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PRESCHOOL

THE

AESTHETICS
Part II
FROM

GUSTAV THEODOR FEEDER.


LEIPZIG

PRINT AND PUBLISHING OF BREITKOPF & HÄRTEL.


1876

Content.

XIX. The art from a conceptual point of view


XX. Remarks on analysis and criticism of works of art
XXI. About the dispute of the form-aesthetist and salary esthetician in relation to the
fine arts
XXII. On the question of how art has to deviate from nature. Idealistic and realistic
direction
XXIII. Beauty and characteristics
XXIV.About some major deviations of the art from nature
1) violations of the unity of space, time and person
2) Intentional restriction of detail execution. Elimination of
Nebendingen
3) Prevention of seemingly palpable reliefs in paintings
4) Translations into antiquity and modernity
XXV. Preview to the three following sections
XXVI. Style, styling
XXVII.Idealisieren
XXVIII. Symbolize
XXIX. Comment on a Aussprudle K. Rahls
XXX. Preferential dispute between art and nature
XXXI. Imagination View of Beauty and Art
XXXII. From the concept of sublimity
XXXIII. About the size of works of art, especially paintings, from an aesthetic point
of view
XXXIV. On the question of colored (polychrome) sculpture and architecture
1) sculpture
2) architecture
XXXV. Contribution to aesthetic color theory
1) Direct Impression of Colors
2) Direct and Associative Impression of White and Black
XXXVI. Preliminary remark on a second series of aesthetic laws or principles
XXXVII. Principle of aesthetic contrast, aesthetic consequence and reconciliation
1) Principle of aesthetic contrast
2) Principle of aesthetic consequence
3) Principle of aesthetic reconciliation
XXXVIII. Principle of summation, exercise, blunting, habituation, supersaturation
XXXIX. Principle of persistence, change and measure of employment
1) Principle of persistence and change in the mode of employment
2) Principle of measure and change in the degree of employment
XL. Principle of expression of pleasure and aversion
XLI. Principle of secondary imagination pleasure and displeasure
XLII. Principle of the aesthetic center
XLIII. Principle of economic use of funds or the smallest measure of force. Question
for the most general reason of pleasure and aversion. Principle of publican. Principle
of the tendency to stability. Herbart's Principle
XLIV. Appendix section on the legal proportions of the Galleriebilder
1) Preliminary remarks
2) Distribution boards and determinants of the gallery pictures
3) Asymmetry and deviation conditions, extremes
4) Provisions on the relationship between height h and width b
5) Measurements for the area hb
6) Distributional laws and their preservation
7) Further details of the state of affairs the investigation
Addition to Th. I About the color impression of the vowels
Used catalogs
XIX. The art from a conceptual point of view.
The art in the narrower sense of the term we are dealing with here is one of the
most significant factors of human life in the higher sense, and its works offer the
highest and most intricate applications of aesthetic laws. So their consideration is one
of the main tasks of the higher aesthetics. In the meantime art, in this narrower sense,
is subordinated to a much broader concept of art, and so much will have to be said
about its conceptual position within this wider circle.
In the broadest sense, which hereby goes far beyond the aesthetic sphere, art is
understood to mean the methodical creation of works or institutions which serve the
purposes of man, that is to say, the methodical, ie with conscious intention, according
to more or less definite rules and acquired dexterity. If this concerns the direct
attainment of pleasurable pleasures by means of the senses, then the pleasant and fine
arts, which differ from one another merely by the magnitude of their achievement,
are, if they are ends, only indirectly preservable and the promotion of human well-
being, or to uplift or prevent disadvantages, the useful arts, to which handicrafts, such
as shoemaking, pottery, carpentry, etc., from the point of view of a lower, statecraft,
art of education, healing, etc., belong from the point of view of a higher utility. To be
sure, one rarely applies the word art to the former, because one has the very word
handicraft for it, while always remaining subordinate to the most general concept of
art. A strict distinction between the pleasant and the beautiful from the useful arts, or
the pure co-ordination of the same, certainly does not take place; only the prevailing
view makes them separate. For even the works of the fine arts, such as a drama, a
music, a painting, will be demanded or wished that, apart from the immediate and
overriding purpose of immediately awakening a higher than merely sensual pleasure,
they have an educative effect on the spirit so use through their
consequences; conversely, from the works of the useful arts, as if it were a shoe, a
vessel, a table, that they appear immediately to be pleasing to them, except for the use
which they have for the most part and first of all. Also, some arts may soon turn more
to one side, sometimes more to the other side, or to seek equality for both sides. In
particular, the rhetoric, the architecture and the so-called small or technical arts
combined under the term art industry, which with the manufacture of equipment,
vessels, furniture, weapons, clothes, carpets u. to occupy a large part of the useful arts
under the claim to be at the same time pleasant or beautiful arts. In contrast to other
useful arts, such as the craft of a butcher, the food sweeper, the art of the dentist, etc
In the narrower sense, which the aesthetics holds exclusively and which we
therefore have to adhere to here, art is understood to mean only the pleasant and
beautiful arts, or even only the fine arts, whose task is destined to represent beauty in
the narrower sense. By means of the use of sensory means, one may awaken
immediately higher, more valuable pleasure than mere sensual or even lower
pleasure. As relations and things in common reality, what is called, that is, of nature
and of human life, apart from beautiful art, are seldom fulfilled in pure and complete,
and so the fine arts join with the intention of supplementation the common reality and
a survey about it.
As little as the pleasant and fine arts are of the useful ones, both the former are
distinguished from each other by a sharp boundary. First of all, there is no difference
in height between pleasant and beautiful, other than a relative or arbitrary stance. For
example, there may be some doubt as to whether the art of beautiful vessels and
dance should be kept high enough to accommodate it in the narrower sense of beauty,
or merely under the pleasant arts; secondly, the pleasurable pleasing to the lower
senses often enters into the beautiful pleasing to the higher senses as an effective
element, and thus can also enter into a pleasant art at the service of a beautiful
one. Here, as everywhere, where there is no sharp demarcation in the matter takes
place, is the trouble which one may give to one another with a sharp demarcation of
concepts; fruitless.
It is common to contrast art and nature. Now the concept of nature is also
conceived differently, and only in one of these ways does nature enter into this
opposition. One understands by nature the essential quality of some thing, according
to which one can speak of the nature of a work of art as well as that of a natural
body; secondly, the material outer world of appearance in relation to the inner
spiritual, according to which the marble of a statue belongs just as well as that of a
mountain to nature. In contrast to art, however, one understands under nature only
what arises and exists apart from art in the external field of experience; and, of
course, the more one grasps or narrows art, the narrower the concept of opposing
nature. The fine arts,
From other points of view than nature one opposes the art of science and religion,
by giving up the cultivation of the beautiful, or the imagination of it, in the life of art,
that of the truth of science, that of the good of religion, and the morality that has
grown over it. However, according to the connection of these three highest ideas, of
which opportunity was to be discussed in the second section, one also has to establish
a dependent connection between art, science, and religion; about which very general,
far and deep, considerations can be made, which we do not enter here to remain in the
limits of the consideration of art itself.
How far or narrow one may conceive the field of the fine arts, a division and
subdivision of the same from different points of view is possible, especially as to the
means of representation, forms of representation, objects of presentation, modes of
action, circumstances under which the arts are destined to work, philosophical
Aspects of different kind and direction. Indeed, every aspect of commonality that
connects and differentiates between the arts may claim to be emphasized, according
to which the aesthetics could undertake the task of systematically carrying out the
possible ways and means of association of the arts in this respect. It would only be
one, the mind subjectively and objekiv tiring and hardly sufficiently rewarding
business,
In this regard, what Lotze, p. 489, says of his story after mentioning various
attempts at classification of the arts, is very conclusive, concise, and worthy of note:
"In the world of thought and of concepts, all objects have not merely a systematic
order, which is fixed immutably; The context of things is so universally organized
that one discovers in each direction in which one intersects it, a particular inner
meaningful projection of its structure, none of the classifications mentioned is now
wrong, each one overriding one of these valid relations, a certain average of the thing
one of the divisions that they are natural, but whimsical is the zealwith which each
new attempt regards itself as the definitive and only true one, and considers the
previous ones as sober and conquered points of view. "Further: p. 304:" It is of little
value to seek out sharp boundaries of meaning for the individual arts, no doubt about
each one Subordinate one of them. "
To be sure, the philosophical aestheticist is driven from above to derive from the
general concept and essence of art also a demarcated structure of art as necessary, and
thus to articulate the concept and essence of it in a fundamentally binding
manner. And why not; only that to the full extent of the concept and essence of art
lies not merely the possibility of one, but very many ways of structuring according to
different directions, just as one can equally share man in different directions. But as
the philosophical aestheticist seeks to satisfy his speculative needs in his own way,
while at the same time attempting to retain the conventional division of the arts,
experiments arise as to how their lotze in s. Gesch. (Pp. 454 ff.) Has enumerated
several,
In fact, it is a very external point of view on the nature of the means of
representation, according to which the commonly distinguished arts fall into two
main classes from the outset. With this very unsystematically different points of view
coincide in differentiation of the individual arts. The individual arts pass over each
other again through intermediary links and enter into connections of many kinds with
each other. The factual relations in this respect can be followed with clarity, and make
many interesting remarks, except that one must abstain from remaining connected
with doctrinally imposed principles of classification.
The difference between the two main classes lies in the fact that the arts of one seek
to appeal to the other through moving or temporal forms, thus transforming or
combining those accordingly resting masses, which produce such bodily movements
or temporal changes that fulfill the artistic purpose becomes. The former includes
architecture, sculpture, drawing arts, gardening, the various branches of the art
industry, of which one can summarize the totality of the term fine arts in the broader
sense; whereas in the narrower sense one usually understands only the sculpture and
the drawing arts. The second class includes the speaking arts, poetry and rhetoric,
music, drama, dance, for which a common name is missing.
So outwardly the point of view of the distinction between the two classes, one can
not doubt that as a particularly striking one he essentially determined the customary
division of the arts from above, with all the main arts being decidedly placed on one
side or the other, which would no longer be the case, if the supreme aspect of the
distinction of any other For example, he sought to seek out the differences between
the sensory domains through which the arts find their way. For poetry can just as well
find its way through written words as heard, and the sculpture as well as through gaze
as face, even though one entrance-style is to be regarded as preferred over the
other. Nor can the distinction of the arts be divided into those which are essentially
governed by direct, and such
Now one can try to extract from the external differences of the two main classes of
the arts a deeper ideal; but I would not find one that would be sharp, clear, concise,
penetrating, fruitful for contemplation, though it is easy to find philosophical phrases
for it; and if one goes over to the individual arts, one can find no equally clear
distinction between them as between these main classes.
Although in the main works of the arts one will be in no doubt where to count, to
the architecture temples of the gods and timbered or brick dwellings of the people, to
the sculpture human and animal statues, to the drawing arts paintings, drawings,
poetry lyrical, epic, dramatic poems, etc. But in these major works meet points that
do not coincide everywhere, but also separate in other works well to combine
differently; according to which one can only say in general: the more of the
characteristics which come to the undoubted representatives of one genre of art, in a
work, the more one must be inclined to reckon with the same genre, and will it be so
long to be allowed to do when there is no coincidence, in more or more important
relationships, with the characteristics of decided representatives of another
species. But where the more and more important begins, often can only be the cause
of an indeterminate apercu.
It may be useful to explain this point of view, which is important for the conceptual
examination of the arts, with a particular example. Let's take it from the
architecture. Lotze shows in s. History (p. 505), how the provisions which Kant and
Hegel give of architecture make the concept too broad, but one can ask whether it is
not too narrowly grasped by itself .
"Concepts of things - says Lotze - which are possible only through art, and whose
form has its purpose not in nature but in an arbitrary purpose, are supposed to make
architecture aesthetically pleasing and, at the same time, adapt that arbitrary intention
in an adaptive manner Its general task is to work the external inorganic nature in such
a way that it is related to the spirit as an art-like external world. " But, Lotze rightly
argues, according to Kant, the production of all household utensils, even a white
sheet of paper, would be, according to Hegel, roads, canals, railroads, gardens, and
parks, products of architecture, "but any view which is so suspicious move glaring
contradictions against the language use. " Lotze for his part finds architecture
everywhere, " despite the fact that they were created by subtraction rather than
addition of the material; nor would so many houses of the Chinese, who sway on
rivers, be regarded as buildings, if their founding on solid ground belonged to the
character of a building, and where else do they belong?
Now the point is that the most unquestioned representatives of architecture, to
which the notion of architecture has principally attached itself, really unite everything
that is required of Kant, Hegel, Lotze for the concept of the architectural work. But
everything does not coincide everywhere, and now Kant and Hegel demand less of it,
Lotze more than is likely to be compatible with the common conceptual usage. For,
according to him, every temple, every human dwelling ending in the external world
after artful decoration, is still to be called a work of architecture, even if it is not
composed of discreet material or founded on a fixed level. On the other hand, one
would like to call every object made of discrete material artificially joined, founded
on a fixed plane, a building, even if he is not a temple or a human dwelling, so the
pyramid. Thus, all three demands seemed to be insignificant, since soon one can soon
fall the other, without the concept of the building falling. But if one wanted to drop
all at the same time, one would come so far out of the realm of the most characteristic
of the chief representatives of architecture that one would have to look for another art
of subordination.
In the case of a monolithic obelisk and many monuments carved out of stone, it
may seem quite ambiguous whether they should rather be used for architecture or
sculpture. For the most decided representatives of sculpture unite the characteristics
of being images of the organic, especially of the human, and rather of subtraction as
the addition of the material. The obelisk, on the other hand, sharing only the latter
characteristic with the sculpture, more and more resolutely joins the chief
representative of architecture in the absence of the first and of the plastic work, which
is often absent as a firm foundation in the ground.
Such transitional elements of dubious position then also appear between other
arts. Plastic and painting pass through very flat colored bas-reliefs, architecture and
garden art through the living arbours, poetry and rhetoric through rhetorical poetry
and poetic speeches into each other.
Next to the differences and transitions between the different arts, their connections
can occupy the esthetician. It may be that one art takes the other only as an
accompaniment, or takes on special relationships, or enters into a complete marriage
for a common service; but not every art can combine equally favorably with any
other. While a dance without music hardly knows how to exist, a lyrical poem in the
form of a sung song greatly enhances its impression, many attempts have been made
to raise the impression of painting through music; but if both were not more disturbed
than supported, it would not have remained with the rare attempts; to watch a
painting while dancing or to watch a dance with a painting at the same time,
That fine art and poetry can enter into a certain, if not so intimate, connection as
poetry and music, has been discussed earlier (Sect. XI). On the other hand, not all the
arts of the same main class seem to tolerate one another, at least one does not want to
know anything about painted statues of a higher style; although neither the theoretical
nor the practical question seems to me settled in this regard, to which I return in a
later section. But those arts which can combine favorably can not do so in every
way; every dance, every song wants its own musical
accompaniment; Accommodation is needed in the first place, and not infrequently a
legacy of the advantages peculiar to every art, but rather of what they support and
what they interfere with. To bring to bear and yet to achieve an advantage as a whole,
it would be a pity to be lost. Now it is an interesting topic of contemplation on which
conditions it depends that some arts can combine with greater advantages at all than
others and how they have to combine. But that belongs in a more specialized and
objective consideration of the arts.
It is very common to prescribe to the individual arts according to a pre-established
notion of what they represent and are not allowed to represent, and to reprimand or
reject this or that work, because it does not quite enter into any of the stated
concepts. But that is not a proper point of criticism. It does not matter that a work
fulfills the task of this or that art delimited from any category, but that it fulfills the
task of art in general, which is aimed at obtaining an immediate, higher, valuable
impression of lusts. Everything is permitted to art, which, in order to achieve such an
end, can not contradict it with a more general or higher one. For this purpose, the
factual means of every art must be but not to examine the concept according to its
capacity; and should a work be created which can not be completely accommodated
under any of the discriminated arts, and yet it suffices for the general purpose of art,
one would only have one profit in it. Admittedly, there is the presupposition that the
development of art through thousands of years has already led to norms and limits,
which are too much grounded in the nature of man and the means of art to be safely
abandoned, and that these are in the present distinction of the arts against each other
have found their expression; but if it were so, then the given concept of an art could
not help us with this insight. that which is completely incapable of being
accommodated under any of the differentiated arts, while nevertheless satisfying the
general purpose of art, would have been but one gain in it. Admittedly, there is the
presupposition that the development of art through thousands of years has already led
to norms and limits, which are too much grounded in the nature of man and the
means of art to be safely abandoned, and that these are in the present distinction of
the arts against each other have found their expression; but if it were so, then the
given concept of an art could not help us with this insight. that which is completely
incapable of being accommodated under any of the differentiated arts, while
nevertheless satisfying the general purpose of art, would have been but one gain in
it. Admittedly, there is the presupposition that the development of art through
thousands of years has already led to norms and limits, which are too much grounded
in the nature of man and the means of art to be safely abandoned, and that these are in
the present distinction of the arts against each other have found their expression; but
if it were so, then the given concept of an art could not help us with this insight. that
the development of art through millennia has already led to norms and limits, which
are too much grounded in the nature of man and art to be safely abandoned, and that
these have found their expression in the previous delimitation of the arts; but if it
were so, then the given concept of an art could not help us with this insight. that the
development of art through millennia has already led to norms and limits, which are
too much grounded in the nature of man and art to be safely abandoned, and that
these have found their expression in the previous delimitation of the arts; but if it
were so, then the given concept of an art could not help us with this insight.
For some, in a top division of the arts, poetry is the opposite or superior to all other
arts. It can also make certain demands in this respect, provided that on the one hand it
gains a common element with music through the direct harmony and tact of the verse,
and on the other hand in the ideas which are connected with the words, the
imaginable conceptions up to and including all other arts can reproduce certain
limits. If one has meanwhile said that every art is art only insofar as poetry is
contained in it, then one can only mean with this poetry an abstraction of the real art
of poetry, and what is fitting in this expression may amount to it that as well as the
essential impression of poetry on associations, What interests humans and sentient
beings in general, is based on a sensible material, should apply to every art, but is less
true in the works of music than in the works of the fine arts, as long as the music is
described earlier (in Sect. ) plowed discussions must have a more substantial effect
than direct ideas of melodic and harmonious relations. Therefore, the demand to
make a poetic impression is less frequently applied to musical works of art than
works of fine art. Many artless notes, even from this point of view, are much more
poetic than the sonata and symphony, though much less aesthetically important. The
sound of a posthorn, an alphorn, the bells of the herds in the mountains, the song of a
nightingale, the rooster's morning call, the frogs' spring cries, involuntarily and
inevitably linked to memories of life traveling, in the mountains, in the morning and
in Lenze, without any direct attraction of these simple sounds or modulations being
considered at all or very considerably comes; whereas the main impression of the
sonata and symphony rests on the fact that they immediately place the soul in
aesthetic beats through its tonal relationships. A shack that is unadorned and built into
its surroundings so that all the associations that it awakens assemble to express an
individual state of mind and existence that interests us is far more poetic than a
magnificent palace claiming, by grandeur,
From a point of view different from the previous point of view, the architecture of a
higher kind can be regarded as an art of the arts. 1) If it takes up sculpture, painting,
the art industry partly in independent works and partly in decorative works, its
palaces are fond of music, dance, drama, festivals of any kind, offering their temple
spaces for religious celebration, and while providing a framework for all of this, at
the same time finding a setting in gardens and parks, or representing the culmination
or destination of scenic vistas, in short, not just around and between all other arts, but
also mediating between them, nature, and life, while, without the other arts, it appears
almost as a mere servant of necessity.
1) "Nowhere," I heard in a lecture on the Periclean epoch in Greece say, "has art
ever reached its heyday without architecture taking over leadership."

Finally, from a certain point of view, one can certainly accept it, when some make a
fine living over all other arts as the highest of an art; only that the intention of such an
art can not be achieved in the same perfection as the intention of the individual arts in
a limited circle, partly because the means are not so in our hands, partly because
those who are are not so pure may be directed to this purpose. Because higher than
the demand to live well, the demand to live well, which goes up to certain limits with
each other, but also comes in important conflicts. No one can live truly beautiful, who
does not live at the same time truly good, for the highest and noblest pleasures, which
we are able to prepare ourselves and others, depend on the goodness of life, and a
lasting satisfaction can not be found without it; but it is not well to live well, who
only directs his intention to live beautifully, because the heaviest duties and sacrifices
depend on goodness, which only a fortunate skill can spare and rarely find complete
reconciliation in this life. And after that, one may ask whether it is not better to live
an art, to live beautifully, than to be seductive in addition to the duty of living well,
but to consider the individual arts only as temporary and local ornaments and as
counting means of life to draw. After all, one will have to admit that there are
innumerable private and convivial pleasures which emerge from the arts and which,
among themselves and with the pleasures of nature, finally combined with the moral
and religious satisfaction to the greatest possible harmonic achievement can be set as
a task, only that one does not have to put the aesthetic point of view of such a task at
the top. But this is avoided by avoiding the expression of art.
If one tries to give rules for the exercise of art out of the concept of art, one must
keep in mind that their concept determines only the goal, but not the way, how to
achieve it. and if one tries to derive these rules from the nature of men and things
with regard to this goal, and to say the most general thing about what everything
depletes and from which everything derives, then one soon finds that it can not be
said in one sentence. But at least as far as fine art is concerned, the most essential
thing seems to me to be summarized in the following few rules:
1) To choose a valuable, at least interesting, appealing idea for presentation . 2) To
express these according to their meaning or content as appropriate and as clear as
possible for the conception of the sensible. 3) To prefer those under equitable and
clear means of presentation, which, even without regard to their adequacy and clarity,
are more pleasing than others. 4) To consider the points of view decisive in this
respect for the whole of the work, even for the individual, only in subordination to the
whole. 5) In the event of conflict between these rules, let each of the others yield so
far that the greatest possible and most valuable pleasure comes out of it as a whole.
It may well be said that these rules include all the rules of the visual arts in
general; only they are not as easy to fetch for the individual case as to be included in
it. The right artist wears them in feeling and utilizes them in the work; The task of the
aesthetist is to explain them intellectually, as far as reason goes; and so, on our part,
we will try this in the following sections.

XX. Remarks on analysis and criticism of works of art.

A work of art may please us or displease us without giving us particular notice of


the moments and causes of the impression and its justification; but in so far as it
happens, we practice aesthetic analysis and criticism of the work.
By such means pleasure, which we expect from the impression of the work of art
itself, is not immediately increased, but rather disturbed in a certain way, and
therefore there is a prejudice in some people. One must, they say, indulge in the
impression of a work of art as purely as possible in order to have the true and full
enjoyment of it. The sensation of beauty is not a matter of the mind.
In the meantime, disturbance of enjoyment through reflection on its moments and
reasons can only be mentioned insofar as reflection with enjoyment is to be practiced
at the same time; but, as every aesthetic enjoyment is gradually exhausted, it can be
practiced quite well with underflowing or afterwards, and then enriched by aesthetic
understanding to return to enjoyment. The aesthetic understanding, however, not only
contributes to clarifying and purifying the mind, as every knowledge of moments and
reasons of what we have to deal with, but also has its repercussion on the aesthetic
sensation itself, if a more frequent exercise, to recognize aesthetic advantages and
disadvantages, to gradually make them familiar to the feeling and transfer their effect
from one work to another. Indeed, one can find pleasure in one's own self-possession
of works of art, which in the case of the so-called connoisseur is often the chief
determinant of his interest in art. And certainly he will find himself entertained by a
work of art that not only surrenders to the impression of it passively and uncritically,
but also inquires into the reasons for it and its justification, while, of course, those
who do not take up the basis of a pure and ingenuous self-absorption Impression
always wants to analyze the same and mumbling to the work of art, not only misses
the purpose of art, but also the right starting point of critical consideration.
In general, every work of art immediately at the first glance makes a certain total
impression in the sense of predominantly pleasing or displeasing, and usually, if not
always, the impression of the last look or retrospective we cast on the work agrees
with it. If one goes now to the analysis, one must first of all look for the reasons of
the predominant direction of this first impression, by which one is most naturally
introduced into the analysis of the whole work, but not only critically against the
work but also against oneself method. Every work of art offers many sides and
aspects of contemplation, and it is not easy for one's taste to be so versatile and fully
developed that he really receives that impression in the first survey of everything that
contributes to the total impression. The one sees a picture first and foremost on its
color mood, the other on the style, the third on the beauty or expression of the figures,
the fourth on the skill and spirit of the composition, the fifth on the successful
characteristic, the sixth on the value or the interest of the idea, the seventh on the
completion of the technique and the eighth on the correctness. All this has basically
to cooperate to the total impression, but does not seem at first sight in the sense of
proper estimate together; and so it is necessary to supplement the first view with
further glances, to deepen, to correct; however, the result of the last look may differ
from that of the first one. But if this is rare on the whole, it depends on the fact that
what draws our attention first is in general also that what interests us most,
determines the value or worthlessness of a work of art mainly for us; and that remains
the same at the first and last glances.
Which parts, elements, moments, sides of the work of art itself, which factors,
stages, sides of the impression, which laws of well-being one distinguishes and draws
from in aesthetic analysis, are to be placed as the most general demands of criticism
of the work of art : that the impression of all individuals in general concludes in a
uniform total impressions and this is in the sense of pleasure as unpleasure, that the
mere sensual pleasure exceeded in height and the moral principle is not violated, in
short the conditions of beauty in the strict sense be fulfilled. Works of art have the
express purpose of realizing in the most advantageous union these conditions, which
are at most coincidentally unified in nature,
The requirement of a uniform total impression placed on the work of art is
coordinated with the demand that it should produce as much and as much a feeling of
pressure as possible, not both, as it itself rather enters into this demand. For by
eliminating them, not only does the pleasurableness, which we ascribe to the uniting
of the manifold in itself, and the amount of the impression that the work of art gains
thereby be lost, but it can not easily be absent that the pain of contradiction arises
since that which in a work of art does not add up to a uniform impression, or in the
end reconciles it, can not easily exist indifferently alongside one another. What is
more, once we make explicit the demand for a unified link to the artwork,
Of course, from the outset, it seems natural to demand a pleasurable character from
the idea or general mood which dominates a work of art, so that the work of art as a
whole makes a pleasurable impression, whereby it seems contradictory from another
side that we are in mourning, sad Songs, tragedies, novels, which end sadly, quite like
to put up with. But we would not put up with them if they did not please us as a
whole. How to lift this contradiction?
It is chiefly the aspect of reconciliation, in which the explanation lies, of a
reconciliation, which can be partly based on the idea of the representation itself,
insofar as the sad conclusion seems to be the negation of two evils, and where the
idea of punitive justice comes from Partly it is that a sad mood is made easier rather
than strengthened by the appropriate expression of mourning, and that, if we have no
objective cause for grief, we may easily feel this reconciling power of expression
with greater pleasure than the displeasure of the sad Mood in which, to a certain
extent, we only move externally. In general, we love the occasional strong receptive
excitement and a variety in the nature of these excitations; but that
includes sometimes to put us in a somehow reconciling sad mood. There is always a
cause for displeasure in the sad idea or transfer to a sad mood, which must be
overcome if pleasure in the whole is not to wither away; Therefore, so many want to
know nothing of sad melodies and tragedies, in that the reconciliation of the
unpleasure event is not effective enough with them. It would also be very erroneous if
one wanted to push the favors of a sad concluding novel or drama solely to the idea
of reconciling the ending, which in fact does not seem very strong; rather, it is the
preoccupation with the whole course of drama or romance, which is mainly
considered here, without hindering that one has to see a mistake in it, when the work
leaves a bitter aftertaste by concluding in an unreconciled idea. In fact, the fact of
such works is not enough to justify them; Rather, the reconciling conclusion belongs
to that in which art has to surpass nature, whereby one can have the ulterior motive
that even in the world outside of art everything comes to a reconciling conclusion,
which the work of art is supposed to present within itself.
An analysis and a critique, which deals with the individual of a work of art, has two
sides, insofar as one has to ask what each part, each side of the work contributes to
the aesthetic impression of the whole by its own pleasure or displeasure, and what in
its relation to the other parts , Sides or as part, side of the whole; for one would be
greatly mistaken if one thought that the aesthetic value of each part should be
measured only by its relation to the rest; rather, he also has his own share in the
aesthetic impression of the whole; and so, everything else is set equal, a picture with
beautiful figures or beautiful colorit better than with less beautiful. But the aesthetic
effect that produces something for itself can be compared to that which results from
its relation to the rest,
Now it is not at all possible to increase to the maximum all the individual
conditions of pleasure without conflicting or contradicting others in the same
work. For example, the greatest possible allure of color, the greatest possible ideality
of forms is seldom compatible with the truth of the characteristic, and the demand for
the greatest possible clarity of uniform connection can come into conflict with the
demand for the greatest possible variety. The general rule now is to increase every
condition of complacency only to such an extent that the resulting weakening of
others does not result in more aesthetic loss than in the first. In the great composition
of the conditions, however, which co-operate to the impression of the work of art,
As the most general conditions of perfected beauty of art one can set forth four,
first, that the whole gains in the existence of every single part of the power of
pleasure; secondly, that it would lose it by the addition of any other parts; thirdly, that
by the combination of the parts of the pleasure-producing force beyond the effect of
the sum of the individual, as one does the dismantling, one gains; Fourthly, that no
other way of linking the parts is gained. Of course, such a perfected beauty can only
be regarded as an ideal to which the artist must seek to approach as much as possible.
Nature does not care so much for fulfilling these conditions. In a few landscapes,
all the parts are so united that each one really adds to the charm of the whole by
connection with the others; landscape painting must always help, and so, for the most
part, the art of nature is to produce a perfectly beautiful work. On the other hand, one
takes out of a perfect work of art what one wants, a large, small piece, this or that,
break the work into many or few parts, one will never be able to draw so much
pleasure from the separate parts as one could draw their union. If a decomposition
could be found in parts of a painting, a poem, or any other work of art by means of
which a separate conception could be obtained as a whole, it would have to be
demonstrated in this decomposition. It is obvious, on the other hand, that if a work of
art could still gain by the addition of a part, then this supplemented work of art would
be the more complete; but even the circumstance that too much division of attention
must be resisted, and that a strong feeling of uniform connection, which is difficult to
maintain in many parts, sets limits.
The above demands on the perfection of a work of art are so much in line with the
demands on the perfection of an organism, that some assert the organic character of a
work of art as its chief character. In the meantime, the organic decoration of artworks
is more about the immediate fulfillment of pleasurable purposes, of plant-
based; animal and human organizations for general purposes of life. Also, the
reference to the similarity of the works of art with organisms can not spare direct
considerations neither in the doctrine of these nor these.
Apart from the consideration of a work of art according to its internal conditions, it
is necessary to consider the same according to its external relations, whereby its
meaning first appears in full light. Every picture has its definite place in the historical
development of painting, its definite relation to the pictures of the same master, the
same school, other masters, other schools, the taste and interest of time, is, after some
relation, similar to other pictures and different from others , is of some importance to
others, others to others. This not only gives an inexhaustible material of
contemplation concerning more important masters and works of art, but in the pursuit
of such relationships it is the most important means of education for the enjoyment
and understanding of art. Even the comparison of individual works of art related
content of various important masters can be just as interesting as instructive; as:
Raphael 's Sixtina and Holbein' s Madonna, Raphael 's and Michel Angelo' s creation
story, Michel Angelo 's and Rietschel' s Pieta, etc
It is indisputable that a work of art can make its impression in a completely
naturalistic manner without any clearly conscious persecution of such external
relations, apparently entirely through its own inner moments and the associations
naturally associated with them; but a certain, if not methodical, education by art goes
even into the general education of every so-called educated, and then also plays its
role in the involuntary associations. In any case, a correct estimate of a work of art
can only be made with regard to a more exact knowledge of its relations to the whole
of art, as is known to the average state of education.

XXI. About the dispute of the form-aesthetist and salary


esthetician in relation to the
fine arts.
There is a very general controversy concerning the whole of aesthetics, including
music and architecture, with a controversy between the philosophical aesthetes,
which for brevity is called the quarrel of the form-aesthetes and salary aesthetes
Concentration of interest and easier avoidance of abstruse points of view, in which
limitation on the field of the fine arts will be considered, should also somewhat
diminish the feeling of philosophical strife, as it has recently been conducted between
Vischer and Zimmermann. Outside of the philosophical aesthetics, however, the
dispute is conducted mainly in the limitation observed here, and the aspects to be
mentioned here are partly discussed, and in part they seem to bring me to language.
The quarrel deals with the following question: does the value of a work of art, as
such, depend essentially upon the quality of the content it represents, the value of the
idea expressed in it, and not on the form in which the content finds itself and with
which the artist has to reproduce nature up to certain limits in a characteristic way,
but beyond that he has to surpass it. According to this, the aspiration of the artist is
rather to express any content, an idea in a beautiful form, to be right any material
which can be expressed in this way, and if he himself changes the natural form of the
objects in this sense, but without the Characteristic too much to forgive; or to express
a valuable or at least interesting content, substance in any form, which proves it
clearly and insistently for consciousness, and is right in it to every form which
satisfies such purposes. The beholder, if he is to have the true enjoyment of the arts,
he should form his taste in such a way that he is rather addressed by content or rather
by form; and does the critic judge his judgment by the value of the content which the
form aptly expresses, or the form in which it expresses itself? In a word, does art
have more to satisfy the interest in content or form? and does the critic judge his
judgment by the value of the content which the form aptly expresses, or the form in
which it expresses itself? In a word, does art have more to satisfy the interest in
content or form? and does the critic judge his judgment by the value of the content
which the form aptly expresses, or the form in which it expresses itself? In a word,
does art have more to satisfy the interest in content or form?
It will be shown that this dispute, like so many other quarrels, is partly due to a lack
of understanding of the issue; But in so far as he succeeds in clarifying it, he shows
himself to be the quarrel of two one-sidednesses that can be reconciled. From the
very beginning, one might think that he could simply be ruled by the rule that art in
general only has to represent objects in which a valuable content is at the same time
the condition of a beautiful form; but against this the form-esthete would be very
reluctant, as he trusts the art of being able to give value even to objects which are
worthless or those of negative values through the form of representation; and how to
separate form and content from each other,
In order to summarize the dispute above all, how it is conducted, and how the form
and content of it are kept out of each other and against each other, we first of all let
the form-aesthetist speak with reference to an example.
The fact that Bacchus hands Cupid a bowl of wine may form the content of a
painting or a plastic group. Since we no longer believe in the ancient gods, and the
giving of a potion is an insignificant act, this content has no interest, which made it
worth the trouble to be represented. But he gains a great interest in giving opportunity
to fashion beautiful and characteristic human forms and these in graceful stylistic
position and composition; and even if we doubted that content, not knowing that it
was Bacchus, cupid, an awakening or a sleeping draft, the designs, positions, the
stylistic composition, the successful characteristic of the full flowering of masculinity
would be contrasted the purest bloom of youthful age, give the presentation still
impression and value. On the other hand, in the case of a lack of a form of
presentation the artist does not help, if even the most valuable content of the work
reveals itself clearly enough, indeed the more displeased the representation becomes
in proportion to the value of the content, whereas the most insignificant, yes even
material that does not appeal to itself can achieve a high degree of appeal through
artistic representation. Think for B. to the Barberini Faun. yes, even in itself
unsuitable material can achieve high appeal by artistic representation. Think for B. to
the Barberini Faun. yes, even in itself unsuitable material can achieve high appeal by
artistic representation. Think for B. to the Barberini Faun.
In general, the content of artworks is not peculiar to art, but is in common with life,
history, legend, myth, science. It is not an art to extract it from it, but to first of all
grasp it in such a way that it fits into a beautiful form of representation, which is a
matter of the artistic conception, secondly to present it in this form. The value of a
work of art can not be made up of what one already has without art, but what art adds
to value creation or creates value as such.
Many portrayals of significant content, notably those of a religious or mythological
nature, are at the same time fruitful for the possibility of beautiful, magnificent,
stylish and characteristic forms of presentation and composition, and to that extent
important objects of art. But its value for art is in part exaggerated by the salary
esthetician, and partly taken from a false point of view, by not thinking upwards in
the value of form, but asserting it independently. The lay audience mixes and
confuses the unartistic interest in the content of a work of art with the interest in
art. But the rightist can easily prove the greatest art in the most insignificant
objects, by giving them an interest through characteristic and stylish treatment, which
is quite incommensurable with that of their content. Also, this yardstick practically
asserts itself in the prices of works of art. They are not, and rightly not, paid
according to the value of the idea presented in it, but rather to the value of the form of
representation dependent on art.
It is true that the religious image can not be resisted by producing devotion; on the
contrary, it is intended, in particular as a picture of the church, to serve another
purpose besides its artistic purpose; but the interests of both are completely different,
and the devotion which the occupation with the content of the picture is capable of
producing can not be achieved with the enjoyment of art; yes, the more someone
indulges in devotion while looking at a religious image, the more the interest in art
comes to the fore, hence the beauty of the picture, and vice versa. One can not,
therefore, want to regard worship, which is based on preoccupation with content, as
part of the enjoyment of art itself. Corresponding to the effect of every other
content. The true interest in a work of art as such, ie the interest in form, It is an
entirely peculiar interest, with nothing else comparable, and in order to produce and
satisfy this interest effectively, the form must rather lift rather than lift the peculiar
effect of the substance. A picture, which is a sad scene, does not make us sad, a
picture, which is a terrible scene, not to frighten us; if it is, it is a bad picture. A
picture, which represents a cheerful scene, is, of course, supposed to awaken the
general cheerfulness which every work of art, even that with the most serious content,
has to awaken, by occupying and satisfying the playfulness of our imagination or
imagination, but only these the special kind of joy that plays in the scene, in us,
which rather has to resign,
By the above, I mean to have exhausted considerably what the form-aesthetes
claim here and there in support of their view of art, and have sought to do so with the
terms commonly used. It still remains completely unclear how actually form and
content are to be delimited against each other, which is not my fault, since the dispute
for the most part is based precisely on this lack of clarity and the vagueness that
actually exists in this relationship. But what will the salary-esthetician be able to
reciprocate against the previous considerations of the formal-aestheticist, which in
spite of conceptual indefiniteness seem essentially objectively resounding? I think, as
far as I hold him right, the following:
If, in the original example, one does not expect the content of the painting in
comparison with its form, rather than the abstract idea that Bacchus gives the cupid a
potion, then the reduction of the value of the content to art may seem self-
evident. But nothing else makes those forms beautiful in a higher sense than that
youth, abundance of life, greater comfort, freedom, and ease of movement, appeals to
us, which is not a visible form, but rather a content that we learn to relate by our life
experiences How we learn to attach a content to words and characters, or that this
content has a more fundamental relation to form than this. Of course, we are used to
everything that is the cause of an involuntary life that has become familiar to us, The
association with form is to count as a matter of an impression of the form itself, to
thereby directly transfer a part of the spiritually connected content into itself, and
thereby to transfer the charm of the content to the form (see Exodus IX), but In doing
so they indeed commit a robbery of the content, and then they can easily scold the so
impoverished content as meaningless against the enriched form. Basically, it is the
whole interpenetration of sensuous form and form with spiritual contents and the
whole construction and expansion of this content with a conclusion in the forefront of
the total idea, what it is in the estimation of a work of art; one simply need not seek
one's value unilaterally in the highest peak of an abstract idea. The very vague idea in
every detail that Bacchus gives the cupid a potion, in fact, does not mean much; But
the whole abundance of valuable associations, which awakens the vivid execution of
it at a stroke and offers the imagination for its yield and further processing, will say a
great deal.
The assertion so often heard, and so emphatically asserted by Schiller, that the
effect of the substance or content of a work of art should rather be destroyed by art
than to be lifted, is half true and half not true. Of course, a picture with sad contents
should not make us sad, nor frighten a picture of terrible content, because it is at all
contrary to the purpose of art to arouse our mood. Thus, if the picture represents
something sad and terrible, it must do the picture well through a reconciling moment,
or surpass it by some pleasing quality; or seek to justify it by an external purpose,
such as historical preservation or even deterrence, which does not, however, belong
to the aesthetic field. On the other hand, there is no reason why a picture should not
be devout, cheerful, jovial, jocular in content; rather, the more it is able to do so, the
more it directly proves and proves its power and its value. And will someone find a
landscape by Claude Lorrain so inferior that she is able to conjure up powerfully the
peculiar, wondrous feeling of looking into an Italian landscape in us, rather wanting it
to be destroyed by art?
Of course, no cheerful or cozy scene in the picture will arouse us ever the same
serenity, as comfortably as if we had in reality even in the scene part, and leave the
most beautiful painted landscape after a certain relationship still much of the
impression of the real landscape while she can outdo others after others. In any case,
however, the image can produce an echo of that feeling in us which the scene in
reality or nature could produce in us; and every other image is and shall after that,
instead of always arousing the same general artifice, be otherwise valued by its other
content. If the connoisseur of art wants to distract this other from the impression in
order to have the general artistry pure, he may do it for himself;
But who, of course, merely stops at the most general or main effect of the content
and respects and values the individual only according to the fruit that bears it, and
therefore has nothing more to offer from the religious image than a revival of
devotion or religious sentiment; of it across the picture into the contemplation of
heavenly things, instead of penetrating from there into the execution of the content of
the picture as above, in order to enjoy it in the individual as well, one can not,
however, say that he has an enjoyment of art by he merely has the summit of the
thing instead of the thing that has fruit of the tree instead of the tree with the fruit; on
the other hand, he who occupies himself only with the means of total action, without
feeling it himself, has the matter without the summit.
Thus, rather than expressing as a general rule that art should destroy the peculiar
effect of the content of its substances by any formality, it has just as much to do in
rebutting the sad effect of its substances as to fortify the pleasing, uplifting effect of
it ; and not according to a contradictory principle, but to the principle that is
unanimous in itself, that for the sake of augmenting pleasure it is not for pain.
In this way, for example, I would like to take the word for the content aestheticist,
as far as I hold him in the right, in order to represent the value of content for art in
relation to form in cases where, as in our original example, the form really does Is the
carrier of a valuable content; but there are other examples in which one does not
suffice with previous considerations alone, and the principle of the one-sided salary
esthetician is not sufficient at all.
How about a Dutch gift shop? What makes that such a pleasure to a connoisseur so
much pleasure, it can pay even much higher prices than for so many images of
valuable ideal content? Is it to blame him, is it his bad taste? The content of such
scenes is not edifying, even after the expansion that we have given him in the above
case for a limited version. The salary esthetician says, for instance, that such scenes
must have something pleasantly appealing, or that they are of interest from any point
of view, so that one would like to actually watch such a scene through the gift
window, if one does not even want to be under it. And I mean, the salary esthetician
is right in that because that, What has no interest in real or religious areas, deserves to
be painted not or only as a study, but very wrong, when he said that the whole
presentation of the gift scene to the connoisseur or non-connoisseur has nothing more
to perform than the other Interest, which one can satisfy by the view into the real gift
window, constantly or repeatedly to satisfy, and the art thereby only the advantage
before nature would have, that it could fix the scene in the most interesting moments
and more incisively than the nature itself. It is an advantage, but not the whole, and
no weight in paintings of this kind. On the contrary, as much interest as you would
like to take in the real gift scene, it would be satisfied with a brief glance, and you
should watch it long or often, would even oppose us. Why, after all, do pictures of the
kind adorn many rooms, even rooms of salary aesthetics themselves, and they are
regarded as ornamentation of galleries. A different interest must necessarily assert
itself here than what the one-sided salary esthetician claims. But what can it be?
Now, first and foremost, the form-aestheticist must be conceded that, apart from all
content related to the spirit, one kind of sensual form and color may appeal more than
the other (see Sects. XIII and XXVI), and that a genre picture deserves credit here as
well as any other picture, if only the demands of the attached content are not
contradicted by it. But what is far more important, there is still an interest in the
graphic form and the content linked to it in one, thus avoiding either the formal
aesthetician and salary esthetician, even if the former is more inclined to take it on his
side to beat. In any case, it is better to call it a formal than a form-interest, in order
not to confuse it with the interest in the visual form and to confuse it. If I try to
describe it with three words that are still in need of interpretation, it is the interest in
truth, unity, and clarity, founded in the principles discussed earlier (Sect. VI, VII,
VIII), which goes far beyond the aesthetic But also reaches deep into it. Suffice it to
recall here the following in this regard.
Each picture has the task of representing something which, be it determined in
reality or in our imagination, is at first determined, or at least more or less vaguely
predetermined. We rejoice in our interest in truth, if there is no contradiction between
what is to be portrayed and the representation in the image, the more the greater the
danger of contradiction. Reality and one's own imagination can not grant us this joy,
because it is based only on a relationship of the work of art with it.
In reality there is much in common, which does not fit in with our view from a
single point of view, but we enjoy the unity of the manifold, and thank art for this
achievement. The interest of truth would not hinder art in itself, to reproduce
everything as it is, but it so conceives and executes its ideas in such a way that the
condition of uniting all the individual is satisfied as far as possible.
In reality, moreover, the essential often hides behind the non-essential, does not
enter into the main light what the interest mainly attaches to, relations remain unclear
about which to do it; but we enjoy the clear portrayal of a speaker who helps to
remedy these defects in his presentation, even if his speech concerns an object which
does not interest us in itself, while repelling the obscure presentation of the most
interesting material; but as we speak, we deal with every work of art.
One more, which is only incidental, but should not be forgotten. After all that has
been asserted, one also admires the artist, who has fulfilled the difficult and so
seldom successful task of putting everything at work to a consummate
accomplishment, and in this admiration of the artist lies something which at the same
time is considered as Asserting pleasure in his works. Even admiring the artisans and
tightrope walkers for overcoming the difficulties that appear to us as such, and
finding pleasure in the admiring view of such achievements, even though these are in
themselves useless; the easier and better one will admire the artist and find pleasure
in admiring intuition of his work, if the overcoming of the difficulty has a
success, which, apart from overcoming the difficulty, pleases us; only one must keep
in mind that this self-overcoming counts for the moments that fall and helps with the
others.
In any case, one sees that many moments contribute to the pleasure of a work of art
that can not be clearly and simply divorced into the categories of form and
content. These are moments which enter into the artistic representation of every kind
of form, the ugliest and the most beautiful, as well as every kind of content, from the
most insignificant to the loftiest, neither the charm of the intuitive form nor the charm
of the connected content in itself but to add to its charm, where there is such a thing,
its own charm, and where it does not exist, to which works of art can still give one.
Basically now the artist has to unite as much as possible all the moments that can
contribute to the pleasure of a work of art; but insofar as they can also come into
conflict with each other, only to make sure that unpleasing moments as a whole are
outweighed and reconciled by those who give pleasure.
Of course, the philosophical esthetician would like to praise the enumerated
different points of view from which a work of art is to be valued, -the charm of the
visual form, the stimulus of the content attached to it, the formal advantages of a
given kind-one of the concept of beauty or art derived unified; only that so far no one
is set up, which really replaced such an enumeration. The stone of beauty has not yet
been found, with which, as with a philosopher's stone, it was necessary to paint an
object only conceptually in order to find it beautiful. What should not be said that the
above enumeration and juxtaposition is the most possible possible; every aestheticist
will formulate, classify and group his demands on the work of art somewhat
differently; In essence, they will always come out above; but never will the merits of
appreciating a work of art be purely and unilaterally attributed to the advantages of
form or of content, except by definitions of form and content that are correspondingly
unilaterally oriented.
It is undisputed that there is really a single point of view from which all the above
or any other demands to be made on the work of art can be deduced; it is that in its
immediate conception it is as pure as possible and higher than merely sensuous (but
not exclusive ) To please; but there are various points of attack in man, which can not
yet be united under any clear and concise formula, if even they can be brought under
experiential laws. However one may distinguish form and content, both have their
points of attack in man.
But the uncertainty of their distinction in the first place makes the categories of
form and content not very useful for coming to the forefront of aesthetic
considerations, for which they are raised in the controversy of the formal aesthetes
and salary aesthetes.
In general it is with the judgment of a work of art as with the judgment of a man in
whom one can praise and miss many things, without having a formula by which one
could adequately judge him in good measure. Should one even argue with a human
being whether he should be judged more by his form or his salary? But nobody will
find these categories quite useful here. One would immediately ask: should not first
and foremost distinguish the intuitive form and the form of the intellectual content
attached to it? But is not the nature of the content itself determined by its inner form,
and is it thus possible to speak of the content without taking its form into
account? But I do not know how far the same could not be said for the judgment and
estimation of a work of art. From this general point of view, too, the whole dispute
between the aesthetics of form and the aesthetics of content would have been
dismissed from the outset as unfruitful. but as he is led once, I tried in the first to get
as far as possible objectively; for which the following remarks may contribute
something.
If formal aesthetes claim interest in works of art as a peculiar interest, which can be
satisfied outside of art neither in natural reality, nor in science, history, myth, etc., in
spite of the commonality with art, but only through the shaping of art they are, to be
sure, correct in so far as art is capable of attracting, combining, and increasing the
effect of immediate pleasures, as artless science, science, etc., do not attempt and can
not do, and art otherwise does. Art, as we have said, has the purpose of immediately
awakening as pure and as pure as possible a pleasurable pleasure, and thus, in its
works, as far as possible, combines means with it, and thus achieves successes. as
they are nowhere else to reach. But the one-sided formal aestheticist is easily lacking
in three ways.
Firstly, he lacks the search for the peculiarity of the effect of art in anything other
than the immediacy, purity, and height of the effect of pleasure, which can be
produced by the uniform intermeshing of all the means of pleasing at hand. In the
individual means, art has nothing in advance of other fields, nor anything peculiar to
it. In the formal conditions of affection, the science of art not only equates it, but even
in the preservation of the claim of truth even before it, because in it it has a superior
position over all other demands, while in art it yields so much in conflicts with other
demands must, that on the whole more pleasure is gained than lost, because it is not
the demand of truth but of desire that occupies the highest place here. But while
science in this respect precedes art rather than succeeds, it does not concern itself
with the objects which it deals with, whether it be the visual form or the connected
content. The arts, on the other hand, do it. But it is often not only reached but
surpassed by the natural reality in it. As beautiful as the painter may paint a face, he
can not paint the vividly changing expression; and what does a painted sunrise look
like? But the natural reality seldom fulfills the demands in this respect, and always
lags behind the formal demands; indeed, the claim of truth does not apply to it, and
how much can it contribute to the pleasure of a work of art. that it seems to be
completely out of life with its characteristics. In these relationships, reality is
unspeakably outstripped by art. This works out the formal advantages into the
objective of the intuitive form and the connected content, or in the sense of those, and
increases both in their effect by mutual effect, as it is neither a matter of science nor
of natural reality.
By so doing, art has all means of immediate pleasing which it has to dispose
of; and over which the other regions in part do not have complete, partly not pure, not
only outwardly next to each other, but in a uniform connection, only conceptually not
objectively divisive, in effect, creates a Lustresultante, which also not as a
juxtaposition of the individual effects but in quality differs from everyone in
particular and according to the principle of aesthetic help also exceeds the sum of the
individual in size, but instead of having the same monotonous quality everywhere,
which one would like to take as a specific artistic effect, but in any artwork according
to the prevalence of other conditions of liking is another.
Secondly, the formal aestheticist lacks the conversion that the artist makes to the
material offered by nature, history, etc., in order to make it serve his purposes, merely
by reference to the form, since the content is no less altered by it also may differ form
and content from each other.
Thirdly, he lacks the idea of merely linking the interest and value of works of art to
what art has beyond nature, history, etc., or otherwise makes them different. on the
contrary, all the conditions of immediate pleasure which art from other fields is able
to carry into their works for the fulfillment of their purpose contribute to them
becoming their own conditions of pleasure.
If one believes that one can gain something by such a distinction, then one may
nevertheless distinguish the artistic value of a work of art from the whole value of the
work, the former as going only to moments which art brings, or to the other, which
art makes use of the materials offered makes the latter, as to all moments, on whose
account a work of art is to be valued and sought, only that one does not consider the
latter to be exhausted by the former; how the value of a shoe is not exhausted by the
work of the shoemaker; it also depends on the quality of the substance, which he
takes.
In fact, one can not see why not everything that can contribute to a picture as a
favor, provided that it does not stand in the way of other and greater pleasure, should
also contribute to it, and how that which helps and encourages one another increases,
this or that can be eliminated in the question of what the work of art as a whole is
worth. Why should one despise a sensual well-being if it only does not affect the
characteristics and the satisfaction of higher demands? why the Sistine Madonna does
not consider a more beautiful and more valuable work of art than an equally well-
painted martyrdom, regardless of the merit of having more or less the same
content; why not display materials of intrinsically low form and content interest
allow, to satisfy the formal interest and interest in the artist's performance, yet to be
performed; Why finally should the joy of this achievement size count for nothing. In
fact, everything counts; The theory is a bad one that does not count.
On the other hand, the one-sided salary esthetician lacks, on the other hand, if he
thinks that art does nothing more than produce feelings and sensations which we can
have apart from art, in a particularly advantageous manner, without taking account of
the higher, unified feeling which is to be produced by the interdisciplinary work of
the various means, whereby the human being can be addressed with pleasure; and
secondly, if he merely values the formal conditions of pleasure as they help to
highlight valuable content without taking into account their own pleasure value.
But both seem to me to be wanting in so far as they ask a question at all; To seek to
answer and reflect considerations on art of the highest level to a question that are to
be kept apart in the vagueness, such as form and content, from the outset neither clear
nor after all discussions about it simply answer, or according to the question decide
on one or the other side.
In order not to lift this indeterminacy, but to attribute it to some general points of
view, I finally conclude with the following remarks.
It is indisputable that an in-depth examination will always lead to such a
conception of the content of the form in the field of art, according to which
everything bound to the direct impression of a sense-form is brought to the content,
because there is no firm and clear principle of another demarcation Contents, if once
to be delimited, is present. However, in order to deal with common ways of looking
at things, one may also consider separating the content in any amount or generality,
and calculating the whole way in which it proceeds to the form of representation,
without forgetting that the form then includes much of associated content, and that
the delimitation is arbitrary. Let's explain it in the introductory example.
To summarize very broadly the content of Bacchus's presentation to Amor, he could
be summed up in the idea-but the idea is a content reduced to a more or less general
point of view-that an older and a younger person should be to meet in a graceful
circumstances. Then it is a special form in which this idea, this content expresses
itself, that it is Bacchus and Cupid who meet in this way. But you could take that into
the idea right away. Then it is a matter of the form of representation that they meet in
the form of a drink. This too can be included in the idea; then there remains for the
form of representation how the figures, the facial features, the positions, the garments
present themselves. And do you finally want to include that in the idea
The less one now includes in the notion of content, the idea of it, ie, the more
abstractly one grasps it, the more weight naturally accrues to form; the more
exhaustively one grasps it, the more content becomes meaningful. Now there are
extreme aesthetics among judges, spectators, and artists, who judge the value of a
work of art almost exclusively by the lowest artistic conditions of form, without, of
course, being able to distinguish it from the upper right; Above all, a picture should
be well painted, but they do not ask for something else, or only consider the other as a
means to sell a good painting. On the other hand, there are extreme salary aesthetics,
which mainly include those inexperienced in art appreciation laymen who do not care
about this last stage of form. The full connoisseur,
In the last logical-metaphysical instance, form means the connection of the
individual, content, substance, the individual, what is connected. But insofar as the
individual is not a simple one, but contains even a majority in itself, form and
substance can not be factually distinguished, and the quality of any given substance
or content itself depends essentially on the mode of connection of the subordinate
substance. Now no one will attach an aesthetic meaning to the simple, and if one
were to think an object dissected to the last, aesthetic aesthetics would necessarily be
justified in its aesthetic consideration; Everything depends on the way of
communicating, and so understood, a dispute between form-aesthetics and content
aesthetics would not be possible at all.
I admit, of course, that I would rather treat the general question of the abandonment
of art by reference to categories other than form and content; but it is not my
intention to deal with the dispute that has arisen on the philosophical side, to mix it
up with it, if it could not leave without encountering it.

XXII. On the question of how art has to deviate from nature.


Idealistic and realistic direction.
After the controversial issue dealt with in the previous section, we envisage another
question, much discussed between aesthetes and connoisseurs of art and artists, of
practical importance the former far surpassing question, which, like the previous one,
is extended to the whole art by philosophical aesthetes like the previous one has her
main interest in the fine arts. Thus, in the following, under art, only visual art,
painting, and sculpture, should be kept in mind, while under nature we understand
reality, or apart from art, from which art borrows without being strictly adhered
to. The question now is: what is the point of view of their deviations from this and
how far can they go? From the outset, the visual arts have the task of
No one can so easily come up with a corresponding question in music and
architecture, because in these arts, from the outset, it is not so important to depict
what has already been predestined outside of music and architecture; even if there are
aesthetes who, in favor of their general concept of art, wish to assign to these arts the
same task as an equally fundamental as the fine arts. Of course, music and
architecture meet nature in certain relationships; a merry and sad music has
something in common with the natural expression of merriment and sadness through
the voice, and a house must be as hollow as a cave. But not only do both arts
immediately recreate the raw elements that they receive from nature without
following a natural example, the animal sound of the sensation finally to the
symphony; the cave to the palace, but the music also emerges with melody and
harmony, the architecture with structure and ornament so completely and so
fundamentally out of the realm of natural role models, that it indeed makes the
impression of screwed, for these arts the point of view the image as well as for the
visual arts found fundamentally fixed. On the other hand, the visual arts are limited
from the outset and, by virtue of their entire development, to the reproduction of
given forms; in their highest works people and scenes are still pictured between them,
but not quite as they actually occur, they want to imitate from the beginning and still
today, and here one wonders,
In the difficulty, indeed in the impossibility, of drawing definite limits in answer to
our question, it can not be alienated when they are pushed back and forth, sometimes
so that the emphasis is still on the connection with nature, sometimes on the one
Deviations from nature fall, which gives two more to the many one-sidednesses
which from other points of view prevail in the conception of art. In fact, you can,
according to whether the emphasis is placed on the latter or former page distinguish
two different directions in conception and success-oriented design of the art that we
briefly as idealistic and naturalistic or realistic one) To contrast with each other, and in
the great indefiniteness left by their general antithesis, first of all want to be
expressed by the most common expressions, before we seek more definite clues of
contemplation.
1) From this or that point of view, a difference between naturalism and realism
in art can be made, without the following general discussions providing an
opportunity to respond.

Of course, and without there being any quarrel about it, art will have to allow
deviations from nature to all relations, according to which it can not reach
them. Neither the sculptor nor the painter is able to lend flesh and blood to his
figures, the painter can not produce a landscape in such a way that one can really step
into it, and only incompletely produce the illusion of depth; the sculptor does not
follow all the intricacies of the skin and the hair, and both of them do not present the
moment other than as permanent, and so on. In this respect, too, unsatisfiable
demands are made neither by idealists nor realists.
If art, after so many and important relationships, necessarily lags behind nature,
one can ask from the outset: why is art ever more opposed to nature? Actually Plato
has put the art far behind nature from this point of view. As much as the nature
behind the idea, the art lags behind nature; for no more than a natural object fully
attains its idea, its pattern-picture, just as little does the artist nature. For this reason,
too, he (in the Phaedros) assigns to the poet and the imitative artist a very lower, only
the sixth, rank among the heavenly-descended souls, which stages are arranged in
accordance with the knowledge of the truly existent.
In the meantime, however much today's idealists are influenced by Plato's doctrine
of ideas, they do not allow this degradation of art against nature to take place because
of their deviations from it; much more; instead of reckoning such to the detriment of
art, they seek a chief privilege of art before nature in it; command the artist not to
reproduce nature as faithfully as possible, but to allow himself to be elevated above it
with a freedom bound up only by higher considerations, to perceive that it is a work
of art, a work of the spirit. no natural work is what you have in front of you. The
penetration of the ideal creative activity of the artist with the real material offered by
nature, the mastery of it, the overpowering of it by the spirit, requires first the
nobility, the value, indeed the concept of the true work of art. and even necessary
deviations of art from nature are to be pursued afterwards, as they are necessary,
for. B. Statues should not be painted, although they could be painted, the illusion of a
deceptive relief in painting deliberately avoided, the natural detail execution are
limited, meaningless side parts are omitted, the objects are held together partly more
closely spaced apart than in nature or external reality. What does man have to do to
rediscover the common reality through art? on the contrary, it would be necessary to
ascend from the things of reality to the ideal of them, and thus to express the pure
essence of them, which nature always refuses to represent except art. In this
transcendence of nature through the intellectual activity of the artist in the sense of
higher, more general, more valuable ideas, not in the rendering of the natural things
as presented by the world of contingencies, but rather in what the artist 's spirit does
Art works, as what he receives from nature, is the task of art, the value and meaning
of the work of art. Higher up, the idealist presumably grasps the task of the true
artist; as an organ of the divine creative activity, or inspired by it, he should continue
the divine creative work of nature in freer, higher creations, thus building, as it were,
a higher nature over nature. as she puts the world of contingencies before us, and
more so in what the artist's spirit gives to the work of art than what it receives from
nature, lies the task of art, the value and meaning of the work of art. Higher up, the
idealist presumably grasps the task of the true artist; as an organ of the divine creative
activity, or inspired by it, he should continue the divine creative work of nature in
freer, higher creations, thus building, as it were, a higher nature over nature. as she
puts the world of contingencies before us, and more so in what the artist's spirit gives
to the work of art than what it receives from nature, lies the task of art, the value and
meaning of the work of art. Higher up, the idealist presumably grasps the task of the
true artist; as an organ of the divine creative activity, or inspired by it, he should
continue the divine creative work of nature in freer, higher creations, thus building, as
it were, a higher nature over nature. Higher up, the idealist presumably grasps the
task of the true artist; as an organ of the divine creative activity, or inspired by it, he
should continue the divine creative work of nature in freer, higher creations, thus
building, as it were, a higher nature over nature. Higher up, the idealist presumably
grasps the task of the true artist; as an organ of the divine creative activity, or inspired
by it, he should continue the divine creative work of nature in freer, higher creations,
thus building, as it were, a higher nature over nature.
On the whole it may well be said that the conception of art, the chief terms of
which are given above, is far and away predominant among the philosophical
aesthetes, the connoisseurs of art trained by them, and the lay public influenced by
them. On the other hand, it is quite clear how many old artists thought and gave up
the task of art. It was touching to me, in this connection, to read the following,
characteristic of the realistic conception of history, 2 which I repeat here verbatim:
"An elaborate stonemason in Speyer had carved a beautiful picture of marble clean
and pure after Emperor Rudolph, whose surprising resemblance everyone who saw it
admitted, but the artist or master had also long pursued the king and had thus
memorized the figure and The picture stood for many years, but when the artist heard
that old man had been more wroth for the gentleman, he set off for Alsace to see the
Emperor himself again and when he correctly invented the matter, he went home to
Speyer again and revised his statue again, faithfully and similarly to the Emperor.
"Later this picture was put on the emperor's grave." (Sung in the rhyming chronicle of
Ottokar.)
2) Kunstbl. 1831. no. 12th

It is indisputable that this was a stonemason and not an artist, and that his work was
not a true work of art, but nothing more and better than a stone photograph. But also
Albrecht Dürer goes quite into the mind of this stonemason by declaring: "You
should know, the closer you get to life and nature with weight loss, the better and
more artificial your work becomes", and Leonardo da Vinci gives in his Treatise on
painting 3) Rules as follows: "A painter must choose the very best of the kind of
every thing that falls into his face and make it like a mirror that takes on so many
colors than the things one holds up to him if he deals with himself, he will seem to be
the other nature "; - and further: "the chief intention of a painter shall be how he may
attack it, that the bodies appear elevated and distinct on the flat surface of his tablet;
and he who excels others here deserves great praise." According to Leonardo, the
works of the best artist should no longer be mirror images of the most beautiful real
forms, and he does not seem to have known anything about the rule that the relief in
painting should not be allowed to go too far.
3) 14. Obs. 10. Thl. p. 186th

Be that as it may, in previous examples we see the realistic conception and


direction of art simply and naively enough represented to the idealistic
one. According to this, the imitation of nature is held by art as its main point of
view. Instead of imposing the stamp of the own spirit on the objects of art or
pretending to express an expression of divine ideas, the artist should only assume that
nature, insofar as it has any interest in reproducing it, by as objective a presentation
as true, clear and insistent as possible to expose for the spectator. Insofar as it could
have a charm or purpose to represent mythological or religious objects,
It is not without interest that we have expressions of our two greatest poets who
share the idealistic and realistic direction. Schiller says in his Abh. On the
pathetic 4) "The ultimate purpose of art is the representation of the
supersensible"; Goethe, on the other hand, in the Propylaes: 5) "The most noble
demand made of the artist always remains that he should abide by nature, study it,
reproduce it, produce something that is similar to its manifestations."
4) pocket exp. XVII. P. 242.
5) pocket exp. XXXVIII. P. 9.

