olum e, m
3

= Flow rate, (m s )
3
Q
tD = Dim ensionless tim e factor

k = Perm eability, m( ) 2

t = Tim e, one tim e step is 5 seconds, (sec)


φ = Porosity
µ = Gas v iscosity, Nsm( 2
)
∆P = Pressure difference between annulus fluid and form ation

h = Height of penetration into form ation, (m )


 m2 
c = Gas com pressibility,  
 N 
Rw = Annulus radius (m )

Gas Compressibility

T
Tr =
Tc

P
Pr =
Pc

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Pr
A = Ωa 2.5
Tr ..

Pr
B = Ωb
Tr

C1 = − AB

(
C2 = A − B 2 − B )

q = −(C 2 − 0.333333)

 C 
r = − C1 + 2 − 0.0740740 
 3 

(
t = 27.0 ∗ r 2 − 4.0q 3 )

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

If (t>0)
If (q>0)
  3  1 .5  r  
Φ = a cosh    ∗   
 q   2  

 2 
Z =   ( q ) cosh Φ3  + 0.333333
 3  
If (q<0)
  3  1 .5  r  
Φ = a sinh    ∗  
  − q   2  

 2 
Z =   ( 
) Φ
− q  sinh  + 0 .333333
 3  3
If (q=0)
Z = r . 0.333333 + 0 .333333

If (t<=0)
  3  1 .5  r  
Φ = a cos    ∗   
 q   2  

 2 
Z =   ( q ) cos Φ3  + 0.333333
 3  

Where:
Acosh = Inverse hyperbolic cosine
Asinh = Inverse hyperbolic sine
Cosh = Hyperbolic cosing
Sinh = Hyperbolic sine
Ωa = 0.427480233548
Ωb = 0.0866403499633
T = Gas temperature
P = Gas pressure
Tc = 207.98 K ° , critical temperature of methane
Pc = 4601000 Pa, critical pressure of methane
Z = Gas compressibility factor (Z factor)

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Influx Circulation Model for Kick While Drilling or After Pump


Shutdown
In the Influx Circulation Model for Kick While Drilling or After Pump
Shutdown circulation model, the analysis is performed in a number of
discrete steps with each representing a volume of mud pumped. The
basic algorithm is to pump one volume increment of mud, and then
determine the location of the influx and influx properties such as height,
volume, and density. The mass remains constant until the influx begins
to exit the annulus. By comparing the change in influx volume from one
step to the next, an influx expansion factor is determined. This
expansion factor is used to calculate the acceleration (beyond the pump
rate) of the mud flowing above the influx in the annulus.

The following equations and descriptions are a simplification of the


actual algorithms employed in the software. Additional complexity
arises due to the arbitrary complexity of the wellbore. Over the length of
an influx bubble, the annulus cross sectional area and curvature may
change multiple times. The influx circulation algorithm divides each
influx solution into multiple problems distributed over constant annulus
cross sections. The curvature over these sections dictates the
complexity of relating measured depth to true vertical depth, which is a
controlling factor in the determination of influx height. The solution is
further divided into sections or reasonably constant temperature and
compressibility factor (Z).

Determine influx volume


The initial influx volume (V) is input as “Total Influx Volume” on the
Kick Tolerance Dialog. This volume is calculated in the case of the
Allowable Kick Volume analysis.

Determine initial height of the influx


The true vertical depth length (h) of the influx is determined from the
wellpath data based on the measured depth length in the annulus
occupied by the initial influx volume.

Determine initial pressure


The initial pressure Pk of the influx is the “Kick Interval Pressure”
specified on the Kick Class Determination Dialog.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Pbot = Pk

Determine the influx mass

 V  P 
M =   bot (
 1 − e λ )
 h  g c 

− gch
λ=
ZRT

Determine the initial density

Pbot
ρ=
ZRT

Determine initial influx gradient

G = ρg c

Determine initial surface pressure

Ps = Pbot − ( ρg c h ) − ( ρ dm g c hdm ) − Pfchoke

Determine the mud pumped increment

Vinc = [(Va +Vs ) 80]E

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Circulate the influx out of the annulus


The following calculations are repeated until the influx has been
circulated out of the annulus.

