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The Circadian Rhythm Protein,
The Zika virus, The pressure
sensitive protein in ears…Nobel
Prize Chemistry 2017
Jacques Dubochet
Dr. Dubochet, 75, is a Swiss citizen. He retired from the
University of Lausanne in Switzerland in 2007. His web
page at the university humorously notes that in
October 1941, he was “conceived by optimistic
parents” and in 1946 he was “no longer scared of the
dark, because the sun comes back.” He noted of his
dyslexia: “This permitted being bad at everything … and
to understand those with difficulties.”
Triacylglycerols Are Highly
Concentrated Energy Stores

fatty acids is about 9 kcal/g (38 kJ/g),

in contrast with about 4 kcal/g(17
kJ/g) for carbohydrates and proteins.
In mammals, the major site of
accumulation of triacylglycerols is
the cytoplasm of adipose cells (fat
Droplets of triacylglycerol coalesce
to form a large globule, which may
occupy most of the cell volume.
Triacylglycerols Are Highly
Concentrated Energy Stores
• The utility of triacylglycerols as an energy source
is dramatically illustrated by the abilities of
migratory birds, which can fly great distances
without eating.
• Examples are the American golden plover and
the ruby-throated sparrow.
• The golden plover flies from Alaska to the
southern tip of South America; a large segment
of the flight (3800 km, or 2400 miles) is over
open ocean, where the birds cannot feed.
• The ruby-throated hummingbird can fly nonstop
across the Gulf of Mexico.
• Fatty acids provide the energy source for both
these prodigious feats.
Dietary Lipids Are Digested by
Pancreatic Lipases

Bile salts from liver binds with fats to facilitate reaction with
Dietary Lipids Are Transported in
The Utilization of Fatty Acids as Fuel
Requires Three Stages of Processing

• 1. Triacylglycerol is digested to
fatty acid.
• 2. Fatty acid is activated to Acyl
• 3. Acyl CoA undergoes Beta-
Triacylglycerols Are Hydrolyzed by
Cyclic AMP-Regulated Lipases

Hormones like adrenalin activates lipase.

Glycerol is converted to G3P
Fatty Acids Are Linked to
Coenzyme A Before They Are
Carnitine Carries Long-Chain Activated
Fatty Acids into the Mitochondrial
Carnitine Carries Long-Chain
Activated Fatty Acids into the
Mitochondrial Matrix
NADH, and
in Each
Round of
Fatty Acid
The Complete Oxidation of
Palmitate(C16) Yields 106
Molecules of ATP
 Approximately 2.5 molecules of ATP are
generated when the respiratory chain
oxidizes each of the 7 molecules of NADH,
 whereas 1.5 molecules of ATP are formed for
each of the 7 molecules.
 Recall that the oxidation of acetyl CoA by
the citric acid cycle yields 10 molecules of
 The activation of palmitate consumes 2 ATP.