Although the supersensible, to which Schiller refers the art, can be represented
realistically in forms of common reality, not only does the natural inclination exist,
but one can also find law and duty, and with the transgression of the common reality
in the idea, too to exceed in the forms.
If we now ask about the decision between the two opposing views of art, such will
not exist at all, but will seek only an understanding in between and find a
compromise between them. But is it just a matter of more or less everywhere,
between which the limit is not sharply determinable or between which it can be
shifted according to circumstances? From the outset, too, both views are opposed to
certain limits which can only be formulated and fixed with certainty.
In fact, the prudent idealist does not demand that the artist should produce
everything out of his own spirit, but that he should use nature as a basis and starting
point for his creations. It is well known what Raphael wrote to Count Castiglione in
this sense: "I must have seen many women who are beautiful, and from this the image
of a single person forms in me." So Raphael was able to create the ideal beauty of his
Madonnas only on the basis of the given real beauties; and undoubtedly the more
beautiful women and the more beautiful women he saw in reality, the better he was
able to create ideals; but the creation of this one, with which none of the individual
agreed, the completion of that which seemed only in nature, remained an act of his
own mind.
On the other hand, the prudent realist does not demand that nature be copied quite
faithfully, and that would not be the case with Albrecht Durer or Leonardo; Rather, he
demands that the artist somehow be purifying, correcting, selectively acting out
reality; and even the realist Aristotle demanded in this sense not a pure, but a
purifying imitation of nature through art. Goethe also rises in more than one utterance
(eg, Propyl, p. 21, Wahrh., And Dicht, III, 49) on the representation of a crude
realism.
Now some seek to erase the remainder of the conflict and strife between the two
views as follows: the ideal and real element should permeate one another in
equilibrium, cancel one indiscriminate unity, merge one in the other, and what such
evocations are more. The only thing that does not help much is that the right point
and point of view of equilibrium remain just as indefinite afterwards, as that of the
preponderance of the words idealists and realists use. If, however, connoisseurs and
artists like to use one or the other, according as they tend more or less, their judgment
in the main and in any particular case will in fact be determined otherwise.
I once talked to a generally esteemed connoisseur of art and connoisseurs, and I
will begin by reiterating what I have drawn from his conversation with him, by
including in it the factual and practical view of most art lovers and connoisseurs,
albeit not at the same time Clarity as raised here, should find again.
Nature and art are each an empire in their own right, which one must learn from
oneself and judge by one's own rules, since art only becomes art through its
deviations from nature, to which the rules only derive from art itself to
draw. Accordingly, the deviations of art from nature will be right, which are found in
the best works of the best masters, and which make the best impression on those who,
with the best general education, have most settled into the world of art, ie to the true
connoisseurs or true friends of art, who are concerned with art as art and not with
having what we already have in nature once again in art, from which no deviations in
the art of art are at all to explain to nature. Only to those connoisseurs can art really
be situated, because only such is really situated in art. From what pleases it may be
abstracted from the deviations from nature which are essential to art, and the answer
to the question of why they exist can only be that the peculiar higher pleasure which
art is able to arouse beyond all the achievements of nature not to be produced
differently; but in which it can be produced, it will have one of the characters
belonging to the right connoisseur. If, after all, there remains an indeterminacy, what
one has for the best masters and models, and whom one has to think of as the best
connoisseurs, then a more definite principle than to invoke such things, but not to
have them at all, is never to have and will never be available. Up to certain limits one
agrees on what one has to recognize for it; in so far as is the case, one will also be
able to agree on what is afterwards permitted in art and not allowed, offered and not
commanded; and in so far as it is not the case, there is no principle to
agree. Everywhere it happens that those who have become indigenous in art come
together, enjoy the harmony of their feeling and judgment in the main, but in the
disagreement over the individual on a common basis find reciprocal
stimulation. Thus, if they wish, they form a caste for themselves, opposite the laity,
who come to art by nature without having penetrated into their peculiar nature. If the
justification of the judgment and feeling of such connoisseurs and friends of art is not
recognized by the laity, they must submit to it; yet they presuppose this one
enjoyment, which they miss, a field of spiritual stimulation upon which these
strangers remain, and feel no disadvantage in their general and higher education, but
rather find it themselves promoted by it. A fine sense for the beauty of the art,
acquired from the interaction with it, will also bear fruit for the beauty of the life-
style. Rather, they are promoted by themselves. A fine sense for the beauty of the art,
acquired from the interaction with it, will also bear fruit for the beauty of the life-
style. Rather, they are promoted by themselves. A fine sense for the beauty of the art,
acquired from the interaction with it, will also bear fruit for the beauty of the life-
style.
Lastly, every work of art is a free mental act: every other artist, according to his
other individuality, may leave nature in another way and leave it; one can not at all
want to constrain him and the arts into rules which bind natural laws. Beauty is
something mystical, and the art of portraying beauty shares this mysticism. To take
her away with her mind is to take her essence away from her; To recognize this
mysticism is a part of understanding, indulging in this mysticism, a part of the
enjoyment of art.
If these were not exactly the words, then it was the meaning of the opinion of my
art friend; and if there was not much right in it, not so many would de facto and
practically profess it. But should we really merely refer to authority and mysticism in
our question, and that there are no points at all to be given which go back to the
authority upon which every far-reaching aberration of taste can be invoked? Let us
seek to gain more definite clues as to our question , and there will be an opportunity
to acknowledge and emphasize even the right of the previous view, as far as such
exists.
Above all, it must be stated that every deviation of art from nature needs a different
motive than that art has to deviate from nature at all, that the work of art must have
the stamp of the creative artist's spirit in order to prove itself to be a work of art
Phantasy in art would be justified. Any deviation of the art from the natural truth has
certain drawbacks that can only be tolerated if they are outweighed by greater or
greater advantages, according to which it is necessary to make clear disadvantages
and advantages. If the last practical consideration of both will always remain a matter
of artistic and connoisseurship, it will still be a matter of clear insight to have the
corresponding weights in mind. Because, as hard as it may be to use a scale safely, it
is not useful at all, if you do not even know the weights to be weighed. First, let's talk
about the disadvantages.
Since all works of the visual arts mean something beyond their sensory appearance
and have their main content in this sense (Th. I., Sect. IX, p. 116), part of the
deviations of art from nature consists in our being the natural means of attaching
given meanings are incomplete, shortened, and toned down, so when the sculpture
omits the color in the statues, the painting omits the relief from the figures, both give
only one moment of a whole action. Another part of the deviations consists in the fact
that art offers us phenomena with other meanings or other appearances for given
meanings, than we have learned to knit together through reality outside of art, thus,
when a dignified human form God, a dove Holy Spirit,
The disadvantages of deviations of the first kind lie in the fact that afterwards the
points of contact for the meaning of this impression are weakened, shortened, and the
force and completeness of the impression suffers from two sides at the same time.
When I see a face before me in reality, not only the permanent but also the
changing traits of it betray the life of the soul behind it; the painted has only lasting
for it; and while the expression of a figure's character emerges completely only in the
proportion in which its parts project and recede against each other, the painted picture
gives us only a flattening appearance. On the other hand, the statue omits the color, in
which there is so much of the character and beauty of the living figure.
The disadvantages of the deviations of the second kind are these. We come from
natural life to art; from this the meanings of things have become familiar to us, not
from this. If art deviates from the natural mode of expression of the meanings or
natural meaning of phenomena, we either feel a contradiction between the intended
meaning and the expression, which displeases every contradiction of ideas, or there is
a weakness or uncertainty of the impression, or we even tie other than the meaning
intended by the artist. In short, we are more or less disoriented by the meaning of the
phenomena of the natural life, the reality oriented, find ourselves deviated by any
deviation from it, and are subject to the disadvantages dependent thereon.
These disadvantages of a negative nature are offset by the loss of positive
advantages that could be achieved by faithful reproduction.
How many objects of reality are connected with a living interest of the kind that we
would like to remember exactly how we saw them, or, to say the least, to know them
face to face, if we did not see them; and art we owe this advantage, if it only wishes
to earn this gratitude; but any deviation of them from nature beyond the inevitable
shortens the occasion for this thank-you. The example of the imperial portrait made
by the old master suggests this point of view. Even representatives of the idealistic
tendency would be more interested in seeing this faithful reflection of what the
emperor was as human as he was, as an idealized scheme of it, in which the spirit of
the artist endeavored to express the figure of the emperor in the sense of his higher
idea, and to omit every wrinkle which did not seem to fit this ideal emperor. Now,
one may come back to the fact that such faithful replicas are a matter of photography
rather than of art, and one will be right in a certain sense, only with the advantage that
photography in a certain, I do not say, in all respects, precedes art , do not get
away. Therefore, we often prefer the photograph in which we know where we are, the
picture in which we can never quite know it, and we would like it to be a good picture
of a personality interested in us, or a good photograph of it this is not true for the
often heard statement, that every good picture gives us more of the character of the
personality we are interested in than the best photograph. But what is true of this
saying depends not only on deviations of the picture from nature, but on the fact that
the artist is a particularly characteristic and happy moment of nature, be it according
to reality itself or the conditions of reality which we at discussion to count our
question everywhere to nature, to choose better than the photographer can
accidentally strike; Yes, sitting a person in front of the photographic apparatus is
probably one of the most unfavorable conditions for making the most favorable
moment. depends not only on deviations of the picture from nature, but also on the
fact that the artist has a particularly characteristic and happy moment of nature, be it
according to reality itself or the conditions of reality, which we all count towards
nature in discussing our question. choose better than the photographer can
accidentally hit; Yes, sitting a person in front of the photographic apparatus is
probably one of the most unfavorable conditions for making the most favorable
moment. depends not only on deviations of the picture from nature, but also on the
fact that the artist has a particularly characteristic and happy moment of nature, be it
according to reality itself or the conditions of reality, which we all count towards
nature in discussing our question. choose better than the photographer can
accidentally hit; Yes, sitting a person in front of the photographic apparatus is
probably one of the most unfavorable conditions for making the most favorable
moment.
I have heard say that the landlord, who takes a real area as the motive of his
painted, even with regard to the interest that may take in the real, but the deviations
of it in so far as in the never very sharp Reminder the deviations are not
noticeable. But on the contrary, it shortens precisely the advantage which the faithful
painting could offer, that which in the memory is clearly made and preserved. I do not
say that landscapes should not be painted in that sense, insofar as artistic landscapes
are even more destined to give us beautiful regions than to remember real ones; but in
so far as they claim to do the latter, they also have the means to do so.
If one does not have to admit in the linguistic realm that once again the content of a
story interests us so much, if we know it, it has happened as if we know it, it has not
happened; that reading a historical novel involves a disturbing sense of uncertainty,
how much is true and how much is not true; many a novel that seems to be a true
story has been put out of hand, just as we realized or learned, it just wanted to deceive
us. This interest in the reproduction of reality increases in proportion as it concerns us
more closely ourselves. Now a work of art, if not alone speculate on this interest, it
should deserve the name of a work of art, but under certain circumstances, a part of
its effect owe it to him, but speculate with it.
In short, the retention, visualization, reproduction of what has meaningfully
interfered with human life at any point, the satisfaction of the desire to see what has
interested us through its reality, even for the memory as it really was, to be faithfully
kept To be sure, it is not the sole task of art that is not to be taken into account alone,
nor to be counted as such, insofar as the effect of many achievements of art can also
gain strength through the satisfaction of this interest to the height.
Quite apart from the material or personal interest which one may take in the subject
matter of an artistic representation, man himself has a peculiar pleasure in seeing
nature reflected faithfully in the free activity of man, so that the result of it Mirror
image may have an interest if the object itself does not have one. Of course, one can
doubt the nature of this pleasure, and think of more than one.
Is the reason in the joy of the overcome difficulty of faithful reproduction? And
there is a difficulty in faithful reproduction. It is certain that any overcoming of a
difficulty through the knowledge, power, or fate of man will give us a feeling of
admiration, and thus of pleasure. On the other hand, it may be objected that a work of
art pleases us the most, if we do not become aware of a overcome difficulty in it, but
rather it seems to have done so easily and as if by itself. In the meantime we know
well enough that the work of art was not self-evident and could have done; and, at
any rate, the connoisseur finds in it, in a certain sense, that impression, the best and
only proof that the difficulty is really completely overcome;
Or rather, the reason lies in the satisfaction of a native imitative urge, which
becomes clear enough in the case of children and savages-for some are true monkeys-
who, later on, are mainly outweighed by educational influences and higher
considerations, but they involuntarily join in as if, in the description of a movement,
we imitate it involuntarily gesticulating, the pusher slides a little way beyond the
sphere, and so on, is it still recognizable in the power of fashion, and even helps to
create similarities in humanity? Could not the indigenous instinctual urge to imitate
be related to an instinctive pleasure in it,
I still remember from my student days when I heard a college of physics with Prof.
Gilbert, standing like this, standing with the chalk in front of the black chalkboard
and moving back and forth on one leg, every movement of which he spoke upwards ,
downwards, horizontally, straight, curvilinear, swinging, fast, slowly accompanied
with a corresponding chalk on the blackboard, so that after some hours the whole
table was interspersed with a motley mixture of such chalk marks.
Or, finally, does the reason lie in the not less native indulgence in truth,
incontinence, impending contradiction? On one side there is the presupposition that
the picture is like its object; and according as this presupposition is contradicted or
met by the idea which awakens the real image, there may arise, according to the
principle discussed in the seventh paragraph, displeasure or pleasure.
Perhaps all these reasons contribute to the pleasure of successful
imitation; certainly the latter, at least. And as with the difficulty of exact imitation the
danger of contradiction increases, so naturally the pleasure of overcoming the danger
will grow with it, that is, the first reason with the last together in one. But let us leave
it to psychology to elaborate on what is the prime determinant in pleasing successful
imitation, and simply stick to the fact.
Already Hogarth points to the same and its reasons by saying (Dissection of
Beauty, p. 4): "There is really in our nature from childhood a love of imitation, and
the eye is often amused by imitation as well as in Astonishment, and delight in the
accuracy of the copies. "
In fact, it seems to us the funniest thing there is to see a person's voice and gestures
mimicked by another as long as we do not find our moral feeling hurt by the intention
of ridicule; Indeed, the instinctive feeling of pleasure in successful imitation can
outdo even the moral pain in the end of it, so that we can put up with it if the mockery
is not too vicious. But why should not the favor of successful imitation, which asserts
itself outside of art, assert itself in art? And why the question! Unquestionably, it
asserts itself.
For whoever wants to deny, he gives himself otherwise clear and unbiased account
of the reasons for his impression that the desire to see an actor who takes his role
completely out of life, the favor of a Dutch genre guild, what a gift scene faithful
reflecting on the conditions of reality on the leash wall, on a landscape in which
nature's finest inks are eavesdropped, essential with - I am well aware, alone -based
on the joy of the successful imitation of nature, not merely based on the fact that a
scene of interest is presented to us, because rather the scene in nature itself would
often be of little interest, not only in its stylish treatment, but rather the style has to
guard very much, not to make any changes, whereby this joy is shortened too
much. But if there are pictures in which it is nevertheless very shortened, they must,
by virtue of other merits, remunerate it in order to please them and make a favor, just
as, conversely, the lack of other privileges can be partly compensated by the one
considered here. It does not occur to us to give everything to it.
However great one may attach to this pleasure in oneself, as it proves to be outside
of art, and not expect art to produce it naked for itself, so it is with this as with other
elements or conditions of pleasing which art makes use of to produce a pleasing total
effect, which does not give itself a work of art, and yet, according to the auxiliary
principle in cooperation with others and entering into higher conditions of pleasure,
greatly contribute to the increase of it as a whole. In the same way, when successful
natural imitation combines with other elements of pleasing, for example, helps to
give a clear idea of itself, even if it is of little value or interest in itself, it can increase
its pleasure by its own pleasure value and, indeed, increase it more.
It would also be wrong to say that one must first separate the pleasure of the
successful imitation of nature in order to have the pure joy of art; it really belongs to
it; and every connoisseur and layman is thereby determined in his estimation of a
work of art, and often determined chiefly by it.
Of course, nature itself can not make us the pleasure in question because it is only
the imitation of nature that makes it; and here lies an advantage of imitative art in
front of the imitated nature itself, which I as such not only misunderstood entirely by
the idealists, but almost never appreciated at all, while the realists, who are the
essence of art mainly in imitation of nature They seek the value of imitation only in
the value of the mirrored nature as in the value of reflection, or at least not clearly
have both as distinct moments in mind. 6)Says Herbart (Gen. W. II., 111), in order to
deny the aesthetic value of the imitation of nature through art: "The imitation is at
most as beautiful as the archetype." On the contrary, an actor can give the role of a
villain or fool very nicely; One must only take into account that the beauty of an
artistic representation is directed not only to the nature and the own conditions of its
object, but also to the relation of representation to the object, and not to a doctrinaire
notion of its essence, but that in life judge of their performance.
6) Only in Burke (Of the Beautiful and Exalted, p. 71) do I remember meeting a
clear distinction and proper appreciation in this relation, saying, "If the object
presented in the poem or in the painting is such that we would have no desire to
see him, if he really were: then his power in the painting or the poem comes
only from the power of imitation and from no cause acting in the thing itself, as
is the case with most such pieces, which the painters call silent nature, in which
is a hut, a dung-heap, the lowest and meanest kitchen utensils are capable of
pleasing us. "

By whatever motive art can be induced to deviate from the truth of nature, its injury
to itself does not contribute anything to pleasure anywhere; rather, every work of art
is all the more satisfied the more the faithful imitation of nature is compatible with
the higher advantages intended by art, only that this agreement does not extend
beyond certain limits.
And what is it that makes it possible to compensate for and outbid the enumerated
manifold disadvantages of the deviation of art from nature so far, that an art does not
only endure against nature but, after certain relations, supplements it, surpasses others
can?
With a simple phrase out of the terms of art and beauty, the answer will not come
again; but, like the disadvantages, the opposite advantages will have to be taken into
account, since they are partly not at all traceable, and the conflicts of the same with
the disadvantages can not be understood and clarified, if not to those in a similar way
as to this in particular. Above all, however, one important self-help of art is to
commemorate those disadvantages.
The disadvantages, which depend on the fact that we are from the beginning only
in the natural life, not in the art life indigenous and oriented, can be reduced, if not
completely canceled by the fact that we make ourselves at home in the art life,
creating a new orientation, which can replace the natural orientation to certain
limits. In this respect, as in other respects, connoisseurs are quite right that man must
be educated by art to enjoy art, to judge art. Life in art must necessarily be accounted
for in the effect of art, otherwise one neglects or underestimates a major factor of this
effect.
In fact, through life in the arts, we learn meanings that art almost instinctively
instills in certain forms, making them almost as familiar to them, as they do to
nature's forms, and letting ourselves be the most unnatural, such as Centaurs,
Minotaurs, Sirens , Sphinxes, satyrs with trestles, figures above the clouds, angels
with wings, marble and gypsum-white statues, fallen without being disturbed. If they
do not belong in the natural world, then they belong in the art world, and in this they
have their accomplishments as well as the natural creatures in the natural
world; Achievements without which art could not fulfill some of its higher tasks. But
only in art itself does one learn to befriend oneself by learning to understand their
meaning or simply, accustomed to given meanings of the same. And this is how one
soon comes to give art everything and miss nothing that is impossible or too difficult
for it to accomplish; on the other hand, to find joy in overcoming difficulties which
the uninitiated does not know, as well as in the historical progress in this overcoming,
which he knows just as little. For all that, however, the art-friend and connoisseur has
a much different standard of estimating a work of art than the mere degree of its
correspondence with a natural work which, together with the material interest, forms
the sole or chief standard for the uninitiated in art. on the other hand, to find joy in
overcoming difficulties which the uninitiated does not know, as well as in the
historical progress in this overcoming, which he knows just as little. For all that,
however, the art-friend and connoisseur has a much different standard of estimating a
work of art than the mere degree of its correspondence with a natural work which,
together with the material interest, forms the sole or chief standard for the uninitiated
in art. on the other hand, to find joy in overcoming difficulties which the uninitiated
does not know, as well as in the historical progress in this overcoming, which he
knows just as little. For all that, however, the art-friend and connoisseur has a much
different standard of estimating a work of art than the mere degree of its
correspondence with a natural work which, together with the material interest, forms
the sole or chief standard for the uninitiated in art.
However, it is not the right education by the art for the art, nor the right habituation,
to let any natural dislike of it, because the habituation can just as well be a bad as a
right, but, first, the necessary ones secondly, to let down the unnecessary ones, which
bring substantial benefits; otherwise, despite the habituation, disadvantages would
remain from the following points of view.
Firstly, meanings which art imposes on us necessarily conflict with those which we
derive from natural life, because of their power in nature, as we usually live in nature,
and experience ourselves for the most part in the context of the consideration of art a
silent counteraction of the same. Secondly: the habit of allowing ourselves to fall
away from certain deviations from nature may raise or diminish the displeasure
which arises from the violation of the truth of nature, but does not compensate us for
the loss of pleasure which the faithful reproduction of nature makes us. Thirdly,
deviations of art from nature, which are not based on durable motives, ie do not bring
about any advantages which compensate for the disadvantages, can indeed be found
in a certain school, a certain people, be tolerated, familiar and agreeable for a certain
time, but can not generally and permanently adhere to art because a principle of unity
and durability is lacking. A taste furnished on it thus retains, instead of objective
justification, only subjective validity, and the estimation of the works of art which
pay homage to it is transient.
Accordingly, art will indeed be able to rely on it, indeed must, that life in art brings
the disadvantages of its deviations from nature to a certain extent to disappear; but
irreconcilable disadvantages would remain if they did not outsmart them with
positive advantages.
Least of all do these disadvantages be avoided by artists who either have no
consciousness of it or see no disadvantages in it; and to prove that they are not
lacking in such things, I want to cite, from examples that are enough to be
commanded, only one from one side just as cute as one from the other. 7)
7) Dioscuren 1861, p. 158.

The well-known landscape painter Ed. Hildebrandt had in his large landscape,
named "Am Weiher" unnaturally big legs given to some standing on the water
storks. When he was made aware of it and found it "unnatural," he replied, "I know
very well that in reality the storks have thinner and longer legs, but what can I say
that nature does this? Do not ask me to copy their mistakes. "
However one may define beauty, at least one should be as pure as
possible. Everyone, however, will admit that the reluctance of the contradiction
between the appearance of the legs and the meaning of stork legs or the insecurity
about the meaning of stork or not stork, had to surpass any pleasure advantage one
could derive, for example, from a more beautiful form of stool Storks, even if one
could achieve this by thickening his legs, could obtain.
Turning now to the positive advantages attainable by the remission of the full
natural truth, we rise from more external and lower to more internal and higher.
Nature, because of the impossibility or difficulty of transferring an object or an
event from one space, one time to another, presents countless difficulties to intuition,
which art can overcome to a certain extent by making the objects light transportable,
replaceable from any proximity to be watched, easily duplicated, images, and of the
events that in reality happen to transiently capture the most interesting or valuable
moment. But all this can only happen by giving one side or the other side of the
reality of nature, drawing great things into the small, projecting the depth onto the
surface, reducing the movement to the moment, the pulsating life on the dead canvas
wall or in the rigid ones Stone banishes. Thus one can not hang a real landscape into
the room, not conjure up the remote, not find the most favorable point of view so
easily, lend no duration to the moment of most beautiful illumination; the painted
landscape, with everything in which it stands against the natural, grants us these great
advantages before it; and from which mass of interesting scenes one sees the most
interesting moments in the rooms of a museum forever reserved.
These are in fact only external, but very important, advantages of art, which alone
would suffice to justify them with all their necessary imperfections, and which really
justifies many as faithful as possible imitations of art, in which art is nothing of
natural truth There is no price for what they can not achieve because of inadequacy of
their means, or for time, space, and effort to obtain resources for comparatively great
expense. Such true-to-nature imitations include not only the illustrations of natural
history and ethnographic works, but also vedutas of neighborhoods and portraits of
people in whom we are more interested in knowing as accurately as possible, how
they are as how they want to represent an artist from higher beauty considerations. If
all this does not yet belong to the higher art or art field in the narrower sense of the
word, then most of the previous advantages are not lost when entering into it, but
come with it, and in no case earn in the narrower fields of art to be
underestimated. But if we finally ask about the higher advantages attainable by freer
deviations, then not only will we say nothing wrong, but we will say it in fairly
familiar terms when we answer: but they come in, so they do not deserve to be
underestimated even in the narrower field of art. But if we finally ask about the
higher advantages attainable by freer deviations, then not only will we say nothing
wrong, but we will say it in fairly familiar terms when we answer: but they come in,
so they do not deserve to be underestimated even in the narrower field of art. But if
we finally ask about the higher advantages attainable by freer deviations, then not
only will we say nothing wrong, but we will say it in fairly familiar terms when we
answer:
By abandoning the slavish connection with nature, art can elevate us to a higher,
purer, clearer world than common reality, into a world in which the essence, the idea,
the pure nature of things, which are in the world Reality only appears clouded,
disturbed, confused, imperfect or not at all visibly pronounced, and on the part of
science it is subject only to intellectual insight, illuminates us immediately and
vividly, shines in a form which easily appeals to the mind, stimulates agreeable
activity and direct pleasure Fulfills. Thus, at the expense of natural truth, we gain
what can and should be called higher truth. Only such a summary of the whole higher
achievement of art in a few words requires a more precise interpretation and spread
of the general into the particular subject concerned. Let us confine ourselves to the
main points in this regard.
Nature offers us a great deal of what is bound up with causal, teleological, ethical,
comfortable, conceptual, in short, idealistic relations of any kind, so disjointed in
time and space, or so obscured by other objects, or disturbed by contingencies and
by-products, that these relations not easily, if at all, to assert oneself in the
intuition. But inasmuch as it can have an interest or a value for man to spiritually
seize upon these relations of reality, art, by contracting the objects of reality in a
modified manner, can overcome obstacles of intuition, disturbing contingencies ,
unobtrusive side-things and unimportant details, to meet those needs.
Further, by presenting things of reality as we would wish them to be, or as they
should be, as they really are, art can present to us patterns of images, the
contemplation of which in part gives us pleasure in itself. partly refined our sense and
judges our pursuit in a good sense; from the other side, by sacrificing the evil of
righteousness, and repenting to blameless suffering, serve our view of a good and just
world order.
Finally, by illustrating objects that do not exist in the world of external reality, but
also in religious beliefs or even myths or fairy tales, art can offer assistance to public
worship and private worship, the beauty requirement through forms Those who do
not find satisfaction in the common reality, are serious or graceful in their
imagination, and can even replace in pictures the dry and boring presentation of
general concepts and ideas in words.
In discussing these relationships, three concepts play a major role, denoting the
main deviations of art from nature, whereby art attains its higher advantages, from
various complementary points of view, and thus become pivotal points around which
the whole higher art view revolves, the concepts of stylizing, idealizing, and
symbolizing, concepts which are neither used in the contemplation of nature nor of
the so-called useful arts. To discuss this in more detail will be reserved for later
sections. For the time being only a few generalities.
No matter how great the advantages which art is able to achieve beyond these
relationships beyond the pure imitation of nature, one must not forget that a conflict
with the disadvantages of deviation always remains. If, however, art stylizing,
idealizing, symbolically deviating from nature, it can only have happened as far as it
is necessary to obtain the advantages, and as these remain in preponderance against
the disadvantages; yes, the deviation from nature will have to happen as much as
possible in the sense of nature itself. Art may represent winged angels, because
otherwise it would not be able to portray the heavenly glory and messages of God to
men; but she will have to make the wings, hovering and flies as natural as
possible. She becomes a Jupiter, to give to a Venus a facial expression and features,
as they have not yet been found in reality, nor can they be expected to be found, but
only those which are closer to nature, the more sublime and beautiful personalities
they represent, and which, too, If they really did exist in nature, they would give the
impression of the most sublime and beautiful personalities. It will be allowed to
diminish in the detail execution of a painting of the natural truth; but only so that the
true-to-nature overall impression wins rather than loses. It will be allowed to separate
from a scene any contingency that disturbs the conception of the content of the scene
in which we are concerned, and to arrange and group all forms in such a way that we
gain the sense of the whole scene more easily than in reality can, but it can not do
otherwise than reality itself does, when it shows us something quite clearly and
clearly; but that art does as a rule on all sides at one and the same time, and does not
do any more than nature could in the most favorable case.
With all this, of course, art, if it wishes to depict God, or as divinely-conceived
personalities, etc., will fall far short of the Idea, and thereby come across in relative
disadvantage works of art which can do justice more fully to a self-serving
representation of a lower idea. It is certain that the impression of the peculiar
satisfaction which the best realistic representations of objects and scenes, which still
belong entirely to the domain of reality, in this respect, can not be attained by
idealistic representations which deal with supernatural objects. Whereas realistic
representations of scenes still of human interest, with their connection to the natural
truth, can not reach the scope and height of the impression which the best idealists
make, and give no space for the same elaboration of beauty in detail; which does not
prevent some small genre pictures of a large religious-historical painting from the
above point of view in the estimation ranked out. Yes, the objects of religious
devotion could be adequately represented, but who would like to appreciate a genre
image highly; but the immense disadvantage in which the religious image stands in
relation to the possibility of true representation of its object against the genre picture
compensates in a certain sense for the tremendous advantage in which it stands
against it by the value of the represented idea. Since art is unable to combine all
advantages in the same direction, it must be allowed to reach them in the totality of
directions; and when both tendencies tend to throw each other glaring glances, they
both only deserve it by doing so.
One of the simplest and most general rules that can be given to the artist in the
matter of our question is that he transcends reality with his forms only insofar as he
transcends them with a legitimate idea, but that he too do, if he does this. As self-
evident as this rule seems to be, since it is only the rule to keep representation and
form appropriate to each other, there is hardly a rule that is frequently violated,
especially from the first. For, according to the misunderstood principle that art should
be the representation of the beautiful, many artists claim that they must embellish
unsightly nature without considering that they are thus provoking a contradiction with
the truth, which ruthlessly insists on the beauty or obscurity of the object . the beauty
of his presentation crashes. No less, only from another side, but the truth is violated,
when actual objects are represented in forms of common reality. In the sense of the
first mistake, we saw Hildebrandt thickening and shortening the stork legs, and we
see in most pictures so-called large common people, often of a small style, dressed in
beautiful new clothes, with ideal facial types and as graceful positions as possible. It
is probably called higher truth, which is rather higher untruth. The second mistake,
but more usually made out of clumsiness as a principle, is offered by some older
pictures, as long as God the Father, the Madonna, the Christ Child appear in it with
mean, even ugly features. but the truth is violated when supernatural objects are
presented in forms of common reality. In the sense of the first mistake, we saw
Hildebrandt thickening and shortening the stork legs, and we see in most pictures so-
called large common people, often of a small style, dressed in beautiful new clothes,
with ideal facial types and as graceful positions as possible. It is probably called
higher truth, which is rather higher untruth. The second mistake, but more usually
made out of clumsiness as a principle, is offered by some older pictures, as long as
God the Father, the Madonna, the Christ Child appear in it with mean, even ugly
features. but the truth is violated when supernatural objects are presented in forms of
common reality. In the sense of the first mistake, we saw Hildebrandt thickening and
shortening the stork legs, and we see in most pictures so-called large common people,
often of a small style, dressed in beautiful new clothes, with ideal facial types and as
graceful positions as possible. It is probably called higher truth, which is rather higher
untruth. The second mistake, but more usually made out of clumsiness as a principle,
is offered by some older pictures, as long as God the Father, the Madonna, the Christ
Child appear in it with mean, even ugly features. In the sense of the first mistake, we
saw Hildebrandt thickening and shortening the stork legs, and we see in most pictures
so-called large common people, often of a small style, dressed in beautiful new
clothes, with ideal facial types and as graceful positions as possible. It is probably
called higher truth, which is rather higher untruth. The second mistake, but more
usually made out of clumsiness as a principle, is offered by some older pictures, as
long as God the Father, the Madonna, the Christ Child appear in it with mean, even
ugly features. In the sense of the first mistake, we saw Hildebrandt thickening and
shortening the stork legs, and we see in most pictures so-called large common people,
often of a small style, dressed in beautiful new clothes, with ideal facial types and as
graceful positions as possible. It is probably called higher truth, which is rather higher
untruth. The second mistake, but more usually made out of clumsiness as a principle,
is offered by some older pictures, as long as God the Father, the Madonna, the Christ
Child appear in it with mean, even ugly features. which is rather higher untruth. The
second mistake, but more usually made out of clumsiness as a principle, is offered by
some older pictures, as long as God the Father, the Madonna, the Christ Child appear
in it with mean, even ugly features. which is rather higher untruth. The second
mistake, but more usually made out of clumsiness as a principle, is offered by some
older pictures, as long as God the Father, the Madonna, the Christ Child appear in it
with mean, even ugly features.
In the first instance, of course, a conflict must be considered. The pleasure of direct
intuition of the beauty and grace of what we see before us can outweigh the pain of
contradiction, which is in violation of the claim of truth, especially when the
habituation of art makes it no longer perceptible; and, in fact, habituation has taught
us a lot of tolerability in this regard, whether it is not too much, and whether future
habituation will not rectify the present in this respect. Do not trust the present one too
much, and should even more than it happens, consider whether not what is considered
to be a matter of artistic entitlement, is only a matter of art habituation, which would
be better represented by another. It does not pervade the general formation of the
mind, the higher appeal which is justified in itself, which lies in an illustrative
fulfillment of the claim to truth, to follow up the charm of a beautiful but untrue
form; those who become accustomed to them lose their susceptibility to that stimulus,
and on the whole lose more and better than they gain from the other side through
their false habituation. With all this, however, there is room for the following
consideration.
The claim to truth is common to art and science, but of different weight to both. In
science, its fulfillment is an essential purpose, and at any cost of it, whether it pleases
or does not please; In art it is only a principal means to an end, which should never
give way to other means other than by subordinate relations, yet may really yield to
others of such superiority. It is to be admitted that a certain limit can not be
established in this respect; It can only be said in general that it must be done when the
advantages of the injury outweigh its disadvantages. This can be different for
different tastes, and is one of the cases where it is not easy or possible decide on the
greater or lesser legitimacy of one or the other taste. (See Th. 1. p. 258.); while one
can always be aware of the reasons to be considered. Repeatedly, we will be
reminded of this in our future reflections; but let us first consider only one example.
In the pieta of Michel Angelo, a seated Madonna holds the Christ corpse on her
lap. In the Pieta of Rietschel a kneeling Madonna has the Christ Corpse straight
ahead. Both works can be compared well in the Leipzig Museum by facing each other
at the opposite ends of the hall. Both are works of great beauty, each in a different
sense, which we will not discuss here in detail, only to consider the following
point. In spite of the fact that the relationship of Christ to the Madonna in the Pieta of
R. naturwahr is that of MA, yet in the latter work one will find it decidedly more
beautiful than in the first, where the advantage of natural truth is outweighed by other
advantages , In the Pieta of R., the Christ corpse is that of a full-grown man, which
has its natural size relation to the Madonna. In the Pieta of MA, however, the corpse
is that of a man who is not quite full-grown, and who stands against the greatness of
the Madonna, which is contrary to nature. But with this illegitimacy, MA bought the
advantage of being able to put the corpse on the lap of the Madonna, thereby placing
the Madonna in the closest relationship with him, which is reminiscent of her first
maternal relationship with him and, on the contrary, the corpse over her knees to give
a moving position, whereas the rigid extension of the Christ corpse in front of the
R.'sehen Pieta is very disadvantageous. It's like river against ice. In fact, one finds the
relationship in the Pieta of MA so beautiful that one looks away over the inconstancy
of nature, without being disturbed by it. for which, of course, two things are to be
heard, firstly, that the rejuvenation of Christ is very modest; second, that in this ideal
sphere one is everywhere accustomed to give up the demands of strict natural
truth. However, the Christ corpse should not have been much smaller if the
disturbance were not to assert itself decisively, nor have the relative size of the Christ
corpse of R.'s Pieta been allowed, in order not to burden the Madonna with too heavy
a burden and to make the taking of the corpse on the lap itself unnatural. The Pieta of
MA I would like to call richer in beauty and beauty romantic than that of the
Rietschel Pieta, while in this beauty, so to speak, dressed in a simple naturalness,
dignity and depth, which also has its value.
Finally, the following remark. It may be that the generally accepted notion of those
to whom a work of art has to work deviates from the scientific idea, objectively more
correct, but also only in scientific context, on the basis of scientific studies, of the
represented object. Insofar as the artist does not consider it his task, as an artist, to
support the scientific idea, he has the mean To correct it, it will miss its purpose, if in
its presentation it adheres rather to the scientific than common conception, rather, by
the idea contradiction, which he should avoid, rather by it arises. In fact, conflicts of
the kind occur and it will be an opportunity to come back to this.
When the preceding section was already printed, it was only the recently published
Konrad Fiedler's book "On the Evaluation of Fine Arts, LP Hirzel 1876," that gave
me a peculiar interest in seeing it so to say, on every point, contradicts the views
expressed in this and many earlier passages. The typeface comes from a connoisseur
of art and connoisseurs, not only privately respected in art circles, and self-advocate
of art, but also, as I know, received in the most favorable manner by other
connoisseurs and artists alike, and has an unprecedented boastful discussion in the
Augsb. general time. 1876. Beil. No. 68 is, indeed, declared to be of fundamental
importance for the consideration of art; also meets most with the views of that other
art-lover I thought of above; and with all this gives a not uninteresting contribution to
the characteristics of the now prevailing art views. Thus, at least some points of
comparison with our own views, in which the contrast is particularly asserted, may
simply be emphasized in the script, since a complete analysis of this can not be given
here.
According to the author, the deviations of art from nature can only be understood
and judged by art itself: "Art can be found in no other way than on its own" (p.
27). Rules that judge the achievements of artists are not at all to give
advance. "Understanding can only ever advance the achievements of the artist, and he
does not know what role the artistic activity of mankind will continue in the
future." According to this, the whole discussion of the advantages and disadvantages
of the deviations of art from nature to those mentioned above, as well as in the
opinion of the above art-friend, falls away on its own; and if one can not deny that
they actually exist, and to be understood from the points of view given, a
consideration for it would, in the author's view, only dissuade the artist as well as the
observer and the judge from the right path of achievement and contemplation. Rather,
the artist should ruthlessly produce all the rules which must be given to him in
advance, in the urge of an inner coercion (pp. 47-51), out of an outlook that
distinguishes him from the artistic layman (pp. 42-50, 56), and the art-connoisseur to
have the true enjoyment of the arts only when he is able to reproduce the activity of
the artist in himself (p. 64). But the peculiarity of the consciousness or intuition of
which the artist produces consists in the fact that he persists, as from the point of
view, neither as the scientific contemplation rises from there to the concept (which
indisputably suffers no contradiction), nor is it caught up in the aesthetic sensation,
does not restrict purity, wealth, and fullness of intuition, nor disturbs prudence or
clarity (p. 29 ff.). While I myself can only see a symmetrical spike in the human
form, which has been stripped of all significance, from its purely descriptive side, the
author wishes to have abstracted from a significance of things in the fine arts which
goes beyond mere intuition (P.50, 51) ;. The same mode of intuition which the child
has before it is atrophied by his habituation to conceptual considerations is, according
to the author, only heightened, expanded, and developed to greater clarity in the
artist. In this way, as is common practice in art circles, the author actually ignores or
rejects the principle of association that we consider so important, and the whole
(nothing less than conceptual) development which the artist's consciousness has to
take beyond the child by means of it to be able to offer something to the grown-up
adult. The aesthetic sensation, which is usually expected and demanded for the
enjoyment of the beautiful, is explicitly excluded by the author from the really
leading moments in the artist's work and the appraisal of works of art, as well as from
the nature of the actual enjoyment of art is too strong,] knows against this (p. 28) "a
pleasure, a joy in the living being of things, over differences,
In a word, it is scarcely a substitute for the prevailing views of art, with a widely-
received attempt to deepen it, but with the attempts we have made in this paper to get
to the bottom of the intentions and means of artistic achievement and artistic effect
somewhere together.

XXIII. Beauty and characteristics.


In a manner analogous to the quarrel between idealism and realism, the
controversy, which does not coincide but is intertwined with it, should at the same
time clarify and settle whether art has more to do with beauty or characteristics, and
how far the characteristic itself can be expected to be beautiful ,
In general, we call the representation of an object characteristic insofar as it
emphasizes the moments that distinguish it from others, true and clear, but without
exaggeration, because through exaggeration the characteristic becomes a caricature.
A successful characteristic affords two important aesthetic advantages, first that by
fulfilling the claim of truth it contributes directly to the immediate pleasure of a work,
secondly, that it counteracts monotony, which is all the more easily taken up, the
more distinguishing traits of the objects are omitted and these are reduced to one
another by reduction to a general type.
Insofar as beautiful in the broadest sense means that which immediately arouses
favors, but a successful characteristic can contribute to this, it will not be considered
as a beauty par excellence, but on the basis of the beauty conditions, which does not
prevent them from interfering with other conditions can. If an object is ugly in itself,
then, in order to be represented in a characteristic way, it must also be represented as
ugly; and then the presentation may please us by its truth, but displease us by its
object. And so the characteristic can not be compared to the beauty of a
representation in the widest sense, in the conditions of which it rather enters, but is
contrasted with the conditions which besides it contribute to beauty. Since, apart from
characteristic, beauty has no other word than beauty, the comparison of the
characteristic with the beauty in a narrower sense of the latter, which distinguishes
the characteristic of it, thus comes about. But whether, according to the broader sense
of beauty, the characteristic should be included under its conditions or, according to
its narrower sense, contrasted with others, it depends on whether the interest of the
consideration is that of summary or comparison. Wherever the juxtaposition takes
place, it is at least to be understood in the previous sense. But whether, according to
the broader sense of beauty, the characteristic should be included under its conditions
or, according to its narrower sense, contrasted with others, it depends on whether the
interest of the consideration is that of summary or comparison. Wherever the
juxtaposition takes place, it is at least to be understood in the previous sense. But
whether, according to the broader sense of beauty, the characteristic should be
included under its conditions or, according to its narrower sense, contrasted with
others, it depends on whether the interest of the consideration is that of summary or
comparison. Wherever the juxtaposition takes place, it is at least to be understood in
the previous sense.1)
1) Similar
to the beauty and character of fine arts, Section XV is similar in
beauty and practicality in architecture.

If one asks, then, whether art should be more about beauty or character, then this
question says nothing else than: art should rather be pleasing to its works by moments
which, apart from its characteristics, are pleasing to it, as well as the goodwill of the
object in itself, or by the characteristic of trying to produce? But this question, so
general, only admits the equally general answer: Art is to work through every
condition of pleasing, where and as far as each can find its place, but each one should
withdraw so far in conflict with others, that nevertheless the art the greatest possible
advantage of pleasing in the whole is achieved by it, and the characteristic makes no
exception.
It is certain that there are works of art that appeal chiefly to their characteristics,
and that there are others who appeal more to beauty than to beauty; and one does not
see why there should not be both this and that, since, after all, not all the conditions
of beauty can unite in the same degree and be increased to the same degree.
Cornelius, of course, - to borrow only one main authority from this direction - has,
among the rules he left to his pupil, Max Lohde, as a kind of legacy: "Strive for
beauty rather than characteristic a simply beautiful face more than any emphasis on
the individual. " 2)
2) K. v. Lützow's Zeitschr. f. image. K. 1868, p. 86.
But notice that this rule is given by an artist who created in a field, the ideal art-
fields, where the emphasis is not on the characteristic, and who agree with it, are
generally in the same field and, for the most part, do not pay attention other. After all,
it is to be regretted that a generally accepted but only one-sided rule seems to be
sanctioned as universal by its pronouncement on the part of a great authority. In fact,
the presentation of even the most ideal personality will be as characteristic as possible
with respect to the idea one must have of the character of this personality; with which
she becomes an ideal, so that here as far as possible driven beauty and characteristic
driven as far as possible go with themselves, without there being any talk of favoring
one person over the other. Only in the main objects of ideal art does the characteristic
driven as far as possible still lag far behind the object - for the idea presented as
divine can not be adequately represented, and the character of the ideal itself is more
or less the same general types of norms, so that here by characteristic not so much
can be afforded, as by beauty conditions apart from characteristic; which is why I
said that here greater importance is placed on beauty than on character, and here too
one is not accustomed to speaking of characteristics. However, even in the ideal field
of art, it is not just ideal personalities, but also ancestors, to depict subordinate
persons where beauty and characteristics do not go together as well as with the most
ideal personalities; and if, as of course, Cornelius's rule is understood to mean that
here as well, in the conflict of beauty and character, the former is to be preferred, this
corresponds to the prevailing mode of exercising ideal art and the prevailing taste
thus formed and furnished However, I doubt very much whether this will not
someday be a matter of a overcome point of view. For it is true, as Cornelius says,
that a simply beautiful countenance often exerts more than any emphasis on the
individual, and a Madonna will never be too beautiful, and a Christ never too
exalted; if but where beauty and characteristics do not go just as well with each other
as with the most ideal personalities; and if, as of course, Cornelius's rule is
understood to mean that here as well, in the conflict of beauty and character, the
former is to be preferred, this corresponds to the prevailing mode of exercising ideal
art and the prevailing taste thus formed and furnished However, I doubt very much
whether this will not someday be a matter of a overcome point of view. For it is true,
as Cornelius says, that a simply beautiful countenance often exerts more than any
emphasis on the individual, and a Madonna will never be too beautiful, and a Christ
never too exalted; if but where beauty and characteristics do not go just as well with
each other as with the most ideal personalities; and if, as of course, Cornelius's rule is
understood to mean that here as well, in the conflict of beauty and character, the
former is to be preferred, this corresponds to the prevailing mode of exercising ideal
art and the prevailing taste thus formed and furnished However, I doubt very much
whether this will not someday be a matter of a overcome point of view. For it is true,
as Cornelius says, that a simply beautiful countenance often exerts more than any
emphasis on the individual, and a Madonna will never be too beautiful, and a Christ
never too exalted; if but as with the most ideal personalities; and if, as of course,
Cornelius's rule is understood to mean that here as well, in the conflict of beauty and
character, the former is to be preferred, this corresponds to the prevailing mode of
exercising ideal art and the prevailing taste thus formed and furnished However, I
doubt very much whether this will not someday be a matter of a overcome point of
view. For it is true, as Cornelius says, that a simply beautiful countenance often exerts
more than any emphasis on the individual, and a Madonna will never be too
beautiful, and a Christ never too exalted; if but as with the most ideal
personalities; and if, as of course, Cornelius's rule is understood to mean that here as
well, in the conflict of beauty and character, the former is to be preferred, this
corresponds to the prevailing mode of exercising ideal art and the prevailing taste
thus formed and furnished However, I doubt very much whether this will not
someday be a matter of a overcome point of view. For it is true, as Cornelius says,
that a simply beautiful countenance often exerts more than any emphasis on the
individual, and a Madonna will never be too beautiful, and a Christ never too
exalted; if but but in the conflict of beauty and character, which is preferable to the
former, this is in keeping with the prevailing practice of ideal art and the prevalent
taste thus formed and furnished, but I doubt very much whether it will someday be
considered a matter of a superseded position , For it is true, as Cornelius says, that a
simply beautiful countenance often exerts more than any emphasis on the individual,
and a Madonna will never be too beautiful, and a Christ never too exalted; if but but
in the conflict of beauty and character, which is preferable to the former, this is in
keeping with the prevailing practice of ideal art and the prevalent taste thus formed
and furnished, but I doubt very much whether it will someday be considered a matter
of a superseded position , For it is true, as Cornelius says, that a simply beautiful
countenance often exerts more than any emphasis on the individual, and a Madonna
will never be too beautiful, and a Christ never too exalted; if but whether this will not
someday be considered a matter of a superseded position. For it is true, as Cornelius
says, that a simply beautiful countenance often exerts more than any emphasis on the
individual, and a Madonna will never be too beautiful, and a Christ never too
exalted; if but whether this will not someday be considered a matter of a superseded
position. For it is true, as Cornelius says, that a simply beautiful countenance often
exerts more than any emphasis on the individual, and a Madonna will never be too
beautiful, and a Christ never too exalted; if but in large paintings, all persons from the
lowest to the highest level want to be kept in a beautiful or noble type, so that
disadvantages begin to be felt, which will be explored in detail in the 27th section. In
my opinion, the rule given in (Sect. 22), to turn to ideal ideals an ideal representation,
as it belongs to the characteristic of the ideal itself, will always have to be recorded as
a principal rule; even if she is allowed to yield to subordinate relationships; but only
after children. Treating subordinates as principals is rather a major departure from the
rule.
Here and there, of course, by establishing or applying such principles, one runs the
risk of simply declaring: "the Jew is being burned."
There are works of art that are exceptionally characteristic of an object that they are
not supposed to represent; what can be as pleasing from one side as it is to be
displeased from another, and on the whole to be regarded as a mistake; a mistake that
many connoisseurs overlook, of course, which suffices that only something is at all
characteristic. A curious example of this kind is the so-called Schwartz votive picture
of the elder Holbein, which has recently been repeatedly discussed. 3)Here sits God
Father in a kind of grandfather's chair over clouds as a worn-out old man with a very
wrinkled, half-grumpy, half-good-natured, all ideal type, face that lacks all
dignity. Nothing can be more characteristic in the relation of representation to such a
human old man, as it is indisputably a portrayal of portraits taken with the fullest
truth from life, which as such is highly interested; Nothing can be less characteristic,
if one should imagine God under it, yes one finds it outraged thereby, that one should
nevertheless. A similar case is offered by the Christ Child in the arms of the famous
Madonna of the Younger Holbein, if it really is supposed to present a Christ child, as
the connoisseurs demand, being admirably characteristic of a miserable sick human
worm, but giving the most miserable idea of a Christian child; whereas the Christ
child of Raphael's Sistine is very little characteristic of a human child at all, but the
more characteristic of the idea one is inclined to make of a Christian child whose eyes
are already alight from his sublime predestination. It is, so to speak, a miracle of
characteristic in this respect, since, as noted, the characteristic of ideal personalities
generally lags far behind their task. whereas the Christ child of Raphael's Sistine is
very little characteristic of a human child at all, but the more characteristic of the idea
one is inclined to make of a Christian child whose eyes are already alight from his
sublime predestination. It is, so to speak, a miracle of characteristic in this respect,
since, as noted, the characteristic of ideal personalities generally lags far behind their
task. whereas the Christ child of Raphael's Sistine is very little characteristic of a
human child at all, but the more characteristic of the idea one is inclined to make of a
Christian child whose eyes are already alight from his sublime predestination. It is, so
to speak, a miracle of characteristic in this respect, since, as noted, the characteristic
of ideal personalities generally lags far behind their task.
3) Anart historical discussion; This picture of me can be found in Weigel 's
archive 1870. 1.

XXIV. About some major deviations of art from nature.


1.Violations of the unity of space, time and person.

In a sense, the greatest deviations of art from nature include the violations of
the unity of space, time and the person. To recall some examples of such
injuries in the fine arts, we see in some pictures, as by Raphael, Kaulbach,
Rahl, the heroes of a prolonged period of culture, which have lived at different
times and in different places, in some vivid connection and Relationship
presented in the same picture; in older pictures the whole passion story of
Christ or otherwise biblical stories in a coherent field in different scenes at the
same time repeatedly presented, in votive images the donator figures on the
cross or at the birth of Christ shown kneeling. Even on medieval and ancient
bas-reliefs, there is no lack of belonging here,
"The bronze reliefs of Ghiberti (left from 1378-1455) on the main portal of
the Baptistry of Florence, of which Michel Angelo said they are worthy to
grace the gates of Paradise, are contained in 10 large fields, each of which
presents a coherent image "Scenes of the Old Testament, and in each of these
fields are shown successive acts of the same event side by side."
1) Adam created by God, 2) Eve created by God from a rib of sleeping
Adam, 3) Adam and Eve seduced by the serpent, 4) both expelled from
Paradise by the angel second field is 1) Cain as Ackersmann, Abel presented as
a shepherd, 2) the sacrifice of Cain and Abel, 3) the killing of Abel by Cain, 4)
the conversation of God with Cain, similarly through every 10 fields.
"Just as it is in the paintings of Simone Memmi, Spinello Aretino, Benozzo
Gozzoli and others in the Campo santo of Pisa, which fall in the 14th and 15th
centuries held, as can be seen in a picture by Benozzo Gozzoli (15th century 6
scenes from Abraham's life story and, in order not to leave any room unused,
depicted in the same painting as smaller side scenes various other scenes from
patriarchal shepherd life, etc. "
In the case of the Kranach's, this occurs several times, and rarely in the case
of Holbein.
The following examples of ancient bas-reliefs are taken from Tölken's book
on the bas-relief.
Apollonius of Rhodus describes an image depicting the chariot races of
Pelops and Oenomaus around the beautiful Hippodamia. Oenomaus crashes
and Hippodamia, his daughter, is already on the car of Pelops. An interpreter
notes that this should not indicate that Hippodamia accompanies the Pelops in
the fight; but the artist wanted to show both the run and the victory, the deed
and the success of the act, all at once. On the many scenes of Proserpina's
robbery one can see on the one hand the robber who abducts the struggling
maiden on his chariot, and often the mysterious figures of the open
underworld. In the middle Proserpina is still busy with reading flowers, and at
the opposite end the mother appears on her snake wagon, with burning
torches, to search for the lost daughter. All these moments are not separated
from each other by anything; rather, all the figures are harmoniously grouped
into a composition. Often, many more unite with them: the virgin goddesses,
playmates of Proserpina, Venus and Cupid, Mercur, the mournful Tellus, the
struggling streams, the veiled Tartarus, Heractes, and Andre. - On the beautiful
sarcophagus of the Capitol, introducing the death of Meleager, the associated
moments are presented in a coherent sequence just as an epic poet would tell
the story of the decisive moment lifting, etc Often, many more unite with them:
the virgin goddesses, playmates of Proserpina, Venus and Cupid, Mercur, the
mournful Tellus, the struggling streams, the veiled Tartarus, Heractes, and
Andre. - On the beautiful sarcophagus of the Capitol, introducing the death of
Meleager, the associated moments are presented in a coherent sequence just as
an epic poet would tell the story of the decisive moment lifting, etc Often,
many more unite with them: the virgin goddesses, playmates of Proserpina,
Venus and Cupid, Mercur, the mournful Tellus, the struggling streams, the
veiled Tartarus, Heractes, and Andre. - On the beautiful sarcophagus of the
Capitol, introducing the death of Meleager, the associated moments are
presented in a coherent sequence just as an epic poet would tell the story of the
decisive moment lifting, etc
The unity of the person may be violated in two ways, so that the same person
in the same picture is presented two or more times in different actions, which
usually goes hand in hand with the previous violation of the unit of time and
space, or such that there is one in the same Figure two people are presented at
the same time, z. For example, a protector of the arts is portrayed as Apollo, a
beautiful lady as Venus, a woman revered by the artist as a saint, examples of
which can be found in old Italian and German artists, including Holbein. 1)
1) It is not
improbable that both types of injury occur simultaneously in the
famous Holbein Madonna picture, in which in the upper naked child the Christ
child and a sick child of the family of the founder are represented in one, in
which the same child is healthy and the above ill (with sick little arms) is
shown, can see. But the dispute over these interpretations has not yet been
fought out.
Now habituation can contribute a great deal, reducing the disadvantages of
such injuries, and therefore one time and one nation can tolerate much more
than another. So the question is to be asked how far habituation can go and go,
so as not to become harmful to oneself; and there will probably be some
general points of view, but no firm limits, and it will be difficult to decide
whether what we now tolerate or do not tolerate after our habituation is
everywhere in the sense of the best possible habituation.
It is certain that art becomes possible through such violations, with which it
far surpasses nature, thereby making relations in a certain way vivid, for which
nature itself offers no means, but it is only by a violent injury and denial of the
natural, temporal, spatial, and personal conditions of existence, which, in spite
of all habituation, always subtract something from the effective impression of
the representations, and, when it goes beyond certain limits, certainly rejects
the displeasure.
By the way, one has to distinguish between them. Those who wanted to
commit gross violations of the unity of time, space, and person in a genre-
formation, which is mainly calculated to interest and to work through natural
truth, would necessarily disturb and destroy the chief effect; Where, on the
other hand, it is more a matter of symbolic representation of religious ideas,
one will be allowed to go relatively far into such injuries without seriously
harming the effect; but everything has its limits, which are stuck in general
terms, I do not dare. The artist will of course do well not to go further in such
injuries than he can presuppose habituation; a more practical rule can not be
given to him, and an a priori determinable measure in it can not be found at
all.

2.Intentional restriction of detail execution. Omission of Nebendingen.

As a very general rule of style, the execution in works of fine art is not to be
pushed too far, despite the fact that it would be closer to natural
truth. Throughout pictures and works of art, the most microscopic detail of
nature, and often much more than this, is neglected, not merely out of
necessity, because one can not comply with it, but out of freedom. On average,
more is neglected in large paintings than in smaller ones; in historical paintings
of so-called grand style, it is relatively more neglected than in genre-like, in
secondary figures and secondary things usually more than in main figures and
main subjects; according to which neglect must have other reasons than the
external inability of art.
As the next reason, it may be argued that, as the execution of the individual
becomes more perfected, the attention becomes more inclined to refer to and
become engaged thereby giving the main impression of the whole entry. In
itself and involuntarily the attention is divided by every detail, scattered,
fragmented, but at the same time occupied by the places where more detail is
found, occupied, than by empty places. Thus, it is already apparent in nature,
but in art much more and with greater disadvantage for the main impression
than in nature, for a threefold reason. On the one hand, we are not as used to
the most detailed execution in art as we are in nature, so more are struck by it,
irritated by it, whereas, in nature, we are dulled by nature. Secondly, the
interest in perfect imitation of nature detailed earlier (Sect. 22) contributes to
drawing attention away from the ideational content expressed in the main
features. Thirdly, that which occurs in nature as the main thing asserts itself by
the context in which it occurs, the precedents and the environment more
emphatically than in the picture, as in the picture of what all means of
attending to attention present in themselves; In other words, the design of the
objects must be measured in order to compensate for the disadvantage of being
in this respect against nature. to deduct attention from the ideational content
expressed in the main features. Thirdly, that which occurs in nature as the main
thing asserts itself by the context in which it occurs, the precedents and the
environment more emphatically than in the picture, as in the picture of what all
means of attending to attention present in themselves; In other words, the
design of the objects must be measured in order to compensate for the
disadvantage of being in this respect against nature. to deduct attention from
the ideational content expressed in the main features. Thirdly, that which
occurs in nature as the main thing asserts itself by the context in which it
occurs, the precedents and the environment more emphatically than in the
picture, as in the picture of what all means of attending to attention present in
themselves; In other words, the design of the objects must be measured in order
to compensate for the disadvantage of being in this respect against nature.
If, of course, it were not the art to hold the same step in the completion of the
detail with the completion of the main features, and we were used to that
perfection in art everywhere, as in nature, so would the interest and attention
for it , herewith the dissipative force of it, dull accordingly. But not only is it
impossible to fully accomplish the detailing of nature through art, it is just as
tedious to get very close to it. For this reason art as a whole abstracts itself
from the intrinsic fineness of its execution, and every greater or lesser begins to
exert an attracting or subtractive influence on our attention, which must be
considered in the most advantageous fashion.
Sandrart 2) tells us that he once came to Gerhard Dow with the artful van
Laer to get to know him and to take a look at his work. The artist received them
politely and willingly showed them his work. But when, among other things,
they had praised the great industriousness which he applied to a broomstick
that was little larger than a fingernail, he replied that he must still work on the
three days.
2) Teutsche Ak. 321st
This story is instructive in two ways. Who will pay attention to a natural
broomstick for its execution; They are given to a painted one because they are
usually not found there. And how long did it take Dow to find himself
completely satisfied with the execution of the broomstick. If Raphael had
needed more than three days for every little thing like a broomstick, how many
paintings would we have of him? But art has said so to itself: for the sake of
the advantage of having many works that are essentially perfected, I leave
aside some of the advantages which I could have in the final perfection of each
individual, and equal the demand of this perfection not at all in my world.
In addition to this, the attempt to do the same thing to nature in the detail
execution, without being able to achieve it entirely in it, with the strength of the
main impression, even slightly harms its correctness. In fact, let us take a circle
that runs in a series of small bends, but in such a way that the circular main
form appears properly from a greater distance, where the bends flow for the
eye. Whoever wants to draw the circle with all its bends, will miss the main
form more easily than who draws the circle without the bends, and the more he
will be entitled to do it, if the bends are only disturbing contingencies. Since all
our imitative art is only an approximation, it is no different than that every little
patch, every little piece,
On the other hand, there are historical pictures (for example, by
Lindenschmit) which seem to be composed of mere blobs nearby, and in the
distance make an expression of plastic power and truth of life, which can not
easily be attained by an execution the color and form resultants given in the
individual blots still strive to dissolve into their components. On the contrary, it
is not enough for these pictures to have the advantage that, if one steps only a
little closer, instead of enjoying a fine execution, they dissolve into an impure
smear. So you can go too far for this page, and you will have to congratulate
yourself on the fact that there are not so many pictures that you have to keep
more than 3 steps away from in order not to find them disgusting instead of
beautiful. After all, they are far preferable to
By the way, given that an artist had exerted himself to achieve the greatest
possible perfection in rendering the smallest detail, he would encounter the
same thing that the spectator meets, if he directs his attention too much to the
detail; he would forget to keep an eye on the higher advantages resting on the
composition of the whole. Yes, it would be so to say to him with all the art,
which the Gerhard Dow according to Sandrarts reports 3) with the persons
whom he wished to paint met: "by his slowness he behaved to the people to sit
all pleasure, so that they disguised their self-pleasing physiognomy and
changed entirely from weariness, whereby his conterfeits also became morose,
melancholy and unfriendly, and the true life, which is the most necessary piece
of painter and artist, not presented. "
3) T. Ak. 321st
In Kugler's Museum [1838. 381) is intended to be the painting style of a
Dutch artist, Schelfout, in landscape pictures as a minor to G. Dow's style of
painting in genre pictures as follows:
"Each accessory is of the same perfection: you can see the foreground and
the distance through the magnifying glass, you can see the grass growing on
the edge of the frame, and every broken piece of ice [in the winter landscape] is
like a cut diamond on which the sun's rays fall. It is well known that Gerard
Dow painted on a broomstick for three days, and I bet that such a broken piece
of ice, as seen on Schelfout's foreground, did not cost less time, it is Mieri's
school, applied to woods and canals, Such products love the Dutch, and that is
why Schelfout is their painter par excellence, The microscope in his hand, his
feet warming at the coal herd, admiring them for hours and immobile the
infinite world of his blades of grass, happy,if they happen to spot a grasshopper
or fly that they did not notice at first. "
But the judge also warns the talented artist to go on "in this deplorable way";
rather, he should "heal himself of this desolate perfection;" by looking at
pictures of Hobbema or Ruysdael, see how the latter "conjures up on the leash
wall the great effects of the whole and the physiognomy of each main group, so
that we embrace everything with one glance without the eye somehow
encountering an obstacle Main effect, however, while also the detail was
supplied with him master hand.
But the disadvantage of being far-reaching can, in certain cases, be more
important than in others; most importantly, where the weight lies on the general
main impression, which again depends on the weight of the idea to be
presented; hence the greater neglect of detail in paintings of historical or
religious significance; Who would like to tolerate Denner's heads, which, of
course, can only be tolerated as works of art? whereas, according to the
definition, the whole idea of the picture is less meaningful, in order to reckon
more on the joy of the successful reproduction of the natural detail, in order to
enjoy the picture at all. So yes, Gerhard Dow had to go further than Raphael,
and yet he could go too far in it.
The first degree of art is ever to give the main forms, the second higher to
give the main forms with their detail; but no degree of where the detail forms
are asserted or only want to assert at the expense of the main forms.
It may be remarked that there are works of art in which the finest detail of
nature is reproduced with admirable fidelity, without we at least perceiving it
as a disadvantage, but only as an advantage; these are daguerreotypical and
photographic portraits. But one can also remark that we are accustomed here to
the faithful reproduction of the natural detail as well as to the self, and that the
difficulty of producing with such a representation the correct overall
appearance of the picture does not exist for the photographic apparatus as well
as for the artist.
From similar points of view as the limitation of the detail execution, the
omission of Nebendingen, or reduction of the same to mere allusions, so often
occurs especially in ancient works of art. Partly one wants to concentrate the
attention on the main points, partly one does not consider it worth the effort to
use much diligence and costs in the presentation of secondary things. In part,
according to the nature of the art, the side-things are often not well different
than in intimations, and often several of these motifs work together.
3.Avoiding seemingly palpable reliefs in paintings.

The stylistic rule of not pushing the appearance of tangible relief in


paintings too far may be dependent on similar points of view as the previous
one. That painting should not forget that it is a flat art, does not want to say
anything; after that she would have to banish the appearance of the relief
entirely; nobody will say that. Rather, one seeks to produce the semblance of
the relief, but finds that for a higher artistic effect it does no good to produce
the full illusion.
The closest reason can be found when you see how in galleries pictures, in
which the average appearance of the relief is far exceeded, are admired by the
great public. Over the feat of what the painter has done, they forget to see the
meaning of the work of art. We are so used to accepting the lack of relief in
paintings that he no longer bothers us, and yet we begin to expect his limitation
to the nature of painting. When, for once, something more than the ordinary is
done, it seems strange to us, takes our attention, and that of nature, of reality,
seems more akin to the nature of painting. Could painting everywhere
reproduce the relief completely for the eyesight, this disadvantage would
disappear; but she can not do that for our two-eyed vision, for changing points
of view and scenes of greater depth. Now, it is less likely for us to see anything
deviated from nature, according to a certain principle, than to be entirely
satisfied under certain conditions of a picture, and to see it deviated from
others. The rule, not to go too far with the semblance of the relief in painting,
therefore rests in the last resort on a non-ability, as a non-idleness. She does not
want to do what she can not do on an average. as under certain conditions of a
picture it quite met her, among other things, to deviate from it. The rule, not to
go too far with the semblance of the relief in painting, therefore rests in the last
resort on a non-ability, as a non-idleness. She does not want to do what she can
not do on an average. as under certain conditions of a picture it quite met her,
among other things, to deviate from it. The rule, not to go too far with the
semblance of the relief in painting, therefore rests in the last resort on a non-
ability, as a non-idleness. She does not want to do what she can not do on an
average.