Pump one increment of mud and determine the new location of the
bottom of the influx. The bottom of the influx will move up the annulus
by the measured depth required to hold one mud increment of volume in
that annulus section.

Vinc
MD inc =
A
MD bot = MD bot − prev − MD inc

Determine the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling mud column below


the influx. For “Wait and Weight” method, the kill mud will not enter
the annulus until the total volume of mud pumped is greater than, or
equal to the string volume. For the “Driller’s” method, kill mud will
never enters the annulus until the influx is circulated out.

Phdm = hdm ρ dm g c
Phkm = hkm ρ km g c

Determine the new pressure at the bottom of the influx

Pbot = PK − Phdm − Phkm − Pfchoke

Once the bottom of the influx is moved to its new position, determine if
the last volume will place the top of the influx outside of the annulus.

If the top of the influx is inside the annulus


To determine the new volume and height of the influx, a new influx
height is assumed. Iteration is performed until the following sets of
dependent simultaneous equations converge to a solution. The mass is
a constant until the influx starts to exit the annulus.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

 V  P 
M =   bot (
 1 − e λ )
 h  g c 
Pbot
ρ=
ZRT
M
V =
ρ

If the top of the influx is outside the annulus


In this case, the volume and height are known.

 V  P 
M =   bot (
 1 − e λ )
 h  g c 
Pbot
ρ=
ZRT

Determine the new influx gradient

G = ρg c

Determine the new surface pressure

Ps = Pbot − ( ρg c h ) − ( ρ m g c hm ) − ( ρ km g c hkm ) − Pfchoke

Refer to the Gas Compressibility and Z Factor calculations.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Where:
Pbot = P r e s s u r e a t b o tto m o f in flu x
PK = In itia l k ic k p r e s s u r e
Phdm = H y d r o s ta tic p re s s u re o f th e m u d fr o m th e w e ll b o tto m
to th e in flu x b o tto m
Phkm = H y d r o s ta tic p re s s u re o f th e k ill m u d fr o m th e w e ll
b o tto m to th e in flu x b o tto m
P fchoke = F ric tio n a l p re s s u re lo s s th ro u g h th e c h o k e a n d k ill lin e s .
T h is is c a lc u la te d u s in g th e p ip e p r e s s u r e lo s s e q u a tio n s
fo r th e m u d rh e o lo g y m o d e l
G = In flu x p r e s s u r e g r a d ie n t
M = M a s s o f in flu x
V = V o lu m e o f in flu x
V a = A n n u lu s v o lu m e
V s = S trin g v o lu m e
V inc = M u d p u m p e d v o lu m e in c r e m e n t
h = T V D h e ig h t o f in flu x
h dm = T V D h e ig h t o f th e d r illin g m u d in th e a n n u lu s
h km = T V D h e ig h t o f th e k ill m u d in th e a n n u lu s
g c = G ra v ita tio n a l c o n s ta n t
Z = C o m p re s s ib ility fa c to r
R = G a s c o n s ta n t
T = In flu x te m p e ra tu re , d e te rm in e d fro m a n n u la r te m p e ra tu re p ro file
ρ = In flu x d e n s ity
ρ dm = D rillin g m u d d e n s ity
ρ km = K ill m u d d e n s ity
A = A n n u lu s c r o s s s e c tio n a l a r e a
MD inc = M e a s u re d d e p th in c re m e n t
MD bot = M e a s u r e d d e p th lo c a tio n o f th e in flu x b o tto m
MD i = In itia l m e a s u re d d e p th o f b it
MD bot − prev = P r e s s u r e m e a s u re d d e p th o f in flu x b o tto m

E = P u m p E ffic ie n c y

Influx Circulation Model for Swab Kicks


In this circulation model, mud circulation is not performed. The influx
is removed in a number of discrete steps. The influx is moved to the top
and exits the annulus as the string is moved up the annulus. As the bit
is moved up, the bottom of the influx is always kept at the same depth
as the bit. Each step is represented by a new bit location. At each depth,
the influx properties, such as height, volume, and density are
determined. The mass remains constant until the influx begins to exit
the annulus. By comparing the change in influx volume from one step

380 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

to the next, an influx expansion factor is determined. This expansion


factor is used to calculate the acceleration of the mud being pushed
above the influx.

