Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

Thursday, 13-December-2018

The Direct Method


Group 2

NAME : 1. SITTI ANNISA JAM’AR


2. WIDYAWATI
3. EDWIN MAULANA

CLASS : 5F

UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH MAKASSAR


2018-2019

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
A. Background

In this paper, we will start considering that the method called Direct Method has unique
history in its background. This method is only one of many kinds of method or approach in language
learning. Even, there is more than one method in one century. The nineteenth century with its
Grammar Translation Method and Direct Method, the 1950s- with its Audio-lingual Method, the
twentieth century and the new era are the example of many kinds of the method.

The focus of this paper is centered in the nineteenth century when the Direct Method was
established. This is the most widely cited method during this period of reform. Toward the mid-
nineteenth century several factors and demands for oral proficiency contributed to reject the older
Grammar Translation Method. The Direct Method was developed as the rejection or movement
against this method.

We need to know more about Direct Method for some reason. First, Direct Method is one of
famous method in language learning. Second, Direct Method influenced educator to question,
debate, and develop many different methods and approaches in the language learning.

B. Problems

1. What is Direct Method and how is its background?

2. What are the principles of Direct Method?

3. What are the goals of Direct Method?

4. What is the teacher-student role in the Direct Method?

5. What are the activity types of Direct Method?

6. How is Direct Method application and example?

C. Purposes

1. To know Direct Method description and its background.

2. To know the principles of Direct Method.

3. To know the goals of Direct Method.

4. To know the teacher-student roles in the Direct Method.

5. To know the activity types of Direct Method.

6. To know the Direct Method application and example.

CHAPTER 2
DISCUSSION

A. The Direct Method and its Background

The Direct Method of teaching, which is sometimes called the natural method, is the method
that associated with Francois Gouin and Charles Berlitz. Wikipedia wrote that it was established in
Germany and France around 1900.[1] The meaning of the name "Direct Method" comes from the
fact that the action like demonstration and visual aids are needed to convey the meaning directly
into the target language.

Gouin developed an approach to teaching a foreign language based on his observations of


children’s use of language. He believed that language learning was facilitated through using language
to accomplish events considering of a sequence of related actions.

The main argumentation of this method is that a foreign language could be taught by use the
learner’s native tongue without translation. It also means that The Direct Method insists on thinking
and communicating the target language directly without explanation in translation.

Bambang Setiyadi in his book presented a brief story of the birth of the method that adapted
from Mackey (1975: 143-148). A long before Direct Method was widely used, there were a lot of
reactions against the teaching of grammar through explanation and translation. One of the first
extreme reactions was the idea that the target language was taught through inductive grammar by
using texts written in the target language. With the coming of the inductive teaching of grammar, the
Grammar Translation Method became an end. In the latter half of the century, there was a
movement that advocated the abolition of translation and grammar, and teaching of the target
language through abundant listening. This way of teaching was then improved by adding physical
activity in presenting language material. One of the pioneers of this movement was Gouin of France.
[2]

For addition, the book of Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers presented the opinion of
a German scholar F. Franke (1884) that strengthened the Direct Method. Frank said that a language
could be best taught by using it actively in the classroom. Rather than using analytical procedures
that focus on explanation of grammar rules in classroom teaching, teachers must encourage direct
and spontaneous use of foreign language in the classroom. Learners would then be able to induce
rules of grammar. The teacher replaced the textbook in the early stages of learning. Speaking began
with systematic attention to pronunciation. Known words could be used to teach new vocabulary,
using mime, demonstration, and pictures.[3]

This statement became the principles of natural language learning and provided the
foundation for Direct Method. From it, Direct Method refers to the most widely known of the natural
methods.

B. Principles of Direct Method


The following principles are some of the characteristics of Direct Method based on some
sources regarding to language learning:

1. Grammar is taught by situation and through inductive way. The teacher presents students with
many examples to show how the concept of Grammar works, without giving any long explanation
about how the concept is used. The students are expected to notice how the concept is to be used
and determine the grammar rule.