4.Translations into the ancient and modern.


In the forecourt of the Galleric di Brera in Milan, Emperor Napoleon stands as a
splintered hero, and on our esplanade King Friedrich August the Just as Roman
Emperor. No one would think that the liberal speeches of Marquis Posa in the Don
Carlos were a matter for all the Spanish period, that the barbarian king Thoas in the
Iphigenie really feels and acts barbarously, and that an Iphigenie of the heroes had
such finely veined sensations as in Goethe Drama.
Too bad that one has no general expression for such cases, as I have demonstrated
here in a few examples. In the absence of any other expression, I need "translation
into the ancient or modern" for it. What should one say about such translations?
If they did not have certain advantages, they would not be so frequent; and these
advantages must be taken into account.
Who wants to deny that Napoleon, as a naked Greek hero and Friedrich August as a
Roman emperor, carry a monumental character, what they call it, as depicted in a
true-to-nature costume? But a monumental character has to do with
monuments. These persons had a meaning over the everyday reality, and are to be
raised by the art representation beyond; The antique character still makes the
impression of it, in a certain way, in which it seems to ennoble everything, even more
so when it has been given a monumental significance by an art convention and its
dependent habituation, as it used to be in the past. In spite of the fact that such
representations no longer correspond to today's taste, one could say enough in favor
of them in the sense of contemporary art views. If art is to be understood only by
itself and can prove its right by its action (Sect. XXII.), Then the law of such
representations is proved by the fact that they once conquered a place in art. Art is not
meant to depict commonplace reality at all, and according to Cornelius, art has more
to do with beauty than with characteristics. On a naked Napoleon, however, the
beauty of the human body can be shown much better than on a clothed, and the
costume of a Roman emperor is artfully prettier than a king in trousers, which is at
least the formal aestheticist, who is only concerned with the meaning of things
arrives, may vote in favor of such representations. So Napoleon has the dress, this
sheer minor matter for the through the body immediately translucent, spirit, to which
the art has to refer but last, undressed, and Friedrich August dressed in the Roman
dress, in order to enter properly into the art galleries. And if it does not hurt our sense
of propriety to see an old hero naked, why achieve a new one, having such great art
advantages with his bare appearance; But you have to take off ordinary prudery
yourself when you enter the Kunsthalle and let it go there. Thus, I think,
representations of this kind could not be badly defended against the prevailing taste
according to valid principles. And if it does not hurt our sense of propriety to see an
old hero naked, why achieve a new one, having such great art advantages with his
bare appearance; But you have to take off ordinary prudery yourself when you enter
the Kunsthalle and let it go there. Thus, I think, representations of this kind could not
be badly defended against the prevailing taste according to valid principles. And if it
does not hurt our sense of propriety to see an old hero naked, why achieve a new one,
having such great art advantages with his bare appearance; But you have to take off
ordinary prudery yourself when you enter the Kunsthalle and let it go there. Thus, I
think, representations of this kind could not be badly defended against the prevailing
taste according to valid principles.
In fact, they have only the disadvantage that they almost strike at the claim of truth
and the need for truth, and where this need is not at all dulled by the habituation of
art, or where it has broken through victoriously, they must, of course, displease, and
ought also displeased, because the feeling of truth should not tolerate any strong
contradiction at all, and the monument has the task of representing its man not
abstractly but as a man of his time and of his people. However, it is difficult for him
to impart this task with the task of representing him exalted above ordinary
reality. but the worst remedy is to depict him uprooted from it; But it is precisely in
the dress that one of the most illustrious and tangible mediators of the individual lies
with his time and nation. On the other hand, there is a certain idealization in the cut of
the dress, and especially in the expression of the man, with less opposition to itTruth
and the sense of the task of the difficulty to meet can seek. Hereupon a later section
(XXVII) will come back.
If the historical drama and the historical novel transmits ways of thinking and
feeling that belong to the modern age to stories and persons of the past, there are
unquestionable advantages of the following kind, which are still to be
underestimated.
Historical or mythical persons and stories of importance - and only such are
generally used as a motive in art - are known to every educated person to a certain
extent, and it is said so from the outset a ready interest to them; but purely fictional
stories and characters must first seek to generate a corresponding interest, and yet
seldom be able to produce that they seem to be taken out of life as they really are. As
great as one may think of art, no king made by art interests us as much as the real
Alexander. The alternation with the worn-out materials of the modern age comes to
susceptibility to those who belonged to a bygone era, and the range of
representational materials and motifs is thereby expanded at all. The poet's
performance is facilitated in that he does not need stories to create characters from
scratch, but only needs to execute and arrange. And since we generally do not know
the old stories and characters in detail as well as the new ones, there is also
considerable room for maneuver in the performance, without being in clear
contradiction with our common ideas. But if one wanted to keep the execution as
close as possible to our knowledge, then the interest would easily be lost from
another side. To want to reflect the relative rawness or simplicity of old times and
peoples can be partly violated, partly not enough occupied, and the old ways of
feeling and thinking away from understanding, because we are now educated in
modern conditions, feelings and ways of thinking. Thus, the historical novel and the
historical drama permeates and enhances the advantages of a meaningful material,
which appeals to our interest from the outset, even more or less by the incorporation
and incorporation of the modern ways of seeing and feeling familiar to us and
appearing. Feeling and thinking are educated. Thus, the historical novel and the
historical drama permeates and enhances the advantages of a meaningful material,
which appeals to our interest from the outset, even more or less by the incorporation
and incorporation of the modern ways of seeing and feeling familiar to us and
appearing. Feeling and thinking are educated. Thus, the historical novel and the
historical drama permeates and enhances the advantages of a meaningful material,
which appeals to our interest from the outset, even more or less by the incorporation
and incorporation of the modern ways of seeing and feeling familiar to us and
appearing.
Here as well, of course, the injured sense of truth asserts itself as a counterweight,
but not everywhere asserted that it outweighs those advantages. General humanity is
common to all times and peoples; and if only the truth is rightly observed, it is easy to
overlook injuries to them in the way that varies according to time and people, unless
they are too strong. So it will not be universally or par excellence that such
translations of the old into modernity are to be rejected; Rather, it will only apply,
first, to hold so far as to prevent the feeling of contradiction with external truth from
becoming intrusive-no artist will be allowed to represent Nero as a benevolent ruler; -
Secondly, that the translation does not evoke internal contradictions of the
representation, eg. For example, features of a raw reality mix harshly and abruptly
with features of a finer culture.
In this respect, however, one person tolerates more than the other, and it would be
wrong to assert the criterion of one's own sensibility as the absolutely universal
one. Here again there is a field of conflict where advantages and disadvantages fight
each other and conquer each other by turns; only extremes are to be avoided
everywhere. For me the disadvantages are easier to assert than the advantages, for
others it is the reverse, and no one will be able to prove to the other that he is
wrong; In any case, it is good to be clearly aware of what the advantages and
disadvantages are at all, since this can help protect oneself from one-sidedness, if not
sensation, but from judgment.
I will give an example of how far in the past taste can go. Not one, but several
persons, whose taste I respect, have spoken to me in the warmest terms of the
impression which the poetic beauty of the "Nibelung" of Jordan has made upon
them; The spread of applause, which the new epic found, also proves itself in the
multiplicity of editions that are already being experienced. In fact, in a sense, it offers
significant benefits beyond the old epic. What other variety of sensations, actions,
situations, events in it; the sensations, situations developed in detail, everything
woven into a magical aura and interwoven with poetic images and lights. But I could
not read the book, as the main impression of it for me, as far as I came, was that of a
Galimathia of the old magic and reckoning with modern sentimentality and
reflection. In a colorful world of fairy tales, in which the magical is increased to the
monstrous and grotesque, we see the dragon slayer Sigfrid (on the way to the
Hinderberge p. 67) to make self-reflections on the destiny and manner of feeling of a
hero, the same (p Today's expressions of pious childlike feelings endure, the king of
the grapes Gunther (p.75) loses himself in sentimental reflections and pictures about
the power of music, through which an "otherwise pathless universe of sensation
opens up", the singer Horand (p. 102). to develop the meaning that singers and
singers not only have, but should also have in the future And as the poet knows all
sorts of poetic things about everything, he also lets his persons say them in sufficient
breadth; sometimes they are not finished in their arguments. Against this, magic plays
a very modest role in all epics, the whole course of the events runs off a simple
thread, the characters act quite simply according to their strong passions and speak as
their beak has grown; It often sounds dry and prosaic enough, but they do not want to
speak poetically like the Jordanians, or rather like Jordan, and yet remain poetic. On
the whole, I prefer that if it does not satisfy the demands of modern sensation, which
I myself would make to a description of modern conditions; In doing so, one must put
oneself into the old time and way of looking at things; the Jordanian epic, on the
other hand, satisfies such claims, thereby finding itself in the old days with its
modern sentiment, insofar as the feeling of injured truth does not object. In the
sensation of some, however, this satisfaction outweighs all disadvantages from the
latter point of view, and does not make them stand out, while it is the reverse in my
case. But now I think that if, as I must believe, I am too one-sided in this and
therefore not fair enough to the poet, the contrary admiration, which does not take
account of those disadvantages, is no less. by finding oneself in the old time with its
modern sensation, in so far as the feeling of injured truth does not object. In the
sensation of some, however, this satisfaction outweighs all disadvantages from the
latter point of view, and does not make them stand out, while it is the reverse in my
case. But now I think that if, as I must believe, I am too one-sided in this and
therefore not fair enough to the poet, the contrary admiration, which does not take
account of those disadvantages, is no less. by finding oneself in the old time with its
modern sensation, in so far as the feeling of injured truth does not object. In the
sensation of some, however, this satisfaction outweighs all disadvantages from the
latter point of view, and does not make them stand out, while it is the reverse in my
case. But now I think that if, as I must believe, I am too one-sided in this and
therefore not fair enough to the poet, the contrary admiration, which does not take
account of those disadvantages, is no less.

XXV. Preview to the three following sections.


We have called styling, idealizing, and symbolizing the purest means (Sect. XXII),
whereby art rises above mere imitation of nature and attains its greater advantages. In
the use of these words and the underlying concepts, we are confronted by the same
evils which we encounter elsewhere in the field of general concepts, that they are not
always used everywhere in the same sense and with the same breadth, and are clearly
kept apart everywhere. And so the following will be no less relevant to its linguistic
as factual use.
It is a pity, of course, that we have to deal with discussions about the former at
all. The factual discussions would become much easier and simpler if we had just as
much, and according to a fixed usage of speech, differentiated and comprehensible
words for the manifold conceptual phrases and expanses of those concepts which
come under the same word, with which we could enter into consideration. But it is
not the case, and so we must, of course, use these words and, in order to prevent
conceptual confusion, initiate and supplement the factual discussions with linguistic
ones.
In the XXII. Sections of the concepts concerned are essentially intended only in
relation to the fine arts; In the following we shall summarize them in their general
significance for art, albeit of preferential importance to the visual arts.

XXVI. Style, styling.


It is in style as with taste. One speaks of a bad and good taste; but in a narrower
sense, taste is just a good taste. One speaks of bad and good style; but in a narrower
sense, one understands by style only the good style. One praises a man by saying that
he has taste; and a work of art saying that it has style; used both tastefully and
stylishly both in the good sense of objects of pleasing.
But what is the style in the wider sense, where it is still possible to speak of a bad
style, the common sense of style in a bad and good sense?
I mean, in the broadest sense, style is, from some point of view, a common form of
representation for a majority of diverse works of art or works in general. The
commonality can be grounded in the nature of the subject, which imparts the same
stamp to his various works. In the sense in which Buffalo said that "Le style c'est
l'homme," and more recently Kirchmann (Aesthetics, II. 287) says, "Style designates
the artistic treatment of those parts of the work of art which determine their destiny
can not get from the notion and the factual rule, but only from the personality of the
artist ... So the style always rests in the personality of the artist. " Every human being
has his style in this sense; and in the wider sense, every time what art does, its style,
which can be good or bad; the narrower meaning does not yet come into
consideration here. Further, the commonality of form can be conditioned by the
nature of the object, be it its substance or its ideal content, or the genre of art to which
it is subordinate. In the first sense, marble, the ore in sculpture, determines the wood,
the stone, the iron in architecture its style, one can no longer say: le style c'est
l'homme, and explains to Rumohr the style "as" to become habituated to the inner
demands of the material, in which the artist really forms his characters, the painter
makes them appear. " Further, the commonality of form can be conditioned by the
nature of the object, be it its substance or its ideal content, or the genre of art to which
it is subordinate. In the first sense, marble, the ore in sculpture, determines the wood,
the stone, the iron in architecture its style, one can no longer say: le style c'est
l'homme, and explains to Rumohr the style "as" to become habituated to the inner
demands of the material, in which the artist really forms his characters, the painter
makes them appear. " Further, the commonality of form can be conditioned by the
nature of the object, be it its substance or its ideal content, or the genre of art to which
it is subordinate. In the first sense, marble, the ore in sculpture, determines the wood,
the stone, the iron in architecture its style, one can no longer say: le style c'est
l'homme, and explains to Rumohr the style "as" to become habituated to the inner
demands of the material, in which the artist really forms his characters, the painter
makes them appear. " 1) In the second sense, the general character of the historical,
the heroic, the genre content determines the style. In the last sense one speaks of a
picturesque, plastic, architectural style, etc. In the demands of the object one
generally presupposes the demands of the good style in the narrower sense, but the
point of commonality is not therein, and the style of the ore can open Marble, the
painterly style on plastic works, the opera style on church music are rendered poor. -
The point of commonality may finally, in a particular character of form, be ruthless to
the nature of the subject and object of representation, so to speak, if one speaks of a
strict or lax, light or heavy, flowing or chopped, low, great style, rococo style,
Arabesque style etc
1) Italy. Research. IS 87.
In the face of all these specialties of style, one can at last find an aspect of
commonality in the fact that the given idea is advantageously satisfied by the method
of representation beyond the mere necessity of correctness or factual
appropriateness. This gives the style in the narrower sense of the good style, whose
conditions we want to elaborate on below.
Insofar as one understands a good style by style in the narrower sense of the word,
it would be apt to understand, under a stylized representation as such, a representation
in good style; 2) but in fact one needs the designation stylish or stylized rather than
stylized, unless too stylized expressly adds the epithet well, and only under such
conditions can one speak of stylization as a general requirement of art. Against this
the expression stylize par excellence has taken on a somewhat peculiar turn in the art
conversation concerning fine art. Certainly one will demand of a genre-guild that it is
no less in good style than a historical picture; but do not like to say of the better genre
pictures that they are stylized in the first place, in fact by a stylized representation in
the fine arts one understands one in which, according to one, in a certain art
direction, Be it from an indispensable or valid motive of nature has deviated beyond
the necessary. Thus, for example, the ancient horses are stylized, which do not
resemble the natural one in several relationships, no less a representation of modern
objects in a more or less antique character. As good as in the antique sense, however,
a depiction could also be stylized in the Chinese sense. In addition, there are guilt
definitions of styling, as when E. Förster says in his preschool of art history p. 139:
"A stylized form in the fine arts is a designation of the object brought to the simplest
expression"; which, however, does not seem to me to make the usual sense; and, in
the end, good style would be a poor thing if one wanted to judge it by this definition
of its derivation.
2) Contextualizing with idealizing, stylizing is essentially so understood on p.
It seems to me to be a sort of stubbornness of language use if, in certain cases,
which are subordinated to the broadest version of the concept of style (since this is
also a common feature shared by several works of art), it would be better of Style
speaks as style. On the one hand, one understands by manner a commonality of form
or color in the conditions of the technical method of handling or manipulation of the
means or in the imitation of a certain pattern, as in Kreideemanier, Tuschmanier, a
manner of applying paint, in Raphael's manner painted pictures and so on, without
making much of the concept of the flawed. In fact, one would rather not speak of
chalk style, ink style, etc .; if one should have thought, since the external of the form
and color of the stylus (style) is closer than the hand, the inverse designation would
have been closer. In another sense, however, manners are opposed to style in the strict
sense or good style as something flawed, by which it means a commonality of form
or color, founded in the subjectivity of the artist or art school, neither by objective
reasonableness nor the benefits of the good style, not at all motivated, is hereby
reprehensible. Again one would like to ask why style par excellence is only used in a
bad manner, in a manner of style, in comparison with style, since the hand is closer to
the heart and soul of the artist than the style. May others try the Enlightenment of
this. since the outward appearance of form and color is closer to the stylus than to the
hand, the reverse designation would have been more appropriate. In another sense,
however, manners are opposed to style in the strict sense or good style as something
flawed, by which it means a commonality of form or color, founded in the
subjectivity of the artist or art school, neither by objective reasonableness nor the
benefits of the good style, not at all motivated, is hereby reprehensible. Again one
would like to ask why style par excellence is only used in a bad manner, in a manner
of style, in comparison with style, since the hand is closer to the heart and soul of the
artist than the style. May others try the Enlightenment of this. since the outward
appearance of form and color is closer to the stylus than to the hand, the reverse
designation would have been more appropriate. In another sense, however, manners
are opposed to style in the strict sense or good style as something flawed, by which it
means a commonality of form or color, founded in the subjectivity of the artist or art
school, neither by objective reasonableness nor the benefits of the good style, not at
all motivated, is hereby reprehensible. Again one would like to ask why style par
excellence is only used in a bad manner, in a manner of style, in comparison with
style, since the hand is closer to the heart and soul of the artist than the style. May
others try the Enlightenment of this.
After having thought enough of the conceptual discussion of the various phrases of
the concept of style, we then deal with the matter of style in the narrower sense or of
the good style, with some of them being discussed casually or briefly in earlier
sections (namely, XIII, XXII) more in detail will come back.
The advantage to be achieved by a good style has two sides. On the one hand it lies
in the clarity, clarity, definiteness, lightness, immediacy, concise brevity and
sharpness, in short formal appropriateness, with which the meaning or ideal content
of a work is brought to our consciousness, secondly in a pleasurable form, which
apart from objective as well of formal appropriateness, of liking, and of which it is
preferable to emphasize that of various equally adequate representations of a given
idea, which is best enjoyed without regard to this appropriateness. Both sides of the
style have to unite to the greatest advantage.
One might be able to say something with much boxing, as in clearly separated
sentences; but it is from the first page more style in the last phrase. Doing a lot of
sentences with each other with the same word does not hurt either the correctness or
the clarity, but it is second to none in style.
In one picture, the main character can be portrayed quite correctly, but pushed into
the background or to the side, and so little illuminated that she does not appear as a
main character. It is a mistake against the style from the first page. Among the
various ways in which a garment can fall we like, for whatever reason, one way better
than the other. The style requires, on the other hand, that we prefer the more
agreeable, in so far as it does not contradict the factual adequacy too strongly; for in
the depiction of a dissolute person, a garment of slovenliness could fit better and
would be preferable.
It would be desirable if we had two short terms for the one and the other side of the
style or the style in one and the other sense, since both are subject to different points
of view which unite only under the very general view of the most advantageous use
of the means of representation. In the absence of such significant expressions, we
distinguish both as the first and second sides of the style, and in the following confine
ourselves to explaining both in relation to the visual arts. First let's talk about the
style after its first page.
In general, nature does not provide us with the objects immediately below the most
favorable conditions for their conception; it conceals the main figure by the
secondary figures, or sets it aside or back, and does not agree with the impression of
the colors and the lines in detail harmonious with the total impression that the whole
thing is to make, and does not endeavor at all to find any positive means of
facilitating the conception of supporting the main mood, of course does not require
such support in the same degree as art, since it does not endow its objects torn out of
the connection with the rest of the world, but presents in temporal and spatial
connection with it, which, by itself, explains and adds understanding to the
impression of the object.What art derives from the advantages of nature in this
respect must not only be replaced by the style of its first page, but should, if possible,
be surpassed.
For example: the main character should assert himself as the main character. There
are many means among which one must choose among others so that the natural
character and the other stylistic requirements are still satisfied as far as possible. The
main character can be preferred by position, insulation, size, color, lighting, perfect
execution, probably also by several of these circumstances at the same time. But
somehow it must be preferred, otherwise it is a mistake against the style. She will
assert the most advantageous position in this regard, if she rises or stands out in the
middle of the painting and above the other figures. So we see it z. In the Sistine and
Holbein Madonna. Thus, in many cases, a pyramidal grouping almost automatically
asserts itself. But a Christ child, as a protagonist or as an important secondary figure
in the Madonna, can not be well represented above the heads of others; it runs too
much against the factual appropriateness with which the formal of the style may not
contradict itself, or only for the sake of its overwhelming advantages; so it is
preferred by brightness; Almost always the Christ child is the brightest spot in the
whole picture. This is helped by his nudity or the white clothing, which he wears in
older depictions, and often also a light emanating from him. So, while it is towered
over by the Madonna as his mother, it gleams as a heavenly child the mother with
which the formal of the style may not, or only for the sake of very predominant
advantages, set itself in contradiction; so it is preferred by brightness; Almost always
the Christ child is the brightest spot in the whole picture. This is helped by his nudity
or the white clothing, which he wears in older depictions, and often also a light
emanating from him. So, while it is towered over by the Madonna as his mother, it
gleams as a heavenly child the mother with which the formal of the style may not, or
only for the sake of very predominant advantages, set itself in contradiction; so it is
preferred by brightness; Almost always the Christ child is the brightest spot in the
whole picture. This is helped by his nudity or the white clothing, which he wears in
older depictions, and often also a light emanating from him. So, while it is towered
over by the Madonna as his mother, it gleams as a heavenly child the mother3); and
so, in general, the style will always have to be chosen from among the various means
at its disposal, which are preferable to what is best suited to factual appropriateness,
and in which both sides of the style are best compatible. Now it may be remarked
that, in a cone with a downward-pointing tip, the tip can no longer symbolically
represent a summit of meaning as in the upward turn, but always represents a point of
merit, the point of termination of the sides, to which the sides of the cone lead on
both sides; and after having to praise the significance of the lace in the Christian
child, this achievement is still gladly held and the child placed in the top of a funnel
or on the bottom of a pit, to which the people grouping around the same side rests,
especially at the birth of Christ or the adoration of the Christ child by Mary, angels or
saints. From the mere point of factual appropriateness, adults could just as well stand
by one side of the child as one child, and one will not find that easy; and indeed, in
the two-sided position with the first stylistic consideration, the second also comes
into consideration, as in a balancing of the masses lies a symmetrical moment on both
sides of the main point, which is as pleasing as it does not contradict the expression
of natural life , But when the child sinks into a pit, the need becomes all the more
urgent to replace the lost significance of height with the shine; and when in the night
of Correggio and so many analogous representations of the birth of Christ the child
radiates light from his whole body, while the grown-up persons standing or kneeling
on both sides look at it, then the objective and stylistic demands are at the same time
most appropriate suffice, in that the child, in its natural relation to the adults,
towering above them and at the same time most favorable to our attention as the
object of their attention, appears through his light both symbolic and light coming
into the world, and stylistically the most captivates. Achieving such a unanimous
satisfaction of objective and stylistic demands is one of the main tasks of art; to
notice her
3) If
in the so-called Holbein Madonna picture the upper child should be a
Christ child, the lower a child of the family of founders, as the ordinary view of
connoisseurs is, then one would have thoroughly abstained from the style in
which Holbein is otherwise considered a master. in that the lower child is not
only a shade brighter than the upper, but also attracts attention through more
advantageous appearance and behavior.

In his essay on the conditions of artistic beauty, Lotze contradicts the stylistic rule
of attaching the main object of a representation in the middle of the picture, first of all
in landscapes (p. 55), but more generally (p. 74) as follows:
A group of trees will stand quite vainly and provocatively in the middle, while
outside of them it brings a graceful unpredictability into the whole. , , . "
Further: "If one associates with the pyramidal grouping, which otherwise was
regarded as the unbreakable law of composition, the sense that the main figure or
main group should take the center of the painting everywhere, then we may well
disagree decisively, as in landscape painting, so too Here, this position is over-
calculated and deliberate, and we are glad to admit that it is used in many
ecclesiastical paintings which contrast us with the ecclesiastical, thus making us look
at the center of the world, but profane representations are bettered by the eccentricity
of their protagonists to indicate the historical naturalness by which these have been
put into some fragment of the world. "
As remarkable as these remarks are of one of our most astute aesthetes, I do not
want to fully subscribe to them by admitting the fact to a certain extent but wanting to
understand the reason for it differently. If, in a landscape, an eccentric position of the
object, which for whatever reason is most amenable to attracting attention, seems to
be advantageous, then, in my opinion, the main reason is that, if a central position is
added to the remainder of its intrusiveness the attention is so fixed on the picture that
it is chiefly for the sake of the object, that the landscape seems to exist only as its
secondary environment, which is detrimental to the overall impression, since the
impression of a landscape should not be spread from one point, but should be woven
together from the whole, according to which there is, in principle, no main object in
the same sense for a landscape as in the case of a historical or religious image. Due to
the eccentric position, the conspicuous object is now pressed down to the landscape
value assigned to it.
Rather than taking pictures other than landscapes, the emphasis is often on one
main scene, main group, main hand, to which different persons contribute in different
proportions, than on a single figure, after which, however, no single claim to the
position in the middle has; but the scene, group, action, which is the main concern,
has yet to occupy the center, and one really sees in general the same thing. The fact
that in religious pictures, where a single person dominates the whole by means of its
meaning, this person takes center stage is not disputed by Lotze either, and in
portraits, as in the isolated depiction of major works of architecture, one will
naturally find the position in the middle.
Since we have the impression of every picture that it is a piece cut out of
reality; Thus, an image with the main object (or main group) in the middle is less
likely to give us the impression of an unnatural middle position of the object as an
expedient way of cutting out and presenting the piece, which we can only well-
complacently dislike , If, of course, a single lady in the picture brushes against the
wall in front of the mirror, she can not be placed in the middle so as not to turn her
back on us; and so there may be some secondary motifs which make it necessary to
deviate from the middle position of the main thing; as a rule, she seems to be holding
on to me.
U. a. We also think of size as a stylistic means of emphasizing the importance of a
protagonist against other figures. But it can be achieved a predominantly size of the
main character partly by the fact that it is more in the foreground and hereby appears
optically larger, partly because it is represented with symbolic meaning as really
larger.
In any case, not putting the main character in the background unites several stylistic
reasons. As it narrows, becomes more distant, the detail of it blurs, it draws our
attention less, and is more in danger of being obscured by secondary characters; yet,
except in the case that it is cut through as half-figure from the lower edge of the
picture, it will not easily be seen in the extreme foreground of this edge. For once,
except for special reasons, the eye is attracted not the most from the edge, but from
the center of the picture, and the main figure would be also in the middle of the
height direction, as it happens in the direction of the width, if not just very in the
background with it; second, there is a need to associate with the main object some of
its environment, with some of the subordinate figures themselves becoming more
foregrounded. But in so far as these gain a certain advantage over the protagonist in
the middle ground, care must be taken that they do not exaggerate the advantage of
their position too much by the carefulness of their execution, illumination, and
striking attire; and you can, for. For example, in this respect Huss before the stake in
the famous Lessing painting Huss, the stylistic measure does not appear quite
right. But in so far as these gain a certain advantage over the protagonist in the
middle ground, care must be taken that they do not exaggerate the advantage of their
position too much by the carefulness of their execution, illumination, and striking
attire; and you can, for. For example, in this respect Huss before the stake in the
famous Lessing painting Huss, the stylistic measure does not appear quite right. But
in so far as these gain a certain advantage over the protagonist in the middle ground,
care must be taken that they do not exaggerate the advantage of their position too
much by the carefulness of their execution, illumination, and striking attire; and you
can, for. For example, in this respect Huss before the stake in the famous Lessing
painting Huss, the stylistic measure does not appear quite right.
A symbolic use of predominant size to denote the predominant importance of a
main character usually comes in too harsh contradiction with the natural truth, to find
space often, and it would be ridiculous z. For example, a Christ child would be taller
than the adults who surround it. On the other hand, it is not uncommon to see in older
pictures the Madonna, huge, against the earthly figures kneeling before her or under
her cloak; and the Greeks have sometimes used this remedy to emphasize the
preponderance of gods or heroes. One must have become accustomed to such things
in order to tolerate it.
Finally, the distribution of colors can be stylistically weighed according to the
significance of the objects; and Sandrart (T. Akad. 1678, 63) in this respect gives the
following very definite rules, which, of course, like all such rules, are only to be
carried out to the extent that they do not conflict with other rules which surpass them.
"One must, therefore, put on the colors, so that the least in the whole work comes
forth before all to the richest, lightest, and most beautiful ... One has to teach the
common and official persons of the figure with bad or broken colors, as a result of
which the customers have a greater reputation ... The artist has to take care of it at
any time that the principal persons with the strongest most agreeable colors color,
come to the brightest best place to come .... on the other hand the common dark
colors are actually and best serve the common ones People who stand apart in an
angle and a corner. "
No less does the kind of meaning demand its stylistic consideration in the use of
colors. Once it has been brought, for whatever reason, to dress a given personality in
a garment of a certain color, like the Madonna for several centuries in red and blue, it
is in style to dress her further in it to make them more easily recognizable, and not to
arouse a question about the deviation for which there is no answer, but the pleasure of
the artist. If, of course, a different answer could be found in a certain motive, which
outweighs the stylistic consideration, then the deviation could also be justified.
Apart from conventions, colors have a certain mood character that allows them to
fit in better or better. If a painting is to give a serious impression to its idealistic
content, it would be against the style to present it in cheerful coloring and
lighting; whereas one finds repeatedly missing in older as well as newer
pictures. Thus a burial of Fiesole in the Gallery of the Academy of Florence struck
me as strange because of the very cheerful impression of color which she
contradicted with the character of the task. All figures in it, with bright red and light
blue robes, blond hair, many with golden halos, as if attuned to a merry feast. In other
pictures of Fiesole, we enjoy this cheerful character, here he asserts himself as a
manner. At the second Leipzig Art Exhibition I saw a picture where angels flying
through the sky carry the body of Moses (according to a legend) into a cave. The
angels had parrot-colored wings, contradicting the mood that the picture should
arouse.
In the distribution of the entire material of a picture, stylistically it is necessary to
avoid two extremes, a hacked, jagged, isolating one, and a view that is too cluttered
and confusing, as one often finds in battle scenes. The idea demands to be guided
through the whole picture by the thread of vivid middle parts, rather than to find the
structure of the idea expressed in a clear structure and proper separation. So it's about
uniting bondage and clarity of presentation.
No less does style demand that the object for which it is chiefly to be done should
be given neither too little nor too much environment, at least as much as is necessary
for the description, explanation, and vigorous development of the meaning of the
object if it can not assert itself in complete isolation, and no more than is useful,
otherwise attention will be too much distracted. I saw a great historical picture of
Haach in Dusseldorf, depicting how the sleeping Christ is awakened by the apostles
in the ship on stormy seas; the apostles make frightened and fearful faces and
gestures; but nothing is seen of the sea except something in the four corners of the
picture, and a wave sweeping up into the ship; the ship pretty much fills the
picture. Here too little is given of the external cause, to which the whole meaning of
the scene hangs, and thus the imagination is burdened with a supplementary
performance which, instead of reinforcing and animating the impression of the whole,
destroys it. On the other hand, one sees historical or genre scenes so well built into a
wide landscape or so elaborately advancing the staffage of a landscape that the
impression that each of the two elements could make suffers from the wavering
between the two, each offering more than what is reciprocal supported.
For example, this is explained by the following assessment of some of Gentz's
pictures, which were found at the Berlin Exhibition of 1864, in the Dioscuri 1864, p.
370. They represent a caravan and a bedouin camp. Here, the landscape background
occupies such an important place "that the figurative seems to be reduced to almost
mere staffage." In that both, landscape and figurative composition "are one and the
same in content, but according to their content they have a different claim to
participation, the attention is too much shared between the two, and there is no
uniform impression that completely fulfills the soul"; the pictures, despite the great
virtuosity and technical care of their execution, do not attain the effect which they
would produce;
It may be enough from previous examples of style considerations on the first
page; and only examples could be here.
As for the second side of the style, nature does not care to offer the means by which
it seeks to achieve its ends as well as possible; the style has to worry about that.
When one extends an arm to something, he can do it in an unpleasant, angular,
clumsy, stiff, or graceful way that makes the impression of pleasing lightness; the
purpose can be achieved equally well in both cases; but you will prefer to see the
latter movement. Thus, the same idea can be universally met with (whether direct or
associative) less pleasing or more pleasing forms, traits are equally well fulfilled, and
it is a matter of style to prefer the latter, just considering that the idea is equally well
fulfilled, or if not that of the style side gained more, than is lost on the part of the
appropriateness to the idea.
Goethe once said (against the Skizzists 4) : "Fine art should not only speak to the
spirit through the external sense, it should itself satisfy the external sense." The spirit
may then join in and not refuse its applause. "
4) Propylases p. 36.
This enters the second style claim. It's not just about providing the mind with
something that makes sense, but also offering it in a way that pleases.
According to this, we express the second requirement of style as follows: Among
the forms and proportions of representation permitted by the factual appropriateness
or demand of the idea, and by the style considerations from the first point of view,
those are to be preferred, which apart from that - what we call here for brevity
want 5)- best liked; But for which we can also set: under different ways, as an idea
can be more closely defined, under otherwise equal circumstances one is preferable,
for which a more agreeable form of presentation is appropriate. Both, however,
basically come down to one, except that sometimes it can be more convenient to use
one or another of the expressions. In fact, every other form of representation
corresponds by itself to an otherwise modified idea; but the artist has, to a certain
extent, the freedom to present any general idea modified, and he prefers the most
advantageous modification.
5) On the other hand, the directly agreeable has been contrasted with the
pleasingly pleasing to the associative and agreeable, with which the present use
is not to be confused.

The considerations which are to be taken from this second aspect of the style will
be exhausted by considerations just as little as those which come under the first, and
will be banished otherwise than by adding to every rule: it is only valid far, as it is not
limited or outweighed by other rules that it comes into conflict with. For example,
let's consider some things here without being able to avoid going back into some
earlier considerations.
In particular, it is the principle of the unified connection of the manifold, on which
important style considerations of the second kind depend. If it were to be considered
singularly and only as regards the illustrative side of the work of art, then a
symmetrical arrangement, or even an arrangement of the entire composition, which
could be traced in an easily comprehensible way, would be the most
advantageous; and by all counter-reflections, this advantage, as noted earlier, is
stylistically asserted in such a way that one not only loves to give religious pictures
an approximately symmetrical arrangement, but also demands in pictures of every
kind a certain equal balance of the masses from both sides. (Th. I. 181.) But in
general the emphasis in works of the fine arts must be on the adherence of an ideal
connection of the manifold. which enters into a more general and higher art rule. On
the other hand, the second side of the principle of uniform integration must be taken
into account. That is, in so far as the feeling of a common subordination to the all-
linking idea does not suffer, which would be betrayed by the impression of
fragmentation, the manifold should be brought into play as far as possible in order to
counteract the monotony, and are accordingly positions, turns, Expressions of the
figures as possible to vary. Also, one sees this style principle followed by the artists
everywhere, very often, of course, beyond what allow for contemplation, also
followed. in so far as the feeling of a common subordination to the all-linking idea
does not suffer, which would be betrayed by the impression of fragmentation, the
variety should be brought into play as far as possible in order to counteract monotony,
and are accordingly positions, expressions, expressions of the figures to vary as much
as possible. Also, one sees this style principle followed by the artists everywhere,
very often, of course, beyond what allow for contemplation, also followed. in so far
as the feeling of a common subordination to the all-linking idea does not suffer,
which would be betrayed by the impression of fragmentation, the variety should be
brought into play as far as possible in order to counteract monotony, and are
accordingly positions, expressions, expressions of the figures to vary as much as
possible. Also, one sees this style principle followed by the artists everywhere, very
often, of course, beyond what allow for contemplation, also followed.
Probably the most beautiful measure in consideration of all stylistic considerations
at all, as the impression itself proves, but especially in terms now discussed, offers
the Raphael Sixtina dar. The main arrangement is so clear from the first page of the
style that it makes no one but a bother To unfold a figure in the picture or a thought
about the image between others, and yet, what an inexhaustible wealth of movement,
expression, deep and sublime sensation lies in this simplicity and clarity, and pours
out in the impression of it. On the second side of the style, the main arrangement is
symmetrical, and how bad would it be if one of the two minor figures moved much
closer to the main figure than the other; but the symmetry is broken by lively
movement everywhere. St. Sixtus stands in a somewhat different height than Saint
Barbara, and it is said that he should not be more equal with it, in order not to allow
the impression of a mechanically-focussed symmetry to emerge, even if the lateral
position is almost equal. but not much different, so as not to completely destroy the
beneficial approach to symmetry. But to the stylistic life and hereby stimuli of the
whole thing contributes that St. Sixtus looks down from his somewhat lower position
in devotional uplifting, the holy Barbara from her somewhat higher state in humble
turn away from the splendor of the celestial appearance, while the Madonna just
looking over both and between them,
An implementation of the same principle of vividly broken symmetry can be found
in Holbein's Madonna. In fact, here too, the main arrangement is symmetrical in
relation to the main character; but the six secondary figures, three each on each side,
thus shift against each other, and show such a variety in turn of their figures, and in
particular heads, that thereby the need of a living variety is fully satisfied. And here,
too, one should not change much, for example, to put the three female figures in a
row, or let the middle one just see where the other two see, or give up the inclined
position of the middle male figure against the other two, should not the stimulus of
grouping by the diminished manifold is done essential demolition. But here, as in the
Sixtina, the stylistic advantage of diversity does not preserve the uniform ideal
impression, since several figures seem to care for other things than the subject of
devotion, while in the Sistine the very different modes, such as Saint Sixtus and Saint
Barbara, are but two expressions of devotional worship of the same object modulated
by the different character of the personalities. In the Holbein's picture a falling apart,
in which Raphael's people spread apart. while in the Sistine Chapel the very different
ways in which Saint Sixtus and Saint Barbara behave are only two expressions of
devotional worship of the same object modulated by the different character of the
personalities. In the Holbein's picture a falling apart, in which Raphael's people
spread apart. while in the Sistine Chapel the very different ways in which Saint Sixtus
and Saint Barbara behave are only two expressions of devotional worship of the same
object modulated by the different character of the personalities. In the Holbein's
picture a falling apart, in which Raphael's people spread apart.
In order to appreciate the stylistic advantage of the multiplication of positions and
phrases, one needs only the previous pictures so many old German, z. For example,
to look at Cranach's votive images, where the members of the founding family kneel
with the same turn of heads, the same expression, next to or behind each other, or
some photographic family pictures, where all the members, in order to fully present
themselves, are like a poplar standing in an upright position or sitting upright with
their heads straight, their heads held straight, their faces turned to the beholder,
which, of course, is not only contrary to style but also to factual appropriateness, for
there is no natural relationship which could cause the members of a family to face
each other or to sit next to each other; but if it were the case, it should not be chosen
for stylistic reasons for the image, because it is by itself unappealing by
monotony. Also, some artistically educated photographers seek to counteract the
stylistic disadvantage by adjusting and pushing the characters so that a certain variety
of positions and expressions comes out of it, only that they can not achieve what the
artist achieves if he succeeds From a single point of view, figures are placed in his
head in such a way that the multiplicity of positions and phrases appears only as the
natural structure of such a point of view, and the idea is thereby carried out in detail
rather than disseminated. For stylistic reasons, it should not be chosen as an image,
because it is unattractive by monotony. Also, some artistically educated
photographers seek to counteract the stylistic disadvantage by adjusting and pushing
the characters so that a certain variety of positions and expressions comes out of it,
only that they can not achieve what the artist achieves if he succeeds From a single
point of view, figures are placed in his head in such a way that the multiplicity of
positions and phrases appears only as the natural structure of such a point of view,
and the idea is thereby carried out in detail rather than disseminated. For stylistic
reasons, it should not be chosen as an image, because it is unattractive by
monotony. Also, some artistically educated photographers seek to counteract the
stylistic disadvantage by adjusting and pushing the characters so that a certain variety
of positions and expressions comes out of it, only that they can not achieve what the
artist achieves if he succeeds From a single point of view, figures are placed in his
head in such a way that the multiplicity of positions and phrases appears only as the
natural structure of such a point of view, and the idea is thereby carried out in detail
rather than disseminated.
Of course, one does not have to imagine that in the state of enthusiasm the artists
are all hoping for this most advantageous execution, even if ingenious artists in happy
moments are the case - in the enthusiasm for art one dares or believes in the artist's
enthusiasm the fact easily too much too -. The artists, however, know well that part of
the attraction of execution lies in simplification, and the position of the figures in the
minds of most artists on the basis of this knowledge may often differ from the
external position of the photographer with back-and-forth movements and back only
to the advantage that the inner figures do not yield so awkwardly and incompletely to
the experiments as the outer ones, in short that the artist has more in their power. But
it is true that this rule of style is often obeyed only by an external knowledge of it,
rather than by a feeling which also knows the limits of its applicability. This follows
from the fact that the limits are often exceeded. For example:
If it is the case of larger gatherings or elevators of many persons, then our style-
principle is, in a certain sense, commanding the greatest latitude, and the demand of it
appears most urgent, in order to avoid monotony. But now, in real meetings and
elevators, one sees the bulk of the participants, in the same sense, attuned, turned,
posed, and receives only the powerful impression of an unifying cause and a uniform
mass effect. If the artist here wishes to exercise the stylistic consideration of
simplification without restriction, he will destroy this impression, which must be
dealt with from a higher point of view than that of the external stylistic pressure; it
would give the impression of a devastated being; so it is just here a very moderate
application of our style principle. Yet it is not uncommon to find the wrongly applied
stylistic considerations sacrificed in this respect; and only recently did I see a very
interesting picture; which represented a funeral procession of monks, the expression
of the expressions and the turn of the heads varied so much that over this picturesque
manifold the uniform train of the train was completely lost, and it looked as if each
had taken a different kind of mourning medicine.
Where the artist can do such a good by applying the principle, and not failing to do
so, is the representation of a fray; because the most extensive use of the principle here
completely enters into the sense of the task; but the task of representing a troubled
person has the very character of being broken down, and one will not easily find
himself edified by the depiction, if at least one main scene of the struggle can not
center attention.
There are some images that are so to speak in the external mechanical execution of
our style principle, and yet with an ingredient of pretty or touched faces without any
other merit, they still have an effect on the large audience, an explanatory example in
Mises kl. Schr. P. 423 is discussed.
No less than between different figures of a picture does the stylistic principle of
multiplicity assert itself in each case. So it is in the sense of this that different parts of
the body, which can move against each other, are presented to each other instead of
simply continuing from one another or in parallel with each other, but at some
angular position. But here, too, the restrictive consideration remains, that all
differences appear bound by a unified psychic motive, and that this must subordinate
itself to the general idea of the work of art into which the figure enters. But too much
is forbidden just as much by the contradiction with the factual appropriateness or the
demands of the idea as by the fact that it penetrates into the square, rugged,
In the case of independent depiction of individual figures, as in portraiture, or in
sculpture, of course, this style rule is enforced with even greater emphasis than in
composite groups; and which plastic figure one wishes to see, one will notice the care
with which the artists avoid sinning against this style rule. It is true that one has
begun to contend with sin, at least according to the ancient Egyptian figures, but it
also has the most obvious example of its inherent disadvantages. In the case of
classical figures, even of the most peaceful attitude, no joint is quite idle.
Again, of course, this style rule does not fail, as does any overriding demands of the
idea. In Raphael's wallpaper, the sermon of Paul, Paul stands as if he were a rigid
signpost with right-angled outstretched parallel arms; So in part with less movement,
partly with more similar movement, partly with a more violent movement, as the
general style rule corresponds. But he should also stand as a guide, who is quite
content in showing the one direction that is needed to go to all; Against the power of
this idea, no external style rule holds. But one would not dare to portray Paul as a
single figure, because apart from the missing motive, the style consideration would
assert itself here with relatively greater weight.
Leonardo da Vinci in s. most useful treatise on painting in 1747. Nuremberg, p. 6.
14. Observat. gives the following rules. "Take heed that in your figures the head
never stands on the side where the chest turns, nor that the arm is equal to the leg."
Further, when the head turns against the right armpit, make its parts a little bit from
the left side, so as the chest turns up, it turns its head against the left side, and the
parts on the right side should be much higher than those on the left side. "
But it is not the relationships of figures alone that assert themselves in the stylistic
need to defy boredom. Any larger empty or monotonous surface in a picture threatens
danger in this respect, and must be avoided as much as any sense of the picture
permits; indeed, the stylistic need in this respect may become urgent enough to
sacrifice more or less even of factual appropriateness, and to bring everything
together more than the nature of the matter might be, and incidentally also the need,
much in a small space to hold together clearly, comes into consideration; but one can
also go too far in it, and come into conflict by over-filling the room with the stylistic
consideration of the first, to keep everything clear.
A nice explanatory example of the application and effect of this style rule can be
found in the red ribbon loosely wrapped around the waist of Holbein's Madonna and
hanging in long corners. It was not physically necessary; but think it out, and you
have a great wasteland in the long, dark garment, which has now been charmingly
enlivened by this simple means. In the Darmstler specimens everything is pushed
closer together, in Dresden more apart. The conflict between the two stylistic
advantages is asserted here by the fact that some prefer the more complete space
filling there, while others, whom I join, prefer the clearer separation here. In some
other old German pictures, however, the room is filled with jumbled figures, that all
clarity is lost. Of course, the same can be said of antique reliefs on sarcophagi; but I
believe that the main motive was the following. The wall of a sarcophagus has the
main purpose of confining the dead, and only the secondary purpose of taking up a
picture. If this occurs in individual projections, and thus greatly disturbs the uniform
appearance of the wall, the character of the first purpose is lost more than if the
figures are so closely pressed that they almost give again a uniform interface and thus
a wall surface; At first the wall seems to be more a support for the work of art than an
enclosure for the dead; in short, it is more a determination to the outside than to the
inside that is to be avoided.
A drastic explanation of our current style rule presents itself in the following story.
The painter Platner in Rome had sketched a carton of the scene, as Hagar sets her
son Ishmael at arm-shot; and really put him so far from her that there was a great
emptiness between them. Cornelius and Overbeck came to his studio because he was
away from home; saw with astonishment this stylistic masterpiece, expressing their
judgment that they took an approach and jumped through the carton between the two
figures; whereupon Platner, when he came home, is said to have exclaimed, "that
must have been two of them." That's how the story was told to me. After questioning
of Cornelius by Max Lohde, it is true that in reality something different 6), It was not
Cornelius and Overbeck, but the engraver Matthai, who jumped through the picture,
remarking: "Just as much as I have left, I must go." Also Platner subsequently painted
the picture so shortened.
6) v. Lützow's Zeitschr. III. 1868, p. 5.
The Colorit is subject from the second side at least just as important stylistic
considerations as from the first side, about which already Th. IS 182 find some
remarks. There are pictures in which we are told how to color the colors, and others
in which they flow with graceful waves. But just as the symmetry in images, which
have to represent life, must be broken alive, the pure harmony of colors in pictures,
which have something much higher than this harmony to represent, only broken
through, modulated, take place in such rapprochement, that the Adequacy to the
higher task is still enough.
Meanwhile, there is no lack of artists who raise the advantage of beautiful color
effects to the main aspect of the picture; and therefore prefers in part tasks which, by
their very nature, give rise to producing such in the picture, ruthlessly whether the
task and execution are otherwise of interest, and partly in contradiction with the
nature of the task; whereas others more than cheap neglect the advantage of the same,
and put more emphasis on the composition. This justifies the opposition of the so-
called colourists and composers. The same contrast occurs among the spectators,
insofar as some take care of the composition more in proportion to the color. Both are
one-sided, but the one-sidedness of the colorists is more reprehensible than that of the
composers; for a composition can still have great merit, even in colorless
outlines; but not the reverse the color without composition.
It should not be without interest, from the, in further extension nachzulesenden
style rules, which Marggraf in F. and K. Kunstbl. 1844 as regards color, the
following, as abstract from the works of Giorgione, Paolo Veronese, Titian, Gallait,
among others, found:
"By applying the strongest, most emphatic, and most brilliant color contrasts, the
harmonious attitude of the whole is so decidedly pronounced that nowhere does a
single color or effect dominate predominantly, by applying the individual colors and
effects of light in such a way that they can be seen on the On the opposite side of the
picture, from the center point, they correspond to the same colors and the same
lighting effects, thus eliminating and balancing all disturbing, hard, and one-sided
contrasts, whereby the neighboring colors move in perfect contrasts, lifting one from
the other and ultimately at the same time the most perfect harmony is achieved, so
next to the colder blue and teal, green and violet, we see the warmer yellow or red,the
white appears next to the red and even next to deep black colors, not in order to reign
supremely, but to make the adjacent local color appear all the more decidedly, while
by a third color, which stands in the middle between the two, the restrained balance
thus restored without restraint ", etc
The author explains these rules by means of examples from the works of these
masters, but does not forget to recall that the schematism they establish is by no
means to be regarded as mechanically strictly binding, inasmuch as it is the spirit
which makes life alive.
It is quite indicative of the impression that a work of good coloristic stance can
make on those who are at all susceptible to its charm, as an unnamed reviewer in a
review of Lessing's "Huss before the stake" says:
"On the whole, the work is not really a coloristic picture, for which he lacks the
uniform pictorial totality, a pleasant structuring and grading of the air and shadow
masses, and above all, that full color glow and colorlessness which characterize the
great painters of old and new times Therefore, he lacks the irresistible charm that the
truly coloristic work, even before one can even take possession of his object, we wish
to say, at twenty paces of distance, exerts on every beholder becomes."
The most varied points of attack for stylistics on both sides at the same time offer
the drapery, in that the great freedom, which remains on the side of the idea or factual
appropriateness in general, to choose, lay and dye the garment one way or the other
stylistically so for the clearer Designation, characterization, can be used as a more
pleasing representation of persons, and even into a satisfactory attitude of the whole
in forms and colors, as previously (Th. I.) had occasion to refer. Is it in this respect in
art as in nature, only in art beyond nature. The fundamental motives for the
application and modification of the garment are given by nature by external
considerations of purpose; but this is followed by motives for the designation and
decoration of the persons, interweaving with those motifs and even overgrowing
them quite often. Art, insofar as it is an imitative one, absorbs in itself the whole
result of it, the colorful costume of the Turk as well as that of the old Spaniard; goes
beyond that, however, by using what remains free afterwards stylistically to the
characteristic and Schmückung of the persons and the whole picture.
Of course, in the case of personalities from the ideal realm, freedom in this respect
is greater from the outset than in the realm of the realm, because with the whole
figure of the persons their freedom must be conceived; only this freedom is
repeatedly limited by conventions. No less, however, is it the question of whether as
the clothing. The Greek gods, goddesses and heroes are clothed, partly clothed, the
Christian God always clothed, the Christ child clothed in former times, now always
unclothed, adult angels clad, child angels presented unclothed. It would have some
interest to pursue the motives of this closer, but require a special study and a separate
essay. Let us limit ourselves here
There are so messy crumpled clothes so beautifully falling that one of them has a
similar impression as of a bad noise compared to a pure clay trap. There are garments
with wrinkles so hard and angular that the eye stumbles over them as they progress,
and others with folds so parallel that it gladly follows the teeth of a comb, both often
in old Madonna pictures. There are clothes so stiffly bulky that they show nothing of
the body and soul movements, that we only see the dress underneath, which has no
interest in seeing itself, not the person below. There are, on the other hand, clothes
which enclose the body in such a foolish manner, that we are only playing the naked
body, but nothing of a play of the body with the dress, into which that game can
continue and, so to speak, flourish. All this, and even too close a way to avoid the
style. Of course, with the avoidance of such errors, the approximations to extremes,
the right style, have not yet been found; and now one hears much of a rhythm of the
lines in the garment, to speak of drapery, without ever having been able to
characterize it other than by its pleasing effect and indefinite expressions. For my
part, this avoiding effect, next avoiding those extremes, seems to depend essentially
on the fact that, first, we feel that the whole variety of the drapery is under the
ordering influence of a unified psychic principle, which represents the whole
figure. moved and the dress moves with respect for the natural conditions of its
substance, second, that this psychological principle itself applauds us. From the first
side, it is the unified connection of the manifold that pleases us; but the pleasure in it
would easily remain below the threshold, if it did not increase itself from the second
side, that in the order of the folds we feel an order of the mind that pleases us. A
splendid, a dignified, a graceful, a gentle drapery generally owe their complacency to
such reasons. How wonderful in these relationships is the Sixtina. It is already
believed in the sweep of the garment of the Madonna, the massive weight of the dress
of Sixtus, and the manner in which the dress of Saint Barbara gathers, the height, the
dignity,
But the totality of all that contributes to the pleasure of a wrinkle is what is unclear
in the expression of a beautiful rhythm of it. For to convince oneself how little there
is to be expected of a direct, so to speak musical, charm, which one tends to keep in
mind with that expression, one needs only the dress with the most beautiful plaid
throwing off of all relation to man as to imagine pure thing for oneself-which can not
be so difficult-to think, for instance, that such a thing would have grown in the field,
and to wonder whether one would still like it in the purely graphic circumstances of
it; by which is not denied, but expressly conceded above, that these may at one point
be cheaper than otherwise,
The ornaments also present a very broad field of stylistic expression on both sides
of the style at the same time, provided that they may at the same time have a
distinctive and ornamental effect, and hereby afford a wealth of examples for
explaining the general rules of style; but we leave aside their consideration here,
perhaps to come back to it elsewhere.