The following equations and descriptions are a simplification of the


actual algorithms employed in the software. Additional complexity
arises due to the arbitrary complexity of the wellbore. Over the length
of an influx bubble, the annulus cross sectional area and curvature may
change multiple times. The influx circulation algorithm divides each
influx solution into multiple problems distributed over constant annulus
cross sections. The curvature over these sections dictates the
complexity of relating measured depth to true vertical depth, which is a
controlling factor in the determination of influx height. The solution is
further divided into sections or reasonably constant temperature and
compressibility factor (Z).

Determine influx volume


The initial influx volume (V) is input as “Total Influx Volume” on the
Kick Tolerance dialog. This volume is calculated in the case of the
Allowable Kick Volume analysis.

Determine initial height of the influx


The true vertical depth length (h) of the influx is determined from the
wellpath data based on the measured depth length in the annulus
occupied by the initial influx volume.

Determine initial pressure


The initial pressure Pk of the influx is the “Kick Interval Pressure”
specified on the Kick Class Determination Dialog.

Pbot = Pk

Determine influx mass

 V  P 
M =   bot (
 1 − e λ )
 h  g c 

Landmark WELLPLAN 381


Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

− gch
λ=
ZRT

Determine initial density

Pbot
ρ=
ZRT

Determine initial influx gradient

G = ρg c

Determine initial surface pressure

Ps = Pbot − ( ρg c h ) − ( ρ dm g c hdm )

Determine the measured depth increment

MDinc = MDi 80

Circulate the influx out of the annulus


The following calculations are repeated until the influx has been
circulated out of the annulus.

Move the bit and bottom of the influx up one measured depth increment.

MDbot = MDbot − prev − MDinc

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Determine the hydrostatic pressure of the drilling mud column below


the influx. Kill mud will not enter the annulus because kill mud is not
pumped for “Swab Kicks.”

Phdm = hdm ρ dm g c

Determine the new pressure at the bottom of the influx. There is no


choke frictional loss because mud is not being pumped.

Pbot = PK − Phdm

Once the bottom of the influx is moved to its new position, determine if
the last volume will place the top of the influx outside of the annulus.

If the top of the influx is inside the annulus:

To determine the new volume and height of the influx, a new influx
height is assumed. Iteration is performed until the following sets of
dependent simultaneous equations converge to a solution. The mass is
a constant until the influx starts to exit the annulus.

 V  P 
M =   bot (
 1 − e λ )
 h  g c 

Pbot
ρ=
ZRT

M
V=
ρ

If the top of the influx is outside the annulus:

In this case, the volume and height are known.

Landmark WELLPLAN 383


Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

 V  P 
M =   bot (
 1 − e λ )
 h  g c 

Pbot
ρ=
ZRT

Determine the new influx gradient

G = ρg c

Determine the new surface pressure

Ps = Pbot − ( ρg c h ) − ( ρ dm g c hdm )

Refer to the “Gas Compressibility (Z Factor) Model Calculations” on


page 403.

Where:

384 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Pbot = Pressure at bottom of influx

PK = Initial kick pressure


Phdm = Hydrostatic pressure of the drilling m ud from well bottom to influx bottom
G = Influx pressure gradient
M = M ass of influx
V = Volum e of influx
h = TVD height of influx
h dm = TVD height of the drilling m ud in the annulus
gc = G rav itational constant
Z = Com pressibility factor
R = G as constant
T = Influx tem perature, determ ined from annular tem perature profile
ρ = Influx density
ρ dm = Drilling m ud density
MD inc = M easured depth increm ent
MD bot = M easured depth location of the influx bottom
MD i = Initial m easured depth of bit
MD bot − prev = Pressure m easured depth of influx bottom

Kick Classification
WELLPLAN Well Control analysis defines three kick classifications
including Kick While Drilling, Kick After Pump Shutdown, and Swab
Kick. Estimated influx volumes can be determined for a “Kick While
Drilling” or for “Kick After Pump Shutdown.” If the kick is determined
to be a “Swab Kick”, an estimated influx volume can not be determined.

Kick While Drilling


Pore Pressure > Dynamic BHP > Static BHP

A Kick While Drilling will occur if the formation pore pressure exceeds
the dynamic circulating pressure exerted by the drilling fluid.