2. Classroom instructions are conducted exclusively in the target language. It means that language
learners learn the target language in the classroom most of the time.

3. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught during the initial phase; grammar, reading
and writing are introduced in intermediate phase. Those become the base of the syllabus for this
method.

4. Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully graded progression organized around
question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes.

5. New teaching points are introduced orally, not written.

6. Concrete meaning of vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; the
abstract one is taught by association of ideas, not through translation.

7. Both speech and listening comprehensions are taught.

8. Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized. It means that these cases are essential.

C. The Goals of Direct Method

Teacher uses method in their teaching learning activities, in order to implement the plans of
learning and reach the goal optimally. A method is the important role and determines the success of
the learning. Every methods has its goals, included the Direct Method.

The intention of the teachers who use the Direct Method is to make their students learn how
to communicate by using the target language. In order for the hope that possible, students will learn
to think target language and the teacher avoids native language emerged during the teaching
learning activities.

D. The teacher-student roles in the Direct Method

Although the role of teachers in this method is the ‘director’ class, students are more active role
when compared to the Grammar-translation method. Teachers and students are more like partners in
purpose learning / teaching. Interaction between teachers and students walking from two directions,
either from teacher to student or from students to teachers, but most interactions went from teacher
to student. Interaction among students is also a lot happening in this method.[4]

The teacher asks the student through target language directly and the students are expected
to do what the teacher asked. It would be helpful to use gesture, picture or pantomimes to make the
meaning clear. So, the student will be easy to be actively involved in using target language during the
teaching learning process.
E. The Activity Types

The teacher can use these following activity types in teaching learning activities. This activity
types are adapted from some sources.

Activity types:

a. Question-and-Answer Exercise: The teacher asks questions and the students answer. This
activity happens only in target language. Students ask questions and answer in full sentences.
Students can also try to ask the questions for the purpose to make they practice new word and
grammatical structure.

b. Reading Aloud: Students take turns reading. At the end of each student’s turn the teacher uses
gestures, pictures, examples, or role play to help the students understand the meaning.

c. Getting students to self-correct: Bambang Setiyadi wrote in his book that self-correction is more
emphasized than teacher correction. This can be done by asking them to make a choice between
what they said and an alternative answer provided by the teacher. Self correcting can also be done
by repeating what they said in a questioning voice to signal to the student that there is something
wrong.[5]

d. Conversation practice: the teacher gives some questions and the student should be able to
answer the question correctly by using target language.

e. Fill-in-the-blank exercise: in this kind of activity, students are given a series of sentence in the
target language with some missing words.

f. Dictation: there are some steps in this activity. The teacher reads the text/passage aloud three
times. At the first time the teacher reads, the students only listen. The second time, the teacher read
it phrase by phrase, with pausing long enough for students to write down what they have heard. The
third time, the teacher read at the normal speed and the students check their work.

F. Application and Example

Peace Corps' Information Collection & Exchange (ICE) wrote in its Manual that Grammar is
taught inductively. It means that grammar is presented and practiced, but the rule isn’t the focus.
The teacher that use direct method help the students understand grammar and vocabulary by use
mime, demonstration, and visual aids.[6]
Here, I present an application and example of Grammar teaching.

Teaching Simple Past Tense

First, we should considering some ways to teach grammar with Direct Method.

a. Using inductive approach.

b. Giving examples before the student know the formula.

c. Using classroom situations for conversation or giving example.

d. It can use the routines activities for making example.

e. The teacher gives the motivation and helps the students to find the formula or to make the
conclusion from the examples.

Example of teaching simple past tense:

Step 1: The teacher greets the class

Greeting the class is very important for the teachers and students. The students must pay
their attention before going to study English. It makes the teachers easier to handle the class.

Example:

 Assalamualaikum, good morning class, how are you today?

 Hi, my smart students

 Hi my lovely students

Step 2: Giving questions

After greeting the class, the teacher starts to study and giving the questions. The choice of
questions must be suitable with the material about simple past tense. The teacher can give the
questions using the object around the class, or the situation in the classroom.

Example:

 What did you do yesterday?