XXVII. Idealize.
Even in idealization we have to speak of different conceptions and expressions of
the term, between which one rather chooses arbitrarily, than to love clearly set apart.
Idealization is derived from ideal; Under the ideal of a thing, however, one
understands the thing, imagined as it would be, if it were free from disturbances and
extraneous contingencies, perfectly in accordance with their idea, which stripped off
meaninglessness, reached a peak which one sees as probing reality, without, however,
reaching it; What everything essentially comes down to, without, of course, the
notion of the ideal at the same time being able to determine what we want to hold for
the apex, for essential disturbances which stand in the way of its attainment, for
apostasy. In any case, reality in general does not correspond to our somehow created
ideas in this respect; and one is, if not in all but a lot of relationships, what is beyond
reality to demand from the ideal. Now it is universally considered an advantage of art
that it is better able to meet such demands for the pages that are generally accessible
to its representation than reality, and indeed to justify ideas in this sense, which has to
happen precisely through idealization.
In the process, however, it makes a difference, and at the same time a difference in
the concept of idealizing depends on whether one has in mind the essence of an
individual or the essence of a species. One can make an idea, an idea of what is
essential and what happens to an individual, and, by seeing every moment of his own
reality still fraught with contingencies, try to present the individual as one thinks that
it would look like if all the coincidences, all things inessential, fell away from it for
its character meaningless. Of course, one wonders whether a pure abstraction of the
essential from the accidental is at all possible and how it is to be effected. Certainly,
at any rate, idealization is understood in some ways and in a sense
For a genus, however, much is regarded as immaterial, incidental, which essentially
belongs to the characteristic of an individual, and thus some under idealization
understand only the replacement of the representation of the individual by a
representation in which the general genus characters are brought to preferential
expression the task of such an idealization as a higher art requirement. What is
contrasted as a realistic representation of an idealized one in this sense generally
differs only in that in it the idea is more concretely conceived and more concretely
held in representation than in the latter. For example, it is to represent a battle. Now it
can be portrayed as a battle between Frenchmen and Bedouins on Algerian soil, in
which also the physiognomies of the strugters of each side are so distinctively
different from each other as correspond to reality, as happened by Horace Vernet; but
it can also be represented as a battle of a certain general character, in which the
concrete nature of a particular soil, a particular nationality, and physiognomic
diversity of the combatants is more or less abstracted, by either merely idealized
ideals for representing the combatants or only typical forms are used, for example,
with a heroic, barbaric, Greek, Roman character, as is the case, for example. B. done
by Carl Rahl; but it does not matter if the name of a real battle is settled in such a
battle,
Both conceptions agree that the emphasis of the essential is explained at the
expense of the accidental, whether of the individual or the genus, as the task of the
idealizing, and so for the sake of brevity we summarize them under the expression of
idealization in the first sense. Far more common, however, than this conception, is a
second, nonetheless consistent with the previous, but which does not coincide with
the concept of the ideal, not merely the absence of disturbances of the presupposed
nature or the pure fulfillment of a presupposable idea, but the positive concept of
goodness , Beauty or strength, and thus, under an idealizing representation, embellish
the appearance of the real, embellish or strengthen in expression, understands the
character somehow advantageous over the natural reality increasing,
representation. Of course, from a certain point of view one can attribute all evil, all
ugliness, all weakness in the world to a disturbance of its essence, a lingering behind
its idea; and thus this conception is connected with the former, and may even seem to
coincide with it; Reason enough that she so often confuses herself with it. But on the
other hand, the existence of evil, ugliness, and every imperfection in the world,
whether because of metaphysical necessity, or because of the once-outfall of the
world from God, over which it is not necessary to argue, is itself essential Stock of
the world. And if you also want to start an abstruse argument about in any case, art
can not be based on the presupposition of its disappearance, and must be careful not
to present the imperfect world more completely than to be in its possibility. It is not
their task to awaken the exchanging appearance, as if the evil is lacking, nor would
any of the world worship. on the contrary, the role played by evil in the world, no less
than the role of good in art, should be put in a brighter, clearer, purer, higher light
than in the real thing, for which belongs the disadvantage of in which, after all, it
must and should remain against the good, it becomes visible that it raises the good by
its opposition to it, that it is overcome by it, or that it destroys itself through its
consequences. For, on the whole, this is the meaning, the tendency of a good world
order, and we are only able to build ourselves up to the fulfillment of this tendency or
the prospect of its fulfillment. But for that the evil must appear as evil. What is true of
moral evil applies to pain and imperfection. Everywhere one can refuse the artist to
represent such, unless a historical interest drives him to present it to its full truth, or if
he can not portray it for reconciling, pleasurable, or salutarily distressing points of
view; in itself, it is not an object of artistic representation. In so far as it is such, it
will also be in its true role. and only in the fulfillment of this tendency or the prospect
of its fulfillment can we build ourselves. But for that the evil must appear as
evil. What is true of moral evil applies to pain and imperfection. Everywhere one can
refuse the artist to represent such, unless a historical interest drives him to present it
to its full truth, or if he can not portray it for reconciling, pleasurable, or salutarily
distressing points of view; in itself, it is not an object of artistic representation. In so
far as it is such, it will also be in its true role. and only in the fulfillment of this
tendency or the prospect of its fulfillment can we build ourselves. But for that the evil
must appear as evil. What is true of moral evil applies to pain and
imperfection. Everywhere one can refuse the artist to represent such, unless a
historical interest drives him to present it to its full truth, or if he can not portray it for
reconciling, pleasurable, or salutarily distressing points of view; in itself, it is not an
object of artistic representation. In so far as it is such, it will also be in its true
role. Everywhere one can refuse the artist to represent such, unless a historical
interest drives him to present it to its full truth, or if he can not portray it for
reconciling, pleasurable, or salutarily distressing points of view; in itself, it is not an
object of artistic representation. In so far as it is such, it will also be in its true
role. Everywhere one can refuse the artist to represent such, unless a historical
interest drives him to present it to its full truth, or if he can not portray it for
reconciling, pleasurable, or salutarily distressing points of view; in itself, it is not an
object of artistic representation. In so far as it is such, it will also be in its true role.
In any case, these general considerations prevent the portrayal of evil from being
banished from art at all, and simply condense and confuse idealization in the first
sense with idealization in the present second sense, as sometimes happens. Thus says
Hegner in his "Hans Holbein" p. 218: "To idealize a face means to put it to the
highest level of its character, or to refine it in traits and position by maintaining
personal resemblance." Of course, however, where the character of a man, and hence
of his face and outward appearance, is by no means noble, he can not become so by
putting him to his highest level; So there is a good reason to distinguish idealization
in the first and second sense. In the first sense, the evil of reality can also be idealized
by art, that is, rendered in the purest expression of essential moments; in the second
sense, it is eliminated by art. It is self-evident, however, that in the definitions of
aesthetes almost only the first sense of idealizing is valid, in living usage almost only
the second is used.
With this in mind, I think that it would not be bad to let the school use of
idealization fall in the first sense altogether, in order at the same time to drop the
unclear and unfulfillable pretensions which use in the first sense usually carries, but
for what as the correct requirement of art it is to be stated that the less easily
understandable expression of a purity of the clear and accurate characteristic of the
individual in individual, and generally in general terms, which is not subject to the
confusion with the second conception; because what does not coincide with it, just
can not be recorded.
In fact, one has to take into account that a pure separation of the accidental from
the essential, which one may view, is not possible at all, but that that which is of
lasting importance is everywhere fused with chance change, that it is It is impossible
to peel it out at all, and the artist can only portray a certain form of the essential and
significant in the realm of the random, without being able to dissipate it. Of course
one often encounters phrases and arguments, especially with regard to portraiture, as
if the artist could, as it were, give an essential extract from all moments of the
existence of an individual, and as if the right idealization were to exist here. Against
which it seems to me that the portrait painter,
In general, there will be moments when the painter could do nothing but render his
face as it really is, because the means of painting are enough, and it does not seem
preferable, a somewhat uncomfortable little hair, or hair Stain, which has nothing to
do with the essential impression of which it is to be kept, but to disturb that
impression. Only one hundred against one is to bet that the person neither when
sitting the painter, nor when he meets with it only in accidental life relationships, the
same in such a moment in which she deserved to be painted from one or the other
point of view.
And if it is already a high and difficult task for the painter to capture the person in
the imagination in such a, but in reality only momentarily passing, moments in order
to reproduce it as faithfully as possible, it is an even higher and more difficult task to
construct, from the moments of the phenomenon which reality presents him, another,
more worthy of holding, which reality would show him if he met her only in the right
moment. If one demands this from the artist, by demanding an idealization in the first
sense of his, one will demand a great deal, but perhaps not too much of him. But
when one thinks, as one often thinks, that the artist can surpass reality in that
If the artist whom he has to portray only accidentally encounters moments that are
worth presenting, and not easily the most representative, then this is even less the
case with the photographer (and daguerreotypists), and that explains the merit of the
good portrait in front of the photograph. Photography gives the human being, as the
photographer poses him or as he puts himself to the photographer, for the shortest
time in a contrived position with artificial or all-embracing expression, and of course
it can be so easy. come that the portrait seems more similar to the human than the
photograph. However, one sometimes sees photographic images of women in
particular, with calm, calm expressions and in a natural attitude, which, apart from
some technical imperfections of photography, with the best portrait; but they are
coincidences and art should make the most favorable coincidence the rule. The art
enthusiasts will not admit this; but it is so.
Interesting was the following concession, what the de facto impression of a
daguerreotype the witty captain in s. Letters to Hauser (II, 81) are quite contrary to
his theoretical view, in whose expression one recognizes the prevailing view.
"I am nothing less than a friend of the Daguerreotype, but we now have a portrait
of our Helenchen, that is stupendous, you can not look at it enough, and it is just like
a drawing in its highest perfection." Actually, the daguerreotype would have its
purpose only in Imitation of art things, of images, not of nature ... The image of a
good painter, which represents the whole nature of a human being (but is it the? F.], is
more true than the daguerreotype, which is only the expression of one clinging to the
momentary moment of the meeting by all sorts of coincidences and wanting to spend
it on the image of the whole person. " etc
Now one may ask: But how does the painter begin to construct from what he sees
as real what he does not see? As far as it is possible, it will be, I think.
Every day we see the features of the human face change with the state of the
soul; and so gradually each of us develops a feeling for the meaning of these changes
and the possibility of their separation, whereby we recognize the same man in all his
various expressions, when the face is not so violently distorted that it goes beyond the
limits of what our feeling has formed. If we are not artists ourselves, then this feeling
is only receptive through intuition, and remains receptive, guiding us only in the
evaluation of the expression and its possible transitions; but with the artist, who has
actively trained it with pen and brush in his hand, drawing and painting many
physiognomies,
Where, unlike the portrait, it is not about reproducing a particular reality, but reality
is merely the motive for depicting scenes or characters of more general significance,
suppression or blurring of the most individual traits in favor of this general meaning
may well be appropriate, and hereby let the manner of Rahls be represented to the
sage Vernets, only not to be represented as the only valid one. What I want to say in
this respect I want to do in a special section (XXIX.) In connection with a
pronouncement of Rahls himself. But let us now turn to the idealization in the second
sense, that of the living usage of language, and henceforth stick to it.
After, already in the XXII. and XXIII. In this section we shall have to demand an
idealization in this sense in so far as it is demanded by the ideality of the objects, and
thus belongs to the characteristic of the objects; but in so far as they still have to be
considered, as it is able to outweigh the disadvantages of injured or weakened
characteristics by opposite advantages. The former is simple and evident, while the
latter leads to more or less dubious and disagreeable considerations for the aesthetes,
which, of course, are easily spared, if one either simply prefers that which is presently
preferred in the art world, or what one considers subjective It prefers to taste itself,
considers it authoritative.
Of course, if it is for the artist to represent God, an ideal Christ, an ideal Madonna,
then there is no other means besides the conventional symbols, which are only an aid
and emergency, not an independent achievement of art, as the idealization of human
personalities current meaning. To be sure, the artist does not thereby meet the full
essence, thus does not reach the sublime idea that we have of these ideal
personalities; but by the artist summing up and increasing the means of representation
at his command, in the direction in which nature itself does it, when, for once, it rises
to higher and nobler formations, it does its utmost, and shall not intentionally or stay
out of disability as artists perform no less, as art can do in that direction. And so, in
depicting Jupiter, the Greeks exaggerated the angle of vision even beyond that which
occurs in men, because with the size of the angle of view the impression of mental
height increases.
Of course, one can ask whether art should venture on objects that can not be
adequately represented with the greatest possible increase in the means of art, or that
they should represent them differently than through conventional symbols. But even
if the answer were doubtful, our art dares to do so, and insofar as it does, it must also
idealize in the sense indicated; because for the purpose one must want the means.
As for the question itself, the following conflict should be considered. No matter
how high the art may go in the idealization of the human, as it misses to represent the
divine, it draws it down and easily gives way either to the feeling of misery that has
lingered behind the task in the presentation, or perhaps even more serious
disadvantage that the task is considered fulfilled and the divine is held to be nothing
higher than what the artist is able to portray. Both drawbacks are really asserted, one
more in the religiously educated in a higher sense, the other in the more crude
natures. The counterweights against these disadvantages but are in the
following. Involuntarily man anthropomorphizes the divine, and it can only be of
advantage when art presents it in a more dignified anthropomorphic form than the
artless imagination could have represented for itself. The raw man loses nothing if he
is offered this worthier idea for his unworthy one; and education automatically
ensures that the image does not appear as a true image but as a symbol of what it is
supposed to represent. Who of us means that God really looks like he is painted. And
where, on the other hand, would there be the same opportunity to present the human
in the greatest beauty, grandeur, dignity and grace, to confront humanity with patterns
of humanity, as in artistic representation of religious, mythological and in general the
earthly reality of transcending personalities. Is it necessary to concede that the
divine, considered by its essence, thereby drawn down, the human is drawn up by
it. Habit, education soon makes us feel that disadvantage, while it always lets us feel
this advantage.
The idea of the Christian God, of course, is so sublime that one can say that he is
on the limit of what art can afford to represent by means of the idealization of the
human; and never will it satisfy her just as well as with the presentation of
subordinate ideal personalities. Yes, if art wanted to try to portray it just as the pagans
represented their gods, the disadvantages would in fact predominate. His presentation
becomes possible only through the fact that we present him as a summit, center or
main lever of a scene in heaven or on earth, where the demand to present him
according to his own idea, against the demand to complete this connection in him to
culminate, center, step back, and the decline of that claim is accordingly less easily
felt; whereas the breach of the vivid connection would be strongly felt, we wanted to
represent God only by a conventional symbol, such as the triangle in a light or the
hand stretched out of the clouds. Therefore, one will never see a statue of God, a
painted head of God; while there are still such things of Christ and of Mary. But if the
judgment of the world is to be portrayed, if the story of creation is to be represented,
then the representation of God can not be dispensed with, and the representation of
such scenes can not be dispensed with, without saying the art so as to shorten the
head. we wanted to represent God only by a conventional symbol, such as the triangle
in a light or the hand stretched out of the clouds. Therefore, one will never see a
statue of God, a painted head of God; while there are still such things of Christ and of
Mary. But if the judgment of the world is to be portrayed, if the story of creation is to
be represented, then the representation of God can not be dispensed with, and the
representation of such scenes can not be dispensed with, without saying the art so as
to shorten the head. we wanted to represent God only by a conventional symbol, such
as the triangle in a light or the hand stretched out of the clouds. Therefore, one will
never see a statue of God, a painted head of God; while there are still such things of
Christ and of Mary. But if the judgment of the world is to be portrayed, if the story of
creation is to be represented, then the representation of God can not be dispensed
with, and the representation of such scenes can not be dispensed with, without saying
the art so as to shorten the head.
Incidentally, one can easily find the effect of the conflict in many statements about
the impression that the most excellent representations of God make.
Even though idealization is in the present sense of the word, the artist has to be
careful not to cross the limit of what seems possible in nature, in order not to achieve
the opposite of its purpose. Everyone says at once that if the point of view of Jupiter
were exaggerated beyond a certain limit, we would rather see a deformity than a
sublime God. A large eye in a comparatively small face seems to be witty or soulful
to a small eye in a large face. The same applies to the height of the forehead and the
ratio of the whole upper head part to the lower one. In contrast, the ideal mouth is not
only smaller, but also more curved than the ordinary one. The artist is well aware of
this and makes use of such remarks. But neither the size nor the smallness nor the
vibration of one or the other part may be exaggerated. Beauty, to some extent, lies
between too much and too little, and if, in the less perfect formations, nature prefers
that too little or too much, then idealization will go in the opposite direction, and yet
not too far to have to go in it.
Among the drawbacks which every idealizing representation in the present sense,
and even the legitimate one, the more the unjustified has to overcome, and which
must contribute to restricting its justification within narrower limits than in which it is
customary, is the following of particular importance.
Although representations of this kind do not lack at all the distinguishing
characteristic; the woman, the man, the youth, the age, the joy, the grace, the dignity,
the anger, the affection will all still have their peculiar expression, but after all they
will run into certain general ideal types; which recur not only between different
pictures, but often in the same picture with the greatest approximation. For the circle
of individual human formations and modes of expression, which is widespread in
reality, is becoming increasingly close in its ascendancy to the ideal field of beauty
and art, and becomes a very narrow circle at the summit. It is, so to speak, a small
circle in which all the antique ideals crowd together. The new ones enter into it as
dependent on it, or only slightly beyond it; but insofar as it is the case, the evasion is
under the influence of the individuality of the artist, and his figures are still betrayed
from another side. Look at the representations of Raphael, Cornelius, Overbeck,
Schnorr, Genelli, and so on, and you will find it confirmed. In fact, most idealist
painters have only one face in relation to each age, gender, rank, nationality, which
they have in this or that emotion, for which they then have their standing type, or in
this or that other turn According to this, the figures of a whole people resemble each
other in many pictures more than the members of a family take care of each other. In
general, an idealistic painter has certain faces in his wrists, like certain letters a
scribe; and thus one obtains a kind of calligraphic manuscript by the artist's hand,
which, like any calligraphic writing, looks good but has little character, and in which
one usually recognizes the prescription. But there is more to it than a mischief.
In order to measure the height, it requires the Niedern as Elle; but if in an image in
which Christ appears with a heap of Jewish people or God with human personalities
at the same time, almost as much as possible is possible in the subordinates of
idealization, as is often found, then what does the height of Christ or the divine
illustrate? Person? In such pictures we have something analogous, as if the
tremendous gradation between light and shadow which reality offers us should be
rendered in a few light tones; the light only comes into its own through the
shadow. Secondly, in the distance between the high and the low, we miss the
manifold that we are accustomed to see between personalities of the same lower
degree, since all have moved up to the higher level, and this not only repels us as a
misdemeanor, but also tires us by monotony. The faces become almost indifferent
zeros. However, the beauty of all the individual figures, with the variation still
permitted by the ideal field, and exploited as much as possible in positions and
motions according to the style principle discussed in Section XXVI, can in a way be
compensated for these disadvantages; one swims so to speak in an element of pure
beauty, which only strikes its waves so far that their limits are never exceeded. But
one can not deny that this swimming, with constant waves of waves, runs the risk of
becoming boring. and this not only repels us as a misdemeanor, but also tires us by
monotony. The faces become almost indifferent zeros. However, the beauty of all the
individual figures, with the variation still permitted by the ideal field, and exploited
as much as possible in positions and motions according to the style principle
discussed in Section XXVI, can in a way be compensated for these
disadvantages; one swims so to speak in an element of pure beauty, which only
strikes its waves so far that their limits are never exceeded. But one can not deny that
this swimming, with constant waves of waves, runs the risk of becoming boring. and
this not only repels us as a misdemeanor, but also tires us by monotony. The faces
become almost indifferent zeros. However, the beauty of all the individual figures,
with the variation still permitted by the ideal field, and exploited as much as possible
in positions and motions according to the style principle discussed in Section XXVI,
can in a way be compensated for these disadvantages; one swims so to speak in an
element of pure beauty, which only strikes its waves so far that their limits are never
exceeded. But one can not deny that this swimming, with constant waves of waves,
runs the risk of becoming boring. The faces become almost indifferent
zeros. However, the beauty of all the individual figures, with the variation still
permitted by the ideal field, and exploited as much as possible in positions and
motions according to the style principle discussed in Section XXVI, can in a way be
compensated for these disadvantages; one swims so to speak in an element of pure
beauty, which only strikes its waves so far that their limits are never exceeded. But
one can not deny that this swimming, with constant waves of waves, runs the risk of
becoming boring. The faces become almost indifferent zeros. However, the beauty of
all the individual figures, with the variation still permitted by the ideal field, and
exploited as much as possible in positions and motions according to the style
principle discussed in Section XXVI, can in a way be compensated for these
disadvantages; one swims so to speak in an element of pure beauty, which only
strikes its waves so far that their limits are never exceeded. But one can not deny that
this swimming, with constant waves of waves, runs the risk of becoming
boring. which still permits the ideal region, and which is exploited as much as
possible in positions and movements according to the stylistic principle discussed in
Section XXVI, finds in some way compensated for these disadvantages; one swims
so to speak in an element of pure beauty, which only strikes its waves so far that their
limits are never exceeded. But one can not deny that this swimming, with constant
waves of waves, runs the risk of becoming boring. which still permits the ideal
region, and which is exploited as much as possible in positions and movements
according to the stylistic principle discussed in Section XXVI, finds in some way
compensated for these disadvantages; one swims so to speak in an element of pure
beauty, which only strikes its waves so far that their limits are never exceeded. But
one can not deny that this swimming, with constant waves of waves, runs the risk of
becoming boring.
In a judgment on the well-known genre painter Knaus 1) I once read: "The figures
of Knaus and especially his heads are so concise and characteristic to the seemingly
random nuances that they almost always give the impression that one must already
have these physiognomy somewhere have seen." It is true and you will find it again
in the figures of every good realistic image. But to be sure, one will have the
impression that one has seen every face somewhere once in life and never in art,
whereas in the best idealistic pictures, on the other hand, one has the impression that
one never has the same face in life and a hundred times seen in art.
1) Dioscuri. 1864, p. 382.
To a certain extent, of course, this is in the nature of things, and as far as it is the
case, who wants to blame it. The ideal region does not in itself produce a great
variety; and as the idealistic artist in nature does not find models of his kind that he
needs, he naturally comes to copying the pre-given art models and himself for the
most part. If there are some drawbacks to this, then we have to put up with
unavoidable drawbacks everywhere in art, in so far as they bring greater benefits; it
just wonders how far this is the case here. And surely it would be more the case and
we would like to feel little disadvantages of the kind mentioned, if the idealization
did not extend anywhere, as to where the idea feeds, So limited to really ideal
personalities. One likes to see the same beautiful or noble face often and without
annoyance in life, why not so much in art, and why not so much here, if it is not quite
the same. But even in life one would not like that everything that does not seem
beautiful enough by nature would bear beautiful masks, and if an entire people were
almost equally beautiful, the charm would be lost, ranging from the gradation of the
lower to the lower Peak lies, and the power is lost, with which the impression
culminates here. But why should it be different in art than in life? At bottom we only
need an ideal Christ in art; but many people far away from Christ; and already section
XXIII. gave opportunity for remarks in this sense.
It is indisputable, incidentally, to make a distinction in the estimation between
artists who have perfected the ideals, and those who are born again, who can do
nothing better but nothing more than to reproduce what they have received from
them. In following the ascending trend of the development of art, we see in those
with joy and admiration the beauty, grace, power of the human form and movement
elevated to a level not yet surpassed, and leave the claim to a balancing and grading
of the height, the We do not like to find them, to some extent also in the area of their
representations have no search, like to fall. They were new and big in the
upgrade. But as we see the later idealistic artists always moving about at the same
level of slight extension, which is reached by them as a summit, as if the height of the
mountain consisted merely of its summit, we are at last easily overcome by a
weariness which we must beware of to retroactively transfer to the works of those
creative artists. In fact, it is almost to despair, with slight variations, without new and
usually without characteristic character, always to meet the same highly
accomplished stylistic figures, positions, folds, which one has met so often, without
quite knowing what One should object to this, rather than meeting them everywhere
on the army roads of art. You get completely jaded and start thinking about Chinese
art books
I confess I was afflicted with such supersaturation when, at the local Kunstverein, I
saw a number of religious and mythological pictures and cartoons of recent artists
behind each other, and afterwards, at times, felt a kind of refreshment and opposition
to a picture. What happened to me at the same time in the same time, and that in its
evasion to an opposite extreme asserts advantages which are diametrically opposed to
those disadvantages of idealistic representations, but at the same time with
disadvantages which are diametrically opposed to their advantages. It was a stitch
after Rembrandt 2)depicting how Christ blesses the children. I have always found the
same object repeatedly depicted by newer artists, and everywhere a Christ of the
conventional type, surrounded by a number of beautiful women and little angels of
children, the women all seen in chosen attitudes and beautifully placed garments; and
almost always had the impression that this scene in the painter's studio does not both
play and compose together according to a good style recipe - I need to diligently use
this expression instead of merely composing it. Different from Rembrandt; Here,
apart from, of course, the Dutch faces, which is indifferent to the essential effect, I
had the drastic impression: that is how it happened; or, it could have happened, and
so Christ really stood above the mass of his people. The sublime simplicity and
dignity of Christ emerges here from his lower wraps and surroundings with a heap of
common people, with the power of historical truth; Christ sits there in the open air, in
the most natural attitude, in a coarse, negligently falling garment that does not
disclose style and yet is not styleless, his face profiled according to an old noble type,
the serious, firm and mild look on the child of he puts his right hand on his head,
holding it with his left arm, so that it does not run away; for, far from guessing the
meaning of what is happening to him, he turns, shyly sideways squinting, and puts
his finger in his mouth, not knowing what the strange man wants with him, to whom
he has been pushed by his mother becomes. Another woman in the back raises her
child to bring it into the realm of Christ, like a bale over a half-way neighbor, looking
around, and so on. In no figure is there any trace of awareness of the higher
significance of the ceremony to recognize; the women only want to give their
children the blessings of a miraculous hand, one in front of the other; one looks
stupid or curious to the spectacle. Christ alone knows what he does and appears as
such; he knows what he is doing. the women only want to give their children the
blessings of a miraculous hand, one in front of the other; one looks stupid or curious
to the spectacle. Christ alone knows what he does and appears as such; he knows
what he is doing. the women only want to give their children the blessings of a
miraculous hand, one in front of the other; one looks stupid or curious to the
spectacle. Christ alone knows what he does and appears as such; he knows what he is
doing.
2) In v. Lützow's Zeitschr. I. 1866. 192.

And was not that really the exalted and at the same tragic position that Christ took
for a people that first shouted Hosanna and then the Crucifix? and, in the usual
idealistic representations of the same scene, it appears in the same acute light.
But I am far from speaking the word in every respect of this conception and
presentation of the scene; but only thought of it, because in a certain sense it runs its
course from the idealistic. On the whole she even has something repulsive. For one
can only find oneself built up by the relationship of Christ to the people in this
picture; the opposite of the structure lies in the relationship of the people to Christ,
and to present this uneducated relationship in a genre-like manner can not correspond
to any needs which religious art as such has to satisfy. Nor was it necessary to present
the mothers who bring their children to Christ as representatives of the mass of the
common people; they could be taken from a nobler part of the people; and from a
religious point of view, it can only be essential to present the scene with a symbolic
character in such a way that the greater significance of a blessing of childhood
through Christ is understood rather than understood, and impressively impresses the
beholder in this sense. Yes, if I had seen many realistic representations of such scenes
in Rembrandt's sense, I would like to enjoy all the more an idealistic one that was not
even to be faded; only that one rather sees the idealistic held in heaps. But if I said
that you were being completely embarrassed by the return of such depictions, I
should rather have said that I myself became one. The prevailing taste, on the other
hand, has been subjugated by the prevailing patterns,
But I am not so blasphemy that I can not find in the Raphael's Sistine and the face
of Ezekiel the most beautiful and loftiest works of painting, to admire Cornelius'
apocalyptic Reuters, and to enjoy so many representations of Genelli, & c Images that
give to the ideal what is the ideal by holding itself completely in a field that is already
perfectly idealized for the idea; and there is such an area, which is richly populated
by faith, myth, poetry, symbolism with divine personalities, with angels, patriarchs,
saints, even sacred animals, with gods, heroes, heroines; and I should think that the
idealizing artist would find enough room for the mere satisfaction of the need for
ideal design.
In doing so, I admit, in order to make counter-reflections justifiable, that in biblical
pictures it is justifiable to present the vulgar Jews and subordinate personalities with
an idealized character, to a certain extent, instead of with the present-day
scapegoats. only that it happens in a measured manner and without such profound
damage to the characteristics as one is accustomed to find. We do not even imagine
the old Jews who play in biblical stories with the faces of today's mean Jews, if only
because the painters have gotten us used to doing it; but probably also not because the
character of the sanctity of those stories in a certain way reflects on the living and
weaving people in the whole. Conversely, the in a refined type, the representation of
the whole people, representations whose principal purpose and interest are not to be
found in a characteristic representation of the reality surrounding us; to raise the
impression of such and to favor a higher mood. And if there is an anthropological
probability that the common Jews looked like the muffle of today in old age, then,
according to a remark made earlier (Sect. XXII.), The artist was not concerned with
the scientific, but with the prevailing idea of them he has to work on, to take care
of. to raise the impression of such and to favor a higher mood. And if there is an
anthropological probability that the common Jews looked like the muffle of today in
old age, then, according to a remark made earlier (Sect. XXII.), The artist was not
concerned with the scientific, but with the prevailing idea of them he has to work on,
to take care of. to raise the impression of such and to favor a higher mood. And if
there is an anthropological probability that the common Jews looked like the muffle
of today in old age, then, according to a remark made earlier (Sect. XXII.), The artist
was not concerned with the scientific, but with the prevailing idea of them he has to
work on, to take care of.
But with all this, the disadvantages of such idealization are not exalted, only
surpassed by advantages; and one only needs to go into the bottomless with
idealization, as one often sees, overcoming the disadvantages and taking on the
higher mood that one can still find awakened by it, the character of such as is
expressed by a speech in beautiful phrases is awakened, as long as you do not get to
the bottom of the senses.
Here, as everywhere else, where aesthetic advantages and disadvantages clash with
each other, a firm limit of the right can not be drawn - again and again we have to
come back to it - and one must grant a certain width. If my taste, which in today's
idealistic art, taking all in all, finds too much of the extremely tending template, can
not impose on others, then the advantages and disadvantages that one has to weigh
here are probably correct be designated; After all, they may be weighed differently in
appreciation of today's art achievements than my own feelings.
Now, idealization is often reduced even to areas where imagination is not preceded
by idealization at all, because of the misunderstood speech that art should elevate us
to a higher kingdom over reality. Thus one sees here and there painted folk-scenes
from the profane history or the profane life, where all faces are beautiful, all postures
graceful, all dresses new, harmonious in color and of selected folds, or at least more
so than we could find a folk scene in it; and there are persons who take pleasure in
such representations without, of course, really being lifted into a higher kingdom by
them; for the pretended empire is impossible, and it is impossible to put oneself in
it. The painter himself has not put himself in and the beautiful graceful figures into
the general framework which the idea draws, rather than sets out from it; and as he
put them one at a time according to a general scheme of beauty, the observers hold to
the individual, or find themselves generally and indefinitely intoxicated by the
multitude of beauty that they suddenly see together here, while in reality they too
long only looking for a single sample of it. But the gain of the favor they have from
this is outweighed by the loss which they incur in other works of art, in that they are
illuminated by the higher beauty, by the inner harmony of all the individual to the
idea of the whole, and by the impression of truth to win is lost. A real sense
The beautiful, lovely figures and positions are not lost on us because we do not see
them in the wrong place. Not only that we can seek and find them in representations
of that ideal region, so reality itself does not lack them; One must only seek
opportunities where they enter rather than emerge from the truth of the Idea.
Thus, even in a country wedding, the bride may be portrayed as a pretty
girl; because why should the painter think of painting a wedding with a nasty as a
pretty bride? One likes to marry a pretty girl, one likes to paint her and likes to see
the painted ones. Where there is no interest in a scene, it is not possible to paint at all,
and usually the interest in a scene in a person culminates as the center of relationships
in it. By now that the bride is pretty, she not only wins by herself, but also gains all
relations of interest and charm. If the peasant bride looks not only pretty but also fine,
if the bridesmaids and spectators all have pretty or interesting faces, Thus, instead of
a peasant wedding, we lose only the masquerade of such and all relationships through
the feeling of untruth in interest and charm. Of course, here again no definite limit
takes place. Why should not the pretty bridesmaids in country weddings and the other
pretty girls give, and if in reality most like to see the wedding, where there are the
most, why should not the painter prefer one in the idea and representation where there
is the most. In fact, he likes it; only that, if he does too much in it, the feeling of
improbability in the spectator becomes predominant, and the pleasure in the faithful
fulfillment of the idea of the object is shortened more than is gained by the joy of
seeing a beautiful face more; therefore the painter can do better, rather one less than
one more painting; Of course it is not possible to count how much. Yes, he can find it
in his advantage to leave aside all the beautiful, charming faces when he presents a
scene where they are usually absent and have nothing to do with the nature of the
scene; only then does he have to put an interest in the scene apart from that, and all
the more so to satisfy him by lifelike characteristics.
Of course, many artists are unable to do both, and so many genre pictures are of the
kind that they owe all their charm only to the beauty or grace of the persons
appearing in them, which is insignificant, if not contradictory, to the scene. carries
with it a loss of the power of truth, which is so vital a moment of beauty's life. It is
true that one can still take a liking to such pictures, if they do not violate too much
contradiction with the claim of truth, but the spectator will always steal a feeling that
the artist, as it were, has flattered the idea or flattered it , which contradicts the
strictness of art. 3)
3) Ifound a number of rather clumsy examples of false idealization in a small
essay "About some pictures of the second Leipzig Art Exhibition, by Dr. Mises,
Leipzig 1859," to be included in the small writings of Mises to discuss.

As an explanation, I want to recall a picture of Lasch, which was once exhibited in


the Leipzig Kunstverein, and received many applause; It also received the small gold
medal for art in a Berlin exhibition. It represents the death of a peasant society from a
funfair. The center of the picture is taken by a jubilant, drunken boy; and also a guy
behind you can see that he has done too much for the good. Here, and in a violin,
which one of the returnees carries, lies everything that can be found characteristic of
the death of villagers from a funfair. The 6 or 7 peasant girls who go along in the
procession, together with a child, who is carried by a peasant, are all very lovely,
charming creatures with a loveliness and even fineness of expression and
behavior, that they only like to look at her; but where is there a village with such
lovely creatures? And how do such fine faces match the coarse shoes? To be sure, on
some faces a puff of peasant naivety is mixed, as it were, with spice, which in fact
makes it even more attractive; but the relation of reality is exactly the opposite, that
the basic feature plays the secondary role. Incidentally, the whole procession is such
that an acquaintance of mine, who is familiar with peasant circumstances, did not
want to believe that the picture really represented the death of a fair, but rather the
title of the picture "After the fair" as one Hinted for such a hint; The jubilation of the
boy was just a jubilation in advance. "Often he himself had been to farmers' houses,
and knew very well,
If somebody asked me if I would rather have looked at the picture, if the lovely
peasant girls were replaced by clumsy peasant whores, as found in every village, and
the drunk's trousers were full of beer stains, I would absolutely deny it; rather, I
would not have liked to look at it, and the realistic rendering of the filthiness would
have aroused disgust, while I now like to deal with the individual figures; but as I
seek to link them to the idea of the whole and hold it to the same, they start to
displease me, I find myself disturbed, and that should not be. If the artist was unable
to present the object in a true and graceful manner at the same time, he should not
represent it at all.
Artworks of the kind in which the idea is merely used to line up beauties as if they
were on a thread, without the common existence of these beauties being essentially
rooted in the idea of the whole, behave in the real sense, where they are connected
with less beautiful and less Even unsightly details of the idea itself, such as the
wreath of flowers, together with flowers, stalks, roots, are connected by a thread. In
the first place, one can put on many more beautiful flowers than the latter can carry
by itself. One can also well put up with the wreath, since at least one likes to see
many beautiful things together, without asking everywhere how things are
connected; but art should rather be a garden full of flowering plants than a hall, are
hung in the wreath, same; and while one never gets tired of the flowering plants, one
gets tired of the wreaths very soon.
But again I want to admit that a gentle trait of idealization, which goes together in
the context of a representation of real territory, can spread a charm over it, which
surpasses the disadvantage that remains attached to the fact that the representation
does not work with full force from the life of self-grasped truth works. The
idealization must only be sufficiently quiet that the feeling of a contradiction with the
truth does not cross the threshold, but rather that everything seems to be in tune with
what appears to be a possibility grounded in the existing conditions of reality. Then
we can really enjoy it, as when something that, if not usually, could and should be
like that. Here I count representations of Leopold Robert and Ludwig Richter.
In fact, in the family and folk scenes of Lugwig Richter, to give us this most
obvious example, one generally has the feeling that there are scenes of happy family
life or a blessed folk life, as such might well be and we wish, that they were
everywhere. They appear to us from the artist out of the mass of those who are
everywhere to be seen, but who see nowhere to interest, singled out, and the lovely
thing in them permeated with such a fine, detailed, and striking characteristic, and
conversely so charmingly turned to the whole so harmoniously tuned that we find
nothing too little and nothing too much, and not both an exaltation over reality, as a
quiet elevation of reality into a more exemplary area can recognize in it. But we can
certainly enjoy such a thing, if even these representations do not give the impression
of being taken so purely out of real life, as, for For example, just to name a few recent
names, pictures of Defregger and pictures of Hendschel, which are even closer to life
as we are used to, and with the greater distance from the ideal of danger, one
continuous Type to recognize, even less subject. But these, too, do not fall into the
prosaic and the vulgar, because they, too, know how to stage scenes of life that appeal
to the mind or the humor. Thus, the portrayal of scenes from real life can sound a bit
more to the ideals or to aim for the impression of purely realistic truth;
And so, again to look back to the representations in an ideal field, predominantly
idealizing representations of sacred stories will not exclude those in Rembrandt's
sense, except that they will not descend so lowly as in the above example, and as
Rembrandt generally loves , Just now I saw a new picture of Hofmann in Dresden,
preaching Christ of the Ships from the people, a charming picture in a certain
sense; but I saw only Christ, who preaches to an enchantingly beautiful, charmingly
grouped assembly from the art world, not Christ, who preaches to a people. From
Rembrandt I would not have seen that, but this one.
In the field of portraits you will also have to guard against exclusivity. An idealized
portrait in our present sense is a flattered one. In the portrait, as well as in speech,
man can be easily flattered, but flattery is only pleasing to the flattered; Everybody
else prefers the true portrait. There are portraits of old masters with red nose, lumpy
features, hazy eyes that we like better, which we find artfully more beautiful than the
most flattered and ingratiating portraits of so many new artists. I recently had a
collection of photographs portraying the literary German women of modern
times. Most felt that the portraits were flattered, and flipped through the whole work
with a kind of disturbing mistrust.
Nevertheless, even in the representation of real personalities, an idealization can be
up to certain limits in the right, namely, if the representation is a monumental,
monuments are at the same time at the same time apotheoses, and it can have a
justified purpose, a great man only to the side of his being which has earned him the
monument to bring to posterity for characteristic representation. Here trains may be
more emphasized in this direction, and reluctant ones more mitigated, than it is
compatible with a completely natural characteristic. Many benefactors of mankind
have been more than cheaply devoted to sensuality; to keep the memory of this in his
face can not pious his memory and the effect of this memory. Only one does not have
to conceal that, rather, with monumental representations, rather than presenting an
idea that has found its representation in man as man himself, or wavering between
that representation and his individually accurate representation, the power of
impression, which depends on the truth, is weakened and the interest What one takes
in particular on the truth of a portrait statue is not satisfied. A monument that
faithfully reproduces man will always make a stronger impression in this respect, but
will easily miss the purpose of the monument if the outward appearance of man
contradicts the monumental character. The happiest, where there is no conflict in this
respect, and the artist can portray his man like the stonemason of which I thought
(Sect. XXII), his emperor;
A striking example of the embarrassment of resolving the conflict, indeed the
impossibility of solving it happily, was the monument erected in the Vienna City Park
for the song-composer Franz Schubert. 4) For the establishment of a capital was
brought together and invited three artists, Wiedemann in Munich, Kundtmann in
Rome and mushroom in Vienna, to participate with sketches in the competition for
the execution. None of the three sketches was enough, and how was it possible, says
the reporter, "where, as in Schubert, not only the spiritual man, with his deeply
inward, finely-tuned, soul-life, but also the outward appearance in its unruly, obscene
character, stands so well apart , as opposed to the stylistic laws of sculpture, this
body, almost like the noble John, which has gone into breadth, ... that plump curly-
haired with the greasy lips and the bespectacled stub nose, who wants to make it to us
in full figure, who can, without to do his own, the genius of the divine singer entry,
4) Supplement to v. Lützow's Zeitschr. f. image. K. 1866. no. 20.

Wiedemann hatte die Erscheinung Schuberts mit der Unordnung seiner Haare, dem
freistehenden Vatermörder, dem ausgerundeten Bäuchlein so naturalistisch
wiedergegeben, daß die geistige Bedeutung des Mannes darüber nicht zur Aussprache
kam, vielmehr derselbe erschien "wie ein äußerlich wohlkonditionierter Beamter, der
sich in nachdenklicher Stellung zwischen Daumen und Zeigefinger eine Prise
aufbewahrt, mit der er, sobald ihm der richtige Gedanke gekommen, seine Nase
belohnen wird"; wogegen der Pilz’sche Schubert "in seiner echt plastischen, das
Kleine und Kleinliche verschmähenden, Haltung, mit dem Ausdrucke des
Nachdenkens, des künstlerischen Denkens einen günstigen Gesamteindruck machte,
aber sich ganz fremdartig gegen den wirklichen Schubert darstellte, "keinen traulich
ansprechenden Zug desselben enthielt." Ebensowenig befriedigte Kundtmann’s
Skizze.
The rapporteur recommends that in order to at least reduce the difficulty of the task,
which could not be lifted at all, instead of simply giving a bust to a whole portrait
statue, and surrounding it with relief-like jewelery that follows architecture. But
perhaps it would be better to refrain from such a strong conflict from a portrait statue
at all, and to devote the memory of the man rather a foundation with the name and in
the sense of the same.
XXVIII. Symbolize.
The most general concept of symbolizing lies in the fact that for a thing a sign is
presented to it, which is capable of awakening the idea of it, and thereby is able to
represent it.
In a very wide version of the symbol now, everything physical can be regarded as a
symbol of something spiritual behind it, the body as a symbol of the soul, laughter as
a symbol of happiness, weeping as a symbol of mourning, the whole visible world as
a symbol of a non-appearing, but with their appearance related, mind. Also, such a
broad conception of the symbol appears well in general considerations, according to
which the whole of visible nature, like all art, assumes a symbolic character. But as a
rule, and especially in the consideration of art, the notion of symbolizing is more
closely grasped, by excluding, from the rest of it, the signs which, without our
intervention, are attached to the spiritual by natural or divine mediation, from the
concept of the symbol. and, rather, as a direct or natural rather than a symbolic
expression of the spiritual, as when the emotions of a man are expressed through the
mines and gestures that are naturally attached to them, or when the action of divine
justice is expressed in the course of a real event. By contrast, as a symbol, when God
is represented by the figure of a dignified Old, his elevation above the world through
the elevation of this figure above the clouds, Christ's patience through his portrayal as
a Lamb, the stupidity of a man through dog-ears. For in reality God's Spirit is not
expressed in a human form and its spiritual height not in a visible height, but in an
omnipresent activity,
The too broad version of the symbol, according to which every sensual sign of the
spiritual is considered a symbol, is too narrow, according to which merely sensuous
signs of the spiritual are to be considered as symbols, since, according to the valid
mode of use of the concept of symbol in the consideration of art, the sensuous
symbolic Sensual can occur.
Thus it is probably found in ancient reliefs that a house, which can not be fully
represented, and yet belongs to the understanding of the whole, is represented by a
mere pillar; a whole mountain through a single stone, a living room through a
suspended carpet 1) ; everywhere here it is a characteristic part symbolically
representing the whole.
1) Tölken, on the bas-relief p. 82.

In the Vatican Museum there are a number of Hercules statues 2) , which show all
12 fights of the demigod. But one always sees him alone, and the opponents whom he
fights, the three-leaved Geryon, King Diomed with his horses, formed very small, as
it were only to explain the violent positions of the hero (Tölken, on the Basr.). Here,
the big is symbolized by his image on a small scale.
2) image. in the second th. of Mus. P. Cl.

In the same way, the effect can be symbolized by the effect, or the effect by the
effect or the like. Most symbols are based on concept association; Many are also
purely conventional, or to understand only with regard to the convention.
If, as is often the case in old pictures, God's participation in a scene is signified by a
hand stretched out of the clouds, then we have at the same time the spiritual through
the bodily, the effect through an operative, the whole through a part, the significance
of the sublime presented by a spatially sublime; but still the convention is needed to
understand the symbol.
In the representation of God or as divinely presented personalities, the symbol can
be of a triple nature. Either art tries to get as close as possible to the idea of such
personalities by idealizing humanity; or it naturally changes the human type to
represent beyond that wealth or power; or she is content to give a conventional,
historically motivated sign for connecting the idea. First z. For example, if it
represents God through a man with the expression of the greatest possible height and
dignity achievable by art; the second, when the Hindu represents gods with many
heads and arms; the third, when God through a triangle in a light, the Holy Spirit
through a dove and the like. Like. Is shown.
On ancient sarcophagi one can often see representations referring to death and
burial, symbolizing symbolically the determination of the sarcophagus; as the deeds
of the heroes who have won the Olympus, robbed by gods or killed (as in the Nioben
group) mortals, the eternal sleep of the Endymion, excellent deaths of the heroic
legend (as Phaethon, Meleager, Agamemnon) triumphal journeys to the islands of the
blessed, etc. ( See Tölken, on the bas-relief on page 93.)
The symbolic expression of general concepts such as justice, valor, and wisdom in
a rendered image takes the name of allegory.
Symbolizing equates art in general, not only the abstract of the understanding and
the concrete of faith, but also sensuous objects, whose intuition about the scope of
our senses or their depiction exceeds the framework of a work of art, but which is
included in it and thereby to broaden the field of art-intuition beyond that of natural
intuition, finally to bring circumstances in simple symbols to light and clear intuition,
which by direct expression, by their complication with other circumstances, elude an
equally easy and distinct conception.
If, in this respect, the symbolic representation can be advantageous against the
direct, then it does not avoid the disadvantages which every violation of natural truth
entails, according to which natural expression is preferable wherever possible and
with equal ease the view is to be established.
Generally speaking, apart from the danger of confusion with the cause of the
symbol itself, every symbolic expression suffers from weakness of impression in
relation to natural expressions that are equally easy to grasp, and symbolic
representations would therefore be completely banished if all natural were at hand
"Not a relatively weak impression of something strong, which otherwise could not be
represented, could still be strong and valuable, and not the weak could increase the
strength of what it is connected with.
Frischer Vischer 3) makes a uniform aesthetic impression. But the kind of
importance that was his aim could only be attained through symbolism, and even the
intellect can be satisfied with a happy combination of graphic means without, of
course, being able to seek the main purpose of a work of art.
3) Lützow, Zeitschr. 1865. p. 231.

The ancient Egyptians represented gods with eagle, lion, and bull's heads to
symbolize the qualities of sharpness, strength, and fruitful power. To us this seems
absurd, and rightly so, because we have more natural or more natural approaching
expressions in the formation and expression of the human head and finer features,
and the disadvantages of the harsh violation of the natural truth are counterbalanced
by no counterweight. But for the ancient Egyptians, this symbolization did not have
the character of a similar absurdity. They did not yet know how a more advanced art
could clearly express the expression of higher qualities in the formation of human
form and traits; whereas it was easy to express them by animal symbolism; and since
the animal world itself was considered to be a world of gods and a container of
otherworldly spiritual worlds, what seemed to us to be a humiliation by the symbol
was an exaltation to them. These advantages have been enough for them to overcome
the disadvantage of being inhumane. In absolute terms, their taste is deeper than ours,
because it is based on a less advanced and developed stage of culture, and gives ours
a higher and more complete satisfaction; but perhaps he was in his rights for her
cultural level. In absolute terms, their taste is deeper than ours, because it is based on
a less advanced and developed stage of culture, and gives ours a higher and more
complete satisfaction; but perhaps he was in his rights for her cultural level. In
absolute terms, their taste is deeper than ours, because it is based on a less advanced
and developed stage of culture, and gives ours a higher and more complete
satisfaction; but perhaps he was in his rights for her cultural level.
We can make an analogous remark concerning the above-mentioned Hindu
symbolism. The Greek symbolically expresses as possible the expression of a power
and greatness raised above the human through the idealization of the human; This
possibility was denied to the lower civilization of the Hindus, and so they resorted,
for example, to giving a god twenty arms instead of two arms, and to having twenty
swords beat them; they did not yet know how to represent the superhuman power,
and yet there was a need for it as good as that of the Greeks.
As much as we disgust such things, we have reason to be lenient towards such
monstrosities, after we have fallen for the unnatural sphinxes, centaurs and winged
angels. As we have become accustomed to it, the Hindus of those accounts may have
been accustomed, having found their use for the purposes of worship. In any case, the
difference is only relative. To be sure, the Hindus have gone so far into such
monstrosities that one would like to say that everything ceases. Thus they have
pictures of them, where a supreme deity rides an elephant strangely entwined with
other carcasses, or a rajah on a horse or elephant made up of all the women of his
harem. 4) .
4) Böttiger ideas z. Arch. D. Times. P. 10.

XXIX. Comment on a pronunciation K. Rahls.


"There is, - once said Karl Rahl, a famous Viennese historical painter 1) , -. No
traffic Teres put together as the artist with the historian History is for the painter no
longer than for the tragic poet who used the material in history In order to present his
original idea, the subject must never prescribe the boundaries, but the artistic sense,
and if an artist wants to paint the history of his nation, he must not conceive her like a
historian, but in the sense of a poet he must treat, with poetic spirit, with the
imagination of the poet ", etc
1) Dioscuri 1863. p. 45.

By this I mean, the artist can treat the story as Rahl wants, but he does not have to
treat it that way; least of all the history of his time and nation; and everywhere it
depends so much on the nature of the historical task, as the purpose of the
presentation, whether he should treat it in this way. It is only too easy to drive the
natural poetry of history through art poetry. Only such historical materials, which
contain something of natural poetry, or, rather, more generally, of natural interest, are
at all appropriate objects of representation for art, as I understand, of course, as a
matter of course what already exists apart from artful treatment. This natural poetry,
to bring out this natural interest, is certainly a beautiful and worthwhile
In this regard, I counter the theory and art theory of Rahl's theory of Horace
Vernet. He painted in direct contradiction with Rahl's prohibition, and thus achieved
effects that could not possibly be achieved by that prohibition and yet can not be
rejected by Rahl himself.
"To him, in order to cite some of the words in this connection from an appraisal of
his works, 2 art, especially in the case of depictions of modern expeditions and events
of war, was at the same time a story, far removed from the abstract idealists, and the
like facts He has described the battles at Jena, Friedland, Wagram (in Algeria), etc.,
for world history, and if such images had been preserved from the battles of antiquity,
we would know better, There is only one way to get to know the field life better than
from Vernet's pictures, one would have to do it for oneself. "
2) Förster and Kugler Kunstbl. 1845. no. 68th

While so many images of battles in the traditional great style of the past, with
figures and attitudes that one may have already seen how often I count Rahl 's own
battles, arouse the cold admiration of idealistic connoisseurs, who find them entirely
in the spirit of their theory, they are capable Vernetschen, each newly and freshly
picked out of the borne of life, rather on the battlefield than composed at the easel to
arouse the most lively participation of the public, and compel even the most idealistic
connoisseurs to concede them everything, except what they do for the dab to hold the
i, and what is found in so many images, created under the influence of their view,
almost without the base line.
"When the Konstantinesaal was opened, - says a portrayal of Vernet's
representations from the Algerian field life 3)- he astonished people and rightly; The
public still crowds in these rooms every day: the fathers want to see their sons in their
red trousers and blue skirts besieging, bombarding and storming Constantine. On the
first painting, "The Siege," the enemy is thrown back, on October 10, 1837, from the
heights of Condiat Ati; the French are still mostly firing behind the stone walls, while
their royal prince is already swinging over, but the general is standing quietly with his
arms crossed, looking fixedly for success; he is surrounded by several staff
officers; another, wounded, is carried away by a Moor and a Bedouin in a white
sheet; under this weight, old tombs, dug on the hill, collapsed; Skeletons stare out -
the old death, who welcomes the boy. On October 13, 1837, the columns set in
motion; the main mass still lingers behind the entrenchment, from where the breach is
fired; the general himself sits quietly, leaning against a cannon; the 24th Company is
the first to make the storm, followed by the Indigènes, then a column, which still has
a rifle on its foot, and at last, behind the Schanzkörben, the 47th Company; this is no
longer a picture - that is pure nature, the collapsed city walls, the bombs bursting in
the air, the cheering Andringenden, those standing by the storm, the reserves, the
quiet general with his retinue. All this is so sure of course that one is certain even of
the auspicious success, us w, ... If one sees the French lined up with their red pants in
rank and file, one would think that an artist could do nothing with this unmaleric
costume; but Vernet shows what to do with it, and yet he painted her no iota other
than they are; one can convince oneself of this often enough by eye-sight when the
soldiers stand in front of these pictures, then one could instantly put them in these,
one might say, that in the picture are more alive than the ones before, and in part it is
so, for it is the action which makes life manifest, and thereby Vernet knows how to
produce the tremendous effect. "
3) Kunstbl. 1845. no. 68. p. 282.
In No. 69 pp. 286 ff. Is similar to "the Seeattaque of St. Jean d'Ulloa", the "Battle of
the Habra", "the departure from a camp scene in Africa", and the mighty picture "the
removal of the Smalah" , Everywhere the same interest, same life.
Admittedly, if Vernet could not produce such successes by a free treatment of
history in Rahl's sense, so little by a pure imitation of nature, but only by a purifying
in Aristotle's sense; whose demand it would be better to explain by commentary than
to replace it with the idealistic demand in Rahl's sense. Even in historically
significant representations the artist of spirit as such will be able to prove himself by
this, and, as Vernet has previously shown, he proves scenes which are not entirely of
interest to him, and these in their most characteristic moment from the most favorable
standpoint select the representation, which already includes more than mere
imitation, but at the same time can gain an advantage over so many idealistic
artists, that in the depiction he takes from his own life the scenes thus captured in
their most important moments, something that most of the artists based on
idealization and stylization have completely forgotten. In his connection to reality he
will not be able to go so far as to include all the contingencies which the interest in
the subject may have inserted, which reality might have inserted. Vernet himself will
probably have put together some things in time and space, which kept reality apart,
and kept things clearer, which in reality confused and obscured intuition; but
certainly only in the same interest, in which the historian omits to represent a great
many, collapses, pulls apart, in order to distinguish the main points of the real history
in question; the clearer, more coherent, more emphatic. The historian, of course, has
the advantage over the painter that the outward form of his representation does not at
the same time appear as a form of reality itself, and therefore it is also of great care to
the painter, who attaches great importance to the satisfaction of a living historical
interest in such deviations from nature needs. He will have to respond to it only in
subordinate terms and only in favor of very significant advantages of clarity and
content of the presentation. With this regard, he also likes side-things and secondary
characters, whose specialty does not at all hold the memory of the memory, but rather
how they could have been as they really were, and how they stylistically exploit the
freedom that remained in this respect.
If we now subsume this conception, pure summarization and moderate modulating
of the moments of reality from the most consistent and concise point of view, because
it still remains a matter of the inventive spirit of the artist, subsume under Rahl's
expression that the artist has only to use history to its original To represent an idea, to
treat it with the imagination of the poet, Rahl's and other similar expressions would
have no objection but to express something right so unclear or incorrect as to mislead
the wrong to the right; but in fact they are usually rather incorrect than rightly meant,
that is to say, in the sense of a one-sided preference for the idealistic art movement,
which certainly has its right, but not the sole right of the realistic one. I come back to
this law, recognized earlier (Sects. XXVII.) Below. But let's look at an example
before.
In the supplement to Augsb. Gen. Ztg. 1865. no. 21 is a painting by Th. Horschelt,
depicting the submission of Shamyl, discussed, and others said:
and behind him the mountain, which exceeds the crowd of Russians. The Russians
who were at it will be satisfied by all this. But it was impossible in such a way to
illustrate the essential significance of the subject, the tragic end of a popular struggle
against overpowering oppressors, whose civic mission is still doubtful to us; This
required a dramatically moving composition, not just a moment that actually decided
the whole thing, but one that would have shown the turning point and climax of the
decision that artistically united what was separated in time and space into an overall
picture would have. Of course, this is impossible without the fact that the factual is
born again in the mind, made free by the imagination, and Horschelt's painting
behaves like a precise newspaper or chronicle report on the drama or the epic, into
which the phantasy of the single poet or folk legend transfigures the facts of history,
so that the ideal meaning of the events now shines forth from them and in the plot the
characters unfold. The painter will always give the banner to a Napoleon at Arcole,
and if ten times the historical criticism proves that he did not seize it, for he was
really the victorious standard bearer of his people at that time, and this is illustrated
by the legend. Likewise, the artist must be free to shape the reality from the idea and
the idea, if his work is not merely the prosaic correctness of the factual, but if it is to
establish the truth of the thing and its meaning for the story as well as for the
mind. But how often are the painters bound by the clients! At least let's just have a
look at the Shamyl, how he throws his sword at the overpowered man's feet, and now,
like a hero, gathers himself to bear his fate! But this soul fight had
happened. Bariatinski received him sitting, and was told by an interpreter what he
desired; that was it; It is a pity that the interpreting is not picturesque and that the
painter has to say by action what is going on in the mind! Horschelt has brilliantly
proved in his painting, too, what a keen eye and sure hand are suited to the
conception and drawing of the individual and national characteristic; he has proved
his knowledge of the truly picturesque in the earlier mentioned papers; may he come
to create a satisfying whole even in an imaginative composition. "
In the foregoing, the higher task that the artist could set himself by using the
process of subjugating Shamyl as a motive, giving the general world-historical idea
of this subjugation directly in stricter traits than reality itself, is very valid and quite
in accordance with Rahl to express. Would he have done it; but if I were Bariatinski, I
would have laughed in the face of the painter and placed the picture on the top of the
floor with the sword thrown from the painter 's head in front of my feet, so as not to
always have it in my eyes, because the act of violence which the poetic truth against
the real and my legitimate real interest practiced too much.
Now the critic says, for example, that the picture should also be painted in such a
way as to deserve a higher and more general value, rather than deserve a place in an
art collection, a national museum, as the private room of the general rather, to satisfy
the general and eternal interest of the contemporaries and posterity. But I am
convinced that not only Bariatinski, but all the posterity and posterity, with the
exception of biased artistic idealists, would rather look at the picture and receive a
stronger impression of it, if they knew it was as if the painter's conception were. In
any case, I myself had this experience when, later on, long after reading that
criticism, I saw the picture in a stitch or a lithograph. Shamyl stands there, like a
Jew, to whom a trade has failed, without all deep pathos; he takes his destiny as a
predetermined one. And yet, assuming that I see here a piece of real history, this has
made a deeper tragic impression on me than if the painter had tried to penetrate the
depth of Shamyl and his people's fate directly into his face, position, gestures and to
lay down action, but I had known, it was not so. Then I would have seen the painter
rather than the hero who was to be painted in the picture; so I saw the man of his
people, his time, his faith in destiny, a man as he lived and lived in it, and thus
received so many living points of attack, from which the idea of the tragic fate of the
hero and his people, indirectly, but developed with a force,
For Napoleon, with the flag in his hand on the bridge of Arcole, a widespread
legend, the falseness of which only later emerged through more detailed historical
research, was at the same time the point of departure and justification. But what was
the story of the sword thrown by Shamyl? So these are incomparable cases. Had the
artist wished to depict Napoleon without the document of that legendary story, rather
in contradiction to the known story, in order to portray him as the "victorious
standard bearer of his people," instead of providing a historical picture, just the
episode from a historical novel delivered in the picture.
In any case, there are historical substances whose faithful reproduction is so great
that no departure, even the most poetic, in characteristic traits can compensate for the
disadvantage of damaging that interest, and all the historically significant materials
that intervene in the artist's time. belong here. In so far as art can satisfy this interest,
it has to satisfy it too, and not resort to the shadow of the flesh. But, of course, in
order to paint pictures like Vernet and Horschelt, one must have been present in
Algeria and the Caucasus; For pictures according to Rahl's rule, one does not need to
leave the studio, for the machinery for such depictions can already be found in earlier
pictures and in costume books. Anyway, Rahl's rule has the advantage of convenience
for the painter.
In the meantime, by advocating the realism of historical representations to Rahl, we
do not want to reject Idealism in Rahl's sense at all. It is only valid, instead of
preaching one-sidedly, to assign him his rightful place. He will find it to the greatest
advantage where the painter must draw the material for his depiction from poetry or
legend rather than history; neither the documents for a faithful representation nor an
interest in such finds, points that generally meet. The painter can treat an Amazon
battle, a battle from the Trojan war only poetically free, because the story here itself
runs in poetry, and a destruction of Jerusalem can nevertheless, that it is historical,
not historically faithfully reproduced by the painter, because the intuition For this
there is no such thing as the news, which gives the painter no sufficient support, and a
faithful demonstration of no interest in the one who stands far from that event. Would
meet the public. So it is in order, if here no emphasis is placed on the satisfaction of
an interest in realistic truth, which can only be partially satisfied; while one may well
try to make an effective motive for the presentation of a general world-historical idea
out of it, as happened by Kaulbach. In this respect, in the sense of the considerations
(Sect. XXII.), The notions common to art and familiarized with the idea of the
bearers of such ideas are rather to be based on studies of the real physiognomies and
costumes of the ancient Jews and Romans. In this respect, even the realism of a
Vernet has undeniably gone too far, if it is the result of the studies he has actually
undertaken, that the old Jews in general, and down to many particularities, looked
like the modern-day Arabs, dressed, dazed; used to depict the patriarchs, prophets,
and biblical personalities as brown Arabs. What did he gain with it and what has been
gained? He thus steps out of our common ideas and merely satisfies an ethnographic
interest far removed from art, for which we are not concerned with representations of
this kind, and which is not as fused with our poetic interest as with the lifelike
representation of a scene in which ours To portray prophets and biblical personalities
in general as brown Arabs. What did he gain with it and what has been gained? He
thus steps out of our common ideas and merely satisfies an ethnographic interest far
removed from art, for which we are not concerned with representations of this kind,
and which is not as fused with our poetic interest as with the lifelike representation of
a scene in which ours To portray prophets and biblical personalities in general as
brown Arabs. What did he gain with it and what has been gained? He thus steps out
of our common ideas and merely satisfies an ethnographic interest far removed from
art, for which we are not concerned with representations of this kind, and which is not
as fused with our poetic interest as with the lifelike representation of a scene in which
ours Time is more directly involved.
In the meantime, a big man only needs to go too far in a direction that is in itself
right, so it will certainly be exaggerated by imitators. To give an example of this, a
picture of W. Dyce 4) depicts the scene, as King Joas shoots on the command of
Elisha with the bow of liberation (2 B. d., 13, 15-17):
"Joas, a strong, young man of deep brown skin, in a kind of Indian costume with a
colorful short skirt, bared by the way, kneels on the ground, bow and arrow ready and
directed against the open window behind him sits the Prophet, also the brown body
bared, beaten only a white coat to the thighs, and hints at his commands with
movement of the hands. " An assessor of this image, referring to the fact that Horace
Vernet in his Rebecca and Judith provided the model for such representations, says
with some injustice: "I do not know whether the artist will not be aware of the loss of
religious and poetic content for profit a so-called true story,
4) Contained among the pictures of the London Art Exhibition of 1844,
described in Kunstbl. 1844. no. 70. p. 293.

Against this we have an example of the finding of Moses of Papety in the Leipzig
Museum, how effectively the national type can also be brought to bear in
representations from ancient history. Consider this image in which the daughter of
Pharaoh and her servants appear as brown Egyptians with features familiar to us from
so many Egyptian monuments, with a peculiar interest unlike any of the innumerable
representations of the same subject the ever-returning machine-like types of idealistic
art, the Greek faces, also meet us on the Nile. But it is only because the Egyptian type
is really familiar to us, and at the same time most moderately effective.
Rembrandt and other Dutch artists, in presenting biblical stories, do not depict the
people in the present-day Jewish or Arabic, but Dutch, type. In spite of all
uncertainty, as the old Jews looked like, we know that they did not look like
Dutchmen, and have now taken us to the more or less ideal or idealistic type that art
substitutes for. has, are accustomed, are so to a certain extent bound by it, in order not
to contradict common ideas. In the meantime, one can not deny that perseverance in
this type by no means offers the same possibility of such an individualized,
penetrating, and generally comprehensible characteristic of human feelings and
actions, as if the artist himself seizes such in the types of his time and nation, as that
awakens us in Rembrandt's representations so great admiration; and thus this mode of
presentation, though not as universally to be followed, but also as something that can
not be dismissed, should be acknowledged.

XXX. Preferential dispute between art and nature.


Should art and nature argue over their preference? Of course you do not do it
yourself; but people do it for them, and so we also want to say something about this
dispute.
The Shah of Persia, as he visited a London exhibit on his journey, wondered why a
painted donkey was to cost 100 pounds, while having a real 8 pounds, as one could
still ride on the real, on the painted, It was entirely based on Plato's underestimation
of art against nature (Sect. XXII.). On the other hand, Hegel asserts that beauty, as
born of the spirit, stands so much higher than the natural beauty, as the spirit and its
productions stand higher than nature and its phenomena. And the world seems to be
paying more than a real donkey for a painted donkey to prove Hegel right.
Of course, one must not forget that, in determining the price of a thing, the rarity or
difficulty of the procurement, with the exception of the value of the same, is
essentially taken as a factor. If there were a million well-painted donkeys, but only
one or a few good, real donkeys, instead of reversing the relationship, the price
relationship would be quite different from what the Shah of Persia found, and would
like to see that Real donkeys are really higher because you can ride on them. But the
fact that works of art are, in general, rarer than corresponding objects of nature,
contributes considerably to the general overestimation of art against nature.
Basically, everyone will admit that living without art but not without nature. The
fact that the nature of art in general precedes usefulness can not really be argued
about; but only if and to what extent the nature of art can do the same with beauty or
even surpass it in it. In this respect, many may find the advantage as obvious and
unconditional on the part of art. But he does not lie in an unbiased way in every way.
Rather, as much as the accomplishments of art through the purity and the amount of
satisfaction which they are able to arouse, outperform and surpass the ordinary
achievements of nature, because they are directed towards surpassing them, the
artless reality which we can To call art, in contrast to nature, exceptionally, not only
achieve the highest artistic achievements in human and scenic beauty, but also - while
the art can only offer this or that side of being, life, action at once to the highest
perfection, - exceptionally all to to unite the most favorable effect possible, thereby
far surpassing art in the power and fullness of its effects. Of course, with all this she
can not have any compositions of a higher ideal character from God, But to make
Christ, Mary, angels, and saints must really give primacy to art; but it is rather the
primacy of a thought-aimed than of an intuitively achieved height, rather a fluttering
over than of nature; and as much as art gains in height, it loses its power.
For the sake of the true Helena, Troy was destroyed; with all the effort of
idealization and stylization, a portrait or a statue of hers would not have
accomplished that; yes, if Helena was once the most beautiful of women, the
painting, the statue could not even render her color and shape more beautiful than the
reality gave her, and had to omit everything, which, interacting with the color and
shape, the overwhelming impression to make a heroic people. Of course, the painting
is only in advantage against the not-so-beautiful women of reality by omitting its
liver spots, its smallpox pits, increasing the redness of its cheeks, the fire of its eyes,
giving its features regularity, Breathe in spirit and life and thus be able to present
ourselves in shape and color to the ideal of a beautiful woman, which reality, though
not in itself incapable, but almost always refuses to offer, or offers only
temporarily. How the highest possible natural beauty of man is the ideal of artistic
beauty. For not that is in principle the most beautiful man, which is most similar to
the most beautiful Greek statue, but that is the most beautiful statue, which is most
similar to the most beautiful man whom reality could produce. How the highest
possible natural beauty of man is the ideal of artistic beauty. For not that is in
principle the most beautiful man, which is most similar to the most beautiful Greek
statue, but that is the most beautiful statue, which is most similar to the most
beautiful man whom reality could produce. How the highest possible natural beauty
of man is the ideal of artistic beauty. For not that is in principle the most beautiful
man, which is most similar to the most beautiful Greek statue, but that is the most
beautiful statue, which is most similar to the most beautiful man whom reality could
produce.
In this connection, let us recall in the following intervention some examples which
help our disobedience to the idealistic prohibition, natural beauty, to the creation of
which the human spirit has done nothing so beautifully as an artistic beauty.
"The lofty beauty of Demetrius Poliorcetes, as Plutarch calls it in his life, could not
be achieved either by the painters or by the sculptors of his time, regardless of the
fact that the greatest artists lived there." Athenes says that Apelles disposes of his
Venus The sea rises, after the Phryne, when she has gone up to the sea, dressed in the
feast which was held in honor of Neptune, and Arnobius affirms that all over Greece
the pictures of Venus have been painted for this famous beauty. "
A young man of unusual beauty of common rank had caught his attention and
astonishment. He was immediately in conversation with him, and we soon shared the
painter's admiration. He was the apprentice of a baker. We followed him to his home
nearby, and the artists soon agreed with his master and relatives on location and the
condition under which they wanted him for their work. Not a single youth of all,
whom I have seen in Rome, seemed to me so faithfully and so pure in reproducing
the character of the male youth, especially the angels, and the soulful expression of
their innocence and custom, in this Raphaelian painting. "(Thiersch , Kunstbl. 1831.
180.) He was immediately in conversation with him, and we soon shared the painter's
admiration. He was the apprentice of a baker. We followed him to his home nearby,
and the artists soon agreed with his master and relatives on location and the condition
under which they wanted him for their work. Not a single youth of all, whom I have
seen in Rome, seemed to me so faithfully and so pure in reproducing the character of
the male youth, especially the angels, and the soulful expression of their innocence
and custom, in this Raphaelian painting. "(Thiersch , Kunstbl. 1831. 180.) He was
immediately in conversation with him, and we soon shared the painter's
admiration. He was the apprentice of a baker. We followed him to his home nearby,
and the artists soon agreed with his master and relatives on location and the condition
under which they wanted him for their work. Not a single youth of all, whom I have
seen in Rome, seemed to me so faithfully and so pure in reproducing the character of
the male youth, especially the angels, and the soulful expression of their innocence
and custom, in this Raphaelian painting. "(Thiersch , Kunstbl. 1831. 180.) under
which they wanted him for their work. Not a single youth of all, whom I have seen in
Rome, seemed to me so faithfully and so pure in reproducing the character of the
male youth, especially the angels, and the soulful expression of their innocence and
custom, in this Raphaelian painting. "(Thiersch , Kunstbl. 1831. 180.) under which
they wanted him for their work. Not a single youth of all, whom I have seen in Rome,
seemed to me so faithfully and so pure in reproducing the character of the male
youth, especially the angels, and the soulful expression of their innocence and
custom, in this Raphaelian painting. "(Thiersch , Kunstbl. 1831. 180.)
"For, if they only earnestly strive to do so, there will be no lack of opportunities,
such as those which a worthy patroness, Baroness von Rheden, brought about a few
years ago, when she brought beautiful Victoria from Albano to Rome, to take leave of
them Those who stayed at Rome at that time will remember the appearance which
produced the most beautiful face, and the general agreement that such, in view of the
correspondence of his relationships, or the purity of his forms, both All the works of
Rome surpass, as well as the reproducing artists quite unattainable. " (Rumohr Ital.
Forsch. IS 62.)
Now the artist may still have changed a trifle on the beautiful models mentioned in
these examples; but has he really made her more beautiful? but was it worth
mentioning? He likes angels, goddesses made of them, and to this have given them a
movement, an expression that the models did not have. And certainly it is a great
advantage of art that it can do that; but can the artist in the most graceful movements,
the most ideal expression, do more than nature can do? It will just not be easy for the
most perfect figures to present the most graceful movement, the most ideal
expression, or just for the artist. But even where the noblest expression of which
nature is capable
What of human beauty is no less true of the scenic beauty. The artist must be glad if
he succeeds in reproducing approximately in flattening light examples and moments
of such beauty as a favorable nature can offer on its own; only that he has the
advantage, not as a teacher but as a pupil of nature, to be able to create and perpetuate
beautiful bills of the species himself. It may be that a landscape is very seldom such
that the artist does not want to add something to it, to omit, modify, or modulate it, in
order to produce as uniform and concentrated an advantageous impression as
possible; yet one sometimes encounters views that are said to give a picture as they
are; yes, you are probably looking for such views when traveling. But where the
natural landscape does not do enough for the artist, she is able to do so much beyond
the artist's inaccessible relationships that there is no painted landscape, the sight of
which, in the interests of art, is People a rewarding view of a mountain, a sea view in
beautiful lighting, all inability to give a good picture could replace. If one does not
want to admit it, ask somebody if he would prefer to look at the Gulf of Naples and
admire the landscape that unfolds before the eye, or even the most beautiful
landscape of Claude Lorrain or Poussin, or rather that landscape always wants to
have in front of his window or this in his room; would not he prefer the first? On the
other hand, perhaps he prefers to have the landscape of Claude Lorrain permanently,
rather than having the much richer and more intense impression of a similar natural
landscape. But these are incomparable cases. In any case, the painted landscape gives
the real one the advantage of being really possessed, and then of having to constantly
be at the command of the contemplation again.
The art-historical and art criticism and art school interest, what the specific art
connoisseur may take in the painted landscape, the interest that we all take in the
successful imitation of nature, can not replace a real landscape. In general, the
painted landscape arranges and submerges the totality of products of the human spirit,
thereby gaining meaning and relationship from the natural landscape; Having made a
landscape yourself makes it more valuable to man than the natural landscape; in the
natural he finds no occasion to admire man's own achievement. So the well-painted
landscape always keeps interest and value beyond the most beautiful real after certain
relationships; but only after certain relationships; as a whole she can not
If we turn to the highest achievements of art, nature can not demonstrate to us a
universal judgment like art; but does art really show us such a thing? We must first
make his conception of the visible appearance that it gives, how much we attach to
it; In fact, most of those who understand art will rather think of the style, grouping,
color effect of the picture than of the judgment of the world, and may even find this
content of the picture quite negligible for his artistic achievement. and who do not
understand art, will not know what to make of the whimsical scene; but in any case
the image will not penetrate so deeply and powerfully into the mind of man as art,
which does not aspire to anything, is the actual act of divine justice. who is practiced
against him or those to whose fate he takes part, while for the latter, of course, he
leaves man untouched for pages according to which art moves him through the
picture; without being able to achieve the value and strength of the most valuable and
strongest natural touches with the strongest emotion that she can ever produce
through images.
In all of these we had visual art in mind; but it is similar to poetry. All feelings
which can be awakened by poetry are only echoes of those who can rarely awaken
life with such purity and unanimity, but with disproportionately greater power. There
is also a poetry of life like words. Of course, between our business, between books,
acts, steam engines, our conventional rules and conversations, our education through
word forms, we easily forget that there is such a thing, and easily believe what poetry
is, only in the books that published by Goethe, Schiller, Uhland, Heine, who
themselves first drew their inspiration from the poetry of life. Does not remember one
or the other of a time,
Someone is traveling through the mountains; he is healthy, his mind is open, the
great and manifold nature, the simplicity and yet novelty of the customs of the
people, the changing travel party, the alpine economy, the brown girl, the strange
Englishman, the falling asleep in the rustling of the forest, the trickle of the Mountain
waters with the thought of the homeland, with the expectation of the scenes of the
following day, in the morning the fresh mountain air, the rising sun, the smell of the
herbs, the power of the limbs, the inner pleasure; the overall effect of this is not
poetry, and who will want to give this poetry of reality for the most beautiful poem.
And yet we do not misunderstand the merits of the poem. What I quoted could all
be together and work together in a journey, but is it so easily the case, and is it so
purely the case? Can not the poem spare us all the stupefying tiredness, all boredom,
all uncleanness, all quarrels with greed for gain and vulgarity, all the repugnance that
we would have to bear in the real journey, and if it were the most beautiful, by the
way. It sums up what harmonizes to a purely satisfying effect on the mind,
accompanies it with the music of the verse and can help to beautify the journey itself
as a travel song. In addition we can have it for free at any moment instead of the rare
and costly journey.
And so it is essentially idle that art and nature generally argue about their privilege
and advantage, when each of the other advantages must accord with certain
relationships. These should be clearly considered and properly appreciated.
However, if we look further, we shall have to admit that it is different with music
and architecture, than with fine arts and poetry, insofar as these arts bring new
achievements to the achievements of artless life, of which none are Equivalent and
barely an analogue offers. What all natural caves and arbors want against the simplest
dwelling, and the song of the nightingale (apart from its placement in the spring)
want to say against the song of a clear human voice. Indeed, while fine art has a long
way to go before it reaches only common nature, music and architecture surpass it
from its first steps; and so, basically, there is no rivalry between natural life and these
arts, because that lags behind it from the beginning. In the following we will leave
aside the relation to it, in order to consider the relationship of the fine arts to nature
from a different point of view than before.
As little as art has to deal with nature in every respect, so little has it to detach itself
from it, but rather to rooted in it as a way of bearing fruit for it. All the rules which
art gives itself are given to it by a nature of the people and things that existed before
art and exist outside of art; it is only a matter of peeling them out clearly and purely
in relation to the purpose of art. All motifs and forms not only draw on art originally
from nature, but also continually draw new ones from it, otherwise they die out in
manner and conventionality. One condemns the pure imitation of nature through
art; but worse is the pure imitation of art through art, from which only an ever-
increasing fall to nature is preserved.
Not that art always has to start anew from nature; then she would always start with
the same rawness. In the earlier art there is a great capital, with which the later one
has to economize; but as little as a capital of money increases in the fact that the
existing rolls of money are piled up in ever new order, so is the case with the
accumulated capital of art; only from the shafts, fields, and forests of natural life does
it multiply, just as it has its original existence, which, of course, the artist's spirit had
to achieve, but could not achieve from its own existence.
Of course, since the right here lies in the combination of two aspects, there is again
no lack of one-sidedness, which soon brings out the one soon the other with neglect
or even denial of the opposite.
Leonardo da Vinci says in his treatise on painting (Abh.32): "A painter should
never imitate the manner of another, otherwise he will only be called a grandson, but
not a son of nature, for the things in nature are in so abundant that one should resort
to this nature itself, rather than to other masters, who also went to school with it. " On
the other hand Squarcione says 1), one of the artists to whom the great value of
antique art had been absorbed in the fifteenth century: "It is very foolish to look for
the beautiful, the high, the glorious in nature with your own eyes, to want to win it
over with your own strength, because ours Great Greek ancestors have long since
taken possession of the noblest and most illustrious, and we could thus obtain from
their smelting furnaces the refined gold which we must laboriously deplore, out of the
rubble and salutation of nature, as the meager profit of a wasted life. " 2) .
1) After Goethe's K. u. Alt., Works, Volume 39, p. 145.
2) A master of French art of the second half of the last century forbade even his
pupils to study nature "so as not to spoil the taste". (Meyer, Gesch. D. French
painting.)