In this case, the kick is circulated out by pumping kill mud for “Weight
& Wait Method”, or by pumping drilling mud during the first circulation
of the “Driller’s Method.”

Landmark WELLPLAN 385


Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Kick After Pump Shutdown


Dynamic BHP > Pore Pressure > Static BHP

A Kick After Pump Shutdown occurs if the formation pore pressure is


lower than the circulating pressure of the drilling mud, and sufficient
over balance exists. However, when the pumps are shut down and the
circulation stops, the hydrostatic pressure of the mud alone is
insufficient to counteract the pore pressure exerted.

In this case, the kick is circulated out by pumping kill mud for “Weight
& Wait Method”, or by pumping drilling mud during the first circulation
of the “Driller’s Method”.

Swab Kick
Dynamic BHP > Static BHP > Pore Pressure

With the formation pore pressure lower than the hydrostatic pressure of
the mud, a kick can occur through swabbing of the formation. Swabbing
can occur while pulling the work string out of the hole.

In this case, the annulus pressure profile is modeled by moving the string
with the influx, and mud is not pumped to move the influx. The bottom
of the influx is kept even with the bottom of the bit. Expected Influx
calculations are not allowed.

Kick After Pump Shut Down Influx Estimation


The sequence of events during the inflow period is divided into three
time periods.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Time Period A
During Time Period A, indications of the kick are apparent by use of the
rig’s kick detection equipment on surface. The sensitivity of this
equipment is a factor in how much influx is taken during this period.

The Estimated Influx Volume and Flow Rate Calculations are used to
determine the volume of the influx and the flow rate of the mud above
the influx in the annulus at the end of Time Period A. These calculations
are performed for a series of five-second time steps until either the
calculated volume or flow rate is detectable. For these calculations, the
following conditions apply.

a) The rate of penetration, ROP, is zero because there is no rotation.

b) The flow rate is zero because the pumps are shut down.

c) The pressure difference, ∆P , between the formation and the


drilling fluid column is between the pore pressure and the
calculated dynamic bottom hole pressure. The pressure
difference is due to hydrostatic pressure of the mud column.
Frictional pressure loss is not generated because the mud pumps
are off.

d) The height of penetrated reservoir, h, is constant based on the


“Exposed Height” specified on the Influx Volume Estimation
Reservoir tab.

The values for volume of influx, V, and flowrate, Q, are calculated for
each five-second time step until the end of Period A is determined based
on the following conditions related to kick detection equipment.

For kicks detected by “Flowrate Variation”


Perform the calculations until the calculated flowrate, Q, is greater than
or equal to the magnitude of the detectable flowrate variation.

For kicks detected by “Volume Variation”


Perform the calculations until the calculated influx volume, V, minus
the flowrate, Q, times the specified “Detection Time Delay” is greater
than or equal to the magnitude of the detectable volume variation.

Landmark WELLPLAN 387


Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Time Period B
Time Period B does not apply to “Kicks After Pump Shut Down”
because there is no circulation.

Time Period C
During Time Period C, the well is secured. The BOP and choke valves
are made ready before the well is finally closed in. How quickly this can
be achieved depends on the crew reaction times specified on the Influx
Volume Estimation Reaction Times Tab. Only at this stage are further
formation fluids prevented from entering the well. The initial influx
volume is at a maximum.

The Estimated Influx Volume and Flow Rate Calculations are used to
determine the volume of the influx and the flow rate of the mud above
the influx in the annulus at the end of Time Period C. These calculations
are performed for a series of five-second time steps until the
accumulated time steps exceed the time span of Period C. For these
calculations, the following conditions apply.

a) The rate of penetration, ROP, is zero because rotation has


stopped.

b) The mud flow rate is zero because the pumps are stopped.

c) The pressure difference, ∆P , between the formation and the


drilling fluid column is between the pore pressure and the
calculated dynamic bottom hole pressure. The pressure
difference is due to hydrostatic pressure of the mud column.
Frictional pressure loss is not generated because the pumps are
off.

d) The height of penetrated reservoir, h, is now a constant value


equal to “Exposed Height” specified on the Influx Volume
Estimation Reservoir tab.