 What did you last night?

 What lesson did you learn in the school yesterday?

The teacher must give the example of the answer, because the student can be confuse at the
first time. The teacher can give the examples such:

 I went to my grandmother house

 I watched TV

 I learnt Biology

Step 3: Giving instructions

After giving questions, the students will answer themselves. If they can answer well, the
teacher must give other activities. The teacher gives instructions for the students to make a group or
a pair, and the teacher gives another concept. Again, the teacher must give some examples. The
teacher must teach the students how to make sentences with another subject, such you; they; we;
he; she; and it. The teacher can say these following examples:

 “He went to the zoo yesterday” while teacher pointed toward the boy

 “She bought a bag last week” while teacher pointed toward the girl

 “They played volley yesterday” while teacher pointed toward a group of student outside the
class.

These examples give the rule when the students use the past form of verb.

 “It was rainy last night” while teacher pointed toward the sky

 “We were happy yesterday”

These examples give the rule when the students use the past form of To Be.

After the teacher gives the examples, the student must practice with their group. After that,
they practice with another group. Practice and practice more, until they can understand to use
simple past tense in the certain context, and of course to get the final purpose that the students
must conclude the formula by themselves.

Step 4: Making Conclusion

This is the main activities of the process of study. The students must make the conclusion
about the simple past tense. This is an inductive approach. The students are able to make the
formula or make the conclusion according to the examples. The teacher will help them by giving
examples and motivate to think everything. If the students can make the conclusion, it means that
both of them get success.

Step 5: Giving motivation or applause and end the studying.

Giving motivation can make the student motivated to improve their skill or comprehension.
Try to make the student happy during the teaching learning activity.

CHAPTER 3
CLOSING
A. Conclusion

Direct Method is the method that associated with Francois Gouin and Charles Berlitz and
focused in thinking and communicating the target language directly without explanation in
translation. The Direct Method was developed as the rejection or movement against Grammar
Translation method.

The principles or the characteristics of Direct Method are: Grammar is taught by situation
and through inductive way; only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught during the initial
phase; grammar, reading and writing are introduced in intermediate phase; oral communication skills
are built up in a carefully graded progression; new teaching points are introduced orally; concrete
meaning of vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; the abstract one is
taught by association of ideas; both speech and listening comprehensions are taught; the last,
correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.

The goal of Direct Method is to make their students learn how to communicate by using the
target language, think the target language and the teacher avoids native language emerged during
the teaching learning activities.

The teachers and students role are more like partners in purpose learning / teaching.
Interaction between teachers and students walking from two directions, either from teacher to
student or from students to teachers, but most interactions went from teacher to student.

The activity types in Direct Method are question and asking exercise, reading aloud, getting
students to self-correct, conversation practice, fill-in-the-blank exercise, and dictation.

The application and example of Direct Method can be realized in teaching grammar of Simple
Past Tense that presented in this paper. In teaching grammar, teachers useinductive approach, giving
examples before the student know the formula, using classroom situations for conversation or giving
example, use the routines activities for making example, and gives the motivation and helps the
students to find the formula or to make the conclusion from the examples.

B. Suggestion

We can describe the material that the subject of this paper, of course there are still many
shortcomings and weakness, because they lack the knowledge and lack of reference. As author, we
much hope dear readers, providing conscructivecritism and suggestion for the perfect paper to the
author in the writing of paper in next opportunities. Hopefully this paper can be useful for writers in
particular are also resders in general.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anonymous. 1989. The Manual of TEFL/TESL: Teaching English as a Foreign or Second Language.
Washington DC 20526, USA : Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange

C. Richard, Jack and Theodore S. Rodgers. 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching,
2nd ed. New York: CAMBRIDGE University Press
Setiyadi, Bambang. 2006. Teaching English as Foreign Language. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu

http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_method_(education)

http://www.educ.ualberta.ca/staff/olenka.bilash/best%20of%20bilash/inductivedeductive
html

https://dhianarhyazee.wordpress.com/2012/05/24/aplikasi-direct-method/