Both expressions appear in complete contradiction with each other, and yet are
equally valid, if only they are well connected. Every new acquisition can come to art
no less than the first, only from the nature of the artless world, but only on and above
the basis of the earlier acquisition to great power and elevation.
If the artist had nothing left to learn from nature, art would at the same time be at
its summit and at its end; but it will not be able to achieve this end, for nature, in
which we understand the whole of life outside of art here, as opposed to art, never
progresses, but develops on and on; and if we must concede that the ideal figures of
Greek and Raphaelian art can not be surpassed, and indeed allow only slight
variations in order not to descend from the summit reached therein, then these
variations only become of nature It is only by virtue of such variations that the art
that moves in such ideal forms is still interested. But art is not limited to the domain
of ideal figures; for idealization there is also a characterization; and the more art with
its task reaches deeper into the real areas of life, the more material and form it will be
able to draw and draw from it; Indeed, as I indicated earlier (Sect. XXVII.), there
may come a time when one can increase the ideality which one can not exaggerate in
individual forms, than it is driven to do they are limited more to the summit of the
representations, and diminish from the idealization of the lower, according to their
idea lower standing figures with advantage for the characteristic. and the more art
with its task reaches deeper into the real areas of life, the more material and form it
will be able to draw and draw from it; Indeed, as I indicated earlier (Sect. XXVII.),
there may come a time when one can increase the ideality which one can not
exaggerate in individual forms, than it is driven to do they are limited more to the
summit of the representations, and diminish from the idealization of the lower,
according to their idea lower standing figures with advantage for the
characteristic. and the more art with its task reaches deeper into the real areas of life,
the more material and form it will be able to draw and draw from it; Indeed, as I
indicated earlier (Sect. XXVII.), there may come a time when one can increase the
ideality which one can not exaggerate in individual forms, than it is driven to do they
are limited more to the summit of the representations, and diminish from the
idealization of the lower, according to their idea lower standing figures with
advantage for the characteristic.
Now, as art has to grow out of natural reality, to draw ever new impulses from it, so
it has to fall back into it as far as possible. But it can only do so if it does not alienate
itself from natural interests, but accepts as its own interests with love the interests of
the world, of life, of faith that exist apart from art, rather than merely an indifferent
basis for its shaping therein to be seen in the interest of so many art enthusiasts. At
points of attack to it is not lacking. The religion uses the brush and chisel for
devotional objects in their temples, the story for the demonstration and attachment of
uplifting examples and memories in public buildings and halls. The grateful
recognition of the merits of great men seeks to be expressed in monuments; the
palaces of the great ones adorn themselves with large-scale sculptures and the
apartments of the little ones with those of a small style, in proportion to the
circumstances and inclinations of the inhabitants. Thus art becomes an empire over
life, a decorative element of life itself.
It was undisputed that this applied to ancient art much more than to ours, which
leads its existence, apart from the rest of life, mainly in art academies, art
associations, art collections, art magazines; whereas the ancient world knew nothing
of these places of separation and institutions of art.
If one must now call that former relationship in general a more favorable one than
what exists today with us, insofar as art, through its rooting in life itself, had more
life-force, and life had more ornaments, the old relationship can not be conjured up
again. and do not want to gain by negation the positive benefits of the former
relationship. If one eliminates the art academies, art associations, etc., one would
thereby eliminate the art itself. It would also have gone too far if one merely intended
to make art serviceable to the rest of life and to condemn it to slavery; it was not the
case even in antiquity. There is also a joy in the art. One can only say that the more
art leaves the rest of life,
In this way art is one of the highest points which reality or nature, taken in the
given sense, produces out of itself; she is not the highest point after all. This will
always remain the religion which certainly does not owe its origin to art, which,
however, gives even the highest impulse to art and receives important repercussions
from it.

XXXI. Imagination View of Beauty and Art.


One of the most widespread art views elevates the dependence of beauty and art
from the imagination to the main aesthetic point of view. In discussing this view, I am
referring to a lecture which I once heard at the Leipzig Kunstverein, held by a
connoisseur of art whose importance in the field of art has since been acknowledged,
that one of the most important institutes of art has been subordinated to his
management.
The presentation, which was very attractive in form, and certainly very
satisfactorily found by all who were inclined towards it in the same direction, was
directly related to a characteristic of Genelli, to which the speaker gave an
unconditional, even enthusiastic admiration. This artist is a genius who, exceeding his
time, has grasped the truest essence of art and expresses it in his works. For what
does the essence consist of, the task of art? She has an aesthetic interest to serve,
which is independent of all other interests. There is a realm of beauty which, without
regard to a moral or other content to which we are otherwise attaching value, claims
interest, and the task of the art is to satisfy this interest. But this satisfaction is
generated as won by a game of imagination, What works in the artist with the greatest
possible power and has to be performed again in the enjoyment of the work of
art. What is being played, it does not matter. According to this, the most suitable
objects for the representation of art are those which permit the freest, most lively,
most vigorous development of this play; Incidentally, the pleasure of beauty must be
disinterested. - This, if not quite the words, but the meaning of the lecture, as far as
my notes reach across it. In short, beauty and art are essentially dependent on an
active and receptive activity of the imagination. which allow the freest, liveliest, most
vigorous development of this game; Incidentally, the pleasure of beauty must be
disinterested. - This, if not quite the words, but the meaning of the lecture, as far as
my notes reach across it. In short, beauty and art are essentially dependent on an
active and receptive activity of the imagination. which allow the freest, liveliest, most
vigorous development of this game; Incidentally, the pleasure of beauty must be
disinterested. - This, if not quite the words, but the meaning of the lecture, as far as
my notes reach across it. In short, beauty and art are essentially dependent on an
active and receptive activity of the imagination.
Who can now deny the dependence of art and, in a certain sense, the beauty of the
imagination in general? For how could an artist, without a creatively spiritual faculty,
create and design what the imagination is, insofar as one does not want to limit art to
the slavish imitation of nature, and how the enjoyer, without the revival of a play of
ideas, enjoys it, if one does namely this receptive game also wants to call
fantasy. Now, however, something does not make it beautiful by itself, that it is
produced by an imaginary play, even if it is the most vivacious, and recreates a
corresponding game, for in what monstrosities the imagination can play. Rather, it
still raises the question of how to guide, regulate, and restrain the imagination in its
creations. how to be judged so as not to create anything fantastic, confused, or
downright ugly, and this seems to me to be the principal point of clarification and
development, and therefore an explanation only suggested by the explanation of the
beautiful according to its origin in fantasy; whose essentials are yet to be sought. Ask
yourself if it finds in the explanations and explanations of the explanation, what is not
lacking - that lecture itself was not the task to delve into it. So, for our part, we take a
closer look at the view of their most traditional ways of understanding and
reasoning. Thus, through the explanation of the beautiful according to its origin from
fantasy, an explanation is only inaugurated, the essentials of which are first to be
sought. Ask yourself if it finds in the explanations and explanations of the
explanation, what is not lacking - that lecture itself was not the task to delve into
it. So, for our part, we take a closer look at the view of their most traditional ways of
understanding and reasoning. Thus, through the explanation of the beautiful
according to its origin from fantasy, an explanation is only inaugurated, the essentials
of which are first to be sought. Ask yourself if it finds in the explanations and
explanations of the explanation, what is not lacking - that lecture itself was not the
task to delve into it. So, for our part, we take a closer look at the view of their most
traditional ways of understanding and reasoning.
The Explanation of the Beautiful by Referencing the Fantasy, represented in
particular by Solger, Weisse, W. v. Humboldt, Hettner, Köstlin u. A., based, more or
less far-reaching, commonly on the following points of view. The creative capacity of
the mind is called fantasy. In fact, the creation of all artistic beauty depends on this
ability. But we need merely to generalize and exalt the concept of the human
imagination in order to be able to speak of a divine fantasy, which is represented in
the creation and organization of an ordered, all natural beauty not only inclusive, but
in its totality itself a beautiful whole , has operated the world in an even higher degree
than the artist in the creation and refinement of his individual works.
According to this, the creation of all beauty from the ground up to the highest peak
and the widest enclosure is a work of the imagination. There is something beautiful at
all, insofar as it can have the mode of origin out of the divine imagination or in the
sense of the same creative human imagination. However, insofar as the divine
imagination and the imagination of a perfect artist in the creation of the beautiful can
be described as truly free and harmonious, the decline to the divine imagination in the
definition of the beautiful can be circumvented and thus enough done for those who
love it To find mystical decline, that one demands the quality of a truly free and
harmonious activity from the imagination to the creation of the beautiful; only that
one then remains confined to the beauty of nature,
For the creation of the beautiful through the imagination is related to the
imagination, no less important for the beautiful, to the imagination, insofar as the
imagination of the beautiful enjoyer has to operate freely and harmoniously in the
intuition, reception, appropriation of the beautiful as the creator of it in production,
partly submerging himself freely in it, and partly in establishing a free and
harmonious play with it.
Now, indeed, human imagination can also produce things that are disordered and
ugly, and ugly things occupy the imagination, whereby, in fact, the ugly and the
beautiful are brought under the same very general point of view and elevated to the
common object of aesthetics; In both, imagination plays the essential role. But a
distinction between the beautiful and the ugly remains in the manner of the act of
fancying, in that a phantasy which generates the ugly or deals with the ugly operates
rather unrestrainedly as free, disharmonious, as harmonious, not in the manner of the
creative activity of the divine creator. That many things appear ugly to man also in
the nature created by God contradicts the reference of the beautiful to the meaning of
the divine activity of creation, if one wishes to go back to this, in so far as not, as
what appears to the shortsighted man to himself, loses this character in the context of
the whole and after the totality of his relations. In this connection, but this totality is
created by God, it is looked at by God, and is to be understood in his sense.
As good as all seems to be, and I have tried to make it as audible as possible, the
following can be remembered.
It is possible to concede the original relationship of beauty to fantasy, with or
without decline, to the divine creative activity, without thereby conceding the
usefulness of a definition of the beautiful based on it, as I refer to the reference in
Part I, section II. In particular, it seems awkward to go back to God with the
explanation of the beautiful except for the origin, to which, of course, one can go
back with any explanation of how each story can be started with Adam; but as little as
human history can be clearly and safely traced by the mythical Adam, so little does
the aesthetics of the idea of God, which exceeds the human horizon at all, or at least
is shrouded in darkness. Thus, many theologians will not allow the analogy of the
divine creative activity with the human imagination as resting on
anthropomorphism; the creative power of God is rather something above all human
senses and thinking sublime. On the contrary, neither the materialists, nor Hegelians,
nor Schopenhauerians will admit the creation of the world, and therefore of the
beautiful of nature, by a conscious mind, since, on the contrary, nature, the idea, the
will of the world first becomes conscious in animal and man but to speak of an
unconscious fantasy in the creation of the beautiful of nature would be a violence that
would lump the working of blind forces together with the imagination; Therefore
from this side the inclination to exclude the natural beauty rather from the beautiful.
Insofar as the ugly can be as well as the beautiful product and stimulus of the
imagination, according to the above remark, a sharply divisive explanation of the
beautiful by reference to the phantasy would suffice only insofar as the difference in
the manner in which the phantasy This could be expressed, clearly and sharply
defined, but just as little can be done by referring to divine creative activity, by the
concepts of freedom and the harmonious nature of activity, or any other categories
that require further clarification.
In fact, according to the most common concept of freedom (absence of external
compulsion), the phantasy is just as free to create the ugly as the beautiful, and when
taking up a work of art it is not free to withdraw from its impressions and even to do
so to change as freely as to evoke the artist. In the view of some, however, (see, for
example, Sect. XXII.), The artist is even more likely to produce out of the urge of
inner coercion. Now, from a certain philosophical point of view, one can also identify
freedom with inner necessity; but heaven preserve the aesthetics before the
philosophical spin on the relation of freedom and necessity. Anyway, the concept of
freedom wants.
In my opinion, nothing ineffectual will be said if one calls the activity of the
phantasy, which comes into consideration when creating and taking the beautiful, free
and harmonious insofar as it is practiced with pleasure or not with discomfort, and
when it returns to lust-giving Products. Also explains z. For example, Köstlin
casually casts those expressions in this sense. After this, it seems to me to be
preferable to conceal the explanation of the beautiful and the task of art at once with
the purpose of referring to pleasure, rather than hide this reference under unclear or
ambiguous words.
In order to occasionally notice something else about the concept of the harmonic,
which has been used so often in aesthetics and misused for apparent explanations,
one can say for a moment that harmony is a reluctant, or at least a disgusting,
relationship. Thus the concept of harmony is defined clearly and without
compass. for, what is pleasure and aversion, one can point directly into us, whereas
the sometimes inverted inverse determination that the basic condition of pleasure lies
in a harmonious relationship, in order not to come to circles, says nothing else than:
the condition The pleasure lies in one, for the sake of brevity, harmonious relations,
but whose nature is not yet determined by this expression, but must first be
sought. Although one says well: harmonious, what's wrong with yourself or what's
wrong with us. But what is right with us can only be recognized from the fact that it
excludes aversion by keeping us healthy, or that it gives us positive pleasure; and for
what is right, we have, in the realm of logic, the clear sentence of contradiction; but
what do you do with it in music, painting. A bad-sounding chord, an unpleasant
combination of colors, an ugly face, one can call anything disharmonious, but only if
it causes pain; It is not contrary to the logical proposition of contradiction. As long as
the last general cause of pleasure and pain is not established with certainty and
clarity, and he has not been so far (Th. 11 f.), One has to abide by particular laws
according to which pleasure and pain arise ;
If one counts not only the creative imagination of the artist but also the receptive of
the connoisseur to the fantasy life, in order to make the concept of the beautiful
dependent on the imagination on both sides, then nothing else can be understood by
imagination than the ability to understand itself at all in a multiplicity of imaginings,
which, however, express themselves as productively as can be receptively stimulated
and engaged. It may be admitted that a broad use of language permits such a broad
conception of the concept of phantasy, and that in the ordinary life the employment of
the imagination and preoccupation of imagination is often unclearly confused by a
work of art; but it is certain that by imagination, as a rule, and especially by
psychologically clear distinction, rather, understands a creatively productive than a
receptive ability; and, in any case, it seems to me that the explanation of beauty with
regard to fantasy should not be done without careful consideration in this regard, in
order not to confuse the mode of operation of production and reception unclearly, and
thus to evoke a factually inconceivable conception of the effect of beauty, which In
fact, the previous explanations of this kind seem more or less subject to danger. Of
course, the receptively stimulated mind is also active; but not every activity,
especially that in which the mind is displaced by the conception of a work of art, will
be grasped as a creatively productive one, since rather the productive activity which
the artist has used to produce the work,
In fact, the aesthetic impression of music rests rather in a pleasurable pursuit of
given relations, the interpretation of which must be practiced as an activity of one's
own productive capacity. Reading a poem results in a bounded sequence of
associations with the words at the same time, without the mind having time to
productively intercalate its own creations, and the more the same awakens definite
ideas and feelings, the greater the impression it makes. It may also be in this purely
receptive impressions to have a tendency, in that the mind is continuously occupied
by the course of the work of art in time. If the connoisseur goes beyond productively
with his imagination, which may easily be the case, then this is immaterial to the
effect of the work of art on itself;
It deals with works of fine art. in so far as they do not run in time, but remain
persistent, but also want to occupy themselves in a certain time by change. Now also
in them the associations on which their main impression is based (Th. I.), given to the
mind as an immediate appendix to the intuition, are not creatively produced by it, and
everywhere else the associative activity becomes the unfree or even mechanical side
of the spiritual life expected. In addition, the continuance of a pleasurable occupation
with such works can be maintained to a certain extent by turning the attention to these
and those sides or parts of the work of art and receptively receiving them. However,
there is indeed a greater occasion here, as in music and poetry, which involuntarily
move us in a certain direction and capture the moment, to extend the duration of
enjoyment and to expand the enjoyment by exploiting the associative impression,
according to internal motives, soon after that side and further spun out, as discussed
in Th. I., and this may at least count as an activity of imagination, since it is not a
purely receptive activity, since there is no other expression for it, and even the most
creative imagination can not create anything completely new everywhere , After all,
it remains only a second part of the enjoyment of art, and probably with most of
them, it does not happen because they actively seek to extend the receptive
enjoyment by dealing with criticism, with questions of authenticity and so on.
If, of course, the definition of phantasy is made from the very beginning, that not
only the productive imagination of the artist but also the receptive imagination of the
connoisseur belong to the fantasy life, as is the case, for example. For example,
Köstlin (Aesthetics p. 26) expressly and others tacitly do so by declaring that they
only want to call the pleasurable imaginings freely and harmoniously, then, finally,
there will be nothing more to say than that with the beauty statement based on them
Nothing says more than that beauty is based on a pleasurable character of ideas in
which the beautiful producer as well as the connoisseur are. A direct reference to this
character of beauty, however, becomes in any case the detour through the concepts of
imagination, so easily obscured or grounded in conceptual aberrations,

XXXII. From the concept of sublimity.


One might wonder if in a two-volume work on aesthetics, in which so much has
been said of beauty, some attention would not be paid to the concept of sublimity; So
we're catching up with what's been missing so far.
In fact, next to the category of beauty, the category of sublimity is treated as the
most important concept of aesthetics, and so to speak considered as the rival of that
category in the rule of the aesthetic sphere. Burke wrote a special work
"Philosophical Examination of the Origin of Our Notions of the Beautiful and the
Exalted"; Kant divides his aesthetic investigations (in the critique of judgment) into
an analysis of the beautiful and the sublime; and everywhere the aesthetic profundity
has made a task of getting to the bottom of the one with the other as well as with the
other.
It is no less true than beauty that the views of the aesthetes on sublimity have
greatly diverged, as is evident from the following, no less than complete, registration
of them. The multiplicity of views would appear even greater if it were to be
followed up in the details, whereas here I will only pay attention to the main points
and, at the same time, the main contradictions of the views.
According to Carrière, Herbart, Herder, Hermann, Kirchmann, Siebeck, Thiersch,
Unger, Zeising, the sublime is only a special kind or modification of the beautiful,
although the manner in which the sublime subordinates itself to the beautiful is in
part very great among the various authors is taken differently. According to Burke,
Kant, Solger, majesty and beauty are opposed to each other, so that the sublime can
never be beautiful, beauty can never be exalted, or that both are weakening each other
through their being together, whereby different points of view of the antithesis are
still different from the different be set up. According to Weisse, sublimity is not only
a special kind of beauty, but that it forms a conception of beauty itself, so that on
every beautiful object what he is beautiful, is sublimity, while according to Ruge the
sublimity consists in the victory of the one moment of beauty over the other, ie of the
eternal over the finite.
According to Burke, the impression of sublimity over that of beauty is based on the
fact that by means of terror, pain, or danger, the basic instinct of self-preservation is
awakened by it in another way to socializing. According to Thiersch, "that the
sublime, through its strength and greatness, elevates the mind of the perceiver and
compels it, as it were, to expand and expand to its absorption and coping." According
to Kirchmann, that the sublime (sublime-beautiful) excites the ideal feelings of
respect, while the beautiful (simple beauty) excites that of pleasure. According to
Kant, Hegel, Vischer, that the mind, reason, becomes aware of the impossibility of
the finite appearance of completely expressing the infinite, of fully satisfying the
idea, and hereby becomes aware of the power of one's own infinite fortune (Kant), or
the power of the idea (Hegel, Vischer). According to Solger, that the infinite descends
to the finite, sets itself in the finite; while the infinite ascending finite gives the
beautiful. On the other hand, according to Zeising, the fact that in the sublime "the
finite rises above its finiteness into infinity, becomes at one with itself in this higher
sphere, and awakens by its greatness the idea of absolute perfection." According to
Zimmermann, "that we are able to imagine the infinite at the same time and not
imagine it, to grasp it and not to grasp it, for the sake of the latter we appear small
and insignificant, and for the sake of the former we appear great and
infinite." According to Solger, that the infinite descends to the finite, sets itself in the
finite; while the infinite ascending finite gives the beautiful. On the other hand,
according to Zeising, the fact that in the sublime "the finite rises above its finiteness
into infinity, becomes at one with itself in this higher sphere, and awakens by its
greatness the idea of absolute perfection." According to Zimmermann, "that we are
able to imagine the infinite at the same time and not imagine it, to grasp it and not to
grasp it, for the sake of the latter we appear small and insignificant, and for the sake
of the former we appear great and infinite." According to Solger, that the infinite
descends to the finite, sets itself in the finite; while the infinite ascending finite gives
the beautiful. On the other hand, according to Zeising, the fact that in the sublime
"the finite rises above its finiteness into infinity, becomes at one with itself in this
higher sphere, and awakens by its greatness the idea of absolute
perfection." According to Zimmermann, "that we are able to imagine the infinite at
the same time and not imagine it, to grasp it and not to grasp it, for the sake of the
latter we appear small and insignificant, and for the sake of the former we appear
great and infinite."
According to Burke, the sublime awakens a pleasure or agreeable feeling,
distracting from the actual pleasure, by the excitement of the nerves, by means of a
great degree of pain or terror calling for our self-preservation instinct. According to
Kant, Schiller, Lemcke, the impression of sublimity is mixed with pleasure and
aversion, which mixture of the first arises from a complicated relationship between
our imagination and our reason. According to Kirchmann, the feeling of respect, on
which the impression of sublimity is based, not only has nothing to do with pleasure
and pain, but is contrary to the feeling of the same polar. According to Hermann, the
impression of the sublime is ridiculous compared to the ridiculous.
For most, there is only a grandeur of quantity; to Köstlin but also from a qualitative
point of view.
Kant distinguishes the sublime into a mathematically and dynamically sublime, as
it is an extensive quantity, such as extent, duration, number, or an intense magnitude,
such as strength, power, strength, and resistance, which gives the impression of
sublimity; - Schiller into such, which surpasses our comprehension and which
threatens our vitality; - Vischer into an objectively lofty, which makes his impression
on the physical side regardless of the origin of spiritual power, of which the sublime
of space, time and physical power belongs, and a subjectively lofty as that of passion,
good and evil will. Jean Paul similarly distinguishes a sublimity of nature from a
moral or acting sublimity, but between them he places the sublimity of
immeasurableness and deity. He divides the sublime of nature into a visually and
acoustically sublime. Zeising distinguishes in the sublime as modifications "the
imposing, ie the sublime, which is sublime for other things, the majestic, ie the
sublime, which is sublime for itself, and the glorious, ie the sublime, which is
sublime for the absolute."
Yet most of them agree that in the definition of sublimity they play an important
role in the concept of infinity and its relation to finitude. Yes, Jean Paul has the
explanation that the sublime is the applied infinite.
Without going into the execution and discussion of the previous, sometimes very
absurd and subtle, conceptions of sublimity, of which not much more than the
keywords can be cited here, we seek to go our own ways, whereby aspects are partly
of agreement, partly Deviation regarding previous views will find itself.
Examples of the sublime, from which its concept can be regarded as abstracted, and
in which it can be explained, are in the realm of nature: the pure blue day sky, the
starry night sky, thunderstorms with thunderclouds and mighty lightning strikes,
mighty storms, the excited sea, Floods, the drift of large streams, large and high
waterfalls, large and high, especially barren mountain views, volcanic eruptions. In
the field of art: everything that epitomizes the divine greatness and power, but also
what spiritual human greatness, sovereignty, self-sacrifice, steadfastness poetically,
oratorically or vividly, representations of the Last Judgment; big dome, the olympic
zeus; in the field of music, in particular: pieces of sound with sustained, full, strong
tones, in particular bell tones, organ sounds.
If, looking back on these examples, I try to characterize the communal aspect of the
impression which is aroused or can be awakened by sufficient subjective receptivity,
it seems to me that the feeling of sublimity is due to the fact that the soul is one of the
middle The peculiar character of pleasure is not determined by the uniform character
alone, but by the impression that it is at the same time strong or great, and vice versa,
not by size or strength alone, but by that the impression is at the same time a uniform
one, conditional. To infinity to the explanation in ascending I like to leave the
idealist. The beautiful, Insofar as one wants to oppose it to the sublime in a narrower
sense, he shares with him the unified character, but not the magnitude or strength of
the impression that emerges from the ordinary; but in so far as one wants to grasp the
beautiful so far as to subordinate the sublime in which the definition is free, the
sublime is the special kind of the beautiful, in which the size of the impression of
distress depends on the size of the impression itself without, however, depending on
it alone, because to the unified character of the impression essentially belongs.
In the meantime, these explanations still need some explanation, some justifying
opposing views.
If Kirchmann not only finds nothing pleasurable in the impression made by the
sublime, but even finds it opposed to the pleasurable polar, and if Burke and C.
Hermann represent a similar view, only in a different turn, then this depends on
limitations of the Desire for pleasure, which will hardly give general validity. I think,
in order to speak quite popularly, if one calls every impression pleasurable, which one
likes, and with missing counter motives even searches, one will call also sublime
impressions predominantly pleasurable. When I ask, though, whether unpleasure does
not play a role in the impression of the sublime, I come down below.
In order for a great or strong uniform impression, as it is demanded of the character
of the sublimity of us, to arise, there must be a corresponding cause, and the character
of the enumerated causes corresponds to this demand. Often simplicity is reckoned as
the character of sublimity, but this is not to be taken strictly: a sky full of black storm
clouds, a starry night sky are not easy and yet can make a very sublime, in their kind
even sublime impression, as a very blue sky, Incidentally, it is not easy at all, but only
uniform; but this is usually understood as simplicity. Instead of simplicity, uniformity,
only the unified character of the impression is the essence of sublimity. Now the
uniform forms itself subordinate to the unified, and thus can be exalted by greatness,
insofar as it does not become boring, but it does not subordinate itself to it alone, for
rather the many and manifold things can come under one vivid or idealistic unifying
viewpoint ( compare Sect. VI); and insofar as it is the case, not only does it not resist
the impression of sublimity, but, even through the height of the connective point of
view, can give that impression itself the character of a greater height, through the
multiplicity conceived under the unified viewpoint, the spirit more enduring and to
occupy oneself with more pleasure than simple uniformity would do, and by the
quantity of the connected cause or increase the size of the impression itself.
Thus, inasmuch as it can be summarized uniformly, the uncountable can make a
sublime impression of why one speaks of a numerical sublimity; and it is indisputable
that the night sky, with its innumerable stars, and the gothic dome, by its countless
ornamental rates, insofar as they bear a uniform character, only become all the more
sublime. But always the uniform character remains essential. Of course, the stars are
regularly ordered according to no particular principle; but it is like marbling (Th.
I.); A uniform character is possible through their distribution, as opposed to the
complete irregularity which would take place if here and there heaps of stars clumped
together, leaving large empty spaces in between, here great, since small differently
designed light surfaces appeared. This would also remove the character of the
majesty of the starry sky.
Now one may perhaps ask: should the sight of the starry sky not then become even
more sublime, if it were regularly seeded with stars, provided that here the uniform
character of the distribution would come to a pure and full illustrative validity. Also, I
think it would be the case from the beginning; how indisputably the impression of a
large black velvet coat approaches the sublime when it is regularly sown, as if it were
irregularly seeded with golden or silver stars. But seeing one and the same easy-to-
understand regularity in the whole sky and every night would soon tire us out by
monotony, while the irregularity, which rather breaks through than breaks the unified
character of the distribution, supported by the changing position of the sky toward us
after the hour Season, a monotonous impression does not arise, but rather to tell us
that the sky always new and always new to find it. The stars do not seem to be ejected
with the seeder, but from the living hand of a great sower, and a quiet associative
feeling may contribute to making the irregular distribution of stars more appealing to
us than could be the regular ones. So one can say that heaven, in this as well as in
other relations, has made himself as advantageous as possible for us by giving some
praise to the monotonous impression of sublimity, calculated only on the outer
vividness, in order to give us new enjoyment of it grant more profound effect. Rather,
to say it to us, the sky always new and always new to find it. The stars do not seem to
be ejected with the seeder, but from the living hand of a great sower, and a quiet
associative feeling may contribute to making the irregular distribution of stars more
appealing to us than could be the regular ones. So one can say that heaven, in this as
well as in other relations, has made himself as advantageous as possible for us by
giving some praise to the monotonous impression of sublimity, calculated only on the
outer vividness, in order to give us new enjoyment of it grant more profound
effect. Rather, to say it to us, the sky always new and always new to find it. The stars
do not seem to be ejected with the seeder, but from the living hand of a great sower,
and a quiet associative feeling may contribute to making the irregular distribution of
stars more appealing to us than could be the regular ones. So one can say that heaven,
in this as well as in other relations, has made himself as advantageous as possible for
us by giving some praise to the monotonous impression of sublimity, calculated only
on the outer vividness, in order to give us new enjoyment of it grant more profound
effect. and a quiet associative feeling of this may help make the irregular distribution
of stars more appealing to us than it could be the regular one. So one can say that
heaven, in this as well as in other relations, has made himself as advantageous as
possible for us by giving some praise to the monotonous impression of sublimity,
calculated only on the outer vividness, in order to give us new enjoyment of it grant
more profound effect. and a quiet associative feeling of this may help make the
irregular distribution of stars more appealing to us than it could be the regular one. So
one can say that heaven, in this as well as in other relations, has made himself as
advantageous as possible for us by giving some praise to the monotonous impression
of sublimity, calculated only on the outer vividness, in order to give us new
enjoyment of it grant more profound effect.
The fact that the size or strength of an impression in itself does not establish any
grandeur results from the fact that, when a sublime subject is so altered, that the
unaltered character or size of its impression is completely lost or becomes indistinct,
also the character of sublimity falls away; for what was said above from heaven is
general. So when one thinks of the rolling thunder replaced by a change of roles,
rattles and whistles, or the tones of a sublime music offset so that melody and
harmony disappear.
But there are enough items that make a uniform impression without appearing
sublime. The fact is that wherever the pleasure feeling of sublimity occurs, it is only
by enlarging, widening, intensifying a uniform impression over a customary measure,
and by weakening it, it is lost. Likewise, when a blue bell jar that does not interest us,
or to a lesser degree, aesthetically, turns into a blue vault of heaven, rolling a car to
the majestic roll of thunder, the flint with the sparkle of it to the fire-spitting
mountain, the wave-breaking pond to the waves, the waves faint bell ringing to ring
the bell, the model of a gothic dome to the mighty dome, the feeble character of a
human being in the drama or epic to the unshakable firmness defying all tensions
widened, increased, intensified. In fact, in all probability, we begin only to find the
favor which characterizes the impression of sublimity, as, with the increased size or
strength of the object, the impression grows intensely barren. Yes, who will deny that
the most formidable spectacles are only visited in order to enjoy the grandeur of a
uniform impression, without any other reason being asserted? That's why the tourist
in Italy regrets it bitterly if he has missed an eruption of Mount Vesuvius; and I still
remember when Dresden's neighborhood was hit by a great flood, as some of Leipzig
traveled there, just to enjoy the great spectacle. If a battle is struck near a city, the
towers are seen crowded with spectators, despite the danger of straying bullets.
Insofar as one recognizes the pleasure character of the feeling of sublimity, one can
think of the magnitude or strength of an impression as contributing in a twofold
sense, in that the pleasure condition, which lies in the unified character itself, thereby
acquires a multiplying factor; but, insofar as the exceptional size or strength of a
receptive impression in the absence of counteracting is in itself a pleasure
moment. Humans love and demand subversion of strong receptive excitement, but
from other sources we like the exceptionally small one. In any case, with impressions
of unusual strength, the exception is to promise us, and should man be continually
exposed to impressions of the strength of the sublime, Thus, instead of continued
pleasure, he would soon feel exhaustion, and not endure it in the long run. But the
sensation of dwelling in a sublime environment soon dulls off, so that the impression
loses its strength, but with it the pleasure-feeling of sublimity is lost.
Not everywhere is it the absolute or positive magnitude, strength, quantity of a
cause, giving rise to a sublime impression; It can also be a tremendous apostasy, as
evidenced by the fact that deep rest, deep silence, dreariness, breaks, night in contrast
and contrast to positive magnitudes, can make a sublime impression, according to
which the dynamic sublimity becomes active and passive distinguished. The common
feature of both objectively contradictory cases lies in the fact that the subjective
impression is both stronger and more aesthetically effective by virtue of its strength.
Any change in the temporal sequence or spatial field of our sensory, as well as
associative triggered mental excitement, be it positive or negative, works with the
power of a positive impression; therefore the miller awakens in the mill when the mill
stops in its course, the sleeper in the sermon when the sermon stops. A continuous
silence, a continuous monotony, a continual dreariness, a continuous, pitch-black
night could not stimulate us greatly, but silence, monotony, desolation, darkness
differ from what we are used to, the more the difference is ,
Zeising, who in his aesthetic research deals in great detail with the various types
and modifications of the sublime with the help of explanatory examples (which
deserves to be read), compiles the following examples of the passively sublime.
"The holy silence in the temple in the midst of city noise, the deadly silence in an
Allegro con Brio, the enduring of one and the same tone in eternally changing
harmony, a faithful heart at the court of Louis XIV., Fabricius in the face of Pyrrhic's
attempts at corruption, a trust in God in the middle in the storm of suffering,
Columbus under the despairing people of the ship, etc
I myself did not know what would have made a loftier impression on me than on a
walk over the Gemmi Pass the sight of the snow-shrouded, low snow-capped Monte
Rosa in front of me and the desolation of the whole circle around me with a
monotonous, There is a great deal of variation in all the variations, just as dreary
mountains are considered to be the most sublime objects. I could only exchange the
memory of it with a loss for the memory of so many graceful parts, for the much
more powerful uniform impression was so much more pleasurable at the same
time; and if not the general experience were in the same sense, the most glaring
regions of Switzerland would not be the most visited. Of course, the positive
impression of the height interacts with that of the desert, to give the impression of
grandeur; but if the high mountains were overgrown, the impression of loveliness
would grow, but the impression of sublimity, and with it the number of visitors,
would decrease.
Now, one might think, if, according to the above examples, the total absence of a
stimulus is capable of making a strong and exalted impression, the approximation to
this omission would have to approximate such an impression, that is, the appearance
of something very small. Weak, especially in consequence or proximity of something
very great, strong, almost as sublime as the complete omission in the above
examples, instead of making only the impression of the weak, not exalted, eg. For
example, a soft gelis instead of a pause in a rushing music. But this would like to be
so conceivable. If the strong cause suddenly falls to great weakness without
becoming zero (falling below the threshold), Thus, the weak captures our attention
and gives the correspondingly weak impression, whereas, when the strong disappears
altogether, there is nothing positive which attracts our attention, and thus the strong
difference impression now asserts itself undisturbed. Incidentally, even a cause,
without completely falling away, can sink to such a degree of weakness that our
attention is no longer attracted to it, and then there is also the approximation to the
impression of complete disappearance. The most sublime desolation and pause is not
absolutely desolate and not absolutely silent. sink to such a degree of weakness that
our attention is no longer attracted to it, and then there is also the approximation to
the impression of total disappearance. The most sublime desolation and pause is not
absolutely desolate and not absolutely silent. sink to such a degree of weakness that
our attention is no longer attracted to it, and then there is also the approximation to
the impression of total disappearance. The most sublime desolation and pause is not
absolutely desolate and not absolutely silent.
That the impression of sublimity can be effected not only by sensuous objects or
notions of such, but also by imagined mental qualities, is attested by the fluency of
the expressions: exalted character, sublime disposition, exalted spirit. Only that it is
not a matter of aesthetics in the restriction observed here to occupy oneself with
purely spiritual sublimity, unless it is manifested by sensuous signs. And while these
may often be of a sensible size or expression, they may also be in other signs,
according to which the impression of sublimity grows no less than generally in
proportion to sensible greatness or strength. The Christ child in the arms of the
Raphael Sixtina makes a loftier impression than a gigantic St. Christoph in other
pictures; a small Jupiter's beast may seem more sublime than a large Negro bust; and
a Gothic cathedral appears more sublime than a much larger rock. Indeed, a spiritual
power may seem all the more sublime, with the smaller means it achieves a great
purpose, as Jean Paul asserts, that the motion of Jupiter's eyebrows is more sublime
than that of his arm or whole body.
In the meantime, the fact that sensual size and strength (or strong drop of it) is not
necessarily an impression of sublimity does not mean that it, if present, does not
contribute anything to it. First of all, it certainly does so indirectly, insofar as
everything that is sensually great and strong does not only associate imaginative ideas
of great and strong causes and effects, but also recalls as images something else great
and strong. In particular, all strong forces of nature are apt to stimulate, in associative
ways, the sense of the existence of a source of power that extends beyond the
momentary manifestation of violence, and is analogous to the source of our own life-
force; and insofar as we feel ourselves pleasurable in a strong expression of our life's
activity, a sense of pleasure also transfers to the objective perception of such an
utterance. But let me explain that the feeling of sublimity is based merely on the
associative memory of analogous expressions of force, since the intuition of powerful
scenes already directly triggers a strong activity of our life-force in the domain of a
sense, and the association of no less memories of strong ones Impressions that we
experience can be called strong actions that we express. So why on the latter side of
the association alone. (See Th. I.) as strong actions that we can voice. So why on the
latter side of the association alone. (See Th. I.) as strong actions that we can voice. So
why on the latter side of the association alone. (See Th. I.)
Certainly, with every not-so-crude man, association ideas of one kind or another
play a major role in the impres- sion of sublimity, and one can ask oneself whether to
speak of grandeur at all, if all association ideas disappeared; For example, the
appearance of the Vesuvius eruption the idea of the tremendous forces that cause it,
the effects it expresses, the depth from which it comes. In any case, the purely
sensuous direct impression of its lowliness would be at a great disadvantage against
that enriched and elevated by association; Moreover, the concept of sublimity is
merely abstracted from cases where associations are not lacking. On the other hand,
however, in the interaction of direct and associative impression, I find no reason, the
effect which the strong, extended, unified employment of a sense on the mind directly
expresses to subtract from the impression of sublimity, to take into account only the
performance of associative employment; but, in this respect, it is similar to sublimity
as to beauty. As little as the sensuous euphony alone can establish beauty in the
higher sense, it contributes considerably to the beauty of the song, and as little as one
can speak of the grandeur of a mere sensuous greatness in a higher sense, it carries it
where it is superseded Employment occurs, much to the impression of grandeur. in
this respect it is similar to sublimity as to beauty. As little as the sensuous euphony
alone can establish beauty in the higher sense, it contributes considerably to the
beauty of the song, and as little as one can speak of the grandeur of a mere sensuous
greatness in a higher sense, it carries it where it is superseded Employment occurs,
much to the impression of grandeur. in this respect it is similar to sublimity as to
beauty. As little as the sensuous euphony alone can establish beauty in the higher
sense, it contributes considerably to the beauty of the song, and as little as one can
speak of the grandeur of a mere sensuous greatness in a higher sense, it carries it
where it is superseded Employment occurs, much to the impression of grandeur.
No less than in the great natural scenes of active sublimity does the association play
its part in the above-mentioned examples of passive sublimity. The sensuous desert of
the glacier regions for the eye does not do it alone; But what does not allude to
everything that is said of such desolate ideas as: Nothing grows here, nothing lives
here, nothing thrives here, there is no place for human activity here; here you would
be safe from a disturbance by the world turmoil; here is eternal peace; Here is the
effect and dwelling of a solitary spirit above the world. These are undoubtedly largely
unpleasant associations; and who will deny that, from certain points of view, such a
desert really displeases us; yes, they would be displeasing to us if we knew that we
were in this wasteland, in which one does not live, yet should live. But since this
claim is kept out of our imagination, the pleasure of the tremendous impression
which the break makes in the flourishing life easily wins against the occasional
preponderance, a preponderance which does not necessarily occur, since the taste of
such regions is so to speak only a product of recent romanticism. (See Th. I.)
As we approach the question of the pleasure or unpleasure character of the
impression of sublimity, it is remarked that many consider it essential to the
impression of sublimity that pleasure and displeasure mix in it, or pleasure only as a
kind of reaction against discomfort mainly because of the fact that the dreadful can
seem sublime to us, the more sublime the more terrible it is. Burke, Lemcke, Kant
even regard fearfulness itself as essential to the character of the sublime in general, or
yet of the dynamically sublime, and fear falls on the side of disgust. But I do not
mean that you are right. In fact, compare the state of one who watches an indignant
seas or volcanic eruptions safely and uninvolved, with the state of those who tremble
for their own or others close to him, or who pity others, and they will say so that only
the one who feels the impression of sublimity quite pure, the more he misses it, the
more he trembles; which does not prevent that he sometimes forgets the danger and
then enjoys the sublimity of the spectacle; but insofar as he must forget the danger,
fear can not be an ingredient of this sensation. Thus the pain of fear appears rather as
a disturbing, than an essential moment of the impression of sublimity.
Admittedly, the feeling of sublimity in fearful objects increases with fearfulness,
because the pleasure-moment, the force of the impression, rises with it; but only in
proportion as it transcends the discomfort of fear, or alternately with it as admiration,
can the impression of sublimity be brought to bear.
In addition, nature and art are not lacking in examples in which the magnitude or
strength of impression required for sublimity comes about quite independently of
fearfulness, and an ambush of unpleasure can only be introduced to a theory of love,
but with all the deepening of one unbiased look can not find in it. The rising of the
sun in the morning or the full moon in the evening over the horizon, a starlit night
sky, the rainbow over clouds, a gently moving blue sea with many ships, a gothic
dome, grant such examples, whereby the soul expands with pure pleasure, and about
the pettiness and dismemberment of ordinary impressions. Yes, the firmer the gothic
cathedral stands and seems to represent in its hold the hold of eternal laws, in which
our own hold is understood, the more sublime it will even appear to us; let the fear
come, he will collapse over our heads, and the feeling of sublimity will fall with us.
Burke has the sentence: "the terror is, in all cases without exception, soon more
visible, now more hidden, the ruling principle of the sublime"; and he seeks to
perform this sentence in an accumulation of examples. But in the end he only puts
together what fits the sentence; Examples of the character of the above must be
accepted, as such, where the horror is hiddenly considered to be interpreted; and, of
course, there is an interpretation that there is something hidden, of which there is no
sign of it, in any event possible only you can not base a solid theory on that.
But it can even find the pleasure-feeling of sublimity, dependent on the unified
character and the quantity of the impression, by virtue of the special nature of the
impression, as well as support and counteraction. In addition, subjective relationships
can be counteracting in many ways; and the grandeur of terrible objects lends itself to
only one among many explanatory examples.
When a temple grows in size, all the qualities of our sense of pleasure in a positive
sense grow with it; indeed, to a greater extent, it receives such by its greatness, and
thus the impression of greatness of size is increased by it, or is itself thereby raised
above the threshold; on the other hand, when a terrible object grows in fearfulness,
the aesthetic advantage of the magnitude of the impression grows with the aesthetic
disadvantage of fear, and may, according to circumstance, be overgrown or
overgrowed with that advantage, according to which the impression of the sublimity
of terrible objects is above can still come to fruition, indeed grow with fear or can be
suppressed. If you think about a flea or a louse up to the size of the tower, Thus, in
spite of the growing strength of the impression, we no longer speak of a sublime, but
of hideous or hideous object, in that the disgust of disgust with these animals, with
their size, in any case grows much more than the pleasure of their impression of
size. Although even here you have to grant such pleasure. For if anyone could show
such a giant animal of this kind, it would not lack visitors who would once, but only
once, of course, see it. But a cupid, executed in immense proportions, would not
appear sublime to us, but seem uncouth, because the aesthetically beneficial
associations of the blossoming tender youth and childlike relationship with the
goddess of beauty, which make the idea of Cupid pleasing, would suffer, without the
advantage of the growing size being able to compensate for this disadvantage, the
opposite with the statue of a Jupiter. A music of strong, full, sustained tones can be
found exalted when it comes to the impression of strength and fullness of tones
through harmonic relationships, and horrible rather than sublime as it moves in
mischievous chords. A dance music on the organ is, like the colossal Cupid, rather
raw than sublime.
The sense of the grandeur of mountainous regions is least to be found among the
mountain dwellers themselves, especially the uneducated classes of them. How much
nicer it is, they say, to be able to look around in one plane, and how much nicer is the
fertility of the plain than what the mountains offer. V. Saussure tells of a Savoie
farmer; which called all lovers of the ice mountains fools. If one asks oneself why
this depends, one has to say, partly because of the circumstance already mentioned,
that the impression of sublimity, like every aesthetic impression, is subject to the
influence of blunting through repetition and duration; Partly that the mountain people
are burdened by the hardships and the small yield of nature, the sight of the greatness
and height upon which these disadvantages depend; finally, that the lower classes
know little to associate with the sight. On the other hand, the one-level local tourist
who travels the same area has the full impression of contrast, and instead of working
off in the area, he travels through it with comfort or makes efforts just to a sublime
impression to enjoy, and is trained from childhood on, to sense the things of their
higher relationships. All these are conditions which come to his receptivity to the
sublime impression of mountainous regions.
In children, rude nations, and the educated proletariat, little is noticed of the
impression of the sublimity of nature, because their spiritual gaze does not far surpass
and surpass the sensuous. It also depends on the type and direction of education. The
ancient Greeks and Romans were not yet able, just as we did, to associate the
impression of a unified creative power with the contemplation of nature, and so they
missed a moment, which can contribute to the impression of the grandeur of great
natural scenes.
The concept of the sublime has different opposites. From some point of view, the
greedy or horrible stands out against him, from others the petty, from another the
cute, from something else the ridiculous. The possibility of so many contrasts is
explained by the fact that the concept of the sublime includes magnitude, and
secondly, the pleasurable, and thirdly, the uniform character of the impression. Each
of these moments of determination, however, can turn into opposition for itself or
with the other. The Greoulike and the Evil One have in common the greatness of the
impression with the sublime; but it is an unpleasurable size; the unpleasure
outweighs, whereas in the terrible the pleasure can still outweigh why it is not in any
pure counter-salt against the sublime, but can itself be exalted. The low, Petty ones,
after both moments at the same time opposes the sublime; It causes discomfort by
making a smaller impression of size, power, and accomplishment, rising less than the
average, as we demand our satisfaction; In contrast, the cute has the moment of the
feeling of pleasure in common with the sublime, but it is rather a smallness of the
extensive impression which emerges from the ordinary and conveys the pleasure, or
complements the impression of pleasure. Not infrequently one finds the cute briefly
explained as the beauty in the small; but even the smallest painted Madonna, no
matter how small a model of a temple, is not yet cute by the reduction; on the
contrary, smallness itself must contribute to the loss effect in order to produce
something cute, partly because of the charm of the unusual, partly beneficial
associations as ease of burden and movement, material needlessness and the
like. Like. Can happen. The model of a beautiful temple is not cute, it's just a scaled-
down beauty, because we're used to seeing scaled-down models, but a liliputan
temple with real in-and-out little figures would look cute to us; because we have not
seen something like that.
Now, of course, we can call a daisy, with whom we deal every day, with a cute
character; but only if the comparison with the usual ladies' size always remains tacitly
present.
Hereby it is not denied that agreeable relations of a small object not only contribute
to the impression of pleasure, but are usually to be added to it.
The ridiculous indeed shares the pleasure character with the sublime, but while in
the latter case this character depends essentially on a uniform size, he (according to
the 17th sect.) Attaches to the ridiculous a marked difference or self-contradictory
quality of the uniformly connected.

XXIII. About the size of works of art, especially paintings,


from an aesthetic point of view.
Every piece of art can be said to have an outer and inner size. The outer is light,
externally measured; the inner is to be regarded as definite by the extent, the height,
and the range of the ideas and feelings which are put into play by the content of the
work of art, and for the whole living effect of this, we want them To call the meaning
of the content or meaning par excellence, we have at least an approximate inner
yardstick. Everyone will concede that, on average, - and the average should be here
mainly - the meaning of the content of religious images is greater than that of secular
historical images, and again the importance of secular historical images greater than
that of genre pictures. Also, within each of these classes, one will easily make
differences in meaning between different pictures, and often, of course, they may
doubt the order of rank; but we stick to cases where we are not in doubt.
In general, therefore, the sense of style of adapting the external size of a work of art
to the inner one requires the colossality of works of art of sublime significance, rather
than the genre-like depictions of a few square feet. Of course, motives, however, may
cause exceptions, but there must be special motives for exception, and in each case
there will be questions about these motives; otherwise the rule has to occur, and on
average, on the whole, it remains valid. By adapting the external magnitude to the
inner one, of course, it is not proportionality, but only adherence to the same order of
precedence. For, according to the limits of outer greatness and smallness, which of
works of art can not be exceeded because of external conditions, The outer size
changes more slowly than the inner or meaning. A religious image presented by the
Last Judgment has an unspeakably greater significance than a genre image, which is a
gift scene; but it is therefore not unspeakably greater; it's only much bigger or worth
it to be.
What we here call the inner greatness or meaning of a work of art only for the sake
of brevity in the sense explained above, does not at all coincide with its qualitative
value or its artistic significance, which is why value and external greatness do not
essentially determine one another. A very small and quite small picture can be a
gem. A genre-picture can appeal to us by coziness, peaceful comfort, to stimulate an
interesting play of ideas of limited import, to be completed in character and technical
execution, and to acquire great value, great artistic importance, through a
combination of such advantages; but the claim to external greatness does not win
with all that yet,
Let's put z. For example, Huss in front of the funeral pyre of Lessing and the
golden wedding of Knaus opposite each other. Nobody will doubt that the first
picture has far more meaning than the latter. That is a catastrophe to which the idea of
the Reformation is linked with all its causes and consequences, this one festive
culmination in a limited life. But whether that has more artistic value than this, one
will argue about it or argue that the merits of both paintings, because of their unequal
nature, preclude a quantitative comparison. Nevertheless, one will find the enormous
size of the first picture quite adequate for the size of its content, indeed,
The reason of our style rule might be twofold. On the one hand, because of the
radical reciprocity of all the moments of the mind, external greatness becomes
directly a factor in determining the impression of the inner, and thereby enhances
it. If the work of art, according to its content, is to exert an exalted impression over
the ordinary, then the same is supported by an external greatness exceeding the
ordinary in accordance with this principle. If it is not to do it, but to satisfy it from
another point of view - and we have thought of different moments in this respect -
then the meaning of its content seems unduly exaggerated by its unusual external
magnitude. Notice that the art of an external stylistic device, to bring the degree of
inner meaning of an object more properly than nature requires, because it can not,
like the latter, give with it all the precedents, the whole environment, and the whole
life of the object, which betray this meaning to us. External size thus enters, as it
were, as a symbolic substitute for it, and does not even hesitate to violate the truth of
nature by presenting the figures and other constituents of their works far below their
natural dimensions.
"There is," says F. Kugler 1 , "objects of such great, highly tragic content that they
can express the full power and grandeur of their existence only on an equal scale." He
says so by comparing the much more powerful impression made by Kaulbach's Battle
of the Huns, on a large scale for Count Raczynski's gallery, with that of the earlier
smaller cartoon of the same picture. In models of sublime structures, even the
impression of sublimity can be noticeably lost.
1) Kugler's Museum. 5th year no. 40.

But to the former inner ground an external one occurs. We treat a room with
pictures of meaningful content, and allow it one that we should not treat or treat with
images of insignificant content. Every work of art has to contend or rather tolerate its
space with other works of art and other objects. If it occupies a great deal of space
with little significance of its content, then the feeling of inadequacy of this claim
creeps us immediately; we find the meaning of the content exaggerated by its
scope. A cattle piece; a gift scene should not occupy an entire wall, because the
occupation with what it presents, does not take much importance in our lives. Images
of significant content, religious or historical on a grand scale, are actually intended
only for temples, halls, public buildings, in short large rooms, pictures of
insignificant contents, in which scenes of a limited life and of limited interest are
represented, for private dwellings; Here they have to share the space on the walls
partly with other images of equally limited, only differently directed, interest, partly
with domestic objects of various kinds. But it is the propriety of a picture like a man
not to make any greater outward demands than he deserves according to his
circumstances to others, and one may say of a picture much more real than of a man:
it should not be too broad. The fact that the size of a work of art also increases the
size of the means to be used for its production contributes to this respect,
Now, as we are accustomed to see a relation of great space and great means, which
grow in proportion to space, only in the depiction of important objects, we also feel
that it is such, involuntarily in a colossal work of art By its attunement or
contradiction with the real meaning of the content, it may increase or displease our
favor.
If we take a closer look, it is true that not all images of significant content really
have the size that seems appropriate. As long as we look directly at such an image,
we are bound by the sensuous appearance, and a lasting memory will closely
reproduce the impression of it; but, if memory is not faithful in this regard, it will be
inclined to envision the little work of significant content. More than once I have
heard this mentioned by the face of Ezekiel of Raphael, which probably does not
exceed a square foot; and most recently I found in a review of the pictures of the
Kassel gallery 2) about a picture of Rubens, depicting an escape to Egypt in the
grandest conception, said: "this panel of barely one and a half feet in the square
grows, as it were, before our eyes to the mural, so powerful and full of majesty are
the figures." Here the increasing influence of the content is even predicated of direct
intuition.
2) Berlin time. 1866. no. 234 (ax.).

I once knew Raphael's Vatican creation story only from a copperplate engraving,
and was quite astonished at the sublime idea which I had afterwards formed of it,
when I came to Rome to see small pictures on the ceiling of the loggias; I am also
convinced that this disadvantage of external greatness contributes very much to the
general underestimation of Raphael's versus Michelangelo's creation.
The so-called Schwartzs'che votive picture of the elder Holbein, I imagined on the
basis of a photograph after his great composition as life-size figures, and found to my
surprise, a picture in genre-like formats.
It is indisputable that the circumstance itself proves that the loss of greatness in the
imagination is so reputed in the little pictures mentioned here that they actually
deserved to be greater.
In general, however, it will be understandable that in the making of works of art it
is easier and more often missing in too small than too big. In fact, we have
innumerable representations of the most sublime objects on a small scale, and where
the depiction in the original is great, the engraving gives them a little again; whereas
colossal representations of genre reproaches scarcely occur. Also, if we can not afford
the full impression of the larger picture, we will at least not be harmed by the
comparatively small presentation of important objects, although we would be hurt by
the colossal nature of a genre-like representation. The error in the small is in fact
excused by a small advantage growing outside advantage and more or less
remunerated, the mistake in too big increased by a growing disadvantage with the
size. With increasing smallness the lightness and cheapness, the production and
duplication and the insignificance of the space claim increase, with increasing size
the opposite takes place. Since, for this external reason, objects of significant content
are much more often represented as small, than those of insignificant content, it is
also easier to become accustomed to this inadequacy than to endure it and to correct it
through imagination. After all, it remains true that a work of art, which deserves to be
great in content, loses in a reduced representation essentially the impression of
sublimity which it would render magnified, and the full development of the most
advantageous impression.
Somewhere above is the sentence pronounced that a genre picture should not
contain more than 4 square feet 3) . In For a conversation about it, someone used the
much larger Murillo beggars. What another answered, yes, that is also beggar boys of
historical character. Apparently, however, he made the character of the greatness,
which otherwise occupies historical images, here retrograde to the character of the
historical, for I do not know why those pictures should be called more historical than
so many other old genre pictures of smaller formats If, in that conversation, the
brownish tone of the same was found corresponding to this character, it would
scarcely be possible to link the character of the historical to such externals. Now,
however, one wonders why one does not find the life-size figures too big here, as you
would find it in many other genre pictures. A third party tried to answer this question
in the same way.
3) More detailed rules follow at the end of this section. which can be substituted
for it.
Should not we tolerate the greatness of Murillo's mendicant pictures simply
because we've always been used to them? Old masters can see many things, which
would not be considered newer ones; and habituation makes it easy for us to appear
right, which in itself has no justification. If a later master had painted the same lousy
beggar boys in such a size as Murillo, one might have blamed it as a gross lack of
sense of adequacy and propriety, which is now quite in order with him, and for which
deeper reasons are sought ,
It is possible that this view is right; but the reason could be a little different, or at
least have some other reason to share it, which causes conflict at all.
The Murillo pictures with the mendicant boys do not take up much space at the full
life size of the boys, because they are boys and the boys in a picture are only one or a
few. Even at this modest size, however, we would like to see these pictures set up
only in a gallery where the space they are allowed to occupy is not equally dependent
on the meaning of their contents, as if they were to fit on the walls of a private
apartment. Who would like to have beggars scenes in such an expansion in mind. At
the same time, however, the following consideration is asserted, which is generally
outweighed by the consideration of propriety, but where, as in the case of gallery
paintings, it does not assert itself too strongly, it may well be able to gain the
preponderance.
In genre pictures, it is mainly aimed at the most appropriate characteristics, and the
main impression depends largely on it. Thus, everything else is set the same, it will
be most advantageous for this impression, if with all other elements of reality the size
of the objects is exactly met. A beggar boy of half size in the picture will appear to us
only half as the real beggar boy, as he appears to us at full size and will demand that
we translate him in the imagination only in the real size, of which the immediacy of
the impression after all, something suffers. Thus, the size of the mendicant portraits
comes in such a way that it allows, without too strong contradiction with the
propriety consideration, to give the boys in their natural size,
Rather than explaining the greatness of Murillo 's mendicant portraits by their
historical character, I would like to explain them from an almost opposite point of
view, in that the natural claim of the genre - like character of presenting the objects of
life in the most natural truth possible here becomes the preponderance of While a
breeding of propriety usually limits and outweighs this claim, it has come into its
own.
In particular, a tendency towards the natural size of the figures will take place
where it is less the mode of their interaction than the characteristic representation of
the figures themselves that interests us, as indeed is in general the case with those
Murillo pictures.
Wherever advantages come into conflict with one another in changing
circumstances, in one case one advantage tends to reduce the other
considerably; Thus, there will be images that seek to exhaust the advantage of natural
truth, and by the perfection in which they achieve this surpass the otherwise valid
claims of propriety. After all, such images, as standing at one extreme, like all
extremes may only form exceptions.
The previous point of view explains another apparent anomaly. If one compares the
average size of still lifes, including flower and fruit pieces, with the average size of
genre pictures, the former not only is not smaller, but even slightly larger, as can be
seen in the last section of the appendix, in Table III given average measures of the
height and width of images of different classes can convince; but one can not doubt
that genre pictures have more meaning than still-life. But the demand for a true
reproduction of greatness appears in the objects of still lifes with quite different
weights than in genre pictures. A grape, a peach, a slaughtered hare, a wine goblet in
half natural size, In the picture we would easily make a similar impression of the
dwarfed or displeased, as in nature. Rather, the attraction of such representations is
essentially due to the fact that the artist brings to mind, as it were, to show nature
itself in a graceful arrangement and in more beautiful specimens than reality, and
there is even a point of idealization in it Flowers and fruits, although not unnaturally
large, but in unusually large copies represent. But the pictures must also, if we want
to have such representations at all, be given the size needed to accommodate an
abundant natural size and, at the same time, a certain multiplication of the
objects. because they are interested only with regard to a certain variety and
composition; and, as a result, they are driven up on average by the genre pictures, in
which the interest in the intellectual content of the scene and character of the
characters can be satisfied independently of the natural representation of the size.
Portraits are known to be either of exactly the same size or considerably below
them; not only colossal in monumental depiction, not at least of a size approaching
that of nature. It is undisputed that in portraits the interest in a faithful reproduction of
the natural quantity on a certain side is still asserted with greater weight than in the
objects of still lifes; we want to portray the human being as he lived and lived; Thus,
natural size occurs everywhere as a normal size for portraits; but from the other side,
in proportion to the character and expression of the traits, absolute greatness is such
an insignificant moment that we easily sacrifice it to the possibility of seeing it
faithfully preserved, and therefore take no decency, portraits on a smaller scale, even
in Miniature to represent where external reasons preclude reproduction in the correct
size; while if the same sacrifice were to be made in still life, we would not be left
with enough interest in the whole presentation in order to want it at all.
That in monumental representation an enlargement of the natural dimensions can
serve to express the meaning of a man so to speak sensually, requires no
execution. But the reason why a portrait is much smaller than approximate to natural
size is that the approximate size could be mistaken for the real size.
In the case of landscapes, it is self-evident from the outset that the representation of
their natural size must be renounced, and the criterion of inner meaning should be
considered to be the purest one to determine the external magnitude; but it is difficult
at all to compare the scale of meaning here; by the way the landscape impression
comes to be, is little comparable with that of other works of art. After all, it may be
striking for the first sight that (on the results of the appendix section) on average the
landscape is slightly larger than the genre picture; for one can not fail to consider the
interest in the human as more important than in external nature. But again there is a
conflict here. The landscape generally requires a large spread of objects in order to
make an impression at all; a genre picture can average more on the short side.
These are examples of how the rule of adapting the relative size of images to their
relative importance may be exempted by some external and internal causes; however,
it always persists insofar as reasons for such exceptions do not exist.
Some classes of pictures are inclined on the contrary to the height, others more to
the width; some vary within wide limits around their mean values; some in closer; to
which further reflections may be made, which I will not go into, as long as they are
only loosely connected with the aesthetic interest, whereas a document can be found
in the dimensional specifications of the gallery paintings, which are communicated in
the last part of the appendix , from which I want to anticipate some results.
It is not disputed that in any class of pictures there is a single normal height and
width of the pictures in the sense that deviations from them should be regarded as
errors , since the special and changing conditions of content and external
circumstances reflect different and changing quantities to demand the same as the
other direction. However, one can speak of a normal height and width of images of
given classes, such as genre, landscape, still life (which I have preferably studied) in
the following sense. If I find images whose height h is greater than the width b, and
images whose width is greater than the height, to be distinguishable as two divisions
of each class, the former shall be referred to as h> b, the latter as b > h ,
The investigations to be discussed in the appendix section have led to the
conclusion that for images of a given class and department there is a certain height
and width (not in agreement with the arithmetic mean or ratio means) of which one
is, to say the more so is afraid to deviate, in greater proportion to the deviation to
occur, in short and in fact, in relation to which the deviations become the rarer the
greater they are in proportion to it, so that even a calculation is possible, as with the
distance of the Frequency of copies decreases. In the appendix to the essay, I have
denoted this value, which is most important for determining the whole distribution of
the specimens according to number and measure, say the heart point of the
distribution, as the densest ratio value with D '. here it may be designated H for the
height direction and B for the width direction. Below is a small table of provisions for
genre and landscape.
It has further been found that the number of specimens which deviate from the
normal value of height or width so understood in the smaller, shortly below, is not
equal to the number of specimens which deviate into the greater, shortly beyond, and
indeed at In genre and landscape the number of the latter outweighs that of the
former, whereas in still life a weaker preponderance in the opposite sense takes
place. (In Table X of the appendix, both numbers are given as d , and d '.) Let us now
call the lower and upper measure, to whichever half of the lower and upper deviations
from the normal value reaches, core boundaries, by dividing the one between them
take part of the measures as a core 4)So we can say that the larger the size of the
measures, the further they go beyond the core boundaries; and the determination of
these boundaries is therefore of some interest. May they be called down and up for
height respectively h , h ', for width b , b'.
4) In another sense, one could determine the nucleus with its boundaries by
dividing it into an ordered distribution table of dimensions ¼ of the total
dimensions from below as well as from above. Here, the different probability
of deviations from the normal value to the bottom and top would not be
considered; but, if one prefers this mode of determination of the nucleus in
consideration of its simpler preparation, it would be more or less the same as
the distribution-tables given in Table II. of the appendix (taking into account
that the metric measure is used); more precisely, by a calculation according to
the rules discussed in no. 6 of that section. In the meantime, I consider the
above method more rational, without forgetting that it includes something
arbitrary everywhere.