Results
The total influx volume is the sum of the influx volumes calculated for
Time Period A and Time Period C. The influx volume at the time of
detection is equal to the influx volume at the end of Time Period A. The
kick detection time is equal to the length Time Period A.

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Kick While Drilling Influx Estimation


The sequence of events during the inflow period is divided into three
time periods.

Time Period A
During Time Period A, indications of the kick are apparent by use of the
rigs kick detection equipment on surface. The sensitivity of this
equipment is a factor in how much influx is taken during this period.

The Estimated Influx Volume and Flow Rate Calculations are used to
determine the volume of the influx and the flow rate of the mud above
the influx in the annulus at the end of Time Period A. These calculations
are performed for a series of five-second time steps until either the
calculated volume or flow rate is detectable. For these calculations, the
following conditions apply.

a) The rate of penetration, ROP, is set to the ROP specified on the


Influx Volume Estimation - Reservoir Tab.

b) The flow rate is set to the drilling flow rate.

c) The pressure difference, ∆P , between the formation and the


drilling fluid column is between the pore pressure and the
calculated dynamic bottom hole pressure. The pressure
difference is due to hydrostatic pressure of the mud column, and
the frictional pressure loss in the annulus.

Landmark WELLPLAN 389


Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

d) The height of penetrated reservoir, h, begins at zero, and


increases based on ROP and elapsed time until the time has
exceeded the length of Time Period A. For each five-second-
time step, h will increase by a factor of (5 ∗ ROP) .

The values for volume of influx, V, and flowrate, Q, are calculated for
each five-second time step until the end of Period A is determined based
on the following conditions related to kick detection equipment.

For kicks detected by “Flowrate Variation”


Perform the calculations until the calculated flowrate, Q, is greater than
or equal to the magnitude of the detectable flowrate variation.

For kicks detected by “Volume Variation”


Perform the calculations until the calculated influx volume, V, minus
the flowrate, Q, times the specified “Detection Time Delay” is greater
than or equal to the magnitude of the detectable volume variation.

Time Period B
During Time Period B, the drilling is stopped, the bit is pulled off-
bottom and the pumps are shut down. How quickly this can be achieved
depends on the crew reaction times specified on the Influx Volume
Estimation > Reaction Times tab.

The Estimated Influx Volume and Flow Rate Calculations are used to
determine the volume of the influx and the flow rate of the mud above
the influx in the annulus at the end of Time Period B. These calculations
are performed for a series of five-second time steps until the
accumulated time steps exceed the time span of Period B. For these
calculations, the following conditions apply.

a) The rate of penetration, ROP, is zero because rotation has


stopped.

b) The flow rate is set to the drilling flow rate.

c) The pressure difference, ∆P , between the formation and the


drilling fluid column is between the pore pressure and the
calculated dynamic bottom hole pressure. The pressure
difference is due to hydrostatic pressure of the mud column and
the frictional pressure loss in the annulus.

390 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

d) The height of penetrated reservoir, h, is now a constant value


equal to the time spent in Period A multiplied by the ROP
specified on the Influx Volume Estimation Reservoir tab.

Time Period C
During Time Period C, the well is secured. The BOP and choke valves
are made ready before the well is finally closed in. This time calculation
depends on the crew reaction times specified on the Influx Volume
Estimation > Reaction Times tab. Only at this stage are further
formation fluids prevented from entering the well. The initial influx
volume is at a maximum.

The Estimated Influx Volume and Flow Rate Calculations are used to
determine the volume of the influx and the flow rate of the mud above
the influx in the annulus at the end of Time Period C. These calculations
are performed for a series of five-second time steps until the
accumulated time steps exceed the time span of Period C. For these
calculations, the following conditions apply.

a) The rate of penetration, ROP, is zero because rotation has


stopped.

b) The mud flow rate is zero because the pumps are stopped.

c) The pressure difference, ∆P , between the formation and the


drilling fluid column is between the pore pressure and the
calculated dynamic bottom hole pressure. The pressure
difference is due to hydrostatic pressure of the mud column.
Frictional pressure loss is not generated because the pumps are
off.

d) The height of penetrated reservoir, h, is now a constant value


equal to the time spent in Period A multiplied by the ROP
specified on the Influx Volume Estimation Reservoir tab.