The following are the determinations of the relevant values for genre and
landscape, which result from the appendix sections, but here reduced from metric
measure to Prussian feet, especially for h> b and b> h, as for the indiscriminate
combination of images of both sections , Of course, these values, being derived from
a large but finite number of specimens, can not be considered absolutely accurate, but
I do not consider their uncertainty to be considerable. The number of specimens from
which the derivation takes place is indicated by m in the table above. Of course, only
pictures of galleries are included for the purpose of identification; and so the values
could change a little, even if privately owned pictures could be included; but it is
hardly necessary to presuppose genre and landscape,

genre landscape
h> b h Combin. h> b h Combin.
m 775 702 1477 287 1794 2081
H 1,202 1,389 1,290 1,890 1,571 1,664
h, 0.911 1,015 0,961 1,347 1,076 1,148
H' 1,901 2,253 3,063 3,038 2,457 2,597
B 0.992 1,737 1,397 1,330 2,271 2,102
b, 0.738 1,267 0,958 1,029 1.539 1.436
b' 1,537 2,902 2,348 2,300 3,534 3,351
So is z. For example, the normal height value, understood in the specified sense, in
a Genrebilde whose height is greater than the width, equal to 1.202 preuss. Foot; the
entire half of the height measures is between 0.911 and 1.901 feet, and the height is
the more exceptional, the more the first measure in small size, the latter is exceeded
in size. After that it will be easy to interpret the other names and numbers.
In order to obtain the corresponding values for the areal space of the images hb
given the individual dimensions of height and width b, we can proceed by
multiplying the values given in the table for the two dimensions; at least, a direct
determination of the area-space values I have made in Genre has given results so
close to this rule that the differences may be considered as accidental. Thus, the
normal value of hb was found directly at genre h> b equal to 1.182 Qu.-F., and the
two core boundaries 0.688 and 2.916 Qu.-F .; on the other hand, at b> h the first
value is 2,279, the latter limits 1,229 and 6,195. Hereafter, with genre h> b, we will
already see with pictures above 2.9 Qu., With genre b> h only with those above 6.2
Qu.-F.
One can now ask: how are the values given here, H, B, to occur before all others as
normal values in the specified sense? My simple answer is: I do not know; Only
experience proves that they are. In general, however, one can say that the manifold
and changing considerations which determine the dimensions of a painting of a
particular class and department must, in a large number of copies, meet in a more
favorable manner for certain height and width dimensions than for others. and one
will be able to speak even of a height and width dimension for which they meet most
auspicious, less favorable, however, according to the deviation thereof, so that the
frequency of the specimens can even be normalized according to their deviation
ratios from this value. What value this value is for each class and department can not
be determined a priori; just as the core boundaries behave on both sides; but if the
determinations for both (or equivalent) determinations have been taken from
experience, then the law according to which the rarity of the specimens can be given
on the basis of general laws of chance (by means of an extension of the Gaussian law
of accidental deviations) can be given The relative magnitude of the deviation from
the normal value increases, about which no. 6 of the appendix contains more
details. just as the core boundaries behave on both sides; but if the determinations for
both (or equivalent) determinations have been taken from experience, then the law
according to which the rarity of the specimens can be given on the basis of general
laws of chance (by means of an extension of the Gaussian law of accidental
deviations) can be given The relative magnitude of the deviation from the normal
value increases, about which no. 6 of the appendix contains more details. just as the
core boundaries behave on both sides; but if the determinations for both (or
equivalent) determinations have been taken from experience, then the law according
to which the rarity of the specimens can be given on the basis of general laws of
chance (by means of an extension of the Gaussian law of accidental deviations) can
be given The relative magnitude of the deviation from the normal value increases,
about which no. 6 of the appendix contains more details.

XXXIV. On the question of colored (polychrome) sculpture


and architecture.
l. Sculpture .
The question of colored, painted, polychrome statues, that is, the question of the
legality of such, or the causes of their rejection, although of a very special nature,
acquires a more general aesthetic interest in that it is one of the most striking
deviations of the art of of nature, and encourages more general consideration of the
motives of such deviations.
From the beginning one should think that the painting of the statues should be
taken for granted; nowhere do you see marble or gypsum-white people; how could
the artists come up with it? Originally, they did not come to that, for the images of the
gods, which are formed according to human form, are probably painted everywhere,
and even now no one would like to give a child an unpainted doll or enjoy it. In any
case, a kind of division of labor on the part of art is already necessary to remove the
color from the figure, to throw it on the canvas, to paint it in a colorless manner; no
less indisputably a certain habituation, to let oneself be taken by art and finally to
demand it. The advanced art of the present day insists on this division, and the
present taste imperatively demands this. To unlearn that there is color, go to an
antique cabinet or a plaster collection, and to learn the reasons for this banishment of
color from the figure, suggest our aesthetic textbooks or the various special treatises
especially devoted to this subject and you will find so many and many reasons that
even their weight could be suspected by their multitude.
Basically, of course, the prohibition of giving the figure its natural color appears
only as the parallel and supplementation of the prohibition of giving the painting the
full appearance of the relief. No art should bother the other in the craft, nor forget
that, in order to be art, they do not have to completely imitate nature. May anyone do
it from one side only in order to surpass nature itself from this side, not to disperse
attention, not to shorten the imagination for its due performance, not by the too much
it gives from some side, it does to miss missing lives all the more, and thereby create
the impression of uncanny rigidity.
With fewer words I can not summarize the reasons given here and there for the
prevailing view; further down will come back to it.
Now that, by acclamation of the voices and reasons, it is decided against the
aesthetic admissibility of painted statues, painted at least by nature, it may indeed be
unfortunate to venture another word in favor of them. However, in the following I
will try to show that after all the reasons so far put forward, the question remains a
very open one, and can only be decided by experiences that are not yet sufficiently
available. For my part, I confess that, without being able to anticipate even the future
with a definite decision, I am more inclined, after the following consideration of the
relevant reasons and facts, to believe that the question will one day be decided in
favor of statues painted in the name of art , in fact, to do the daring statement from
the outset in full determination, in favor of an essentially natural painting of the
statues. And in order to describe in a few words the points of view upon which this
presumption is based, so far the earlier arguments against the painting of the statues
seem to me to be more inferred from the precondition of their inadmissibility than
they proved this inadmissibility, but the emergence of that presupposition to be able
to find their explanation in reasons external to the essence of the thing. In fact, it
seems to me not only possible to assume, but probably that for now only the lack of
sufficiently accomplished achievements in such art co-operates with the adaptation to
white statues and the lack of habituation to the colored ones, to incur the aesthetic
disadvantages of the latter; but also for the fact that it has not yet brought our art to
achievements, whose impression for (the calamity in our question could be decisive
for finding external reasons.
In any case, the following is likely to be of use insofar as it stimulates a new
consideration of the question from the points of view to be raised here, of which it is
certainly necessary. Before the special question of natural painting, however, the
question of painting, insofar as it hitherto concerned itself, must be considered.
From the outset, it has caused some embarrassment, having first made the ban on
painted statues after the colorful antique statues, and then broken the staff on the
medieval tastelessness of painted statues, the longer they had ever had to convince
themselves that the ancient statues were original not colorable at all; but the colors
have only gradually disappeared, that the painting of the statues is not merely a
matter of the child's condition of art, but was valid in the most educated nation,
whose sculptural works we regard as exemplary for all times. Why not with us
anymore, yes, why does the theory, the practice and the educated art taste resist so
much the more educated he is, in the same way against it?
Now they have tried to confront the ancient polychromy in different ways. Some
have been inclined not to contest the exemplary validity of the antique taste, to give
up the strictness of the prohibition, and to admit painting to statues as far and in the
same sense as permissible, as they now take place in ancient statues of good time but
nothing else seems to have been painted, but partly to save one's own taste, to say that
if the ancients in most relationships of taste were exemplary teachers of ours, then we
are on the other hand, in some, they go beyond them and reject the whole painting of
statues; she may have had traditional motives with them, which do not exist for us or
can not be authoritative. - Or, since the investigations into the polychromy of the
statues and architecture are still not completed in the case of the Allen, one wonders
for the time being only about the colorful taste of the ancients, as far as something is
known, but leaves it open and shifts final judgment except for even more detailed
investigations about it. After all, however, there is no reason to imitate the ancients in
the painting of the statues, and so it remains, as in the main, theoretically, as well as
factually and practically, discarded among us. leaves it open, however, and postpones
a final judgment to even more detailed investigation. After all, however, there is no
reason to imitate the ancients in the painting of the statues, and so it remains, as in the
main, theoretically, as well as factually and practically, discarded among us. leaves it
open, however, and postpones a final judgment to even more detailed
investigation. After all, however, there is no reason to imitate the ancients in the
painting of the statues, and so it remains, as in the main, theoretically, as well as
factually and practically, discarded among us.
For guidance on the facts of the ancient polychromy of statues, it may be useful to
preface to our further discussion the following passages from a treatise by Jahn, 1 ,
one of the most thorough connoisseurs in these matters, with particular reference to
one in the present. Written in 1863 in the so-called Villa of the Caesars near Rome,
polychrome marble statue of Augustus is found. 2)
1) Border messengers 1868. No. 3. p. 81 ff.
2) A compilation of the passages, which are referred to in old writers on
polychromy of statues and architecture, can be found in: "Kugler, on the
polychromy of Greek architecture and sculpture and its boundaries," and from
this in Kugler's Museum 1835. no. 9 u. 10th

so they usually lose themselves in the fresh air soon. If you enter a newly opened
Etruscan burial chamber, you will be surprised by the colorful decoration of colors in
which the reliefs of the sarcophagi are displayed; After a few years, only a few traces
remain in the museums. ... Very often, the paint applied to the stone, even after it has
disappeared, leaves a peculiarly altered surface, which, for the sake of vision and
feeling, produces the undoubted proof of former coloring. "...
"The tunic of Augustus is crimson red, the coat purple, the fringe of the Harnish
yellow, on the naked parts of the body no traces of color are to be noted, except the
name of the pupil by yellowish color, and the hair does not show any color but the
relief ornaments of the Harnish, whose base has remained colorless, are colored. "
Moreover, the charm which the parts marked by color ought also lead to a lighter
and more precise conception; important details were sharply emphasized, features of
the artistic arrangement described, the eye directed to a sort of outline and
overview. .... How far the limits were set in this sense, which standards were followed
in detail, has not yet been determined. It is well to see that this has been given
particular emphasis on color, which is considered more external, garments and
clothing, on the clothes again borders and hems, weapons and staffs. Also of the
human body are certain parts, main and beard hair, eyes and lips, which are regularly
highlighted by color. In this mode of treatment, it may well have been influenced by
the ancient tradition, which, according to the manner of Greek art development, was
not eliminated, but transformed and refined; that it was penetrating emerges from
related cohesive appearances. The polychromy also appears in plastic in metal. "
As good as it may be, what Jahn advocates as motivating the ancient polychromy of
the statues - and others comment on it in the same way - I admit that I am unable to
imagine anything like a statue on which hair , Lips, eyes, robes, weapons, etc. were
painted, but the naked parts of the flesh were left unpainted, able to make a somehow
bearable impression and have ever been able to do; - just think: a marble-white face
with painted lips and eyes; and, moreover, as it must be made clear that the rule,
otherwise regarded as universally valid, not to emphasize the trivial matters before
the main points, clothes, hems, hairs in front of the naked main parts of the body, is
here almost turned upside down. Well, you could ask, when the ancients once went so
far in painting of statues, as is conceded, without it being established, how far in
general: whether they did not go to the full painting, and the colors for the painting of
the naked man were only the lightest insufferable ones. In fact, some are inclined to
believe-whether I do not know from positive signs-that the ancients also gave a
certain hue to the flesh, but only to give a benign tone to the bright white of the
marble, but not to the natural color of the flesh imitate. In short, one adopts the
painting as far as one does not believe it to be able to deny it, and only defends itself
firmly and finally against the fact that it was a question of imitating nature whether
they did not go to full painting, and the colors for painting the naked man were only
the slightest ones. In fact, some are inclined to believe-whether I do not know from
positive signs-that the ancients also gave a certain hue to the flesh, but only to give a
benign tone to the bright white of the marble, but not to the natural color of the flesh
imitate. In short, one adopts the painting as far as one does not believe it to be able to
deny it, and only defends itself firmly and finally against the fact that it was a
question of imitating nature whether they did not go to full painting, and the colors
for painting the naked man were only the slightest ones. In fact, some are inclined to
believe-whether I do not know from positive signs-that the ancients also gave a
certain hue to the flesh, but only to give a benign tone to the bright white of the
marble, but not to the natural color of the flesh imitate. In short, one adopts the
painting as far as one does not believe it to be able to deny it, and only defends itself
firmly and finally against the fact that it was a question of imitating nature but only to
benevolently round off the bright white of the marble, but not to imitate the natural
color of the flesh. In short, one adopts the painting as far as one does not believe it to
be able to deny it, and only defends itself firmly and finally against the fact that it
was a question of imitating nature but only to benevolently round off the bright white
of the marble, but not to imitate the natural color of the flesh. In short, one adopts the
painting as far as one does not believe it to be able to deny it, and only defends itself
firmly and finally against the fact that it was a question of imitating nature3) , which
of course asks, then what. What Jahn says about it does not hit the main difficulty; for
once the robe was colored with hair, eye, and mouth, a flesh colored according to any
other principle than naturalness could only give it either a disgusting mixture of
colors or a combination of colors, as would be the case for a carpet, but not for a
picture the living thing befits; yet Jahn (like Semper) seems to have kept in mind the
principle of such a trick of color as the main principle.
3) So,inter alia, Semper (in style I. 518), which assumes that the naked parts of
the marble statues in the Greeks were covered with a general color tone, in
order to "in harmony with the colors of the accessories and the specially
colored bare parts" "without having to presuppose a" naturalistic aping "among
the Greeks.

Now if the Greeks have a polychromism, as they are attributed to them either way,
what we have to believe eventually, if the factual investigation is able to bring
definitive evidence for it, it could, in my opinion, only by virtue of a somehow
mediated art habituation, in which they, indeed, may have no occasion to imitate, and
which may perhaps be somewhat understood, as they arise from the most crude
beginnings of religious art, and persist to a certain extent by tradition, scarcely, as
they do, through the times of the most purified Could persist through taste.
After all, one sees well that the question of the admissibility of painted statues by
appeal to the old is not at all to decide and rather threatens to be confused by it, as
can be explained or even done, once, because we do not know exactly how far as they
went in painting and which principle was decisive for them; secondly, if we knew it,
the question would remain whether we have to follow their authority in it. So we also
refrain from this vocation. So much seems to me undoubtedly to me that a full-scale
painting of the statues, which is consistent in itself, and is aimed primarily at natural
truth, takes account of mere stylistic secondary considerations, would have greater
justification than half or permanent principles, which one is inclined to to presuppose
or to find among the ancients; but not so doubtlessly, if not to prefer a completely
omitted painting of the full as well as the half aimed at natural truth, and this question
should be dealt with below, aesthetically as well as practically at any rate important
question.
The painter Ed. Magnus designates in s. The "polychromy of the artistic point of
view, Bonn 1872," the natural polychromy of the statues repeatedly as "barbarism" to
be completely rejected, but can not claim any other reason for it (p 12 42), as the
common below to be considered, that the nearer one comes to the painting of nature,
the more the receding impression of the wax figure makes the statue altogether too
much for art, which should not depend on perfect deception. Meanwhile, the
monotonous whiteness of plaster and marble struggles against him, and he believes
that a kind of patina must be artificially represented and artfully distributed in
"harmonic opposites," which, in a more advantageous manner,
It is instructive to read this experiment by looking at how the various parts of the
body have asserted their right of particular coloration in the artist, without being able
to find an adequate principle of the coloring to be assigned to them, of course,
because he is the only one What is possible, if the statues should be given color, is
considered barbaric. He says:
Mouth and hair are distinguished by nature itself by decidedly darker color tone in
front of the rest of the body, secondly: because eye and mouth - life radiant and
breathing, even at first and usually attract the eye of the beholder on himself. As soon
as at any point of the monotonous sculpture a second hue is struck, hair, eyes, mouth,
etc., demand their right. Hence explains that certain unfulfillable emptiness, which is
always felt in sculptures of two kinds, of which so many are still preserved from later
antiquity. " Mouth etc. their right. Hence explains that certain unfulfillable emptiness,
which is always felt in sculptures of two kinds, of which so many are still preserved
from later antiquity. " Mouth etc. their right. Hence explains that certain unfulfillable
emptiness, which is always felt in sculptures of two kinds, of which so many are still
preserved from later antiquity. "
"But if you go to this business, if you want to characterize the difference in color of
the head, then you go on a path without law and barrier, on which there is no more
stop." One enters a cliff, which one would better, to circumnavigate as much as
possible. "
"Whoever has ever undertaken to approach the sculpture with color, will certainly
prove to me right: it is either something light, or it is an enterprise of insurmountable
difficulty! Decorative, especially smaller objects, as it were, playfully decorated with
color. In fact, this requires only some knowledge and good taste, but coloring a
finished, full-size, full-length work of art is a business that is much harder to spoil
than to make good. "
Let us now go through the reasons according to which the statues have been
generally and generally decided against the painting of the statues, in part, and
especially against the natural, in order to see whether they are really decisive.
The very general reason that the visual arts must guard against too much imitation
of nature at all, hence the natural color is "too much" (as Magnus expresses), would
only mean something if at the same time a point of view, why it is too much, can be
based on the following reasons; Since deviations of the visual arts from nature can
not be justified by the fact that they should deviate at all. (See Sect. XXII.) Even the
nature-wise-painted statue deviates enough from nature by its rigidity; that the color
is too much for that must first be justified. And so it is now to see for these reasons.
It has been said 4)It contradicts from the outset the concept and essence of the
sculpture, which refers to the representation of the figure, and also to give
color. Every art has to be within its limits. Now the observance of this rule is to a
certain extent self-evident, for sculpture also participates in a painted statue only to
the extent that it gives shape, as does painting, insofar as it gives color, each thus
remains within its limits; but this can prevent both arts from joining to a common
achievement, if only their marriage also gives benefits. That this can not be the case,
however, can not be proved by the difference of their mutual concept. For the same
reason one could otherwise, the combination of music and poetry in song, of music
and rhythmic body movement in dance, and forbid even the painting of drawings. But
all the less can the connection between plastic and painting in painted statues be
rejected a priori according to the notion of the two arts, since both arts in themselves
only give abstracts of what in nature unites them in a living whole is. This abstraction
seems to require justification rather than the connection.
4) Eg Schaslers Dioscuri 1866. 211. Eggers Kunstbl, 1853. no, 48.420.
It has been said ( 5) that art has, in the first place, instead of relying on natural truth,
"to sing out and shape the spiritual essence and the characteristic peculiarity of
things"; But in this respect the color is to be regarded as insubstantial and accidental
to the figure, so limit oneself in the sculpture to the figure.
5) Eggers Kunstbl. 1853. no. 48.
But on the contrary: the color complements the figure not only by a natural
adornment, which one can treat the figure well, but also by characteristics in
determinations, to which the figure itself is not enough. The blush or paleness of a
cheek, the more whitish or brownish color of the skin, the uniformity or alternation of
the inks in it, the blonde or brunette being in general, the colors of clothing and
accessories, all tell us something the mere figure does not say can, and what in
connection with the figure can contribute significantly to the character drawing of a
person. The painter paints Pan browner than Apollo, the Christ Child brighter than
John, and wastes all the charm of color, of which he and nature are powerful, to the
goddess of beauty and the servants of her charm;
It has been said that attention is paid to the combination of color and shape, and
that none of it makes its full impact. - Although this may be admitted in some way,
the product of both attenuated factors of impression may be greater and more
meaningful than if one had every factor for himself; but each one of them, too, will
always be able to be absorbed, deliberately eyeing and pursuing color or shape. For
this, man has a capacity for abstraction. Also colored statues would not exclude
colorless ones, as drawings do not exclude drawings, only the reverse exclusion
should not apply.
It is certain that the most beautiful girl figure appears to us all the more beautiful
because she has roses on her cheeks, purple on her lips, and lilies on her skin. Why
should statues not have the same advantage? And at the sight of the beautiful girl, do
not complain about distraction of attention by the color, why at the sight of a
beautiful statue.
It has been said ( 6) , - and earlier (Th. I.) this objection has been thought, - that
painting on statues of the imagination leaves no supplementary occupation. But I
think I said enough about it earlier. The less one expects the imagination to waste its
power in the completion of the sensory underlay, the freer and higher the flight, it will
be able to take it from the completely presented support. Yes, some statues would
rather be afraid of too much than too little of the stimulation of painting.
6) Lazarus in Eggers Kunstbl. 1854. no. 30, and Carrière in s. Lehrb. d. Aesth. I
478.
According to Kirchmann (Lehrte d. Aesth., II., 237, 258), the circumstance that the
artist is limited in the statue "to the pure color without shading" is intended to prevent
the appearance of the skin's complexion. The shading is created by the physicality of
the statue by virtue of the natural illumination itself. - But why is the appearance of
the incarnate not prevented by the same circumstance in the natural face? No one
other than natural light paints shading into such things.
It is true that the most weighty objection, which occurs almost everywhere, is that
when the color is given to the form, the more one misses the movement, and by the
rigid confrontation of those who mimic life on two sides, it does not mean that Life
awakened, form received an eerie gruesome impression; which is not the case if only
the abstract form is given; this does not allow the claim to see the full life to emerge
at all, as it presents itself directly as merely a representation of one side of it. In
asserting this objection, one so regularly refers to the impression that the figures
make in waxworks, that somebody has sometimes called these figures the
"unfortunate ones" because they have to serve them everywhere,
But it is certain that even the full figure without color will remind us enough of the
full man to miss the rest except the figure, if we were not dulled by a habit which, if
so, for the colored statues instead of finding, it would just come to them. Yes, if we
were not used to seeing white statues, they might be even more like spooky
beings 7)and even painted portraits without habituation are almost as frightening as
painted wax figures; as I remember reading that a savage, whose head was portrayed
by a painter, quietly accepted it until the color came to it; he ran away, startled. We
are still such savages in terms of painted statues. But after we have become
accustomed to the portrait painted true to life from childhood, it might not even take a
new habituation for a statue painted true to life. In fact, I have been told that several
years ago in Vienna, an old portrait-head of Philip II, driven in silver, was
found; even a work of art, also painted by an excellent artist with all natural gradation
of inks, and who did not even make the disgusting impression of the wax figures,
therefore caused a great sensation. After which it would only be necessary to further
the approach to the natural truth, to which the terrifying impression is attached, in
order to make their repulsive effect disappear. I would not like to give too much to
this example, because it would require a more precise statement of this than the
verbal report that had become available to me. Should not something be found in any
art-note? I would not like to give too much to this example, because it would require
a more precise statement of this than the verbal report that had become available to
me. Should not something be found in any art-note? I would not like to give too much
to this example, because it would require a more precise statement of this than the
verbal report that had become available to me. Should not something be found in any
art-note?
7) Here is a story, which Herodotus and Pausanias tell of a stratagem, the
Phocians once used in the war against the Thessalians to frighten them. Five
hundred of their bravest men, together with their armor, were wholly coated
with white plaster, and at night-it was just a full moon-were approaching the
camp of the Thessalians; They thought they saw ghosts, and did not dare to
take up arms, so that a great bloodbath was brought upon them. (Kugler
Museum, 1835. p.

If it had its correctness with previous examples, the view that the eerie impression
of the wax figures depended on their natural polychromy would in any case find a
direct refutation therein; but if it is not, I can find absolutely no reason, which of the
habituation of art, a power, which otherwise proves it in such a wide range, to bring
down disadvantages in favor of greater advantages, should fail here. There is just no
habituation to painted statues because the works are missing.
Although these are not completely missing, then the habituation is not
missing. Nobody is impressed by the painted porcelain figurines, which can be found
in every nook, and the carved altarpieces, which are often painted in churches, with
Madonna statues, pictures of the Last Supper, etc., all of them painted. The majority,
of course, do not make a very favorable impression; but think of the color away from
it, if they would win. For this reason alone, I would not like to place too much
emphasis on these examples, because one could say that the porcelain figurines allow
their smallness; for larger altarpieces, the imperfection of their sculpture is more a
complement to the color than in completed statues; if those works were still far
enough away from natural imitation,
In any case, the question is not settled as long as one has not required the influence
of art habituation, this main factor in the artistic effect, to be taken into account. So
far, however, as far as I can see, it has not been taken into account in our question, but
the importance of this consideration in Sect. XXII. clarified discussions.
Now, from a very general point of view, it might be considered probable that, if a
true advantage were to be obtained from the coloring of the statues, it would have
been more intrusive, and would have proved so even in imperfect works, to be more
perfect in double art irritate. Who can still find it doubtful that music and poetry can
enter into an advantageous union in song? It has penetrated too much of itself and has
penetrated on its own; why not the polychrome sculpture, and why they are thought
to be dropped again after they have already existed, if they could resist a higher art
education.
On the latter question, of course, can give an easy answer, with which the first
pretty much answered. When the ancient works of art began to appreciate again, the
colors on the statues were found to be extinguished, so they also became colorless,
becoming accustomed to something exemplary and of course finding reasons for this
pattern validity. If the colors had not been extinguished, the colored statues would
have been copied from the outset, and they would have become accustomed to it, and
no one had thought of their rejection. After a once established and supported by
theory habituation, it could not come to quite serious and decisive to the decision
experiments with the polychrome not so easy. And should it happen, and even the
most excellent of these can be done, the validity of this might perhaps stand in the
way of the first accustomed habituation; how even the most tasteful clothing fashion
finds it difficult to bury oneself and to please, if the taste has been spoiled by a
tasteless tasteless long before.
Newer timid attempts colors applied in statues have indeed made good here and
there, but not that something crucial to find it 8) . For this, at least, one should have at
least a work which was completed in the same way as that of Sculpture and Painting,
as it was supposed to have been in that head of Philip II, and the possible resistance
of habituation, on the other hand, be taken into account. For, of course, it is obvious
that if a statue completed in the form had been painted with colors, or if the color
behind the perfection of the form were left behind, we would rather perceive the color
as disturbing, and obtain only the same impression of it as if we found a beautiful
drawing spoiled by bad coloring.
8) In
particular, there are some unsatisfactory attempts in Egger's
Kunstbl. 1853. no. 48 thought.

But here is the great difficulty of even making adequate samples. It would
undoubtedly require a highly trained technique and practice to bring it to the same
mastery in the coloring of statues as in the shaping. But where is she to be
found? Also, technical difficulties could occur, which complicate the success of such
attempts and possibly really hinder the full success. Not so easily as in the time of the
first Renaissance do painters and sculptors unite in the same person; and if both
artists were to assemble into the same work, it would not suffice to be a master in
each art for themselves in order to furnish something perfected, but they should also
have established one another for the combination of the two arts. Although one might
think for the first sight that if a painter knew how to paint a human figure well on the
canvas, he would have to find it easier to paint a statue well, because he added the
shade created by the illumination of the statue The appearance of the relief, as well as
the modeling of the color, caused it to simply leave out, while he had to imitate it
artificially on the canvas on the canvas. But just in the omission may be a
difficulty. For while he can keep to the natural appearance of the shading in the
painting, it is in the statue to imagine the model of any natural shading undressed, in
order to represent the resulting abstract color on the statue properly for the occult
lighting. To do this: If the artist wants to apply transparent colors to the statue, the
texture and color of the marble, gypsum, ore, wood, etc. appears to shine through; If
he wants to use thicker opaque colors, then the fineness of the plastic execution
suffers just as much as from every coat of paint. and, strictly speaking, he would have
to take corrective consideration of it himself right at the time of elaboration of the
figure, just as he is not otherwise unfamiliar with such considerations, for example
by For example, the features of a bust or statue made of dark ore are worked out
deeper than those of white marble, because the less pronounced shading on the
former makes the features themselves look comparatively less elaborate. If he wants
to use thicker opaque colors, then the fineness of the plastic execution suffers just as
much as from every coat of paint. and, strictly speaking, he would have to take
corrective consideration of it himself right at the time of elaboration of the figure, just
as he is not otherwise unfamiliar with such considerations, for example by For
example, the features of a bust or statue made of dark ore are worked out deeper than
those of white marble, because the less pronounced shading on the former makes the
features themselves look comparatively less elaborate. If he wants to use thicker
opaque colors, then the fineness of the plastic execution suffers just as much as from
every coat of paint. and, strictly speaking, he would have to take corrective
consideration of it himself right at the time of elaboration of the figure, just as he is
not otherwise unfamiliar with such considerations, for example by For example, the
features of a bust or statue made of dark ore are worked out deeper than those of
white marble, because the less pronounced shading on the former makes the features
themselves look comparatively less elaborate. as he is not unfamiliar with such
considerations, for For example, the features of a bust or statue made of dark ore are
worked out deeper than those of white marble, because the less pronounced shading
on the former makes the features themselves look comparatively less elaborate. as he
is not unfamiliar with such considerations, for For example, the features of a bust or
statue made of dark ore are worked out deeper than those of white marble, because
the less pronounced shading on the former makes the features themselves look
comparatively less elaborate.
To what extent these difficulties can come to a head, and whether they may not be
joined by others on the technical side, I am of course unable to judge; it would have
to be subject to the discussion of a specialist.
After all, it will be a matter of deciding the following questions.
Is it dependent on psychological laws that an aesthetic advantage can not even be
achieved, even with the most complete naturalistic coloration of statues, and what are
these laws? - For my part, I can not find such laws.
Or are there technical difficulties in the combination of form and color, which make
it impossible to achieve perfected performances in it, and make the preservation of a
separation between them advisable. - That is possible and requires further discussion
as experiments; but I would think that the difficulties must at least be overcome so far
that what they still wish for could be completely overcome by the habituation of art,
which allows so much to be overcome, do not think that this question is probable to
affirm essentially.
Or, finally, it is not an art of painted statues, and indeed (apart from subordinate
stylistic considerations) to regard natural painted statues as really right, and to expect
a satisfactory realization of them from the future. - I think this is probable, since
reasons for the previous rejection are easier to find than the justifications put forward
so far; but a sure decision can only be sought in the experience of the future.
I frankly admit that when I see a classical marble or plaster statue in its pure
unbroken whiteness before me, I can not even imagine that it, by any means, be it in
nature, or artfully composed, is the It would not be possible for painting to lose its
chaste charm, so to speak, by the added colourfulness, and the color would not really
disturb the impression of the pure trait of the figure. But does not this direct statement
of feeling weigh more strongly than all the reasons of reason put forward against
it? Perhaps; and just because of this feeling I do not like making a safe
decision. Nevertheless, I believe that there is little to be said about it. Because
according to the way I see such feelings arise otherwise, it could be the simple natural
consequence of that so far I have seen only perfect white statues and only very
incomplete painted ones; If the reverse had been the case, then also the success would
have reversed. I can do it by man himself; which I only ever see in color, do not
subtract the color itself in the imagination, and I find myself not disturbed in its
consideration by the color.
2) architecture.
As is well known, there is no less controversy in the subject of polychrome
architecture than in the subject of polychrome sculpture; but I do not want to spread
about them as much as they did about them. The ancient world has gone farther in the
colorfulness of architecture, too, than it has long been believed that tastes can be
relied upon, until decisive facts have provided proof of the colorful architecture of the
ancients, and have thereby raised the question whether their rejection on our part is
justified , According to this, the question has been discussed several times, but in any
case it can be decided just as little with certainty by its mere appeal to ancient
architecture, as with regard to sculpture, and for the same reason. Without now
entering into the discussion of the whole state of affairs of the question,
In the Genoese and along the Riviera di Levante you can see many outwardly with
a majority of colors, some colorfully whitewashed, houses. They usually gave me the
impression of being tasteless; but they were in some way interested in the cheerful
coloring given them by the color, as well as in the variety that formed between the
different houses; and it seemed to me that if a principle, which was only very
imperfectly brought to fruition, but which from the outset should be methodically
developed and developed as the most natural and almost self-evident, an art of house
painting could also arise, which aesthetic gain brings. Namely, the principle to keep
the difference of color or shade in connection with the diversity of the architectural
parts, according to which, for example, For example, pillars, pilasters, pillars, posts to
be colored or shaded differently, as a ledge, architrave, both unlike the wall surface,
entablature other than fillings, the capital of columns and pilasters other than the
trunk, the substructure of the building other than the Superstructure, ornaments other
than the ornate parts; Incidentally, in the specialization and gradation of the coloring
more or less, in part even only on differences of Heller and Dunkler could be gone. In
any case, this principle seems to unite the most favorable aesthetic conditions, insofar
as at the same time the organism of the structure is expressed in pleasing clarity, and
a seeming variety is created in unified connection through the plan of the
building. The monotony and indiscriminate external treatment of the whole exterior
of the building, which is characterless in this way, is what one can accuse of our
architecture; and these shortcomings would be remedied in the past.
Of course, this principle is not enough for itself, because one still wonders what
principle to choose according to the choice of colors. In this case, in my opinion,
different aspects will come to the fore and thereafter different systems of coloring
will be possible, which complement each other rather than exclude and modify the
character of the building and other circumstances, such as z. For northern climates,
for example, less determined colors and quieter differences will be more suitable than
the south, which is also colorful in nature and, so to speak, color-thirsty. Some rules
may still be accepted as universal, eg. For example, that darker colors do not store
over light in larger dimensions, that parts which are related in meaning and
direction, this relationship as well as its opposition to the unrelated pronounce that
subordinate parts are distinguished from the main parts by nuance rather than a sharp
cut (to exclude adornments, which are rather secondary parts than subordinate parts)
that a fragmentary fragmentation of the Colors or bright colors everywhere
avoided; rather, one main color dominates the whole, of which all colors or nuances
in larger dimensions are only representations, whereas ornaments with strong
contrasts may play their part. At least that's what I think. to exclude that a splintering
of colors or bright variegatedness, which leads to something petty, is everywhere
avoided; rather, one main color dominates the whole, of which all colors or nuances
in larger dimensions are only representations, whereas ornaments with strong
contrasts may play their part. At least that's what I think. to exclude that a splintering
of colors or bright variegatedness, which leads to something petty, is everywhere
avoided; rather, one main color dominates the whole, of which all colors or nuances
in larger dimensions are only representations, whereas ornaments with strong
contrasts may play their part. At least that's what I think.
In this case, however, a principle may be involved, but in my opinion several times
with much too great or one-sided weight, partly in this partly on another occasion is
brought into attack, regarding the observance of the natural color of the material 9) .
9) Thus says Magnus (Polychromy, p. 61): "For the outward appearance of a
building, it will be everywhere held reasonable that all parts bear the color of
the material of which they are made, that at least they do not adorn themselves
with colors that never come to the fore in the realm of nature's building
material. "

It is in fact a principle which has recently been asserted (especially by the


representatives of the Gothic) of preferring to hide, rather than hide, the texture of the
material in buildings and objects of the art industry, and to do so as far as possible to
preserve the most natural respect Color of the material belongs. I say "most possible",
because without restriction the principle can not be carried out because of conflicts
with expediency and direct complacency at all, and one does not try it at all. Seldom
at all, except in the case of material which is precious or advantageous in appearance,
is the pure natural color allowed in architecture and the art-industry, but content, even
with the greatest possible preservation of the principle,namely, avoiding decidedly
green and blue colors without, incidentally, paying attention to the actual color of the
material, and parading large workpieces in the substructure in their natural size
without coating. In many works of the art industry, however, little is concerned with
the rule of capturing the natural color of the material; Cups, coffee pots, book covers
come in all colors, the Japanese varnish indifferently covers wood and tin, and I do
not know how the rule would derive such despotic power to defend it. For my part,
the same applies to me in the same subject:
However, we generally like to look at a thing from which it is made, from a certain
point of view belongs to its characteristic; also one can reduce the interest in that to
the truth and clarity. But this interest in material of works of architecture and the art
industry is not so fundamental and contrary to other interests, which can be asserted,
everywhere, that it could not give in to conflict with it, and often enough give
way; indeed the very fact that it happens so often must be done to prevent so much of
the normative power of the principle from happening here and there. For many
objects we are indeed very indifferent, from what, at least from soft special kind of
the metal, wood, Steins are made, and so it has no interest to look at them; enough, if
only they can not see that they are made of something almost purposeless. So, in my
opinion, if we are to talk about polychromy in architecture, we will not be dealing
with the principle in a superordinate way. B, , Magnus in s. Font "the polychromy",
but have to take into account in a more subordinate way, and z. B. column trunk and
capital, if already worked from the same materials, do not have to clothe with the
same color. Magnus wants the builder to choose as much as possible the building
material itself of as different colored materials that it into a pleasing variety of the
phenomenon is apparent in the buildings 10), An impertinence that is indisputably not
practically practicable and at least not so practicable that the architectural structure is
sufficiently expressed, since the diversity of the material can not be kept parallel to
it. A characteristic from that point of view, however, not only appears to be at least as
important in and of itself as it is from it, but also gains the definite advantage in that it
better satisfies the conditions of direct well-being. Thus, one can only say that, as far
as the advantage of the characteristic through the natural appearance of the material is
compatible with the advantages of the appearance of the structure of the structure and
direct considerations of respect for pleasure, one would like to follow this
characteristic.
10)Oddly enough, the natural coloring of the human figure in the visual arts is
said to be barbaric, whereas the natural appearance of the building material in
architecture is required, while the visual arts from the outset aim to imitate
nature, the architecture, to change it according to purpose , This seems to me to
be something of the wrong world.

XXXV. Contribution to aesthetic color theory.


In Th. IS 100 ff., The associative impression of the colors has been discussed on the
occasion of the aesthetic principle of association. Let's add a further supplement
regarding the direct impression of the colors, and the direct as well as the associative
of white and black.
1.From the direct impression of the colors.
It is not disputed that the colors, apart from all their associated meaning, by their
innate relation to our sensation, make a peculiarly different impression, which we
designate as direct, partly according to the different strength, partly different, by
which the eye and through the eye the soul excite it behind. In this way, however,
they can at times directly affect us aesthetically, and in some cases gain influence on
the character of the same influence through the co-determination of otherwise
conveyed aesthetic impressions.
Now the impression of each color can be co-determined by putting it together with
others; but it would not be valid to say that every color owes its characteristic effect
to the sensation merely of its combination with others; Rather, one can account, to a
certain extent, for what each acts not as a combination with others, but as a
comparison with others, and in the combinations in which it enters as its property,
partly by watching what different ones Every impression makes when it fills the field
of vision in great preponderance, partly how differently each behaves on the same
white or black ground, partly what keeps constant from the impression of each color
when entering into the most diverse combinations.1) .
1) In
regard to such, one will find instruction in: Bridge's "Physiology of
Colors." Leipzig 1866.

After that, we can distinguish two sides of direct effect on each color. The one rests
in the sensation of the brightness that awakens it; write black letters on colored paper
or colored letters (on top color) on black paper, the brighter the color, the easier it will
be for you to read the signatures by virtue of their tapping; that is a standard common
to all colors, and according to which each color is less bright than white under the
same illumination, while each may appear even more or less light or dark than the
other. The other side lies in the character of the color, in which each color deviates
specifically or qualitatively from the other. But from this side too, the eye and thereby
the soul can be excited more or less; how red at the same brightness is more exciting
than any other color. In short, one can say: color stimulus is something other than
brightness stimulus. If excitement were to be considered on the part of brightness
alone, then one would have to expect, since every color contains only a fraction of the
white light, and brightness is merely like a certain degree of gray, that its charm on
the soul would not be stronger than its charm this gray; but contradicts the
experience. Rather, it can be asserted that under one, like the colors and the white,
illumination - and the same external illumination is provided for the comparability of
the effect of different colors - the meaning is even more excited by any not too dark
color, than by the brighter white, as long as the same is not strengthened and lifted by
gloss (reflective reflection), that is, more than by a gray of the same color. Compare
z. For example, the impression of a colored dress, a colored wall with that of a gray
dress, a gray wall under the same lighting conditions.
The reason for this can be found in the fact that the whites and grays work with the
balance of the colors fused therein, while every color, with its peculiar charm, reaches
into the eye uncompensated. In fact, colors complementary to white, so-called
supplementary colors, such as red and blue-green, orange and green-blue, yellow and
ultramarine blue, green-yellow and violet show, depending on their nearer proximity
to the least breakable or the most refractive end of the spectrum to speak directly of a
certain antithesis of character, of which we speak below; and thus we have with the
colors in the region of the sense of sight an analogous case, as with chemically
different substances in the field of the sense of taste. The white composed of
complementary colors relates to the face like the salt composed of acid and corrosive
alkali to the taste. The taste of acid and alkali is indiscriminately suspended in the
salt, and so the salt tastes much less strong than the acid and alkali of which it
consists, yet much more than pure water. In the same way, the color difference has
disappeared in white; yet it still irritates the eye much more than the lightless black.
In short, we refer to the intensity of the excitement, which is dependent on both
sides, the brightness and the character of the impression, as a force of color. In itself,
black is powerless because he lacks both brightness and color; who can find himself
excited by staring into a pitch-black night or by the black of the field of vision with
his eyes closed; but we do not consider the less than unproductive effect of the
contrast of black with white, since we do not consider contrast effects at all here.
In order to explain the contrasting impression that the complementary colors make
on us, the memory of an analogous contrast in the tonal domain may contribute
something.
Let us take a song that expresses longing or sadness, or a devout chorale, and
opposite a dance or martial march; in both cases we find ourselves receptive, not
stimulated from the outside, and it may be that we both find ourselves excited with
equal intensity; but the first suggestion is entirely in the awakening of a purely
receptive mood; Therefore, call it a purely receptive arousal. the second is a stimulus
for external activity, or tends to turn into active excitement, and we therefore attribute
to it a more exciting character; Therefore, it is also an exciting or active
excitement. If an active excitement already exists somehow, then it can be tuned
down, soothed, by an impression of the first kind,
Now red, orange, yellow is the same saturation, purity, lighting 2) not only more
exciting than greenish-blue, blue, and violet, but also the excitement of the former
colors a more active, exciting, on the part of the latter a more receptive character,
according to which, for the sake of brevity, we first colors as active, the latter as
receptive, or, according to the mode of use of the painters, the former as warm, the
latter as cold colors. If you have even compared the impression of the red with
trumpet blessing, which nobody can think of in blue, whereas you want to compare
blue with a flute sound. Also, bulls and turkeys are irritated by red but not by blue to
anger. However, one must not forget that the difference between red and blue is only
a relative one in the given respect.
2) Provided that this does not approach the darkness, where the brightness
ratios of the colors assume different values than with daylighting; B. Blue stays
darker for longer with increasing darkness than red.

The less one combines of the infinite number of color-rays, into which a prism
breaks up the white ray, into a composite color, the simpler or more homogeneous,
and the more composed the color. If only a very small fraction of the totality of the
rays composing the white beam is reflected back from a surface, and the color is very
close to simplicity, then the impression of it would naturally be close to, or
indistinguishable from, black. conversely, when there were very few color rays to
white, the impression would be close to white or indistinguishable from
white. Because black now because of lack of brightness and color at the same time,
white, because he lacks the last, (under the same illumination) do not make the
strongest possible impression on the eye, the point of greatest possible power of color
in the sense given above can only be between the two limits; but where, about it lacks
investigations so far. In any case, the point of greatest power at the same time seems
to be the point of greatest pleasure or beauty of a color. Pure aniline blue, brilliant
verbena red want to stand on this point.
Now, however, the degree of the power of a somehow composite color for given
lighting conditions can be altered by mixing the opaque dye that gives them with
black or white 3), The former, with the result of eliminating a part of the entire color
light without changing its compositional ratio and without replacement, the latter of
replacing it with white, thereby diluting the material. In both ways the so-called
saturation of the color decreases. By mixing the pigment with more and more black,
the color is getting darker, brownish, brown, blackish, black and thus increasingly
powerless; by mixing with more and more white, becoming lighter, paler, whitish,
white, and increasing in strength from the side of the brightness, from the side of the
impression of color in power; at very dark powerless colors with profit, at powerful
and bright with loss of power in the whole.
3) Ifone has a translucent dye, the same is achieved by dilution with a colorless
liquid when applied to a black or white ground.

There are now various expressions with which one seeks to designate the
impression of different colors according to the change in their degree of composition
and saturation, and of the change of their power dependent thereon, expressions
which, other than the purpose of the name itself, fulfill the other purpose, to the
common to recall what the impression of the different color modifications has with
the impression of other areas, and thereby to convey a linguistic and conceptual
relationship to it at the same time. In general, the colors are called deep or vivid,
depending on whether they are darker or lighter than the color on the point of greatest
possible strength, which is between the two, yet serious, heavy, or cheerful, light,
depending on the force weakened by greater darkening or brightening.
The preferential liking of this or that color or color modification, apart from
associative codeterminations, which we do not return to here, depends essentially on
individuality. The one loves on the average more purely receptive, the other more
actively exciting, the one more profound, the other more lively excitement, the one
finds itself more serious, the other more voted for joy. After that also his preference
of color. Generally speaking, man generally loves concurrent strong receptive
excitement, but also loves to rest from previous intense excitement with weaker or
other-like excitement, and tolerates, for the longest and most often, a certain average
degree of arousal. in which he feels neither overwrought nor unsatisfied by a lack of
adequate employment. Women love relatively more receptive and pure receptive
stimuli than men, whereas children are relatively more active than adults.
It is further contemplated that colors are sensory stimuli, and also the need for
sensory employment is different, generally decreasing with increasing age, increasing
education, and increasing inclination to retreat into oneself against the allure of
higher associative and reflective employment.
At last, man everywhere demands a certain change of stimuli, and thus also of
colors, in order to avoid the unpleasure which every monotony brings with it; but
from the points of view he can tolerate certain colors in a comparatively greater
extent and longer than others, without feeling overwrought or unsatisfied by a lack of
stimulus, and not only does nature in this respect offer to his eye itself manifold and
changing conditions. but he can also, depending on his aesthetic color needs with co-
determination by the associative factor of the impression different conditions in this
regard, in particular clothing and dwelling, as the next sequels of the outer man, come
into consideration, if it applies, his hobby in colors to satisfy. To be sure, his choice in
this respect is determined not merely by the aesthetic need, but rather by the choice of
some color, because it costs half a cruiser less on a square foot, and some, because it
corresponds to this or that external purpose, the taste of the individual the eternally
changing more or less leveling fashion partly determined, partly overcome; But all
that does not hinder the fact that the aesthetic mode of action, and hence the choice of
colors from the established points of view, reaches through in broad strokes, and that
fashion, to a certain extent, puts on bridle and bridle; Of course, one does not have to
keep to details and not come across details. because it costs half a cruiser less on a
square foot, and some because it corresponds to this or that external purpose, the taste
of the individual is partly determined, partly overcome, by the ever-changing, more
or less leveling fashion; But all that does not hinder the fact that the aesthetic mode of
action, and hence the choice of colors from the established points of view, reaches
through in broad strokes, and that fashion, to a certain extent, puts on bridle and
bridle; Of course, one does not have to keep to details and not come across
details. because it costs half a cruiser less on a square foot, and some because it
corresponds to this or that external purpose, the taste of the individual is partly
determined, partly overcome, by the ever-changing, more or less leveling
fashion; But all that does not hinder the fact that the aesthetic mode of action, and
hence the choice of colors from the established points of view, reaches through in
broad strokes, and that fashion, to a certain extent, puts on bridle and bridle; Of
course, one does not have to keep to details and not come across details. that the
aesthetic mode of action and hereafter the choice of colors from the established points
of view reaches through in broad strokes, and that fashion, to a certain extent, puts on
bridle and bridle; Of course, one does not have to keep to details and not come across
details. that the aesthetic mode of action and hereafter the choice of colors from the
established points of view reaches through in broad strokes, and that fashion, to a
certain extent, puts on bridle and bridle; Of course, one does not have to keep to
details and not come across details.
Almost everything can be subordinated to these general points of view, which can
be generally said about the direct aesthetic effect of the different colors. It is, of
course, possible that idiosyncrasies, which still come under darker aspects, are also
contributory if some prefer the blue to the yellow, others the yellow to the blue, in
which, as is well known. Reichenbach sees a distinguishing sign of the so-called.
Sensitive of the non-sensitive. But here we follow what can be traced from the
established points of view.
Generally speaking, it can be said that powerful red, undercutting in small masses
or short duration, because it irritates most, is also the most aesthetically pleasing
color. In any case, it appears to the child, to the savage, to the newly operated blind
man, in short, to everyone whose sensory receptivity is still fresh.
The blind-born, operated on by Chesselden, at first found scarlet fever most
beautiful of all colors; and among the rest, the gayest (most gay) seemed the most
comfortable, whereas at first Black caused him great discomfort. Soon, however, he
got along with it. However, when he happened to see a Negro a few months later, he
shuddered at her sight (which struck with great horror at the sight).
Fiorillo says in the introduction to s. Gesch. d. sign. Arts (l.3).
"Strange is the general preference raw nations for the red color, presumably as the
one that stands out most in the eyes. By all zones one finds that they needed not only
to the monochromat 4) , but also as Zierrath the body on clothing and almost all of the
equipment is attached. "
4) According to the ancient peoples of Hawkesworth Th. III. 687. Plin. HN
lib. XXlIl. c. 7; with the Chaldaeans after Ezekiel XXIII. 14, etc

The red color was sacred to the Romans; They colored their faces on the statue of
Jupiter, and the triumphant general also colored them (Plin. HN). In Homer (II, II,
637) red painted ships are mentioned. Firelands, Patagonians, wild tribes in North
America, New Zealanders, New Hollanders paint their bodies red, according to
various travel writers. Even among the Otaheitiren and residents of the friendship
islands red was the favorite color after Cook. The Sandwich Islanders covered the
gods in the sanctuaries with red dresses, whatever use the Spaniards had found there
in the discovery of America. Red was also the only traditional costume of the ancient
Sophi in Persia.
In the meantime, strong red, because it is the most irritating, is generally tolerated
less than any other color in large quantities in the long run, and because it irritates the
most sensual, most abhorrently of old age and of the Trappist. Rarer than any other
color, in cultivated peoples, bold red is the main color of a whole dress or a whole
room. Everybody tells himself that a whole and ever red sky instead of the blue, a
whole and always red earth, instead of the green one, would be unbearable; the eye
would find it burned out of it. Against this, a blue-covered earth instead of the green
one would not appeal to us from the opposite point of view; the eye would, in the
long run, miss the sufficient excitement, soon become tired of it, in general, when one
describes, with lethargy, the condition of a receptive excitement, which is not
sufficiently strong to satisfy, and lethargely, even lethargic, itself derives from
blue. On the other hand, we are not fed up with the green, which is in exciting power
between red and blue, so to speak. While we do not want to forget that disagreement
with a red or blue earth would also help us to associate the life and growth of plants
with the green only, and a red or blue overgrown earth would no longer appear
healthy to us ; what associative determinations are; but apart from that, we feel that a
walk through green meadows and woods must directly do the eye better to the length
than it could be by red or blue. which is not strong enough to satisfy, and it is likely
that even Flau himself comes from blue. On the other hand, we are not fed up with
the green, which is in exciting power between red and blue, so to speak. While we do
not want to forget that disagreement with a red or blue earth would also help us to
associate the life and growth of plants with the green only, and a red or blue
overgrown earth would no longer appear healthy to us ; what associative
determinations are; but apart from that, we feel that a walk through green meadows
and woods must directly do the eye better to the length than it could be by red or
blue. which is not strong enough to satisfy, and it is likely that even Flau himself
comes from blue. On the other hand, we are not fed up with the green, which is in
exciting power between red and blue, so to speak. While we do not want to forget
that disagreement with a red or blue earth would also help us to associate the life and
growth of plants with the green only, and a red or blue overgrown earth would no
longer appear healthy to us ; what associative determinations are; but apart from that,
we feel that a walk through green meadows and woods must directly do the eye better
to the length than it could be by red or blue. not enough to say so. While we do not
want to forget that disagreement with a red or blue earth would also help us to
associate the life and growth of plants with the green only, and a red or blue
overgrown earth would no longer appear healthy to us ; what associative
determinations are; but apart from that, we feel that a walk through green meadows
and woods must directly do the eye better to the length than it could be by red or
blue. not enough to say so. While we do not want to forget that disagreement with a
red or blue earth would also help us to associate the life and growth of plants with the
green only, and a red or blue overgrown earth would no longer appear healthy to
us ; what associative determinations are; but apart from that, we feel that a walk
through green meadows and woods must directly do the eye better to the length than
it could be by red or blue.
This does not prevent us from enjoying the temporary view of the blue sky; indeed,
it provides a real refreshment to fix an eye irritated and tired of a sunny path for a
while in the full blue sky. Although the conclusion of the eyes would bring an even
more complete peace. But we prefer it otherwise during a day not only too strong
fatigue, rather than resting by pure passivity or sleep rather in a weaker and different
kind of employment. As a rule we see only a little ahead of us from the blue sky, with
our eyes pointing forwards and downwards, and the seldom change of blue, with
cloudiness, cloudiness, and red, makes the less the feeling of lethargy.
Arriving at differences in sex and age, the more active red is preferred by the man,
the more receptive blue of the woman, and as long as the man gives anything at all to
garments, purple and scarlet are his splendor dress. But as youth generally prefers
more active excitement to the more receptive, a conflict arises in the youth of the
female sex; according to which a very little girl still prefer a scarlet dress to an aniline
or berlin blue, and the joyful maiden can still enjoy the pink ball gown, which is so
well suited to her lust for active dancing, and how the little girls behave with us too
the adult women in raw people.
Generally speaking, children love colors more than adults, women more than
men; - Children, because they are sensual at all, women, because they are receptive to
receptive stimuli; But colors belong to the sensory and receptive stimuli at the same
time. Raw peoples behave like children in this respect as well. With a free choice
between a black, white and colored dress, therefore, the child, at least the female, will
surely reach for the colored one; the black or white is merely forced upon him; the
adult educated woman can also reach for the white or the black, precisely because she
is adult and educated, whereby associative moments of the most varied kind come
into effect; but on average, one sees much more colorful dresses in the women's
world than men's world; in fabrics colorful or patterned even almost only in the
women's world; and as much as fashion changes, so does this relationship exist in
general. Raw people who do not like clothes, paint and tattoo their naked bodies red
or colorful. However, the more the formation of a people increases, the more the
sensual taste for color recedes, and the associative nature of appropriateness stands
out for it.
It would undeniably be interesting to compare the changes in color hobby, in
particular with regard to clothing and architecture, through the different periods and
peoples; There is also much of this in individual compilations, but I do not know that
the task was carried out to a certain extent in a methodological-pragmatic way. Our
present time and culture is probably pretty much at an extreme of color contempt. It
was not so long ago that green and blue tuxedos with bare buttons were still popular
and all umbrellas were red; and farther back the whole male state attire was
colored; Now black, brown, gray and pale yellow have the upper hand in masculine
clothing; but the taste for polychrome architecture and sculpture to which the ancients
paid homage is even frowned upon.
Our time and education has become more abstract, so to speak. The higher-ranking
man who sets the tone for himself gives himself little more than an external sense-
impression and does not want to be attracted and blinded by such. By avoiding the
external brilliance and ornamentation, attention is directed more to its intrinsic
value; but he too; who has no such, yet wants to gain the appearance of it by imitation
of external illusion; so the use of black festival clothing in men could generalize more
and more and finally become compelling fashion. The woman, on the other hand, is
more pleased with externality than the man, and is relatively more dependent on her
appearance to attract; therefore could not easily price so much as the man. But on the
whole, the women's dresses have become more monochrome and the colors have
become less and less noticeable. And what has already happened in this regard is that
it is taking place among the peoples of the East, as European culture begins to spread
to them.
With regard to the more and more diminishing clothing colors in the Orient, there is
an essay by H. Bamberg on the clothing and ornaments of the East Islamist peoples in
Westermann's Illustr. Monatshefte 1868. p. 1 52 et al. The following not uninteresting
remark:
"It's strange how we encounter the glaring clothes the more we pass from one end
of the same to the other on our eastward migration."
for, strange as it may sound, there is already an important class in Turkey, which
always sees Kabaluk (roughness) or Türlük (Turkishness), which is synonymous with
the first, under light-colored, garish suits. The same applies to the Turkish
fashion. Here, at the time of the Sassanid scarlet, it is said to have been a popular
color; but today it is superseded by all strata, and if single-colored fabrics are always
preferred, they are always modestly green, yellow, blue, or their nuances. Only the
nomad remained faithful to the old custom. He, as well as his resident ancestor and
fellow believer in Central Asia, only like the wild-colored dresses, and in the bazaar
of Erzerum, Charpul, Diabekr and Mosul, mostly nomadic Kurds with bright red
coats,
In an essay on ancient Egypt in "Auslande," 1868, no. 40, p. 950, the following
passage can be found after a special execution in this regard: In order to give an
opposite extreme to our color contempt, the ancient Egyptians
"In the sanctuary as well as in ordinary life, the people of the Egyptians surrounded
themselves so strikingly with the ornament of the colors, that we should not doubt
that it was the joy of the variegation and the glaring, which is so very peculiar to
childhood, There was almost no object of their public and private life that they did
not cover with color.
"They painted their temples and their houses, the doors and the rooms, the tables,
the armchairs and benches, the household utensils, pots and jars, the jewels and
statues, the clothes and weapons, the coffins and grave vaults, the books and
monuments, Skin and hair: the brighter, the more colorful, the more elegant the
Egyptian seems to be.The neck collar, where it is not made of precious stones and
metals, pressed only of glued calico, often resembles a rainbow wreath The fuselage
and the mast, the little house or the armchairs serving instead, the helm, the oars, the
sail are painted, colorful and glaring "etc
C. Hermann (Gen. Aesth, p. 68.) assumes that all things given in nature, which
have a definite color in common with each other, are also otherwise attributed to
some other than this externally formal similar inwardly corresponding essential
feature a unit or class. It can not be coincidence, but only an inner necessity, that in
nature certain things carry only certain colors, but not others; the way in which nature
has distributed the individual things can be regarded in advance only as a rational and
inherently organic one; It is precisely from the understanding of this rational process
of nature in relation to color that the meaning of each of these latter can be inferred
with certainty for ourselves.
It is not disputed, since nothing is naturally random in nature, nor will the color of
the natural objects be; I would like to say, however, that for the limits hitherto set for
our knowledge, nothing appears more accidental than the color of them; - just think
of the manifold varieties of flowers; - and it would be difficult to get beyond a
natural-philosophical mysticism with the development of Hermann's view.

2) The direct and associative impressions of white and black.


The direct impression of white and black is distinguished by the fact that white
gives the strongest, black no light stimulus, but has the common feature that both lack
the color stimulus, according to which, from one point of view, they are very different
from the other. This determines the most common uses of white and black, the uses
and the natural occurrence of both, but the associative impression of both.
From the first point of view, in the choice between white and black, generally
speaking, the white is preferred to the black for use on larger surfaces, because it
leaves the eye still an occupation that completely removes black from the eye. On
average, however, we need a certain amount of work while watching, to which the
eye also has to contribute. No one likes to live in a completely black room, while the
mere white ones are still liked; and even the monastic cells are inwardly not black,
but white, notwithstanding the black in that it offers nothing to the senses, as a reason
may be considered to seek a substitute in inner and higher employment, and disturbs
least in such employment, therefore in moderation Use, especially as the color of
clothing, to provide help or a sign of it; but removing too much from the sensory
stimulus has a depressing effect on the whole mind. Books printed in black instead of
reverse would only fit into a library on the Erebus. The black says the least of the
youth, the female sex and sensual uncultured peoples, whereas it the easier the color
and the white in the clothing and otherwise repressed, the more by age, sex,
education, the inclination to abstract pursuits, the desire to turn in and turn away from
the sensory stimuli increases. Therefore, there are no black-clad babies and black-
clad brutes, while children, especially females, are not reluctant to be dressed in
white, and white robes are found among Arabs and Hindus.
C. Hermann notes that "when white and black occur in conjunction with each other,
the natural relationship is that white forms the base, black but the applied or the
ceiling," which I do, however would like to concede in so far as we generally admire
the above remark to see white in the overweight against black, but that what is carried
on usually takes up less space than the ground; and we probably would not surround
copper engravings, which by the way contain in their essential parts still white
enough, with so much white on the edge, if not the eye should be compensated
thereby for the many blacks.
What seems to me to be directly opposed to Hermann is that when the surfaces are
superimposed vertically, we need to see white and even lighter above, black or darker
below. It will never be found that the wall surface of a room is darker than the lamper
in the lower part of it, and the ceiling is darker than the walls, but always the
reverse; and everyone says that it would look bad if it were not so; One had the
impression that the weight was above the light. It is very peculiar, however, that the
lighter, which stimulates the eye with more force, seems analogous to the weightless,
but it is so.
An example of reverse effect in this respect is provided by the Lateran Church in
Rome. It is kept light in the walls, white with gray niches, in which stand white
statues, also has a floor in white and gray; The ceiling, however, after Michelangelo's
drawings in the Renaissance taste decorated, weighs with their relatively dark heavy
colors inharmonious on the whole.
On the other hand, the lack of color appeal common to white and black is due to the
fact that the white in large masses makes the impression of the desert as well as the
black; - think of a snowy landscape, a white room wall; And that white, in spite of
appearing in some ways as the opposite of black, makes black more competitive in its
applications than any color, so that in very analogous circumstances the choice is
often between white and black or very dark colors is, without, however, the
difference between the two from other points of view, falls apart.
Thus the Catholic priestly robe is white, the Protestant black; and the Anglican
pastor reads the prayer before the sermon in a long white chorus shirt, while he is
dressed in a long black robe for preaching. 5) Thus one sees older, serious women,
some in black or very dark, some white, never vividly dressed in color; Also, in the
case of fixed elevators, the white has become just as common a costume of women as
that of men and remained black. If, however, the clothing of the present educated
male world is black at all or gray in the middle between white and black, then that of
the ancient Greeks and Romans was white. The ties of men nowadays change almost
only between white and black.
5) Westermann's Illustr. Monatshefte 1865. p. 1541.

The Catholic cult, however, is even more sensuous than the Protestant; the older
woman, who always dresses in white, will seek more in the outer life than she always
dresses in black; and the ancient Greeks and Romans even less abstracted from the
sensual side of life than we did.
White and black, too, have in common, because of their lack of color, in that apart
from contrasting colors, which lift each other alternately, they are best suited as a
basis for emphasizing the peculiar effect of colors and color contrasts; and insofar as
black also lacks the quantitative brightness stimulus, the light on its basis appears
even more clearly in the light. Nothing more magnificent than a starry night sky than
a silver-embroidered black velvet dress. But dull white on black looks rather sad,
because the contrast is not sufficient to give white the power of splendor; rather, we
have two odes for the eye instead of one.
Turning to the associative effect, it is noteworthy that, in our case, Schwarz appears
with the associative meaning of grief. A black-lined room with a black flag over the
house, the black hangings of a horse, the black pile around the hat of a man, the black
lackluster garb of a woman everywhere give the impression of one. Of course, this
depends first on the usual use of black as a sign of mourning; but this use itself
appears fittingly from two points of view, which we can briefly distinguish as
sympathetic and symbolic, from sympathetic in that mourning for departed men
causes man to enter into himself; Black does that too; yes the eye is sad even on the
length, and a mournful soul gladly mourns the senses with itself: symbolically, as
long as the night of the eye recalls the night of death and vice versa. But if it is not
black, with which one mourns, then white or one of the receptive colors for it, will be
found suitable before the active ones, as they really do serve under certain
circumstances; so I read that the Chinese and queens of France know, the cardinals
violet, the Jews mourn blue, while the Romans and Hellenes had no actual mourning
color.
Black does not always give us the impression of mourning everywhere; it depends
essentially on co-determining circumstances. Neither the black celebration dress of
the man, nor the black velvet and silk dress of a woman give the impression of
mourning, in that the other convention, or the other accent given by the preciousness
or shine of the material, alters the associative meaning.
Under certain circumstances, Schwarz may even make an associative impression
that is almost opposite to his direct impression, even if I do not generally wish to sign
the paradoxical sentence that C. Hermann (Gen. Aesth.77) makes that "Black, unlike
White, always uses the Impression of the Fiery, Energetic, Deep. But it is true that the
same assert that black eyes and hair, against light eyes, blond or even white hair, and
black horses, make this impression against the white horses, and black moor earth
gives us the impression of greater fertility than white lime earth or yellow sand , Of
course, because we are accustomed to see the greater energy of life, the greater
fertility attached to the black in these modes of occurrence, we tie them to it
again; but only in these ways of occurrence. Against this, no one of black coal will
receive the impression of the fiery, energetic over an incandescent dance-ground
sprinkled by a black fire opposite a white-sand dance, a black lady's hat versus a
white, but only in general everyone will find the black more serious than the white
and more easily reminiscent of masculinity than femininity, though remotely related
to a lighter association of energy.
The associative character of white in general is guaranteed by the fact that it is
easiest to be clouded by every stain, and most certainly the real existence of
cleanliness and purity; is therefore expressly declared a symbol of purity, not merely
physical, spiritual or innocent, from which the lily has received its symbolic
dowry. This contributes to the fact that women's world is more inclined than men to
prefer white over black. For cleanliness and purity are qualities which are preferably
demanded of women, and which they demand even more than the men of
themselves. Finding her by her own dress and giving her a guarantee of it in her dress
probably appeals to the women and probably appeals to the women. Yes, a girl or a
woman which always dresses in a dazzling white, gives the impression that it places
this quality higher than any other, whereas no dress gives the impression of greater
saltiness than a dirty white. Even little girls get used to the cleanliness of the white
dress; but with boys it would be in vain, and so they would rather have them dressed
in dark clothes with the street dust. Not only women, but also angels clothe
themselves in their innocence and because they have no individual inclinations, like
in white and would do it more often, if not the painters often want to prove their color
sense very wrong in them and therefore, if possible cleaned out. Even little girls get
used to the cleanliness of the white dress; but with boys it would be in vain, and so
they would rather have them dressed in dark clothes with the street dust. Not only
women, but also angels clothe themselves in their innocence and because they have
no individual inclinations, like in white and would do it more often, if not the painters
often want to prove their color sense very wrong in them and therefore, if possible
cleaned out. Even little girls get used to the cleanliness of the white dress; but with
boys it would be in vain, and so they would rather have them dressed in dark clothes
with the street dust. Not only women, but also angels clothe themselves in their
innocence and because they have no individual inclinations, like in white and would
do it more often, if not the painters often want to prove their color sense very wrong
in them and therefore, if possible cleaned out.
With every change of dress between different colors, black and white is the body,
bed and table linen for man and woman and child in every clean nation 6) always
stayed white; all fashion is breaking at this rock-solidity; despite the fact that it would
require less laundry if less white was required. So strong does the demand for the
impression of cleanliness outweigh the external considerations of purpose. But
nowhere does this demand assert itself so energetically as in this case, and so vividly
enters into associative feeling. By name, white lingerie exerts a kind of magic, which
transfigures the sensuous bleakness of white. To the banker, a pile of gold, the woman
sees a heap of white linen before her eyes, receiving not only the impression of the
cleanliness of the stuff itself, but that of a whole man, an entire economy.
6) ThePersians, who are very unclean in their linen and rarely change the same,
wear for the most part dark blue cotton shirts.

In the case of tableware, however, another motive is added to the motive of


cleanliness, that white is preferred to colors, that in fact the use of the table-top
product expressly refrains from preoccupation with the sense of taste as the
face. Now, one might prefer black in this regard as even less disturbing. But in part,
Schwarz would not carry the association of cleanliness to the same degree, and in
some cases the co-stimulation of one sense, if it only does not thrive on obesity, may
support that of the other. It is better to listen to a concert in the light than in the dark,
so it is better to dine on a white tablecloth than a black one.
As much as White recommends himself in all cases as a witness of cleanliness,
where cleanliness can really be upheld, so much is it frowned upon in all cases where
it is not possible to keep it. After which a man in white boots would seem absurd and
even a woman or a girl wears white satin shoes just as ball shoes. Therefore,
according to a remark by C. Hermann, although front doors but not the street dust and
dirt exposed front doors may be white.
Now, of course, besides the impression of cleanliness and purity, white also makes
that of indifference, which is closely related to simplicity; And even to avoid the
danger of such interpretation, dresses a woman of the world in society rather colorful,
but in the home morning and Abendnegligé like to return to white, which is to say for
the woman after that, as the green for the Plant, from which and over which the
colors only have to be temporarily extinguished.

XXXVI. Preliminary remark on a second series of


aesthetic laws or principles.
I have put quite a few aesthetic laws or principles at the entrance of this book, and I
conclude it with the exception of the last section of the appendix. In a systematic
aesthetics, all laws would have been dealt with in connection, that is, behind each
other; but it would have been hard to avoid fatigue by doing so; and according to the
stated intention of this writing, there was no question of a systematic consequence in
it at all. So I just tried to preface some of the most important laws and to pursue them
in the most important applications; but in doing so they involve themselves not only
with each other, but also with other laws, so far these other laws have been thought of
only occasionally, as far as occasion arises. At the same time the need for a more in-
depth discussion of them could be felt, and I can now follow such a line by recalling
the difficulties mentioned in Th. I., which are subject to the discussion of aesthetic
laws and which also affect the following , That the totality of these laws in a system
of aesthetics, or of a more general claiming of hedonics (Th. I.), may be even more
concrete, more unified, questionable, but at the same time more comprehensible, to
be treated, and supplemented by some relation In order to bring her beyond the
character of a smorgasbord, I like to believe. One should not ask too much of a first
attempt to treat this difficult subject more than rhapsodically or superficially; Anyone
after me will find it easier to do so because he is not the first one in it. It is true that,
as we have already seen in the first part, we are thoroughly reminded of what the end
of XLIII. To return with a few remarks, let the chapter of the aesthetic laws only be
dealt with after the recognition of a uniform basic law of the origin of pleasure and
pain; but even then the derivation of the individual laws from it, as well as their
combination from the point of view of the same, will always remain difficult, but at
the same time they should be practical. the chapter of the aesthetic laws can be
treated only after knowledge of a uniform basic law of the origin of pleasure and
pain; but even then the derivation of the individual laws from it, as well as their
combination from the point of view of the same, will always remain difficult, but at
the same time they should be practical. the chapter of the aesthetic laws can be
treated only after knowledge of a uniform basic law of the origin of pleasure and
pain; but even then the derivation of the individual laws from it, as well as their
combination from the point of view of the same, will always remain difficult, but at
the same time they should be practical.

XXXVII. Principle of aesthetic contrast, aesthetic consequence


and reconciliation.

1.Principle of aesthetic contrast.


If quantitatively or qualitatively different sensory stimuli act in such a context, or
entertain the idea that their difference really enters into consciousness as a difference,
an effect depends on it, which can not be explained as the sum of the individual
effects, but to this effect as one, The individual effects are at the same time surpassing
and changing effects, which we briefly and generally refer to as a contrast effect,
even if in ordinary usage only effects of this kind, which depend on strong
opposition, tend to be so designated. Thus ruthlessly on aesthetic co-determination
the contrast of black and white, red and green exerts an effect on the eye, which can
not be explained as the sum of the effects which black and white, Red and green can
express themselves, and by virtue of which the black becomes blacker, the whites
whiter, the redder redder, the greener greener, as if considered individually. Thus a
great man appears small to a giant and, in the end, to a nation of giants, a little man to
a dwarf or a dwarf genius. But this altering effect on the impression of the individual
stimuli alone is not contemplated, but the antithesis works with the power of a
peculiar stimulus, whereby the mind is occupied in a way that can not be done by any
single stimulus. a little man big against a dwarf or a dwarven genius. But this altering
effect on the impression of the individual stimuli alone is not contemplated, but the
antithesis works with the power of a peculiar stimulus, whereby the mind is occupied
in a way that can not be done by any single stimulus. a little man big against a dwarf
or a dwarven genius. But this altering effect on the impression of the individual
stimuli alone is not contemplated, but the antithesis works with the power of a
peculiar stimulus, whereby the mind is occupied in a way that can not be done by any
single stimulus.
What applies in this respect to aesthetically indifferent stimuli also holds for
aesthetically different ones, so that one can say in general that the one who gives is
all the more pleasure the more it contrasts with the one who liberates or gives less
pleasure, to which a corresponding proposition for the displeasure occurs. And the
perceived or imagined antagonism itself occupies the soul in a peculiar way.
Every work of art, when we compare it with less perfected works of art of the same
kind or kind, loses, and loses, if we compare it with more perfect ones. Connoisseurs,
who follow the art in their development, can find great pleasure in very imperfect
works of art, taking into account the progress against the earlier imperfect, while non-
connoisseurs, who are not familiar with the historical relationship, they ruthlessly
after the comparison with the find today's more complete works of art displeasing.
However, the actual emergence of a contrast effect in the given sense requires the
fulfillment of three conditions: a) the difference of the factors of contrast, as well as
susceptibility to the perception of difference and attention must exceed a certain
threshold, as for the individual factor. In brief, the threshold law discussed in Th. I.
also comes into force here. B) The two factors need not be incomparably
incomparable, but the contrast effect is more pronounced as the factors are more
equal except for the contrasting momentum stronger or more undisturbed psychic
relationship between them. c) In successive impressions the contrast effect can only
be expressed at the second, not the first.
It depends on circumstance b) that aesthetic and non-aesthetic contrasting effects
do indeed occur in the domain of colors such as tones; but not between colors and
tones, and a bad picture may be all the more displeasing to us, if we compare it with a
good picture, but not when we compare it with a good music. To illustrate c), it may
serve as a reminder that a pause in a rushing music can make a strong impression of
silence through its contrast with the previous noise that would have been lacking
without the previous noise, but without an exaggerated sense of the previous noise to
be able to react.
Our principle may suffer apparent exceptions. If I enjoy a sweet dish which tastes
good to me, and afterwards a still sweeter one, which tastes even better, then the
receptivity of the less sweet will already in a certain sense diminish the receptivity,
and the second enjoyment by preceding it of the first weaker one, but have not
grown; but that is a complication of the law of blunting with the law of contrast. If,
instead of the pleasure of a less sweet dish, I had preceded the one sweet, the
weakening of the second enjoyment would have been even greater, not only because
the dullness of the first would be greater, but also because the contrast would
disappear ; and even the sweeter food would have preceded, Thus, the increased
blunting would combine with the contrast effect to the greater weakening of the
second enjoyment. A corresponding analysis of success will be needed everywhere if
a weaker and stronger enjoyment follows in one direction or the other.
An aesthetic contrast between our own state of pleasure and the state of pleasure of
another as well as between our present and a past or future state of pleasure can be
mediated by the idea that we have of the state of the other or of our own state of
desire of other times. Here we generally gain or lose in pleasure, as we compare the
pleasure we ourselves have with a little or greater lust of others, or the pleasure we
have now, with a lesser or greater appetite that we have had. compare what can be
easily translated into a corresponding sentence for aversion. In this law, too,
complications must be taken into account, such as those may depend on love or
hatred of others.
According to this, our happiness contributes to the consciousness that we are
happier than others, and we feel less our misery with regard to the greater misery of
others, unless there is a feeling of love or mercy towards others, which has nothing to
do with contrast , a conflict conditional; on the other hand, we feel our happiness less
as we compare ourselves with happier ones, and our misery stronger as we hold it
against the lesser misery of others. The remembrance of past suffering helps to make
the happiness of the present stronger, to intensify the memory of past joys, the feeling
of present joylessness; but the comparison of the present state with the former must
really be drawn; otherwise, if the present offers no joys, then
2) Principle of the aesthetic consequence.
The following is dependent on the previous principle.
Here, the sequential effect of the first on the second source either unconscious or
synonymous durchterstrecken by conscious memory. In any case, in order to find the
law confirmed under all circumstances, one must abstract from the complication
already discussed above, which consists in the fact that the receptivity to the second
is somehow dulled by the first stimulus of the same sense, for one is increased in a
sense from the opposite sense.
As can easily be seen, this law is related to the previous one. Whether pleasure or
pain occurs first, it can not experience the increasing or diminishing influence, which
depends on the contrast with the following pleasure or discomfort, but this is the case
with regard to the later occurring case, provided that the above given conditions of
contrast effect are fulfilled, which is assumed here everywhere. If greater pleasure
precedes, and if smaller pleasure or even displeasure follows, a diminution of the
second pleasure or intensification of the pain will take place through the contrast with
the first greater pleasure; if the sequence is reversed, then the first smaller pleasure,
unmitigated or first, will enter unreinforced, but the second, greater pleasure, will be
strengthened by the contrast.
In the sense of the present law it is to be said that enjoyments available, whether
sensuous or higher, are to be used in the positive as well as negative sense of
progress, that is to say, not the stronger, but the weaker enjoyment; To show
something unpleasant and pleasant to someone is that the former does not have to
precede the latter.
In the case of an enhancement of a stimulant, it is expedient not to allow the
increase either too early or too late; for a momentary or very short duration of
enjoyment leaves no significant and lasting impression of contrast with the later,
while a long continued, albeit weak, enjoyment of a dulling or over-saturation, hereby
establishes a success, whereby the subsequent strengthening aborts occur.
In the light of the foregoing, in a gastrum the finer, nobler, tastier wines are not
given first, but at last; and this only after the lesser wines have had their effect for a
while, whereas it would not be advisable to postpone them until the dulness of their
enjoyment; because after that, the bad wines make almost as much as the best; and
this seems to have been the well-known statement of the cellar master at the wedding
to Cana. The fact that a glass of strong, noble wine as Madera, port, and many places
(as in the German Baltic provinces of Russia) even liqueurs make the entrance to the
table, has partly only the secondary purpose of stimulating the appetite, therefore no
repetition takes place;
Count Algarotti had bought a number of paintings in Venice for the Elector of
Saxony, which still adorn the Dresden Gallery, including Holbein's Madonna as the
main work, and reports in his letters on this purchase, 1 "as the artists of Venice go to
see him in order to see this splendid work, and that he had cleverly shown them his
Carlo Maratti's and Bassano's, and then, with the sweetest taste in their mouths, as
they last gave the tokyo wine, with the sight of Maria Holbein . " Algarotti thus
applied the same principle to the enjoyment of art, which is generally applied to
table-food, and himself asserted the analogy of both cases.
1) Hübner's introduction z. Verz. Of the Dresden Gem. Gall.
Someone can make a smaller present for the other, or a larger gift at Christmas or a
birthday; but what difference in results, whether greater or lesser, precedes or
succeeds. If the greater succeeds, then the recipient will be happily surprised by the
increase, and if the smaller succeeds, he will deduct what he lacks from the greater,
so to say, from his own value, and it may be that by this deduction Sense of value
itself is outbid, ie that the recipient is more annoyed about the reduction of the gift
than is happy about the gift itself.
On journeys through beautiful regions one generally does not feel comfortable
visiting the most beautiful at first, for every gain of beauty on the journey is
perceived as profit, every decrease as loss; It may happen that, after the enjoyment
which one had from the beginning in the most beautiful regions, on the rest of the
journey one becomes bored with regions which one would have seen with increasing
pleasure in the reverse arrangement of the journey. It must, however, be weighed
against the fact that, if one pushes it to the end, and if it is at all important to have a
pleasure concentrated in the greatest possible strength, one must rather begin with the
same, which is why you are probably the rule
Insofar as we are at all able to change the pleasure from the freshest enjoyment of it
to other heterogeneous ones, which we receive with fresh freshness, the rule of
beginning and ending with the greatest pleasure at the same time may be in right; but
for the most part we are compelled to remain more or less in the same circle of
aesthetic influences, and then progress in the sense of increasing pleasure will always
merit progress in the sense of reduction.
The convalescent patient, the poor who help themselves out of poverty, can still be
very ill or poor, and are thus subject to the conditions of discomfort linked to it; but
the feeling or consciousness constantly accompanying him, that his respective state is
better than the earlier one, can carry with him a pleasure which not only compensates
for the pain of displeasure, but surpasses it, while the consciousness or feeling of
becoming weaker, of becoming poor, gives it a corresponding effect Increase in
secondary discomfort.
1.Principle of aesthetic reconciliation.
To regard only as a special case of the previous principle is the very important
principle of aesthetic reconciliation, which is explained in this way. According to the
previous law, two stimuli, one of which is as pleasurable as the other, but not in their
aesthetic effect, when they interact in such a way that their contrast can be brought to
bear, provided a secondary one, depending on their succession Pleasure or aversion
grows in excess over the mean result; indeed, even a pleasure that is in itself
unpleasant can be compensated for or outdone by a secondary in itself weaker delight
by virtue of this secondary effect, if only the unpleasurable stimulus were not of too
great strength or duration. The entire cases now where a cause of discomfort is
presented by a following or as a result, For a short general description we understand
the contrasting cause of pleasure, which is compensated or outweighed by aesthetic
effect, under the expression of aesthetic reconciliation, even though hitherto this
expression has been used preferably only in the higher realms of aesthetics, in
particular art. For it is the difficulty for art to maintain itself in the realm of mere
delights, since these are not easily independent of the despisers, and in the demand to
prevent the blunting of susceptibility to a continuity of pleasures, one of the most
effective aids Art is to arrange sources of discomfort in relation to sources of pleasure
so that the principle of aesthetic reconciliation comes into force, and determines the
overall result of the impression with pleasure overweight.
Examples of aesthetic reconciliation are when a disharmonic chord is resolved by a
harmonious one, or in a novel a hero who awakens our participation is led to a happy
goal by means of in itself unpleasant vicissitudes. The same chords or events in
reverse would rather have an unpleasantly pleasurable effect. Now, not every
disharmonic chord can be reconciled by any harmonically resolved nor a narrated
unpleasant event by an arbitrary pleasurable, but the second of the (above) mentioned
conditions comes into consideration, according to which a contrasting effect is made
easier and stronger,
In fact, funeral games and many novels, rather than pleasurable, end with sad
events; and yet we can be satisfied with it on the whole; but it will only be the case if
it contains a truly reconciling moment with regard to the divine justice or justice of
the world order, which counterbalances sources of pain with punishments; otherwise
the pleasure which we have at least found in dealing with the changing events and the
conflict of the characters will eventually leave us with an unpleasant echo; and a sad
conclusion without any moment of reconciliation is at all contrary to the rules of art.
In so far as a metaphysical impossibility seems to exist that there are sources of
pleasure without such displeasure in the world, it may be observed that the world
order no less complies with the same principle of ultimate reconciliation which art
abides by; at least it seems so to anyone who is not a pessimist. A symphony in which
one disharmony after another dissolves is, therefore, the most beautiful picture of a
world order, as we may believe it is in the whole and in the great, after we can
already observe enough of the tendency to do so in our narrow sphere of experience.
The aesthetic reconciliation of an unpleasant effect can be very much supported by
the anticipated (under the later-to-be-considered principle of intuition belonging)
pleasurable idea of the later succession of luster, so that the final reconciliation only
as the finite conclusion and the full fulfillment of one already partially by this
Foresight caused compensation, which often goes up to overcompensation,
appears. Thus the hungry or the thirsty, by the foresight of the pleasure-feeling of the
hunger or thirst, even during famine or thirst, can be sufficiently reconciled with a
moderate degree of compensation, and rejoice in his hunger or thirst. and feel the
pleasure of finite breastfeeding only as the conclusion of this reconciliation in a final
increase of it, while the finite failure of breastfeeding becomes all the more
unpleasant because of the failure of this foresight. Thus, in the case of works of art
according to the general purposes of art in general, we already presuppose that all
unfavorable impressions brought into play meet a satisfactory solution, and thereby
reconcile them directly, thereby making it possible for us to be works of art in spite of
the undermining of such works To be able to follow impressions with a progressing
pleasure overweight, but to remain so dissatisfied with finally missing reconciling
conclusions.

XXXVIII. Principle of summation, exercise, blunting,


habituation, supersaturation.
Every, even aesthetic, stimulus needs a certain duration of action before its effect is
felt at all, which can be regarded as a success of the law of the threshold, provided
that the effect of the stimulus adds up to a certain limit in order to exceed the
threshold the sensitivity for its recording must be tuned. The impression, even with
continuously constant stimuli, increases with the duration of the effect, up to certain
limits, which we may call the ascending effect. The highest strength of the impression
achievable with this we briefly call its full strength.
If the action of the stimulus is interrupted in the period of ascension, that is, before
the full strength of the impression is reached, in order to start anew later, an
aftereffect of it will be transferred to the second effect, shortening the period of
ascension, if both effects not too far apart in time and the after-effects of the first
effect are not canceled out by incidental effects.
In many cases, however, the epoch of the rise of the effect may contract into such a
brief moment that the first impression appears as the strongest; Therefore, one is
often even inclined to regard the freshness and strength of the impression as solidary,
which can not generally be regarded as correct, and even nowhere in the strictest
sense. For whatever pleas or displeasure may awaken by its influence on us; an
indivisible moment of action is not enough to cause it in full or only to a considerable
degree. Yes, there are cases where it takes a longer continuation or more frequent
repetition of the stimulus or an exercise in the view of the same to bring the
impression to full strength.
In particular, it is finer and higher impressions, which neither on their first meeting
nor in the first moments of their effect, unless sufficient exercise preceded them,
affect us the most, because attention must be exercised only in relation to the
comprehension. The concept of exercise in the concept of impressions, however, lies
in the fact that, through continued or repeated attention to finer modifications or
higher relations in a given field, the finer conception of them is facilitated. Without
prior practice, therefore, many finer and higher aesthetic impressions escape man,
while it can bring about a sufficient exercise,
However, the aesthetic impression, no matter whether lower or higher, can never be
increased beyond certain limits by lengthening or repeating its external cause, in short
the stimulus. If, on the contrary, the stimulus continues to act or to repeat in the same
or a similar manner after the full strength of its action, and if the original
susceptibility has not noticeably recovered through a longer interval, the impression
diminishes as to what one is a dulling of receptivity, which is all the more likely and
more pronounced the more persistent and more frequent and the greater the
impression made.
One peculiarity, however, is that strong unpleasurable stimuli dull relatively
quickly and easily through duration or repetition, rather than strong delusions,
although a certain mitigating habit does not fail even in the former, while weak or
moderate disinclination is just as well. only in general can blunt to indifference in a
longer time, as equivalent delights. In general, disempowering in the manner of
following the laws in question does not go quite parallel to the delights.
For example, if the pain of a toothache is initially no greater than the pleasure of
any sensual pleasure, as far as a comparative estimate is possible at all; yet it is
certain that if the stimulus which causes the toothache, and the stimulus which causes
sensible enjoyment, of whatever kind it may always be, proceed uniformly, the latter
will long have become dull or supersaturated, while the latter Toothache, to a certain
extent, the longer it lasts, becomes more and more unbearable as the period of
freshness gets longer. But if man has to endure it, he becomes accustomed to it in a
certain degree so that he can tolerate it better than before, and with every other
unpleasure stimulus.
One may ask to what extent something analogous to the sensuous is also valid for
higher sources of pleasure and aversion. In a graceful game or a serious but
stimulating spiritual employment one can still be in Consider the changes that involve
them, remain with lust for a long time, without a blunting is very noticeable. But let it
be that pleasure with respect to the slight stupefaction is generally a disadvantage
against the displeasure; On the other hand, the reluctance on the other hand is
detrimental to pleasure by the fact that not only all conscious tendencies, but even the
tendency (which, according to our faith, is higher than humanly conscious), which is
revealed in nature's teleology, are the sources of pleasure to conserve, to multiply, and
to switch to the prevention of blunting; hereby to relieve and abolish the
displeasure. It is, of course, impossible to elaborate on the so serious general
questions that can be raised in the world about the world of pleasure and discomfort.
In the case of a sufficiently strong action in relation to the duration or a duration
sufficient in proportion to the strength or repetition of the effect of a pleasure or
discomfort stimulus, the weakening of the initial effect even up to the turn of the
envelope may be in the opposite. However, such an envelope is less likely to be used
in the case of unpleasure stimuli than pleasurable stimuli, where it is referred to as
supersaturation or even disgust can not be achieved at all with many ill-restraints; but
insofar as it is the case, not, as in delights of pleasure, by strengthening beyond a
certain extent, but by continuing or repeating in a slight or moderate degree. These
differences in the behavior of pleasure and ill-pleasure stimuli are to be seen as
factual
It can not be supposed that, however great a gain, no matter how long a
continuation, no matter how frequent a repetition of the cause causing a toothache, or
a man's reluctance to worry, the discomfort of the latter may ever be exerted is not
completely lacking in examples of the cover even in the case of discomfort
sources. Tobacco smoking makes anyone's initial discomfort; After repeated
repetition it makes you want. The bitterness of the beer dislikes most children, after
frequent drinking it can contribute to the convenience of the beer enjoyment. The
taste of pitch, which the wine in Greece assumes by storage in well-tapped hoses,
disgusts everyone at the first drink, but is reluctantly missed by those who are used to
it.
It can not be concluded from the fact that a stimulus by prolonged action changes
its impression, that the root cause of pleasure and pain, which is caused by the
stimulus in us, whatever its nature, changes its value for the sensation by its duration,
but rather, that it changes itself by being elicited in decreasing intensity by a constant
constant stimulus, according to which the law, here expressed in terms of the stimuli
as external causes of pleasure and pain, can not be regarded as transferable to its
ultimate root cause.
At each interruption of the duration of an action, the original susceptibility is
wholly or partially restored or returns to an earlier stage; and inasmuch as repeated
actions presuppose interruptions, every new action will also be met with a state of
receptivity refreshed to a certain degree, which, however, never returns to the stage of
first freshness when the action is relatively rapidly repeated.
According to the proviso that a delight continues to operate longer, or repeatedly
occurs without flourishing to supersaturation, and is, as the point of supersaturation,
still distant, a need for further continuation or further repetition asserts itself in the
manner that a displeasure arises if the continuance is interrupted, or the repetition
occurs more rarely or not at all, without the continuation or repetition expressing the
same effect of pleasure as in the state of freshness, which can go so far that it is only
sufficient to prevent the onset of displeasure. without creating positive pleasure. On
the other hand, on the assumption that an unpleasurable stimulus lasts longer or
repeats itself more often, without thriving to the point of the turnover, the result is
that the abnorment of the unpleasurable stimulus suffices, to arouse positive pleasure,
while the action of it does not cause a discomfort of the same degree as at first, or
may itself be dulled to indifference. These two successes, namely, that a pleasure
becomes more and more necessary through more frequent action or repetition, and
that an unpleasure becomes more easily bearable, are jointly dealt with under the
expression of habituation to the stimulus. But habituation, in a further sense, may also
take place in stimuli which are indifferent from the beginning, in such a way that a
continuation or repetition of them makes them necessary, as the organism gradually
prepares for them. That a pleasure of pleasure, by more frequent action or repetition,
becomes necessary in the manner indicated, and that a discomfort thus becomes more
easily bearable, is collectively dealt with under the expression of habituation to the
stimulus. But habituation, in a further sense, may also take place in stimuli which are
indifferent from the beginning, in such a way that a continuation or repetition of them
makes them necessary, as the organism gradually prepares for them. That a pleasure
of pleasure, by more frequent action or repetition, becomes necessary in the manner
indicated, and that a discomfort thus becomes more easily bearable, is collectively
dealt with under the expression of habituation to the stimulus. But habituation, in a
further sense, may also take place in stimuli which are indifferent from the beginning,
in such a way that a continuation or repetition of them makes them necessary, as the
organism gradually prepares for them.
Of innumerable pleasures and comforts, which, first of all, afford us positive
comfort, we get used to in such a way that we miss them with displeasure when they
are absent, without their existence granting positive pleasure; conversely, some of the
influences that were first perceived as unpleasant, such as For example, staying in
bad air, in such a way that we no longer feel the inconvenience, but feel it with
pleasure when we get into better conditions, better air.
When the action of a pleasure stimulates to supersaturation, the effect of
habituation of carrying on a need of continuation or repetition not only does not
occur, but even a habituation which has already occurred may be temporarily or
permanently abolished. Whereupon a safer means of preventing habituation from a
delight or of abolishing an existing one is to exaggerate the charm rather than to
withdraw it, except that the exaggeration often can not occur without lasting
disadvantages, and not everywhere before a later one Raising the elderly habituation
protects.
As is well known, in order to prevent continued nagging of their apprentices, the
confectioners resort to giving their appetite a free rein from the outset, where it is not
lacking that they soon become disgusted by the supersaturation of the sweets.
In the condition of the so-called cat-jammer the well-trained drinker will curse
drinking, and afterwards refrain from it for a longer time than he would have
otherwise refrained from, except that in this case the old habituation sooner or later
reverts to their rights.
Whole times can become so accustomed to a fashion or a style of art that they
permit nothing, which is not in the same sense, and are finally oversaturated by
exaggeration so that they fall into the tendency to the opposite.
In the case of unpleasure stimuli, after the point of turnover, where it can be
achieved at all, a new habituation to the stimulus may occur as to a delight and
through supersaturation a new change.
This is how tobacco smoking causes unpleasure. In case of repeated repetition Lust
may occur instead by exceeding the turnover point; then one can get used to the fact
that one feels no or only a very diminished desire of smoking, but from the lack of
smoking a strong displeasure. But if one wanted to exaggerate the strength and
duration of smoking, a new transshipment point would occur.
It is noteworthy that one gets accustomed to staying in bad air first, so that one
feels less inconvenient, but, in contrast, feels that he is better entranced with air than
with the previous one. A very long stay in moderately bad air, however, can also lead
to such a habituation by exceeding the point of transition that we feel unpleasantly
the disappearance of the bad air, as some have become so accustomed to confined
room air, that they shy away from opening the windows; but if the bad condition of
the air exceeds certain limits, the window would rather be opened.
Insofar as an object is able at the same time to awaken lower and higher aesthetic
impressions, as is generally the case with works of art, the conditions of the exercise
go. Dulling, habituation, supersaturation with respect to each other, not necessarily
parallel, stand rather frequently, though not necessarily, in antagonism; but it should
not be discussed in detail here in a casuistry in this regard.
Insofar as we are not only receptively (through the influence of stimuli), but also
actively active, we can be actively engaged in pleasurable or unpleasurable work, and
the previous laws discussed with regard to the first kind of aesthetic employment are
transferred to the second.
Aesthetic habituation and practice play, in all their stages, an extraordinarily
important role in the lower and higher formation of taste of man, and in so far as
there are habits and exercises concerning whole times and peoples in connection, the
taste of them in connection with them is determined. But this is already traded earlier
(in the eighteenth section).

XXXIX. Principle of inertia, change and measure of


employment.
1) Principle of persistence and change in the nature of employment.
From a certain point of view, this principle meets with that of dulling and getting
used to, from the other side with that of the unified connection of the manifold.
Under the principle of dulling and getting used to, it has been considered that
pleasures and aversion to pain can be weakened in their effect by a prolonged
duration beyond certain limits (the freshness of the impression), and under certain
circumstances can even turn into the opposite of the effect; but apart from whether
employment is from the outset pleasurable or unpleasant, the duration and change of
employment may itself be an occasion for pleasure or aversion, which indisputably
comes into play in that principle, but because it does not affect it is bounded by
pleasures of pleasure and discomfort, yet requires a more general expression, upon
which we base the following principle under the above name.
Be it an active or receptive, physical or mental occupation, in which man is
comprehended, it requires a certain time before it enters into a constant train, that is, a
state characterized by a constant or little oscillating sense of the exertion of force. If
such a state has taken place, it is apart from the pleasurable or unpleasant nature
which employment can have of itself, in the sense of the desire to persist in it, as long
as employment in the same way did not exceed such a limit from which the same
active performance is performed only with the feeling of greater effort, the same
receptive effect comes about only with more strained attention. Against this it is in
the sense of desire, to change the type and the organ of the activity, if this limit is
exceeded. On the contrary, it is in the sense of the reluctance to change them earlier
or to persist in them longer, in which the former carries with it the pain of
interruption or interruption, the latter of fatigue or weariness. And even before the
reluctance of fatigue or exhaustion has exceeded the threshold, as it approaches, a
change of occupation with positive pleasure may be asserted.
A craftsman z. B. does not like to be disturbed in his work, a scholar in his studies,
even if this disturbance would happen through occasions that he would have
preferred to the study before beginning work, study, work, or study, by the desire of
Persistence in employment that once came into play. At last the one and the other
become tired of the same kind of occupation; they no longer want to get away with it;
they demand a change, and find themselves, if not at all weary, all the more congenial
to something else.
Accordingly, neither is there too much continuity for too long, nor too rapid and
often repeated changes in the nature or direction of employment in the sense of
pleasure. But inasmuch as it is in the nature of most occupations to include a certain
kind of change or self-terminating modification that is linked from a certain point of
view, the above principle also applies to the interruption and continuation of
employment in the manner in which linking, repeating and following the changes or
modifications.
Already, when we consider the principle of the unified connection of the manifold,
we have pointed to the need of changing every kind of occupation that has occurred
over time, and this is the meeting of the present principle with it.
Assuming the rest, the greater the speed of their approach to uniformity, the sooner
the need for change of occupation enters, and the more the longer it goes on after
exceeding the point at which change is needed, the old way continues ; but, with the
growing need of change, the unpleasure of his non-gratification and the pleasure of
his gratification increases.
It may be the case that by employment of a certain kind our power, which is at all
disposable for employment, is so exhausted that we feel the need to change
employment with the greatest possible rest or even sleep, for which the next principle
to be considered is decisive; but as long as there is still a need for employment, it is
generally true that the more tired we are of a certain kind of employment, or the more
weary we are of it, the more diversified employment becomes the need. The
continuation of an occupation in the same way approaches a frequent repetition in a
short period of time and comes under the same points of view.
Anyone who is tired of mental work of a certain kind may still like to exchange it
for another kind of spiritual occupation, but may even be so tired of spiritual
employment that he goes for a walk, gymnastics, and so on, only to fulfill his
remaining desire for work , dergl. with the greatest possible rest of mental activity
takes refuge. Anyone who is quite tired of active employment, if he is even able to
work at all, will like the receptive employment through a play, concert a. indulge.
Now, daily life itself involves a certain alternation of occasions of active and
receptive, physical and mental occupation, and sometimes we arbitrarily call it one to
protect ourselves from weariness and fatigue. But insofar as most of these changes in
the life of most of them are within certain limits and in a certain character, repeated in
a similar way day by day, a weariness, a fatigue would nevertheless assert themselves
in view of this general character, and really does not infrequently asserted, if not
sometimes some new, strange moments of stimulation enter into life, some are
deliberately sought after and created. This necessitates the universal addiction to see
something new, something rare, something strange, to hear,
Burke's investigation of the beautiful and the sublime begins:
"The first and simplest movement that we find in the human heart is renewal." By
new age, I understand the desire and the pleasure that things cause when they first
come in. We see the children in a constant motion, something Picking up new things,
with great heat and with little choice, they reach for the first best thing that comes in
their way, every thing attracts its attention because every thing at this age still has the
allure of novelty.
But the principle is no less valid for adults than for children. Even the half-animal-
looking Pastrana has for this reason helped to fill the Zirkus of Renz, where she was
seen, and instead of beautiful children one often sees the ugliest abortions exhibited
in Meßschaubuden. But now one would like to see the Pastrana, the abomination only
once, proof that just the novelty, rarity conditioned the attraction of these sights,
while one and the same beautiful woman, the same beautiful child does not want to
look continuously, not to fall prey to the principle of dulling, but rather often, the
better the fairer they are, viewing them by asserting a lasting reason of well-being as
the charm of novelty.
The saying "variatio delectat" refers to the need for change, which finally occurs in
every kind of occupation and generally determines the attraction of novelty, and to
the pleasure of its gratification; but insofar as this need has its limit, the validity of
the proverb has its limit. For, if every comparatively uniform person is happy to see
something new, to hear something new, anyone who has been drifting about for a
while under ever new impressions will finally wish to return to a more uniform train
of impressions and activity. As much pleasure as traveling makes you so happy to
return to the monotonous life of your homeland; and whoever has exhausted all the
pleasures and changes of the world often ends up as a monk.
However, this principle is subject to conflict with the conditions which, apart from
the same, can make pleasure or unpleasurable employment. If, from the point of view
of one of the other principles, such is considerably unpleasant, the pleasure of
persistence is easily outweighed, and we seek to leave it as soon as
possible. However, some people are reluctant to give up relationships that they once
got used to, even when they begin to feel uncomfortable.

2) Principle of measure and change in the degree of employment .


The preceding principle concerning perseverance and change in a given species or
field of employment is closely related to the following with regard to measure and
change in the degree of employment, and even the former, in a certain sense, may be
that of unity and manifold in other respects are made dependent upon what is now to
be discussed, and therefore some of the terms used in relation to those laws, such as
those of fatigue and boredom, will recur here, without the previous principles
altogether entering into the following. The degree of employment gives us
psychologically the more direct feeling of the active or receptive force, to which
indisputably on the physical side belongs a functionally associated expenditure of
living force of the physical activity, which is subject to the spiritual. The principle
itself is what this is.
Man, in order to be at ease, depends not only on a certain change between waking
and sleep, but also on a certain amount of employment during the period of waking,
and a periodic alternation between estate and increase in its quantity, and both Too
much as too little employment in due time makes him unwilling. If he is expected to
do too much or too much work in due course, or too long a continuation of
employment in relatively great strength, he will feel the pain of effort or being
affected, depending on active or receptive employment, and finally on the Fatigue; if
his need for employment is not satisfied, he has the feeling of boredom or faltering
life activity.
Insofar as soon this sense, now this very organ of activity, may soon be occupied, it
may happen that, with regard to the occupation of this sense, this organ, especially an
attack, an effort or fatigue, to which the need for change arises In the manner of
activity one can write what has been considered under the previous principle, which,
however, by no means implies the need to downgrade the degree of activity at all; but
to occupy oneself in another way, until at last every kind of occupation becomes too
much. And if, in this respect, the need for change in the nature and field of
employment can be subordinated to the present principle, then there is no need to
On the other hand it may be remarked that the conception of a variety preoccupies
the mind more than monotony, according to which the tedium of monotony depends
as well on the present principle as on unity and diversity, and indeed on many
aesthetic successes that principle can be written. On the other hand, the disturbance
experienced by the pleasure of the pure trait of a line or a pure surface on the
principle of unity and manifoldness can not be said to be too tense at all, since the
conception of a painting at the same time gives us much could be more involved
without our being attacked by it, and vice versa.
So much for motivating the separate lineup of this principle, with the concession
that they are nevertheless objectively converging from one side to the other.
But the aesthetic value of the quantum of employment can again be in tune or
conflict with the aesthetic value of the nature or content of the occupation, and from
this various successes emerge.
In particular, it is the idea of an immediately pleasurable or valuable purpose in
terms of which the pleasure value of the quantum of employment can be increased;
indeed, the conscious direction of activity toward a unified goal in itself brings about
such an increase by the manifold moments of employment receive a bond, which
comes under the principle of uniting a manifold. So you stand for z. As in the game,
hunting very insignificant purposes, goals. On the contrary, one can do works that, for
their nature or purpose, would rather make us reluctant than pleasure, but in the
absence of any other occasion for employment, if only to be actively engaged at all,
What degree and change in employment appeals to us most depends on individual
circumstances of the physical and mental power with which we are endowed with
nature and on the previous consumption or disuse of it, about which we do not go into
any detail. But there will be room for the following general remarks.
In general, it can be said that man prefers an unusually strong receptive occupation
to an unusually strong active, insofar as one motive of the end does not drive him to
the latter. In addition, in order to commit himself to an unusually hard work, it is
generally necessary to have such a helping motive, whereas in order to relieve
himself in a general sense of excitement, not only does one not generally need it, but
sometimes even the unpleasant character of a receptive excitement the lust value of
their strength can be outbid. But perhaps this difference depends only on the fact that
man in general requires so much more of his active preservation than of receptive
employment for his mere preservation and his very prosperity. that he is generally to
be regarded as fresher and more rested with regard to the latter's charm. But if strong
receptive excitements are too much, one can tire of it as well as of hard work.
Nobody will deny that the reports of tremendous catastrophes, devastation caused
by earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, storms, murders, the more they claim our
sympathy for those affected by them from some point of view, the better read from
the other side the more monstrously they report, which may lie merely in a stimulus
of the strong receptive excitement caused by it, whereby the displeasure of the idea of
misfortune is outweighed, the easier the less concerned those affected by it are.
Also, the pleasure in the sublime, in so far as it depends on the size or strength
exceeding the measure of the familiar, can be traced back to the desire for strongly
receptive employment. (See Sect. XXXII.)
The validity of Herbart-Zimmermann's propositions that the strong next to the
weak, the big next to the small, displeases the reverse, is in any case limited to the
conditions under which we generally prefer stronger receptive excitations to weaker
ones, that is, to previous restlessness receptive employment, whereas the opposite
advantage that we give the weaker from the stronger receptive stimuli, when we are
fatigued by strong ones, does not come under those laws.

XL. Principle of expression of pleasure and aversion.


External signs, which constitute the expression of pleasure and displeasure, can
either be innate, instinctive, or through education, conventionally, linked to the
existence of pleasure and displeasure; indeed, for purely sensual pleasure and
displeasure, instinctive signs in tone, mine, and gestures are already common to the
smallest child, but for higher pleasure and aversion, such as can only develop in the
course of life, the accustomed conventional use of language occurs. However, it
remains common to all these expressions that the expression of pleasure is like
discomfort in the sense of pleasure, one in contradiction with it in the sense of
discomfort, the first thus increasing pleasure, alleviating pain, the last having the
opposite effect; hence the tendency
Any child will cringe and grimace the face when it feels pain, and it would only
increase the pain's discomfort, diminish the pleasure if it should suppress that
expression. Higher motives have led the adult to partly suppress, partly limit, this
natural expression; but he also likes to express himself over his pain and his joy, if
education does not make it a habit for him to withhold the expression of his feelings
at all, and thus forfeits the immediate gain of pleasure which hangs in the expression ,
The favorable effect of the expression of pleasure or pain, of course, is subject to
the principle of blunting one, and hence the finite remission of the utterance, which,
however, after the re-establishment of receptivity, can be transformed into a new
utterance.
In case we encounter the expression of pleasure or aversion from other side, the
following comes into consideration. In general, man is so arranged that the mood of
his surroundings is easily transplanted to him by his utterance, when he is in an
indifferent state, and the receptivity to that mood does not altogether lack him. But is
he already tuned beforehand in the sense of pleasure or aversion? so the tendency or
the effect of the transmission of the mood from the other way complicates itself with
the unanimity or the conflict with the already existing mood.
If the jolly being is amused, his pleasure is encouraged by a merry environment
from the double point of view, adding to that which he already has, by means of
transference from the environment, and that this increase attuns his attunement with
that which he already, proves what we call the last as formal, the first as factual
effect. On the other hand, his pleasure is diminished by a sad environment just as
from a double point of view. In both cases the formal effect goes with the factual in
the same direction. On the other hand, in the case of the sad, there is a conflict
between the two, insofar as a lusty environment pleases him, and thereby alleviates
his pain, strives for it, but awakens it by contradiction with his already existing
mood, a sad environment but in its unanimity with his mood appeals to him, but he
sunk all the more in his sad mood. According to circumstances, the formal or factual
effect in him in the sense of pleasure or displeasure may predominate. In general,
however, the formal prevails at first.
Because of the factual effect, although the man who is not himself in a sad mood
like to avoid a sad environment and is easily harassed by the complaints of others, but
can please a song or a music, expressing sadness, without that they serve the
expression of a real present own or strange grief, by having the idea of such as
possible at all. He likes such a song or such a music because of the formal effect of
the combination of the expression with the pretended mood and the musical appeal all
the more, the truer and more intimately the expression of the grief that does not seem
to strike him, and a sad song with the same art of expression, because of the omission
of the complication, can appeal to him no less with a matter-of-fact dismal effect than
a cheerful one. In general, what has already been said about the impression of music
in Th. I., is the former, but more general; Considerations under.

XLI. Principle of secondary imagination pleasure and


aversion.

One can understand imagination-pleasure and pain in a double sense. It can,


according to previously discussed principles, primarily emerge from certain relations
of ideas, than those of unanimity and truth, unity and variety, and so on, from
opposite relations of the same unpleasure, whereby pleasure and displeasure are not
already presupposed to be finished, but to say so only through it finished.
However, secondary pleasures and displeasures may also arise out of ideas of one's
own or of another, past or future pleasure and pain, as shown in hope and fear,
compassion and joy, love and hatred; and this source of pleasure and displeasure is to
be dealt with in the following, after the more hidden role played by this source of
pleasure and displeasure in aesthetic association has already been dealt with earlier
(Sect. IX.). But here we do not have dark, fused, but clear, notions of pleasure and
aversion in mind.
Although it may be denied that pleasure and unpleasure are abstractly conceivable,
and that we want to deny ourselves in a certain respect, without letting go of the pure
concept of pleasure and displeasure, nothing remains of this in our subsequent
considerations. If pleasure and unpleasure are only imaginable, inclusive or as co-
determination of something on which it is based, solidarity with it, then it depends
only on what depends on this co-determination of the imagination, and so nothing
hurts, if only for the sake of brevity to speak of the idea of pleasure and aversion
instead of the idea of a state of pleasure or dispassionate state or success.
From the outset, one would easily be inclined to think that the idea of a pleasurable
state or success, what we call the concept of pleasure, is altogether pleasurable, the
idea of an unpleasant state or success unpleasant; and then we would have a very easy
means of putting ourselves in a state of pleasure through the presentation of
pleasurable states or successes. But it is not only contrary to the fact that this remedy
scarcely holds on to us, that we remember our past happiness as much with
unpleasure that it has passed away, as with pleasure that we have enjoyed it, and with
the pleasure of another just as well with the unpleasure of envy as the pleasure of joy
in the imagination. According to which the proposition that the idea of pleasure is
always pleasurable, and of unpleasure always unpleasant,
In the meantime, this proposition contains a true basic element, which is
subordinate to the general psychological law, that every idea of a particular sensation,
or of the circumstances which have carried it for us, is all the more conscious of the
echo of this sensation, the more lively the imagination is while this echo, if not
sufficiently vividly imagined, can remain below the threshold. This also applies to the
idea of pleasure and aversion, and proves, among other things, that our imagination,
in general terms, prefers pleasurable rather than unpleasant states, regardless of
whether something corresponds to them in reality, and the human being rather
universally speaks of joy rather than suffering sees himself, even if he personally is
not interested in it. Yes, The aesthetic principle of association has essentially to be
based on the fact that the association of the pleasurable or unpleasant is itself
pleasurable or unpleasant. But apart from this basic moment, which I briefly call,
another moment comes into consideration, what I want to call the idea of the positive
or negative relation of pleasure or aversion to us, or briefly the reference moment of
the pleasure of imagination and pain, a moment, what as well as being in the same
sense as contradictory with the basic moment, and as a rule exceeding its power, so
that the existence of the basic moment can only be universally proved in the
predominance of a certain direction of aesthetic successes discussed above.
The law or principle, what it is, is this.
The thought of our own pleasure is pleasurable or unpleasant, according as the
positive point of view predominates, that we have had it, have had it, we can have it,
or the negative that we no longer have it; not yet having, not having, not having, for
what I now need the expression, as we think of it in a positive or negative relation to
us. In the case of aversion in the opposite sense. The joy of hope and the reluctance of
fear, the desire to reach pleasurable goals, and the unwillingness to deny or be
inhibited in the attainment of it, the joy of anticipation and the unwillingness to wait,
the pleasure of remembering, depend on it happiness enjoyed and suffering
overcome, and the sadness that happiness has passed away, as well as displeasure,
The basic element of the desire for pleasure and pain is that it is more enjoyable to
remember the joys we had than the suffering we no longer have. True, one might say
that this is due to the fact that with the pleasurable idea of no longer suffering, the
unpleasantness of having had it, easily enters into conflict and change, and
diminishes pleasure, and one becomes the actual of it can not deny; but just as well,
with the idea of having been lucky, the idea of no longer having it can come into
conflict and change, and diminish pleasure; but in the end the movement in the ideas
of pleasure at first reserves an advantage over the movement in discomfort at first,
which can not permit any other explanation,
One can even find seemingly apparent contradictions to the previous principle,
which disappear on closer inspection. We can quite well think without reluctance that
this or that source of pleasure is denied to us, that is, it is in negative relation to
us; but then either it is not a source of pleasure for us, or its achievement comes into
conflict with conditions upon which the positive preservation of our state of pleasure
is otherwise based, or even with other predominant pleasure conditions.
Whether the positive or negative relation prevails at the thought of our own past or
future pleasure or displeasure generally depends on determinants which lie in our
other imaginary circles, and can not be compelled by an authority of these
determinants, hence the happiness of the pleasure of imagination force. If we know
that pleasure is not attainable for us, then the positive conception that we will have it
can not be asserted; and if we are even caught in the course of unpleasant ideas, the
idea of past happiness will be easier to do with the reluctance that we have no more
than the pleasure that we had in it. But the fact that it is more pleasurable to hope than
to fear in general, to favor the positive over the negative connotation of pleasure,
makes that we genuinely generally favor those where no or only relatively weak
counteracting moments are present, favors our hopes, determines our impulses, and
plays an important role in our religious beliefs in that we generally prefer to believe
what pleases us most, as long as there are no prevailing counter-motives; even strong
theoretical counter-motives can thereby be outbid. and plays an important role in our
religious beliefs, generally choosing to believe what pleases us most, as long as
prevailing counter-motives do not prevail; even strong theoretical counter-motives
can thereby be outbid. and plays an important role in our religious beliefs, generally
choosing to believe what pleases us most, as long as prevailing counter-motives do
not prevail; even strong theoretical counter-motives can thereby be outbid.
To be sure, there are melancholic and pessimists who see everything black or prefer
to believe in a bad world order. But in the case of the melancholic the notions of his
unpleasant subjective feelings become infected, and the pessimist has been led to his
unfavorable view of the whole well order, mostly through sad experiences which he
himself has made, or which his attention has taken advantage of. In both cases, there
is a conflict in which the basic moment of the desire to imagine draws the short straw.
When it comes to the idea of the pleasure or reluctance of others, undeniably
involved psychological moments come into play. Partly the basic moment of the
pleasure of imagination and unpleasure, by virtue of which we see happiness rather
than misfortune around us, partly the consciousness or feeling that our well-being and
woe are connected with that of others, in which respect the law holds, that we are
pleasure and Relative to the desire and aversion of having, whose existence belongs
to our own pleasure conditions, conversely concerning those whose existence belongs
to our discomfort conditions, feelings that play their role in the love, the hate, the
revenge. Finally, in the manner discussed earlier (Sect. XXXVII.2), the contrast of
our pleasure or displeasure can deal with the greater or lesser pleasure or displeasure
of others in the manner in which
How is the desire to explain so many of the cruelty? On the one hand, the agony of
the cruelty of others can only appear in negative relation to it, and its own unfeeling
state in contrast with it; The cruel one is not in agony, the other has it. But that may
not matter much here; secondly, but here comes the desire for strong receptive
excitations, of which we spoke earlier, into consideration; so that there were cruel
people who, without hatred and revenge, found their pleasure in the agony of others.
XLII. Principle of the aesthetic center.
If an object is subject to accidental variations of size or form for our intuition, then
the mean value appears to be favored aesthetically, or appears with the character of
predominant pleasure as normal value against the others, but this according to their
deviation from the mean less agreeable and even if certain limits are exceeded, they
may even appear displeasing.
Of course, I do not believe that the arithmetic mean of this normal value is the
value from which the deviations become the rarer, the greater they are in relation to
it, and I regard it as normal value in the 33rd section when considering the
dimensions of the painting have envisaged; but this can not be proved with
certainty; and in relation to the whole scope of the deviations, both values (which
have not been different at all) are always close to each other, and may coincide
noticeably with some objects. So let us leave aside the practically uninteresting
question of the exact mathematical certainty of value to be grasped as the aesthetic
center, based only on it in general; that, if not completely identifiable with the
arithmetic mean,
Insofar as the values, as they approach our middle, become more frequent, and thus
more often present themselves to our intuition, this principle coincides, at least in
part, with the principle of habituation, and it asks itself whether it is not entirely
dependent on it can be. In the difficult to obtain full clarity about the relationship
between the two principles, and because the present would constitute a particularly
important and peculiar main case of the principle of habituation, it seems appropriate
at any rate to emphasize it as a special one. In particular, it is important in assessing
human beauty, but taking into account the following conflict.
It may be the case that certain advantages are more frequently associated with an
increase or decrease in the mean value than that or self-approximation, and insofar as
this is sufficiently established in our experience, the aesthetic principle also follows
from the principle of association rather, to that which is above or below the means,
than to that which is itself.
In general it seems to have to be traced back to our principle that in every gender a
certain middle between too long and too short, too thin and too thick, too lean and too
fat forms pleases us the most, also the aesthetic preference of the Greek profile before
the Profile with a hawk's nose as if with a nose-nose on it.
In particular, as the size of the stature increases, a certain average size of the adult
male and female generally appears to us to be normal, and we like a person better,
inasmuch as he possesses this size, in so far as it is larger or smaller; but the deviation
into the greater precedes an advantage in advance of the deviation into the smaller,
inasmuch as, by the way, in the presence of proportionality of form to the great form,
we also associate the idea of a greater power or efficiency, against the smaller, the
idea of a lesser; but this is not enough to make the gigantic greatness of a man appear
agreeable, because if too far away from the middle, the mischievousness on the basis
of our principle gains the preponderance. Meanwhile, that does not stop that we
would very much like to see a giant like a dwarf, if one can be seen, even run after it,
pay for it, the more the more one or the other deviates from the normal size, one can
say, the uglier it becomes, without that one can nevertheless see a contradiction to the
principle of the aesthetic center in it; for, as we have previously asserted (Th. I), we
would like to see neither the giant nor dwarf size of beautiful human persons, and, as
it repeats itself, the charm of rarity and novelty is lost, however, we require the
average size at least approximately at every beautiful person again. The pleasure of
the giant and dwarf size is in fact only a pleasure in the rarity and novelty of size or
smallness, not on this itself.
However, the ideal benefits of human form, however, leave the middle. A visual
angle approaching the right angle pleases us better than the middle one among those
we have in mind. An eye that is bigger, a mouth, a foot that is smaller than the
middle, are in aesthetic advantage. But not because they leave the center, but only
insofar as they are signs of a higher, nobler, finer, more ideal constitution, because we
are accustomed to see them in connection with them.

XLIII. Principle of economic use of funds or the smallest


measure of force. Question for the most general reason of
pleasure and aversion. Principle of publican. Principle of the
tendency to stability. Herbart's Principle.
If I put the principle which is called the principle of the economic use of means
last, it is not because I consider it the least important, but because I have been made
aware of it by someone else's hand rather than one of the most important ones ; and
since, in any case, it can not be freely subordinated to the principles discussed so far,
I add it to it with my own words, which I received from Prof. Vierordt in Tübingen in
the course of a correspondence with occasional reference to other things I have liked
to sign the first part of this preschool, and I am happy to sign it, while at the same
time taking the opportunity to make some more general ones.
"Among the principles that are presented in the introduction and are very well
motivated, I would like to add the" economic use of means "or, as one might call it
otherwise expressed, even more so than the same from the point of view of natural
science and an objective one real analysis of the objects of art is fully justified in their
treatise on the Gehwerkzeuge Gebr have Weber at multiple sites.. 1) detected with
beating examples that the aesthetically pleasing as a whole and the physiologically
right one, that both coincide such that always the The impression of the beautiful
(light, casual, free) is what is achieved with the effort of the least possible muscle
power. "
1) Inparticular, the preface S VII pronounces itself in a special passage in this
sense. F.

"Accordingly, every work of the visual arts, every poem, etc., should always use
only those means necessary for the attainment of the end." "If further, not absolutely
necessary, though ever so justified means are used, such a pleonasm seems tiring
There are poems, such as the mignon song, of which one must tell oneself that in
them not a single word may be chosen differently, ie that the really chosen words are
the best. "
It is undeniable that this principle can be grasped from a double point of view. In
fact, it is telling us ourselves to do a great deal with the least possible effort, and so
we are also associatively pleased with the remarks made in Th. 1, that we can afford
ourselves much with little effort; but objective achievements of the species will
require at least for the most part a lesser inner (psychic-physical) effort of effort in
order to be conceived, grasped, persecuted, and to this extent fallen by a direct
influence, as might well be further elaborated.
Now perhaps one could think of putting this principle at the head of the whole
aesthetic, by making all pleasure and aversion dependent on it altogether; and if
Vierordt himself does not go so far in emphasizing the importance of the principle, it
should, on the other hand, be in the sense of Avenarius, who writes in an interesting
essay 2)Put the same principle under the name of "principle of the smallest measure
of force" at the head of the whole philosophy, taking on several occasions the
opportunity to relate the non-reactions in the field of ideas to this principle. In fact,
this principle may play its part in many of the principles we have so far considered,
and indeed so often intertwining. In the meantime, it seems to me to be opposed to
making a fundamental principle of aesthetics out of it.
2) Philosophyas thinking of the world according to the principle of the smallest
measure of force. Prolegomena to a critique of pure experience. Leipzig. Fues's
publishing house. 1876th

It can not be said that we really need to use the least possible force, but only
relatively little in proportion to a purposeful achievement. And so it would be a
fundamental principle of aesthetics to bring this relation to a clear point of view, and
indeed one that does not merely relate to intended achievements, which are not
concerned with every desire and aversion, but all cases He understands the origin of
pleasure and displeasure, which does not lie in the expression and development of the
principle, as far as it has advanced so far. So, of course, this principle as an aesthetic
principle, like the others discussed so far, will have to be put down, counting only
among the others, but something common,
Cause we here about the theory. L made brief remarks a little further out.
Some even seek the cause of pleasure in the fact that everything that increases our
power, enhances our life process, or promotes the development of our being, gives
pleasure, on the other hand, what suppresses the power, the life process, inhibits the
development of the being, gives pain. But this explanation is either untrustworthy or
unclear. When approaching sleep, the living force of the whole body decreases,
including the processes with which the conscious activity is functionally related 3)but
there is no reluctance to do so; So what is meant by that explanation under force? The
greatest pain most often arouses us most; How does one exclude this from an increase
in our life activity? Excessive pleasures feed on our life force as strong
suffering. What else is meant by a development of our being? Both the concept of
development and the concept of our essence remain to be clarified; and however one
may try, one does not lead to a sharp or circular answer to the question of the ultimate
cause of pleasure and pain.
3) Comp. Elem. the psychophys. 11 p. 442.

In any case, the view which Zöllner has set in his comet book (L.E., 325 ff.) In
connection with more general views on the physical justification of mental activity,
according to which the transformation of elasticity, potential energy into living force
with pleasure, is free from indefiniteness and obscurity. the reverse transformation is
associated with unpleasure, in that the expressions are to be understood in a strictly
physical sense. However, inasmuch as growth of the living force should in this case
be combined with desire, decrease with unpleasure, I do not want to deprive this view
of de facto objections like the one above.
For my part, I am inclined to believe-and there can scarcely be more than faith in
these matters-that of quantitative relations of the physical process, with which the
psychic is functionally related. 4), in short of the psychophysical process, can in
principle make only quantitative relations of the psychic dependent, on the other
hand, that pleasure and aversion, as qualitative determinatenesses, are to make
dependent on a form or a form relations of this process, which we, without knowing
it, may call it inner harmony or harmony, in order to immediately enter into common
concepts and modes of perception (see Sect. XXXI). Thus a music is not given its
purpose either by greatness or smallness, neither by the increase nor decrease of the
living force of the vibratory process, on which it rests externally, and necessarily
inwardly, but by a relation of coincidence and recurrence between moments of this
process, that of the Print harmoniously not its nature, but is only designated for its
purpose; But there is so much in the common concept of coalescing or harmonious
that it is not a relation of quantity to what is essentially involved; and I mean, the
common term in this respect is the right one.
4) Itcan not be denied that such a relationship takes place at all and that it can
be reduced to our question, without the need to unilaterally materialize this
relationship.
This does not hinder that quantity relations come into play here, and do so in two
ways, once they are carried along by the form relationships that are essential for the
development of pleasure and displeasure, or if they carry, influence, or learn about
them, briefly in functional connection with them Secondly, if a greater or lesser living
force enters into the relation in question, and thereby, in terms of quality, can not
participate in determining the pleasure and pain which depend on the greatness of the
living force. Thus, every unnecessary detour, every obstacle in the familiar
conception, becomes the inner harmony in which it exists. and at the same time
increase the consumption of living power in proportion to that achieved through the
greatest possible harmony, and thus be in the sense of displeasure, while the greater
consumption of living force in the sense of a coherent process of understanding in
this sense Lust is. In principle or fundamentally, however, the question of whether
pleasure or aversion always depends not on the quantity of the living force put into
action, but on the form in which it manifests itself.
According to this, two points of view will be distinguished at all, from which a
state of motion may become more pleasurable or unpleasurable. From a certain point
of view it will be all the more pleasurable or unpleasantly, according as it is more co-
ordinating, harmonious, or more deviant from the relation of harmony, whatever that
relation may be, while there is a breadth of indifference between the two states Lust
as unpleasure to stay below the threshold. From another point of view, but in another
sense, pleasure and aversion can also grow or decrease, according to a stronger or
weaker living force in the harmonic or disharmonious relationship, and also from this
side, namely weakness of the living force to stay below the threshold. Of course, a
soft music may be more appealing to us than a strong one and certainly pleases better
than the strongest possible. But it will be, because in the given circumstances the
weaker one is more harmonious with the rest of the system of our movement, and
every too strong (as well too prolonged) movement of a certain kind brings
disharmony into the whole in one part of our system; for without their influence on
the formal relations of motion, their quantitative relations can not be, but only by this
influence will they be pleasurable or illusory. Incidentally, living force should be
related to higher-order velocities than the first (velocity changes that may increase to
indefinite altitude) if psychophysics were to demand any of that. (Compare Elem, D.
Psychoph. II. 32.) because in the given circumstances the weaker one is more
harmonious with the rest of our movement, and any excessively strong (as well as too
long continued) movement of a certain kind brings disharmony into the whole in one
part of our system; for without their influence on the formal relations of motion, their
quantitative relations can not be, but only by this influence will they be pleasurable or
illusory. Incidentally, living force should be related to higher-order velocities than the
first (velocity changes that may increase to indefinite altitude) if psychophysics were
to demand any of that. (Compare Elem, D. Psychoph. II. 32.) because in the given
circumstances the weaker one is more harmonious with the rest of our movement,
and any excessively strong (as well as too long continued) movement of a certain
kind brings disharmony into the whole in one part of our system; for without their
influence on the formal relations of motion, their quantitative relations can not be, but
only by this influence will they be pleasurable or illusory. Incidentally, living force
should be related to higher-order velocities than the first (velocity changes that may
increase to indefinite altitude) if psychophysics were to demand any of
that. (Compare Elem, D. Psychoph. II. 32.) and every too strong (as if prolonged)
movement of a certain kind brings disharmony into the whole in one part of our
system; for without their influence on the formal relations of motion, their
quantitative relations can not be, but only by this influence will they be pleasurable or
illusory. Incidentally, living force should be related to higher-order velocities than the
first (velocity changes that may increase to indefinite altitude) if psychophysics were
to demand any of that. (Compare Elem, D. Psychoph. II. 32.) and every too strong (as
if prolonged) movement of a certain kind brings disharmony into the whole in one
part of our system; for without their influence on the formal relations of motion, their
quantitative relations can not be, but only by this influence will they be pleasurable or
illusory. Incidentally, living force should be related to higher-order velocities than the
first (velocity changes that may increase to indefinite altitude) if psychophysics were
to demand any of that. (Compare Elem, D. Psychoph. II. 32.) Incidentally, living
force should be related to higher-order velocities than the first (velocity changes that
may increase to indefinite altitude) if psychophysics were to demand any of
that. (Compare Elem, D. Psychoph. II. 32.) Incidentally, living force should be related
to higher-order velocities than the first (velocity changes that may increase to
indefinite altitude) if psychophysics were to demand any of that. (Compare Elem, D.
Psychoph. II. 32.)
If in these quite general considerations the nature of the harmonic and
disharmonious relations of motion can still be left indeterminate, then the question
arises in every attempt to move closer to the cause of pleasure and pain, and is
fundamental to a psycho-physical justification of the whole aesthetic However, what
justification it was not in this document and acted in the uncertainty in these things
could not act. However, if one were to demand, in order not to find the above general
considerations floating in the air, that at least one possible view of the relation of
form in question should be laid down as the cause of pleasure and pain, then one of
such is already incidental to me in the pamphlet "
Briefly, I use the term "stabel" to mean a state of motion which includes the
conditions of its return, that is to say, except for disturbances, which is periodically
recurrent, in that the return to the first state is also the return to the conditions of a
new return. Such a state can apply not only to individual particles but also to a system
of particles; and the conditions of it are related to the individual and the whole. It may
be that he does not concern all the determinations of a process of motion at the same
time, but only this or that; I seek in the above scripture to show that the entire
processes of the world strive to reach this state or to approach it more and more,
To be more precise, a state of stability in our sense approaches all the more, or in
short, the more stable, the more regular the movements of the individual particles,
and the closer the periods of the various particles of commensurability approach each
other; Explanations that, of course, do not yet say everything that is necessary for
complete determination, but that are sufficient for a general apercu.
Hereby the harmonious and disharmonious state of motion would be explained by
the fact that the approaching to the state of pleasure with the former, and the
disillusionment going to pleasure, would be designated by the latter name. At the
same time, the desire to maintain it, or to increase it by greater rapprochement with
stability, together with the desire for the harmonious state, is the solidarity with the
reluctance of the disharmonic state to strive to eliminate it.
Depending on a limited or expanded view of the consciousness of the world, this
functional relationship of pleasure and displeasure to the physical underpinnings of
the psychical is to be limited to humans and animals, or extended to the total system
of world processes, of which only the latter permits a consistent elaboration of the
view.
Any process in the domain of finitude which satisfies the conditions of stability can
still be in proportion to the instability of other processes of the world, insofar as its
movements are incommensurable; For as long as the totality of world processes does
not completely satisfy the conditions of stability, no part of them will be able to
satisfy itself completely, permanently, and by all relations, without remaining in
unstable relations to other processes of the world, and thus to a tendency toward
mutuality Adaptation and hereby subject to change, so that in favor of increasing
stability of the whole of the individual can suffer temporarily, until the same by the
demgemäßen changes in the stability-gain of the whole itself takes part. to its sub-
processes; only that the whole process of an individual still remains a partial process
of the entire world process. There are manifold conflicts between the conditions of
pleasure and unpleasure, between striving and counter-striving.
Presumably, the cohesion of the idea and the will to a particular purpose or
occupation by a uniquely connected multiplicity implies conditions of stability of the
underlying psychophysical process; and where there is neither one nor the other, there
is either the reluctance of boredom, in that one's own course of ideas is unable to find
a bond that brings them into a stable relationship, or the reluctance of a fragmented
impression on the outside of imposed ideas , If, however, even the most pleasurable
uniform impression is soon dulled, then this may in part be attributed to the fact that
the living force available to it is exhausted after the establishment of the organism,
partly that the one-sided occupation is influenced by this impression,
Although I believe that in the view put forward here, at any rate, a more exact
determination, even more needy, lies at the core of the right one, I renounce a more
detailed discussion of the same and further application to the aesthetic relations, since
I do not thereby classify the view as hypothetical To undress the character and to
replace it by safe and clear derivations of the previously developed special prin- cipes
and make dispensable. In general we should have to continue in psychophysics, in
which the question of the physical justification of pleasure and aversion belongs, as
we are, before the attempt of such deductions could succeed, and if it had succeeded,
we would indeed have a psychophysical aesthetics, but not have an aesthetics in the
present sense and according to today's needs,
Of course, I do doubt that in the purely psychic realm one final, connecting point of
view for the origin of all pleasure and aversion will be found, which would allow a
clear and sufficient derivation of all aesthetic laws from it. But is not this perhaps met
in Herbart's system? After all, has it taken a new path in psychology, and is not this
what we want to look for in this relationship, on this path?
For my part I could not find it from the following two points of view.
Herbart makes the emergence of pleasure and pain dependent on mutual promotion
and inhibition of ideas 5)but he has not been able to explain how the emergence of
sensuous pleasure and displeasure comes under this aspect. For when Herbart says
(Ges. W., VS 30): "The agreeable feelings in the narrowest sense together with their
counterparts [of which he understands the purely sensual ones] must be regarded as
springing from ideas that can not be stated individually, yes Perhaps, for
physiological reasons, they can not be perceived separately, "on the one hand there is
the concession on the one hand that the applicability of the doctrine of inhibition
meets a dark point, and on the other hand physiological conditions from which one
wishes to be abstracted are nevertheless taken.
5) Lehrb .. d. Psychol. § 34 ff. And § 95 ff. (Ges. W., VS 30 ff. And p. 70 ff.)
But apart from this, I can not at all agree with the most fundamental requirements
and documents of Herbart's doctrine of inhibition , inasmuch as I find it incompatible
with an unbiased conception and a keen analysis of the facts.
To such points I count:
1) That a majority in the consciousness of different representations can not exist at
the same time, and therefore also that of what exists in spatial extension at the same
time, only a succession of point-like representations is possible. (2) That notions of
different sensory areas, so-called disparate ideas, apart from their complexions, can
not be suppressed, that they can be confined in consciousness; For example, the
difficulty or impossibility of observing the beat of a clock with the passage of a star
through the telescope's thread is limited to complication of the auditory perception of
the clock with notions of visibility, rather than the clock itself not even due to
disturbance from the physiological point of view. (3) That dissimilar (non-disparate)
conceptions, which relate to different points of space or time, converge in
consciousness, but, according to their antithesis, are limited rather than contrasted in
the clarity of conception. (4) That the division of attention between similar
perceptions, by virtue of which each is less clearly understood, is rather due to
inequalities of the situation and the like; Likewise, it is assumed that the
consideration of physical (physiological) influences on the psyche is so far but no
further than that it can be pushed indefinitely upon such influences, as in the pure
imagination does not want to match previous sentences,
That Herbart with the formal präzisesten application, so main application he made
about-all of its inhibition teaching in aesthetic conditions, ie to the musicality-rule
consonance and dissonance 6) suffered shipwreck, you will hardly be denied. His
assertion and description of these relations, which claim to be exact, and the same
conditions of Helmholtz, which satisfy this claim, are completely disparate, do not
permit any reduction to one another, and the Herbartian in her whimsical scruples
seems so much to the disadvantage that Zimmermann, who incidentally built on
Herbart, had simply dropped Herbart's view of Helmholtz's.
6) Ges. W. II. S. 45. VII. S. 3. 216.
After all, therefore, I do not consider the question of a general cause of pleasure
and displeasure, inasmuch as I find the views of others on it inadequate, but even of
the hypothesis which I myself put forward, the sure justification and clear feasibility
to be able to do. After all, I think I can recommend you to a further attention.