Results
The total influx volume is the sum of the influx volumes calculated for
the three time periods. The influx volume at the time of detection is
equal to the influx volume at the end of Time Period A. The kick
detection time is equal to the length of Time Period A.

Landmark WELLPLAN 391


Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Kill Sheet

Initial Circulating Pressure

PICP = PSIDP + PP + PO

Final Circulating Pressure

ρ 
PFCP = PP  KM 
 ρ DM 

Kill Mud Weight

 P 
ρ KM =  SIDP
 + ρ DM
 KTVD ∗ 0.052 
D

Final Mud Weight

ρ FM = ρ KM + ρ TM

Kill Mud Weight Increase

ρ KM = ρ KM − ρ DM
PSIDP
ρ KM =
(0 .052 D KTVD )

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Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Final Mud Weight Increase

∆ ρ FM = ρ FM − ρ KM
∆ ρ FM = ρ TM

Kill Mud Weighting Material Required

WTW = VT ρ W
( ρ KM − ρ DM )
( ρ W − ρ KM )

Final Mud Weighting Material Required

WFW = VT ρ W
( ρ FM − ρ KM )
( ρ W − ρ FM )

Formation Pressure

PF = PSIDP + PHDM

Formation Equivalent Mud Weight

PF
ρ FEQM =
0.052 DKTVD

Leak Off Equivalent Mud Weight

PLO
ρ LEQM = + ρ LM
0.052 DSTVD

Landmark WELLPLAN 393


Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Casing Maximum Allowed Pressure

PCM = (ρ LEQM − ρ DM )DSTVD (0.052 )

Drill Pipe Pressure

PDP = PICP − ∆PHDM + ∆PFR − POC

Total Delta Frictional Pressure

ρ 
∆PTFR = PP  KM  − 1
 ρ DM 

Delta Hydrostatic Pressure

∆PHD = ( ρ KM − ρ DM )(0.052)( DKMTVD )

Delta Frictional Pressure

D 
∆PFR = ∆PTFR  KMMD 
 D KM 

Overkill Pressure Correction

D 
POC = PO  KMTVD 
 DKTVD 

394 WELLPLAN Landmark


Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Where:

PICP = Initial circulating pressure

PSIDP = Shut in drill pipe pressure

PP = Pump pressure
PO = Overkill pressure

PFCP = Final circulating pressure


PF = Formation pressure
PHDM = Hydrostatic drill mud pressure at total depth
PFEQM = Formation equivalent mud weight
PLO = Leak off pressure

PCM = Maximum casing pressure allowed


PDP = Drill pipe pressure
PFR = Frictional pressure
POC = Overkill pressure correction

W TW = Total weight of weighting material

WW = W eight of weighting material

W FW = Final weight of weighting material


ρ KM = Kill mud density
ρ DM = Drill mud density
ρ FM = Final mud density
ρ TM = Trip margin density
ρ LEQM = Leak off equivalent mud density
ρ LM = Leak off mud density
ρW = W eighting material density

D KTVD = True vertical depth of kick

DSTVD = True vertical depth of shoe

D KM = Kill mud depth


D KMTVD = True vertical depth of kill mud
D KMMD = Measured depth of kill mud
VT = Total mud volume

Landmark WELLPLAN 395


Chapter 8: Well Control Analysis

Pressure at Depth of Interest

Pd = PP + ∆Pmf − ∆Pg − ∆Pmh

Where:
Pd = P re s s u re a t th e d e p th o f in te re s t

PP = F o rm a tio n p o re p re s s u re a s s p e c if ie d b y th e “K ic k
In te rv a l P re s s u re ” o n th e K ic k C la s s D e te rm in a tio n d ia lo g
Pmf = F ric tio n a l p re s s u re lo s s d u e to th e m u d f lo w f ro m th e
d e p th o f in te re s t to th e s u rf a c e . T h e f ric tio n a l p re s s u re
lo s s e s in c lu d e th e c h o k e a n d k ill lin e p re s s u re lo s s .
T h e s a m e a lg o rith m s a s u s e d b y W E L L P L A N H y d ra u lic s
p e rf o rm th e f ric tio n a l p re s s u re lo s s c a lc u la tio n s . T h e s e