XLIV. Appendix section on the legal proportions of the


Galleriebilder.
1. Preliminary remarks.
I give this passage as an appendix because it concerns an object of aesthetic interest
rather than having a considerable aesthetic interest of its own, although according to
section XXXIII it is not altogether lacking. For the observations made there, the exact
average measures and the so-called normal values of different image classes (genre,
landscape, etc.) can be deduced from the following, thereby convincing oneself that
which image class one may envisage, the ratio of the larger to the smaller dimension
average is much smaller than that of the golden section. Also, one may perhaps take
some practical interest in how many images of given class (apart from the frame) can
accommodate a wall in height or width, and at what average ratios pictures of
different classes occur in galleries at all; about what all data will find in the
following.
In the meantime, these points, of generally insignificant interest, would by no
means have given rise to such an extraordinarily laborious and laborious examination
of the proportions of the gallery paintings as I have applied to them. But this
investigation enters into a more general investigation of the legal relations of
collective objects (ie objects of indeterminable number of randomly varying
specimens, such as those found in various fields), which has long been undertaken by
me and which has never been completed to form a special department. In this general
investigation, however, the study of the dimensions of the gallery paintings occupies
an important place, since the gallery paintings from a point of view, of which I speak
under 6),1) and, occasionally, my own theory of the general laws of distribution of the
measures of collective objects, which I have since formulated and further developed,
to serve as a touchstone, and because they give a firm confirmation of them; yes, I
confess, this investigation only because of this, but only very incidental points of
reference for offering to tell places, because otherwise I might not even get to share
it, but it would be a pity, if the results of an investigation, their trouble Hardly anyone
would take again, lost because its scope spreads to the whole area of collective
objects, on whose legal ratios so far nothing was sufficient. For a seemingly very
appealing, by Quetelett (in Lettres sur la probabilite),
1) In
the treatise "About the initial value of the smallest deviation sum."
Leipzig. Hirzel 1874. " P. 10 ff.
Apart from that insignificant aesthetic and mathematical interest, the following
investigation may claim a more general interest by bringing to light a lawfulness that
is secretly embedded in the dimensional proportions of the paintings and shared with
collective objects of an entirely different nature which one would not presume to
anticipate in these products of free human activity.
In fact, for the first sight one should think that the picture sizes depend on such
varied, randomly varying proportions of content, the need for space, the subjectivity
of the artists, and otherwise accidental events, that there could be no question
whatsoever of legal proportions. It may be observed, not without surprise, that many
of the universally valid things can be said about it for all classes of images, as well as
for many characteristically different ones for the different classes. Each class and
division is characterized by certain principal values (M, G, C, D ', D) to others, and
by distribution we mean the determination of how many images of given height h and
width b are given under a given large number of images Class and department
occur, In other words, as the number of a given kind of picture is distributed
according to its height and breadth, the distribution boards of all classes and
departments show the same principal course of distribution, but which specializes in
the size and position of the principal values therein; indeed, in the well-defined
classes and divisions, after determining less constants (D ', v' v ') from experience,
one can calculate in advance how many images of given height and width are to be
expected under a given large number of them ,2)
2) The mathematician, of course, immediately thinks of the Gaussian law of
accidental deviations as normative; but this applies in the version prepared by
Gauss only for symmetry of the deviations with respect to the arithmetic mean,
which does not exist in the case of painting dimensions, and for arithmetic (not
proportionate) deviations, which one does not get along with painting
dimensions. But, as shown in 6), Gauss's law can be made applicable to our
case by certain modifications, and the main purpose of the investigation has
been to theoretically determine and empirically prove these modifications.
As picture classes, I distinguish here religious, mythological, genre, landscape and
still life pictures, as under 7) will be specified. The investigation has extended to
these classes; however, for reasons to be given further, the religious and mythological
ones have been implicated in too few provisions. But in each class, as already noted
in the 33rd section, two divisions are distinguished, namely, of pictures in which the
height h is greater than the width b, and those in which the reverse applies, the former
with h> b to denote the latter with b> h. Between the two sections, the quadratic
pictures, which according to 4) appear very seldom, have been distributed equally, as
they were presented. 3) However, provisions have also been drawn from the
aggregation of the specimens of both departments, which apply mutatis mutandis to
the h or b of the same.
3) In anycase, this is more correct than completely attributing it to one
department or another, because in the pictures listed as square, one, and soon
the other dimension will soon be somewhat larger than the other, only that the
measurements are very small not considered.
Hereafter z. H, h> b are height dimensions of images whose h> b, b, h> b are width
dimensions of images whose h> b usf; finally, Combin. b or Combin. h Width
dimensions or height measurements of images of the united sections h> b and b> h.
For a more detailed assessment of the following data, there are some additional
details, which I attach in large part only below under 7). At first just the following.
Only galleried pictures were taken from the 22 public galleries listed under 7), or
rather, the measurements given in the catalogs of the galleries were taken, and, for the
sake of comparability, all were reduced to metric measure.
As a unit of mass, the following applies without exception to the meter = 3.1862
Pruss. Foot = 3.0784 paris. Foot. For the area hb 1 equals to 10,156 Pruss. Qu. F. or
9.477 par. Q.F.F.
Here and there you will become a number in the following! which means that it is
conspicuous without any control of its purpose leading to a change in its

2) Distribution boards and determinations of the gallery pictures.


Under a distribution board I understand a board, which lists the occurring measures
according to their size and attaches to each measure the number of times it occurs. In
my original distribution boards, which are directly supported by the catalogs, the
measurements are everywhere about 0.01 meters (= 4.59 Prussian Lin., = 4.43 par.
Lin.); below, however, I give tables that summarize the numbers for larger intervals,
hereby for a majority of measures.
If one looks at the original plates, one sees in it the numbers attached to the
measures, which follow each other so irregularly in size, that one should in fact think
that a rule is out of the question. As a sample, I will give a piece of the, in total, 775
copies, distribution chart for genre h, h> b, so according to the specified notation for
the height h in genre images whose height is greater than the width.
I. Sample from the original distribution tables (genre h, h> b).
measure number measure number
0.29 13 0.40 9
30 15 41 17
31 13 42 14
32 20 43 14
33 21 44 12
34 9 45 15
35 17 46 10
36 13 47 17
37 22 48 10
38 26 49 12
39 8th 50 4
51 12
etc
So there were 21 pictures on the height of 0.33 meters, only 9 at 0.34 meters, then
17 again at 0.35 meters, etc. Similarly, the whole table for genre h, h> b dar, and
imagine all the panels of the other classes and departments, which seems directly to
contradict the assertion that the distribution of Galleria images is subject to certain
rules.
In the meantime, the matter changes and the boards take on a completely different
appearance, if one summarizes the numbers for larger, always the same, measure
intervals, so z. For example, instead of specifying the number for each measure
different by 0.01 meters from the following, the numbers for whole intervals of 0.1
meter size (= 3.82 Prussian inches, = 3.69 Pars Ten times the original panels,
summarized. Here are the reduced panels for both departments of genre and
landscape, and h> b of Stillleben, according to which z. B. 133 Height measures of
genre images whose height is greater than the width, in the interval of 0.2 to 0.3
meters in height are included. The total number m of the copies of each class and
department is given below. Many figures in the table show a decimal 0.5. This is
because numbers, which fell to the limit of one interval itself, and which were half
attributed to one half of the other of the intervals thus diverted, which in the case of
odd numbers carries half a unit. So z. From the (so) given piece of the original panels
for genre h, h> b give the number 161 given in the above table for the interval 0.3 to
0.4, and 127.5 for 0.4 to 0.5 , If one wants to have the measures of h or b for the
combined h> b and b> h, one simply needs to add up the measures of both
compartments. b gives the number 161 given in the above table for the interval 0.3 to
0.4, and 127.5 for 0.4 to 0.5. If one wants to have the measures of h or b for the
combined h> b and b> h, one simply needs to add up the measures of both
compartments. b gives the number 161 given in the above table for the interval 0.3 to
0.4, and 127.5 for 0.4 to 0.5. If one wants to have the measures of h or b for the
combined h> b and b> h, one simply needs to add up the measures of both
compartments.
II. Distribution boards for genre, landscape and still life.

tailor- genre landscape still life


h> b h h> b h h> b
interval
H b H b H b H b H b
(Meter)

0 - 0.1 0 5 0 0 0 0 6.5 1.5 0 0


0.1-0.2 30.5 88 23 6 2 8.5 66 18 0 4
0.2-0.3 133 190.5 90.5 38.5 17.5 23 200.5 90 10.5 16.5
0.3-0.4 161 167.5 109 78.5 26.5 53.5 278.5 166 14.5 44
0.4 - 0.5 127.5 100.5 114.5 80.5 32.5 40 257.5 189 50.5 45
0.5 - 0.6 75.5 62.5 79.5 75.5 22 33 219 168 27 51
0.6 - 0.7 70 58.5 65.5 86 41.5 21 165 202 31.5 45
0.7 - 0.8 47 31.5 40.5 34.5 25 13.5 139 135.5 29 32
0.8-0.9 39.5 18 28 63.5 8.5 20 79 139.5 38 22
0.9 - 1.0 20.3 21 33 36.5 20.5 14 93 125.5 23.5 17.5
1.0 - 1.1 12.5 8th 17 26.5 13.5 8.5 69 78 17.5 12
1,1 - 1,2 11.5 10 25.5 29 10 9 45 63 14.5 2.5
1,2 - 1,3 12.5 2.5 24 24 6.5 5 36.5 58.5 16 6.5
1.3 - 1.4 12.5 1.5 11 12 7.5 2 28.5 71.5 5.5 3
1.4 - 1.5 7.5 5 15 19 7.5 10 19.5 39 2 1
1.5 - 1.6 11 2.5 6 9.5 5 9.5 29 33.5 1 3
Rest. 3 2.5 20 82.5 36 11.5 62.5 215.5 17 3
m 775 775 702 702 282 282 1794 1794 308 308
It can be seen that the distribution essentially follows the same course
everywhere. Everywhere there is an interval, let us call it the principal interval, in
which the measure emphasized in the pressure is a maximum, from whence the
measures diminish rapidly on both sides, and the main interval lies at the upper end
of the table, which begins with the smallest measures , much closer than the lower
one, which concludes with the largest values, which would be even more noticeable,
if not the numbers for all measures above 1.6 meters in Bausch and Bogen (the rest)
were summarized. Hereby, the panel offers a particularly interesting example of a
collective object of very strongly asymmetric distribution. It can be seen that the
progression of the values from the main interval down to both sides has come very
close to a regular one. Here and there, of course, especially in genre b, b> h,
landscape h, h> b and b, b> h, there are still strong irregularities, and there is no lack
of small numbers in the lowest part of the table; but it can be assumed that these
would disappear altogether or diminish greatly if a much larger number of the
specimens had been available, and the more so as they balance each other out, the
greater the intervals at which the measures are summarized. One calculates z. For
example, if the metrics for each two successive intervals together, this is very
noticeable. If a very large number of measures were to be available, the class itself
would like to eliminate the great irregularities which appear in the test piece (see
above) as the dimensions advance by 0.01 meters. so especially in genre b, b> h,
landscape h, h> b and b, b> h, there are still strong irregularities, and nowhere are the
small numbers in the lowest part of the table absent; but it can be assumed that these
would disappear altogether or diminish greatly if a much larger number of the
specimens had been available, and the more so as they balance each other out, the
greater the intervals at which the measures are summarized. One calculates z. For
example, if the metrics for each two successive intervals together, this is very
noticeable. If a very large number of measures were to be available, the class itself
would like to eliminate the great irregularities which appear in the test piece (see
above) as the dimensions advance by 0.01 meters. so especially in genre b, b> h,
landscape h, h> b and b, b> h, there are still strong irregularities, and nowhere are the
small numbers in the lowest part of the table absent; but it can be assumed that these
would disappear altogether or diminish greatly if a much larger number of the
specimens had been available, and the more so as they balance each other out, the
greater the intervals at which the measures are summarized. One calculates z. For
example, if the metrics for each two successive intervals together, this is very
noticeable. If a very large number of measures were to be available, the class itself
would like to eliminate the great irregularities which appear in the test piece (see
above) as the dimensions advance by 0.01 meters. h> b and b, b> h, there are still
strong irregularities, and nowhere are the small numbers in the lowest part of the
table absent; but it can be assumed that these would disappear altogether or diminish
greatly if a much larger number of the specimens had been available, and the more so
as they balance each other out, the greater the intervals at which the measures are
summarized. One calculates z. For example, if the metrics for each two successive
intervals together, this is very noticeable. If a very large number of measures were to
be available, the class itself would like to eliminate the great irregularities which
appear in the test piece (see above) as the dimensions advance by 0.01 meters. h> b
and b, b> h, there are still strong irregularities, and nowhere are the small numbers in
the lowest part of the table absent; but it can be assumed that these would disappear
altogether or diminish greatly if a much larger number of the specimens had been
available, and the more so as they balance each other out, the greater the intervals at
which the measures are summarized. One calculates z. For example, if the metrics for
each two successive intervals together, this is very noticeable. If a very large number
of measures were to be available, the class itself would like to eliminate the great
irregularities which appear in the test piece (see above) as the dimensions advance by
0.01 meters. and nowhere in the small numbers in the lowest part of the table; but it
can be assumed that these would disappear altogether or diminish greatly if a much
larger number of the specimens had been available, and the more so as they balance
each other out, the greater the intervals at which the measures are summarized. One
calculates z. For example, if the metrics for each two successive intervals together,
this is very noticeable. If a very large number of measures were to be available, the
class itself would like to eliminate the great irregularities which appear in the test
piece (see above) as the dimensions advance by 0.01 meters. and nowhere in the
small numbers in the lowest part of the table; but it can be assumed that these would
disappear altogether or diminish greatly if a much larger number of the specimens
had been available, and the more so as they balance each other out, the greater the
intervals at which the measures are summarized. One calculates z. For example, if the
metrics for each two successive intervals together, this is very noticeable. If a very
large number of measures were to be available, the class itself would like to eliminate
the great irregularities which appear in the test piece (see above) as the dimensions
advance by 0.01 meters. if a much larger number of the copies had been at bidding,
just as they would compensate each other the more, in larger intervals one
summarizes the measures. One calculates z. For example, if the metrics for each two
successive intervals together, this is very noticeable. If a very large number of
measures were to be available, the class itself would like to eliminate the great
irregularities which appear in the test piece (see above) as the dimensions advance by
0.01 meters. if a much larger number of the copies had been at bidding, just as they
would compensate each other the more, in larger intervals one summarizes the
measures. One calculates z. For example, if the metrics for each two successive
intervals together, this is very noticeable. If a very large number of measures were to
be available, the class itself would like to eliminate the great irregularities which
appear in the test piece (see above) as the dimensions advance by 0.01 meters.
The genre, landscape, and still-life pictures show a similar course to the religious
and mythological ones, except that in these classes, undoubtedly because of the
unfavorable summary of the images calculated below, 7) some very large
irregularities remain in progress, which are unlikely to be compensated by magnified
m, therefore these classes are not suitable for examining the distribution laws and
have not been worked through so far by me as the others. Of still life, only the
number 204, which was too small for detailed investigations in this field, was at all
present, and here, too, relatively more irregularities have remained, than that a
complete elaboration would have been worthwhile.
In consideration of this, in the following tables, I put genre and landscape
generally, as the most fully worked-out classes, preceding, religious and mythological
images, as the least elaborated, last.
If one wants to have a more precise comparative characteristic of the proportions of
gallery paintings (or of any collective object 4) , one must derive from the distribution
tables certain values which I call determinants, and of which I mention the most
important ones, M, G, C, D ', D, as main values in the following table, under the
assumption of the number of copies m from which they are derived. 5) In the following
the meaning of the letters and hereby the main values, whose names serve the
same. In the following explanation, a is generally understood to be the measure of the
height or width of an individual copy.
4) It will be readily seen that when considering the following specialties, I have
in mind the more general interest in the treatment of such objects. The gallery
paintings only offer a suitable example of the explanation of what to pay
attention to.
5) The derivation of these main values as well as all subsequent determinations
has been made directly from the original tables of the form of Table I, not from
the reduced tables of the form of Table II; since the reduction increases the
clarity, but reduces the possibility of accurate derivations, in which the random
irregularities have to be compensated by quantity and directional opposition.

M, arithmetic mean, obtained by summing all a of the given class and division, and
division with the number m of the same.
G, geometric or mean, the value which exceeds in the same (compound) ratio of
larger measures and is supported by smaller ones, so obtained by dividing the sum of
the logarithms of all a by m, and by the quotient the number in the logarithmic tables
examined. Is mathematically necessary always something smaller than m.
C, central value or value center, the value which occupies the middle position in a
series ordered according to the size of the measures a, ie an equal number, not like M
an equal sum, of deviations on both sides of itself dependent. (For the sake of
accuracy I have taken each of the 4 intervals of 0.04 size, in which C lies, specially
determined by interpolation, and the mean of, in general, little divergent,
determinations taken.)
D, simply the closest value, that is, the value with respect to which the deviations
(not relative thereto, but simply, absolutely, arithmetically taken) become the rarer,
the larger they are, and around which the individual values a are most closely packed,
or which, when dividing the distribution table into equal small intervals, forms the
middle of it, which includes the greatest number of measures a, assuming the
irregularities of the distribution table as balanced.
D ', closest ratio value (listed as normal value in the 33rd section), ie the value with
which the deviations become the rarer the larger they are in relation to them,
mathematically determinable by replacing all a by their logarithms, searches for the
closest value of these logarithms in the same sense and in the same way, as the simply
most dense value D is sought from the a itself, and searches for the value D log or log
D ' thus obtained in the logarithmic tables. Does not coincide exactly with D itself,
since the logarithms proceed differently than their corresponding numbers, but is
always slightly larger. 6)
6) One might think, however, that the densest ratio D 'found from the closest
logarithmic log D' must coincide with D itself everywhere; for if, in a
distribution table, the greatest number accumulates on a certain a such that a
occurs as D, then the same maximum number will remain on the logarithm of
the latter, after all a has been brought to its logarithms. But in fact neither D
nor D 'can be determined according to the maximum number, which falls on a
single value, which depends on finite differences from the next, but only on a
combination of several, where the difference then asserts itself.
Since the distribution boards based on observation still contain irregularities, the
values D, D 'can not be found directly from it; the values given in the following table
are rather invoice values, which are subject to the possible adjustment of the
irregularities in the determination. More about the mode of determination of D and D
'according to observation and calculation is stated under 6).
III. Main values for h and b (in metric measure).

h> b B> h Combin.


H b H b H b

Genre.
m 775 775 702 702 1477 1477
M 0.544 0.436 0.638 0.866 0.589 0,640
G 0,467 0.374 0,538 0.720 0,500 0,510
C 0.446 0.358 0.514 0.678 0,478 0.494
D' 0,376 0.308 0.436 0.545 0.405 0.439
D 0,350 0.277 0,397 0,496 0.373 0,382
landscape
m 282 282 1794 1794 2076 2076
M 0.881 0.691 0.647 0.903 0.679 0,874
G 0.733 0.587 0.545 0.752 0.567 0.728
C 0.701 0.546 0.533 0.744 0.557 0.712
D' 0.594 0,417 0.493 0.713 0.557 0,660
D 0.523 0.392 0,430 0.605 0.481 0.591
Still life
m 308 308 204 204 512 512
M 0.806 0.622 0,710 0,952 0.768 0.764
G 0.726 0,577 0.601 0.835 0.673 0.668
C 0,730 0.589 0.557 0.766 0.673 0,650
D' 0.747 0.633 - - - -

D 0.673 0.563 - - - -
Religious
m 3730 3730 1804 1804 5534 5534
M 1,354 1,070 1.1164 1.5614
C 1,095 0,760 0,961 1,315
mythological
m 350 350 609 609 959 959
M 1,417 1,038 1,169 1,580
C 1.333 0.950 1,049 1,461
Although I have calculated the main values as well as the still to be applied
deviation values on more decimals than I here; but for the degree of precision which
these determinations permit, three are entirely sufficient, and I mention this only
because I have based the values with more decimals on the calculation of the
determinations from each other, where such determinations took place, if one wants
to control the bill according to the data given here, it may carry a minor difference in
the last decimal.
Before discussing the values in this table, it should be noted that these values can
only be considered more or less approximate. We would have the very right values if
we could have attracted all the gallery paintings that exist, exist and exist, to
determine past values; but according to laws of probability, the values derived from
finite m can be presumed to be more approximate than true, from which greater m are
derived, and the less irregularities reveal themselves in the course of the values. With
this in mind, some of the values of previous and following tables, which are only
approximately equal, suggest that the correct ones would be the same, and that laws
which are approximated only by the values of the tables, if fully correct, they would
be completely confirmed. By following the following provisions (e , v, v,, v '), by the
way, could be secured safety provisions on the previous main values, which I do not
go here to give space for the following comments.
First of all, determinations about the relative frequency of the occurrence of images
of a given class and department in galleries can be derived from the values of m in
the previous table, although it must be remembered that the ratios of this frequency
differ greatly according to the individual galleries; the special statistics in this respect
would only cost too much space in relation to their interest. If we stick to the overall
result of the 22 Galleries, then follow (without distinction of the departments h> b
and b> h) after the Kolumn Kombin. the 5 classes studied in terms of the frequency
of the images so: Religious, Landscapes, Genre, Mythological, Still Life. The ratio of
landscapes to genre especialy (2076 : 1477) slightly exceeds the ratio 4 : 3.
Von Genrebildern sind die, deren Höhe größer als die Breite (h > b) etwas
zahlreicher, als die, deren Breite größer als die Höhe (b > h), wogegen bei
Landschaften die b > h mehr als 6 mal so zahlreich sind als die h > b. Einiges
Interesse kann es haben, daß bei religiösen Bildern die h > b ungefähr doppelt so
zahlreich sind als die b > h, unstreitig, weil der Himmel oft in großer Höhe zur
Darstellung zugezogen wird, während bei den mythologischen Bildern umgekehrt die
Breite bevorzugt ist, indem der b > h fast doppelt so viel (609 gegen 350) sind als der
h > b.
As far as the main values are concerned, collective objects are generally used
merely to consider the arithmetic mean M, which is exceeded and undershot by equal
sums of deviations. However, it is clear that in itself it has so much interest in
knowing the value G, which, instead of being exceeded by equal sums, in the same
ratio of the other values, is given the value C, which is the sum of the values of the
number the values D 'and D by which the values are closest in one and the other
sense.
For most collective objects, all principal values are close to the M and to each
other, but there are also objects with more divergent principal values; according to the
previous table, our subject matter belongs to it, revealing the following legal
relationship between these values.
In all classes and departments M occupies the highest place, C the middle, D the
last place; whereas G, C, D 'can change the order of magnitude in relation to each
other, since in the case of still lives h> b the order of magnitude is inversely opposite
to that of the others. This, too, may well be the case according to the distribution
theory to be discussed under 6), which in general requires only that C should fall in
size between G and D '.
Having spread the distribution tables as shown in Table II to such great intervals
that the irregularities of the aisle appear in the main to be balanced, the position of the
single most dense value D can already be approximately determined by being
predominantly in the main interval, which unites the greatest number, as one can
convince, in fact, when one looks in Table II for the intervals in which the values of
D given here in Table III lie. However, the position of the correct D can also fall
within a neighboring interval of the empirically determined principal interval, be it
because of irregularities that more or less balance out when calculating the D from
the general course of the values (for genre b, b> h) it, because, as a result of the
changed outcome of the intervals, the main interval can shift accordingly (for
Landsch. h, b), therefore, one will find a few exceptions to the position of D in the
principal interval at that search. The size of D 'can be calculated from that of G and
C, for details see 6).
Insofar as the principal values do not coincide with each other, the first sight may
be embarrassed, which one of them should be preferred when it comes to making
general size comparisons between images of different classes and
departments. Where, as in the 33rd section, it is only important to consider the order
of magnitude, it does not matter to which one wants to hold one's ground, because,
according to the above table, no exact proportionality, but nevertheless the same
order of magnitude between they exist in different classes and departments. Basically,
a purely quantitative comparison can only be made according to the two means M, G,
while the central value C and the two closest values D ', D are more significant for
the arrangement and dependence of the values. Did you want z. For example, to make
a comparison of the sizes of two types of images according to one of the densest
values, it would be analogous to comparing two people according to the weight or
volume of their brain or heart, which generally goes in parallel with that of the whole
human being. but without being proportional to it; whereas the two remedies, only in
different senses, are directly determinative of the total weight or the total volume of
space. Of these means, arithmetic-M has a more general and practical interest in so
far as it immediately implies how many specimens belong, on average, to fulfilling a
given space in this or that dimension; also it is easier to determine with respect to the
simple dimensions h, b than G, because it does not need to go back to the logarithms

of a; but that changes when you look at the circumstances and surfaces hb, whose
ratio means can be determined directly from the G of h and b, but not so their
arithmetic mean from the M of h and b; It is also noteworthy that D 'is calculated
according to G and C, but not according to M and C, as shown in 6). On the other
hand, of the two most dense values, the simplest denser D has a more obvious
interest, as soon as it can be judged immediately after which dimension the images
accumulate the most; but D 'has a deeper and more important interest, as long as the
whole distribution of values depends on it, and D can probably be calculated
according to D' and a dependent value (v,) but not vice versa. According to this, I
would like to regard D 'as the most significant among the main values and therefore
have this value in the 33rd. Section listed as normal. C has the interest that, to the
knowledge of the latter, one can bet the same, that an image will fall on one or the
other side of it; For example, if an image is larger than C, it may know that it has
more smaller images on it than larger ones, and conversely, if the image is smaller
than C.
3) asymmetry and deviation, extremes.
In the main values Centra are given to the distribution; but more precisely are the
distributional relationships to be judged only when we know partly the number of
values a, which are smaller and larger than the principal values, and herewith the
number of deviations of the individual a from the principal values on both sides, and
partly the average deviations of which one learns whether a class or department
fluctuates little or much around their main values. The values used for this are shown
in the following table.
In this formula, m, 'm' denote the number of negative and positive deviations of M,
and g, 'g' those of G. The number of deviations with respect to C is equal to the
concept of C on both sides; the number relating to D 'will be given as important for
the distribution calculation under 6); I leave aside the number concerning D for the
sake of brevity. (For a more accurate determination of the deviation numbers, 4 times
the interpolation of the 4 intervals of 0.04 size in which the main value in question is
located and the 4 determinations have been applied.)
Further, e is the average change or simply mean deviation with respect to M,
obtained by dividing the sum of the deviations of all a from M (negative plus the
positive to the absolute value) with the total number of the same m; - v is the mean
relative deviation with respect to the ratio G, which indicates in which average ratio
G of the individual a is suppressed and exceeded, that all a put on their logarithms,
the differences of these logarithms of log G taken, the sum of these Divide the
differences, (positive and negative values added together by absolute values) by m,
and look for the quotient of the number in the logarithmic tables.
First of all, it can be observed that the asymmetry with respect to M is negative
everywhere; i, the number m, the negative deviations of M is greater than that of the
positive m ', and is very considerably larger, while the, determined by the ratio
between g, and g' asymmetry with respect to G lower and still life h> b even for h is
almost absent and for b of opposite direction than with respect to M. According to the
notion of C, it is at all negative or positive with respect to a principal value, as it is
greater or less than C.
Second, one can notice that h agrees with the associated b in the asymmetry (the
ratio between the positive and negative deviation numbers) both in terms of M and G
in general, by considering the small differences that the table between them shows to
be random. Only among the religious is the difference in this relationship between h
and b somewhat greater; but the great irregularities of this class do not allow at all to
gain secure legal provisions from it.
The value e gives information about the average fluctuation quantity of the single
copies around the arithmetic mean M, and after comparison of the values e of this
table with the values of M in Table III it is seen that the larger the M, the greater the
fluctuation; whereas the proportionate fluctuation, easily calculated from the values

given, is shows no very strong differences between classes and departments. But
the relative variation is better judged, without needing to recalculate, according to the
mean relative deviation, v, on G, where it is immediately apparent that it does not
vary very much among the most diverse pictures, only from 1.582 to 1.707; and it is
questionable whether even these differences essentially depend only on unbalanced
contingencies. The more v deviates from unity, the greater the proportionate
fluctuation; a value = 1 would mean that all specimens have the same size G, and
therefore there would be no fluctuation in relation to them.
IV. Table on the asymmetry and deviation ratios of h and b.

h> b h Combine.
H b H b H b
Genre.
m, 486 483 442 449 928 957
m' 289 292 260 253 549 520
G, 415 411 367 372 786 771
G' 360 364 335 330 691 706
e 0.244 0.196 0.303 0.427 0.274 0,347
v 1.544 1,552 1,608 1,634 1,582 1,707!
Landscape.
m, 171 179 1110 1115 1298 1296
m' 111 104 684 679 778 774
G, 152 155 922 907 1081 1060
G' 130 127 872 887 995 1016
e 0.441 0.253 0.303 0.436 0.274 0,347
v 1,635 1,657 1,630 1,657 1,624 1,649
Still life.
m, 175 171 129 132 - -
m' 133 137 75 72 - -
G, 153 148 115 116 - -
G' 155 160 89 88 - -
e 0,290 0.219 - - - -
v 1,605 1,556 - - - -
Religious.
m, 2267 2502 1060 1096 - -
m' 1463 1228 744 708 - -
e 0.755 0.445 0.566 0.806 - -
Mythological.
m, 190 196 344 333 - -
m' 160 154 255 276 - -
e 0.661 0.558 0,600 0.742 - -
Both e and v change somewhat with the number m of the specimens from which
they are derived, and according to the above mode of determination actually require a
small correction, so-called correction for the finite m, in order to reduce them to the
normal case derived from an infinite m. However, this correction, which becomes the
less pronounced the more m grows, can be neglected with such great m, as was
present here for the determination of e and v, and has also been neglected in the
provisions of the table. To make it even more, you would have given to the above

rule e nor and apply the same correction factor to the logarithmic quotient to
which the number sought in the logarithmic tables gives v.
Easier, only less sure than the average e, v, the greater or lesser fluctuation of the
images can be judged even after the simple distance of the extreme values from each
other or from the principal values; and there is a certain general interest in knowing
the greatest and smallest values to which a collective object has come under a given
number of specimens, although it must not be overlooked that if the number of
specimens and hence the latitude of deviations would have increased, even though the
extremes could have deviated even further from each other; so that one can not see
fixed values in the extremes observed at given m. Non-surmountable boundaries of
the same, however, can not be stated mathematically at all; but it can generally be
said that if the number of copies is already large, According to laws of probability, it
must continue to grow in tremendous proportions if a considerably greater divergence
of extremes is to be expected. I can not go into more detail about this, which is based
in part on my own theoretical and empirical investigations.
Hereinafter, in the following table (as always in metric measure), I give the two
largest and two smallest values of h and b, which have occurred in each class and
department under the number m of images given in Table III.
V. The 2 maxima and the 2 minima of h and b.

h> b h> b

H b b H

Genre. Max. 2.23. 2.15 2.12. 1.62. 2.73. 2.40. 4.01. 3.51.
.
Minute 0.09. 0.10. 0.11. 0.12. 0.16. 0.16.
0.12
0.13.

Landscape. Max. 3.00. 2.69 2.44. 2.40. 3.40. 3.40. 4.64. 4.64.
.
Minute 0.11. 0.16. 0.07. 0.07. 0.10. 0.10.
0.14. 0.16
.

Still life. Max. 2.41. 2.38 2.28. 1.90. 2.21. 2.04. 3.43. 3.17.
. 0.16. 0.17.

Minute 0.22. 0.22 0.16. 0.16. 0.19. 0.20.


.

Religious. Max. 10.0. 6.10 7.69. 5.68. 6.66. 5.95. 12.77. 10.0
. .
Minute 0.07. 0.08. 0.11. 0.11
0.10. 0.13 0.17. 0.17.
.

Mythological. Max. 4.11. 4.11 3.25. 3.24. 2.90. 2.22. 5.1. 4.85.
.
Minute 0.14. 0.16. 0.14. 0.14. 0.17. 0.20.
0.21. 0.21
.

So z. For example, the highest height h, which occurred in a gen,9mm h> b, is 2.23
meters, the next largest 2.15 meters, the smallest 0.12 meters, the next smallest 0.13
meters, and so on; the absolute highest height (6.66 meters) and width (12.77 meters)
has occurred in religious images.
4) Provisions on the relationship between height h and width b.
In order to have an average relation between height and width for pictures of a

given class and department, one could proceed by calculating the ratio or, for
each individual picture, after measuring its height and width, and especially from
these individual determinations of the ratio, the arithmetic mean would prefer. But
apart from the fact that the determination of so many individual relations, which in
many instances is exceptionally laborious, belonged to one another by dividing the
two individual dimensions, the nature of the matter, that it is more suitable for
relations, is due to the proportionate means of the same (compound) ratios of
individual ratios will exceed and suppose to hold as the arithmetic mean.7) The ratio

means the or but can easily be obtained that the particularly specified ratio mean
of h, and b, which are given in Table III, divided by each other, giving this
mathematically exactly the same value, as if the ratio means of the individually

determined or even zöge whose education is thus spared. Of course, this does
not take the trouble of determining the logarithms of the individual h and b, insofar as
this is necessary for obtaining the ratio means of h and b in Table III itself; but the
trouble would be greatly increased if one had to take the logarithms of the

individual or to arrive at the purpose.


7) This has, in particular, the disadvantage that it turns out to be somewhat

different, depending on whether it is determined or ambiguous (as a


harmonic mean) , a disadvantage to which the ratio means of the ratios is not
subject.

If we now hold on to the divisorically obtained ratio means of, or , in avoiding

real fractions for h> b, and for b> h, we find the following table.

VI. Ratio means of and

V.-M. V.-M.
V.-M.

h> b h Combine.

Genre. 1,250 1,338 1,021


Landscape. 1,248 1,380 1,282
Still life. 1,258 1,388 0.993
These determinations contain what appears to me to be the very interesting result
that the ratio of the larger to the smaller dimension has the same value (very different
from the golden ratio) for the most varied picture classes-for the differences in the
table can be considered as random-a different one but, depending on h> b or b>
h. For h> b the height to the width behaves noticeably exactly like 5 : 4, for b> h the
width to the height is about 4 : 3.
Further, it may be noted that while in the two divisions h> b and b> h the height
deviates from the width in such considerable proportions, the relation of the two in
the combined divisions in genre and still-life is almost equal (the Values 1)
accommodated. However, one might think that h differs from b in lesser proportions
at h> b than at b> h, the latter in combination would have to make the difference to
his side; but this is roughly compensated for by the fact that both in genre and still
life the h> b enter into the combination in greater numbers than the b> h. In contrast,
in landscapes where the numbers are vastly outweighed, such compensation does not
take place.

In genre, I have followed the relative means for h> b, and for b> h, still in
special directions. The constancy of these relations seems all the stranger when
examined especially for the pictures of different galleries, by finding so nearly the
same values that the deviation can be considered accidental, if only every gallery or
collection of galleries contains a sufficient number of such pictures so as not to give
too much scope to the uncertainty of the provision. This is evidenced by the
following table, in which the specimens of such galleries, which presented only a
small number of genre pictures, are taken together for the purpose of borrowing.

VII. Ratio means of and in genre pictures of various galleries.


h> b h
m m
V.-M. V.-M.
Dresden ........ 151 1,276 119 1,334
Munich a) and b), 126 1,248 103 1,311
Frankfurt ..........
Petersburg ....... 122 1,236 87 1,337
Berlin a) and b) ..... 74 1,220 60 1,362
Paris .......... 62 1,225 82 1,357
Brunswick, Darmstadt 57 1,243 88 1,322
Amsterdam, Antwerp 48 1,241 24 1.332
Vienna, Madrid, London. 48 1,297 97 1.370
Leipzig a) and b). , , , 48 1.287 34 1,315
Brussels, Dijon, Venice, 39 1,226 38 1.345

Milan, Florence. , ,

775 702
Even with the absolute value of width b, the relationship between h and b does not
seem to change significantly after the examination of genre pictures; but if a change

is to be assumed, according to the following results, with increasing b , at h> b it

would decrease a little, and at b> h would enlarge, that is, at all times decrease
with increasing b. For I find the following ratio means of the following number m of
specimens between the following size limits:

VIII. Ratio means of and at different size of b (genre).


size limits h> b h
m m
from b.
V.-M. V.-M.
0-0.295 274 1,271 42 1,322
0.295 to 0.495 271 1,232 158 1.287
.495-.695 123 1,228 164 1,322
0.695 to 0.895 54 1,230 98 1,361
0.895 to 1.095 28 1,277 63 1,372
1,095 u. about it. 25 1,229 177 1,386
775 702
Finally, the same ratios are again found, if, instead of the mean values G, the
arithmetic mean M or central values C of h and b are divided in Table III. Less is
usually the case with D 'and D. For the sake of brevity, I pass a specialization in these
relationships.
Instead of dividing the main values of Tab. III, which are specially determined for h

and b, one could now draw from the individually determined or just so many
principal values according to the same rules according to which the principal values
of the individual h and But, as already noted with regard to the arithmetic mean, the
tedious calculation of so many individual relations and their order belongs to a
distribution table. Meanwhile, I have such a genre account at least up to the

logarithms of the genre and although this does not yet permit the drawing of an
arithmetic mean, but of the ratio G, (which, although it is not necessary, does not
require this path), allows central value C, densest ratio by D 'and a mean ratio

deviation v; these values are in the same relation to or understood as earlier to


the individual h and b. In the following, I give these values, with the addition of some
others, dependent on D ', d,, d', v,, v ', which are explained below 6).

, h> b h
G 1,250 1,338
C 1,242 1,329
D' 1,214 1,296
v 1.0661 1.1035
d, 274.5 294
d' 502.5 408
v, 0.02291 0.03480
v' 0.03236 0.04933
It can be seen that C and D 'are somewhat smaller than G, which is unlikely to be
regarded as accidental, in that it enters into a more general legality to be discussed
under (6).
Quadratic images of the 10558 images taken were only 84, ie 1 on 126. How they
have been taken into account in the distribution is already mentioned above.
5) Measurements for the area h b.
In order to know how much area is covered by a given number of images of given
class and department, one will always need the arithmetic mean of it; but apart from
this reasonably practical interest, in order to draw comparisons of size between
different classes and departments, the means of comparison must be preferred, both
in connection with the determination of the mean proportion of dimensions, for which
the arithmetic mean is remarkably useless, rather than because Here, too, one has the
advantage of having the means of relation, not having to form the individual hb in
order to draw it from this, since one finds it mathematically exactly the same if the
relative mean of h and b in Tab. III are related to each other multiplied.
IX. Ratio of h b.

h> b h Combin.
Genre. 0.1746 0.3877 .2550
Landscape. .4340 .4120 .4133
Still life. .4188 .5020 .4502
Quite other, and indeed considerably larger, values are obtained by multiplying the
arithmetic mean M of h and b in Table III, as, of course, since the M are generally
greater than the G, but, by analogy, by multiplication the C, D 'and completely D of h
and b with each other receives smaller products. However, these products follow the
same order of magnitude for the various classes and divisions.
The actual arithmetic mean of hb, by summing the individual values hb and
dividing them by the number of them, I have determined only for genre h> b because
of the great difficulty of its determination and 0.3289 Qu.-M. which, as you can see,
differs greatly from the above found G, values 0.1746. Not less, it deviates very much
from the product of the arithmetic mean of h and b (in Table III), which is 0.2371.
To convince oneself easily of the possibility of such a great diversity, take as a
simplest example only two pictures, one with the height 1, width 2, the other with the
height 10, width 20. That, from the middle height 5 5 and average width 11 as a
product of the same derived means is 60.5, the actual arithmetic mean of their areas 2
and 200 is 101.
Having once taken the trouble to go to the individual hb for genre h> b and at least to

the logarithms of genre b> h, it was possible, analogously as for , and , to derive
from it the following determinants which, in principle, and necessary only for G to
coincide with those obtained by multiplying the principal values from Table III; but
agree empirically also in C, D 'and v in the closest approximation, as one can
convince oneself by carrying out the multiplication, while on the other hand v, and v',
whose meaning is to be taken from 6), noticeably with the sum of v and v 'particulars
given under 6) for h and b.

hb, h> b hb, b> h


M .3289 ?
G 0.1746 0.3877
C .1596 0.3448
D' .1164 .2244
v 2,387 2,639
d, 301 235
d' 474 467
v, .2778 .3179
v' .4640 .5135
Of the total 10558 images that have been reported in Table III, the three largest in
planar space are in fact three images of Paul Veronese, representing all of the ghosts
in which Christ was present, namely:
Guest painting by Levi (Luc V.) h = 5.95; b = 12.77 (Venice, no. 547.)
Wedding to Cana .... h = 6,66; b = 9.90 (Paris, no. 103.)
Gastmal at the Pharisee. h = 5.15; b = 10.00 (Venice, no. 513.)
The three smallest pictures are 3 landscapes on copper, two equal sized allegedly
by Paul Brill, h = 0.074; b = 0.091 (in the Old, Pinakothek in Munich, 2 Dept. 244. a
and c) and one by Jan Breughel, h = 0.074; b = 0.099 (Milan, no. 443).
According to which the surface area varies between 0.006734 and 75.9815 square
meters or the largest picture can take 11283 times the smallest picture.
6) Distribution laws and probation thereof.
It is not disputed that the relatively regular course of the values which has appeared
in the distribution table II, demands to look for the law or more generally the laws of
distribution on what determines how many copies of given class and department
under a given large number of such copies fall between given dimensional limits of
height or width, and according to which the ratios of the principal values to each
other regulate. Now I can not develop and elaborate here the theory of what is to be
said next, but I must confine myself to some hints about it for the mathematical
expert, to whom the random calculus is not altogether alien, since I have already
explained in Sect , Point 1 (in the annotation) mentioned treatise.
The essence of this theory about the distribution of the collective objects rests in
the following sentences.
1) Where, as in the case of collective objects, there is an asymmetry such that the
number of positive and negative deviations with respect to the arithmetic mean is
more different than can be written on unbalanced contingencies, there is an unequal
probability of deviations from this mean ,
2) For reasons discussed in the abovementioned treatise (Sect. XX), it is probable
from the outset that, in order to obtain simple laws of distribution, we should refer
to deviations in relation to arithmetical deviations 8) of a certain value , and this is
introduced as a prerequisite in the theory.
8) If
the measures of the specimens of a collective object are generally denoted
by a, and A is taken as the initial value of the deviations, then according to my

designation a - A is a simple or arithmetic deviation, a relation , log = log


a - log A is a logarithmic deviation of the relevant a from A (the latter deviation
being so called shortly, instead of precisely "simple deviation of the log a from
log A"). While Gauss's law of random deviations refers equally to arithmetical
deviations with respect to M on both sides, it still applies to us according to the
determinations to be passed, if it is based on logarithmic deviations with
respect to D '(this in the previous sense as A taken), and for each side in
particular according to the mean logarithmic deviation v, or v 'used for this
purpose.
3) In connection with this, the output of the deviations from the densest ratio D 'is
taken, the deviations of their ratios for utilization by calculation are brought to their
logarithms, and the sum of the positive logarithmic deviations thus obtained is greater
than or equal to a different ratio for different collective items less than that of the
negative assumed.
With these sentences hang after an analogous course, as I von Encke in
s. Dep. d. Meth. D. kl. Qu in the astronomer. Year f. 1834. p. For the development of
Gauss's law for the presumed symmetry of the deviations with respect to the
arithmetic mean, all the following laws are mathematically traceable, with the
exception of some further developments that follow, except that this pursuit can not
be dealt with here.
According to my previous investigations, which extend to a large number of
anthropological, botanical, meteorological and artistic collective objects, it is very
probable that the same laws which will come to the fore will, in principle, apply in
common to all well-defined, non-conventional, collective objects ; but in collective
objects of weak asymmetry of the deviations in M such as D ', and small

proportionate fluctuation amount (ie where small or slightly different from 1)


these laws can not be ascertained confidently, because the various principal values are
so close together that their legal relationships are easily concealed by unbalanced
contingencies, and because then the ratios of the arithmetic deviations with respect to
M are the same logarithmic with respect to D ', which has been shown in the
calculation of ratio deviations, to agree too close to prove the preference of the
calculation with the latter before the calculation with the former. Collective objects,
however, with as much asymmetry and as much proportionate fluctuation as our
subject offers, are rare. A no less suitable, but not so completely worked through by
me, But I have found an example for the determination of our laws in the rainfall,
according to the height of fallen water, which through a long series of years in the
successive years of the Biblioth. univ. and the Archives gen. for Genève under the
heading "Eau tombée dans les 24 heures". As far as I have examined the laws to be
established, which, of course, still require completion, they are found therein
again.9) It is certainly strange that laws as peculiar as those found below are
collective objects of a character quite different from those of the Gauls and
rainstorms.
9)Should I no longer be able to complete the investigation or publish it, then, if
you want to make it elsewhere, you will have to take into appropriate
consideration that until 1846 including the rain heights below 1 millim. almost
not registered.
For most collective objects, where neither asymmetry nor proportionate variation is
strong, it will be more convenient and without considerable error to be allowed to
apply arithmetical deviations in the output of D as logarithmic at the output of log D
'to the distributional computation Transfiguration of the a in logarithms thus
spared; and when all the principal values are close together, it will be possible to
make a satisfactory distribution calculation even with the exit of M.
So much for the introduction of the following provisions.
Since, according to the preceding and following, the distributional calculation is to
be logarithmic with respect to the principal value D ', the asymmetry and deviation
determinations given in Table IV with respect to M and G are still to be supplemented
by those relating to D', for which purpose the following table serves. Therein, d, and
d 'respectively, mean the number of negative and positive deviations with respect to
D', while v, and v 'represent the mean logarithmic deviations with respect to D' on the
negative and positive sides, thus: If a, the values which are smaller as D 'are' a 'which

are larger, then v, = , di is equal to the d, divided sum of all negative

logarithmic deviations with respect to D', and v '= , which is equal


to. d '
X. asymmetry and deviation ratios with respect to the densest ratio D '.

h> b h Combine.
H b H b H b
Genre.
d, 287 301 269 235 564 644
d' 488 474 433 467 913 833
v, .1387 .1460 0.1614 0.1620 0.1513 0.1941!
v' .2379 .2308 .2484 .2637 .2413 .2667
Landscape.
d, 100 92 787 856 954 936
d' 182 190 1007 938 1122 1141
v, .1859 .1323 .1944 0.0997 0.1905 0.1958
v' .2439 .2781 .2299 .2272 0.2289 .2394
Still life.
d, 157 176
d' 151 132
v, .1698 .1730
v' 0.1512 .1372
It can be seen that the asymmetry ratios with respect to D ', which are to be judged
according to d, and d', although several times approximate, but on the whole, do not
agree with each other much better than previously found with respect to M and G.
which probably depends only on the less certain determinateness that belongs to the
D '. The agreement of the deviation values v, and v 'for h and b is relatively larger.
Let us now turn to the laws in question by recalling that these laws find a strict
application only to an indeterminable number of specimens without exceptional
disturbances of distribution, and henceforth they are satisfied with an approximate
application of them got to.
l) The main law, in which the other laws so to speak and conclude, and according to
which the distribution calculation to lead directly, is this.
The whole distribution is subject to the Gaussian law of accidental deviations,
according to which the distribution of observation errors depends on their size, with
the modifications, which are of course very significant, and which must be mentioned
immediately. The Gaussian law itself in its actual version can be sufficiently
characterized by the following provisions for the applications to be made of it.
Having determined the mean change e with respect to the arithmetic mean M, as
indicated above in point 3, and counting the number of deviations which go to the
positive and negative sides up to a given positive and negative limit deviation a of M,
together, so rich of the total deviations and thus deviating values m
25 pC up to a = 0.3994 e
50 pC ² ²²a = 0.8453 e
75 pC ² ²²a = 1.4417 e
which limits a shall in the future briefly be regarded as the first, second and third
deviation limit , and of which the second, the so-called probable deviation,
is. However, it is also possible to use a table known to mathematicians for any
deviation limit a, the hitherto sufficient relative number of deviations according to
the ratio of this a to e or the probable deviation dependent thereon, and consequently
also the number falling between any two deviation limits of deviations or deviating
values.
Now the modifications that this law has to undergo in application to our object are
these. The result of the deviations is not from M but from the D 'to be found
below. The law is not based on arithmetical deviations, but on logarithmic deviations
(log D '- log a,) and (log a' - log D '), and for each of the two sides on the d,, v, and D
particularly valid for it ', v' especially to be used, after which z. On the negative

side values up to a = 0.8453 v, on the positive side values up to a= 0.8453 v


'range. This z. For example, for genres h, h> b, according to Tables III and X (with
some more decimal than given in these tables) log D 'here is 0.57465 - 1, v, =
0.13867, d = 287, and therefore 143.5 values are to be expected between D '=
0.37553 as a numerical value at 0.57465 - 1, and the standard value, which belongs as
a number to the logarithm 0.45743 - 1, which is around 0, 8453 v, = 0,11722 differs
from log D 'to negative, ie the measure 0,28670. The observation (using the
interpolation of an interval of 0.04 size to be indicated below) left 145.8 or 50.8 p. C.
instead of the normal 50 p. C. find. A more general probation is given below.
But with this law are still the following in connection.

2) It behaves d, : d '= v, v' and is consequently .


3) With an approximation which is perfectly adequate for the application to
empiricism, the equation holds

where p is the Ludolf number. From this, however, immediately follow the next two
laws.
4) The value C always lies between D 'and G in its size, may be G> D' or G <D ',
for which, with some attention to the previous equation, this can easily be deduced

from the fact that a positive true fraction. In order to reconcile this with the
equation, G must always be in the same direction as C of D '.
5) The value D 'can be calculated from the values G and C according to the
following equation:
6) From another side it can be proved that

.
and then calculate D from D 'and v.
These laws contain the basic laws of distribution, the probation of which is to be
sought.
In order to prove the first, the main law, it is now either preferable to adhere to
classes and departments whose size is not too small, and in which there are no
obvious irregularities, or, without excluding series with any irregularities to
compensate the disturbances as much as possible by combining the results of several
series. Let us first of all lay down for the latter probationary path the determination of
the percentage deviation numbers up to the 1, 2, 3 rd limit, as stated above, up to
where, respectively, 25; 50; 75 p. C. the d, and d 'are to reach; so I got from the
original panels of the form of Tab. I 10)primarily for genre h, h> b as deviation
numbers up to these limits on the negative side 64; 145.8; 215.3; while d, =
287; which is 22.3; 50.8; 75.0 instead of the normal percent; on the positive side
118; 244.5: 374.9, whereas d '= 488, which is 24.2; 50.0; 76.8 percent. The same
determination has been made for the h and b of each of the classes and divisions
studied, in particular for their d, v, d, v, but now the 4 deviation numbers up to the
given limit for the two divisions of h and b of the same class on each side sums up,
and hereafter the percentages of the just summed d, and d 'are determined. (In still
lifes, where there was only h> b, there were only 2 deviation numbers on each side to
sum.) So I got up to the certain 3 limits (Gr.) Instead of the normal percentages of
d, on the negative side and on the positive side following percentages observed for
the following 4 summaries: 1) 4 series genre; 2) 4 series landscape; 3) 2 series Still
Life (h> b); and 4) 4 combinations h and b in genre and landscape.
10) In order to compensate as far as possible for the influence of the large
irregularities still exhibited by the tablets in this form, I have used the
following trick of art in determining the deviation numbers up to the limits in
question. The limit up to which a deviation number can be calculated generally
falls between two dimensions of the original table. Now I sum up the 4
numbers of the interval of 0.04 magnitude around whose middle the limit
arrives, ie those belonging to the 2 smaller and 2 larger measures, and add the
deviation number which reaches until the beginning of this interval by
interpolation of the numerical sum this interval according to the proportion of
the piece around which the boundary reaches into it. It should be noted that the
beginning and end of the interval, which z. B. the 4 first numbers of Table I
combined, not 0, 29 and 0.32 but 0.285 and 0.325, because the measures are to
be considered in the spaces between the dimensions with distributed. It does
not necessarily need this trick, as shown by the second parole, but it is
nevertheless an advantage.
XI. Observed percentage deviation numbers instead of the normal
25; 50; 75th
1st Gr. 2nd Gr. 3rd Gr.
å d, = 1092 25.2 50.1 74.9
Genre.
å d '= 1862 25.1 49.4 74.8
å d, = 1835 26.2 50.2 74.9
Landscape.
å d '= 2317 25.5 48.9 73.9
å d, = 523 24.9 43.3! 74.4
Still life.
å d '= 283 27.4 51.2 77.7
å d, = 3097 25.5 49.1 75.0
Combine.
å d '= 4009 25.0 50.1 74.7
In order to give the probation in the other form for some of the more regular series,
so follows the compilation of the observed measures of Tab. II for given intervals in
some divisions of genre and landscape with those according to our rules on the basis
of an executed table of the Gauss 11), where the calculation for the interval in which D
'falls is composed of two parts, one with d ,, v, on the negative side, and one with d', v
'on the positive side. If one has the table of Gaussian law at hand, one can control the
values calculated below according to the data given in Tables III and X, and calculate
the other series of Tables II and compare the calculation with the observation.
11) The interpolation artifice, which has been thought in the note (see above), is
left aside, and the observed measures of Tab. II are here accordingly
reproduced exactly, only summarized for larger intervals.

XII. Comparison of observed and calculated deviation numbers between given


limits.

genre genre Landscape. Landscape.


measures
h, h> b B, h> b b, h> b h, b> h
intervals.
Obs. calc. Obs. calc. Obs. calc. Obs. calc.

0 - 0.3 163.5 164.9 283.5 286.8 31.5 36.4 273 296


0.3 - 0.5 288.5 279.9 268 267.4 93.5 90.9 536 509.1
0.5 - 0.7 145.8 152.4 121 117.9 54 56.3 384 387.9
0.7 - 1.1 119.5 120.3 78.5 76.5 56 54.7 380 373.1
1.1 - 1.3 24 22.9 12.5 11.9 14 13.3 81.5 83.1
Rest. 34 34.6 11.5 14.5 33 30.4 139.5 144.8
775 775 775 775 282 282 1794 1794
It is undeniable that the agreement of observation and calculation in the above two
tables will be satisfying enough.

To prove theorem 2, according to which , Table X can serve, in which the


values of d,, d ', v,, v' are given by observation of the values of D 'listed in Table III,
and now, of course still subject to observation errors. But one will find the law
already in the provisions for the individual classes and departments closely
approximated, only soon after the one soon after the other side something wavering
around it. For the greatest possible equalization of these contingencies, sum all d, d ',
v,, v' of Table X, each 14, for themselves, and take the ratios of these sums;

that is, the two conditions almost exactly coincide.


The proof of Theorem 3) we seek in the probation of its two conclusions 4) and 5).
Now, as far as 4) is concerned, the probation in Table III is found, as long as C
everywhere falls in size between D 'and G, may be D'> G, as in still life h> b, or D
'<G, as usual all over.
As far as 5) is concerned, its probation is related to that of 6). In Table III, the
values D 'and D are not given directly after observation, but D' calculated from the
observed G and C according to 5), and D calculated from the D 'thus calculated and
the value observed for this, by means of 6). So it is important to compare these
calculated values of D 'and D with those directly following the observations. The
direct determination of the observations, of course, is difficult because of the
accidental irregularities of the distribution; yet, despite this, so far approximate direct
determinations can be obtained for D 'and D in order to judge the admissibility of the
given rules of account for these values. First, let's face D.
If one encounters only a decidedly predominant number maximum when passing
through the distribution table in such a way, one will seldom be able to strongly err in
the determination of the D afterwards. But it is often the case that due to such a
combination of balanced irregularities one does not successively reach several
definite maxima, and then one remains undecided on which one has to look for D,
most likely with the largest; but, in the case of not very great overweight, the true D,
which presupposes an adjustment of the irregularities, may rather be to be found in a
smaller maximum, or between a few maximis; in short, its position thereafter remain
indeterminate within fairly wide limits. For the sake of brevity, this method is called
method à 5. Much more precise, but also much more cumbersome as this method is
the following. The measures for three consecutive equal intervals of measure in three
sums, which occupy a certain number of values, are especially summarized by taking
these intervals so great and from such a first beginning that also in the progress of the
beginning of the intervals through the series For each of such measurements the
position of the D within the three intervals is determined by means of a maximum
equation, which is easily derivable from the interpolation formula with second
differences, according to the approximative assumption of the measures which are
conceived in the first, the maximum sum always remaining on the middle interval
that the sum number of each interval is heaped upon the middle of it, and takes the
mean out of these determinations. The closer examination of this procedure, which
can easily be made to a mechanical design would lead here too far; I will briefly call
it the interpolation maximum method. - The direct determination of log D 'can be
done in both ways no less, having previously moved the a to their logarithms and
made interpolation equal intervals between them. With regard to D, I have applied
only the second method of proceeding, with respect to log D ', from which D'
results. Here is a compilation of the thus directly determined values of D and D 'with
the values given in Table III, calculated according to Sentences 5) and 6). Where in
method 5 there were several decided sum maxima, the resulting values of D are listed
next to each other, and highlighted the highest sum maximum in the print. In the case
of very large irregularities, one must refrain from determining the densest values at
all.
XIII. D and D 'after calculation and observation.

D D'
Obs.
calc. à5 Int-Max. calc. Obs.

Int-Max.

h, h> 0,350 0.36 0.349 0,376 0,383


b
b, h> 0.277 0.29 0.281 0.308 0.315
b
genre
h, b> 0.401 0.40 . 0.57 0.398 0.436 0,467
h
b, b> 0,496 0.50. 0.57. 0.64 0.502 0.545 ?
h

Country h, h> 0.523 0.43. 0.63 0.528 0.594 0,660!


- b
b, h> 0.392 0.40 . 0.33 0.389 0,417 0.433
shaft b
h, b> 0,430 0.36 . 0.43 0.410 0.493 0.503
h
b, b> 0.617 0.66 0.643 0.713 0.718
h

Style- h, h> 0.673 0.46. 0.68 0.607 0.747 0.757


b
Life
b, h> 0.563 0.40 . 0.52. 0.59 0,585 0.633 0.608
b
Individual strong deviations between observation and calculation, the combination
of both with regard to D and D ¢ again will find very satisfactory, but of course also
of the considerable uncertainty of the method à 5, considering the multiple values,
between which they usually to waver.

Whether the previous laws applicable to h and b also apply to and are subject to
doubt. In order to investigate, I have taken the trouble to determine the logarithms of
the individual ratios in genre, and to bring for h> b and b> h into two distribution
tables, from which the determinations given on (s o.) Are derived. In the meantime,
there are individual strong irregularities in the distribution tables, and the connection
of the distribution calculated according to the previous rules to the observed ones is

very imperfect. Probably this is due to the fact that the series of how Below, with
the square pictorial form corresponding, fixed values 1 concludes, instead of passing
through fractional values into indeterminate, as it strictly speaking in the theoretical

presupposition. For if one wanted to continue the series of , h> b down to true
fraction values, then one would enter into the b> h, which are not comparable with

the first, and thus conversely with b> h. It is also possible, however, that this
circumstance on the principal distribution is of no very considerable influence, and
that the imperfect union depends on unbalanced contingencies, which in proportion to

the slight variation of and gain a great influence.

On the basis of the (above) given values for the determinants of and , we have

found that the d 'of the (calculated according to G and C) calculated


percentages of d, and d' up to the three assumed limits, respectively, 29 , 5; 54.6; 75.0
and 26.2; 56.1; 76.4; so mostly very different from 25; 50; 75; the second rule,

whereby d : d '= v : v' is confirmed by the data (see above) in bad, when
good. Rule 4) is true in both cases. For the values D 'calculated according to G and C,

the D' according to Int. Max. At not well determined, while at after that the value
1,301, which was very close to the value of 1,296, was found. D has not been
determined by observation, since the logarithms of the numbers have not been

returned to and from the numbers.


With greater certainty one should be able to transfer the essential validity of the laws
which are particularly valid for h and b to the surface areas hb for which the most
important determinants of genre (see above) are given. For on the one hand the
mentioned theoretical difficulty does not take place here, on the other hand the

observed distribution numbers agree better with the normal ones than with and
, In fact, as a percentage of the numbers d, d 'from D' to the three assumed limits, we
found that at h> b 27,2; 50.8; 75.4 and 25.2; 48.5; 75.3; for b> h corresponding to
25.7; 48.9; 77.0 and 26.3; 48.6; 72.2. Rule 2) agrees quite well with h> b according to
the values d,, d ', v, v', b> h less; Rule 4) is correct in both cases. Controlling the
calculated D'values by the Int Max method interfered with larger irregularities in the
distribution table.

Where the relative magnitude of fluctuation is small, G coincides significantly


with M, and D 'with D, and in the distribution computation one can substitute the
logarithmic deviations in D' arithmetic deviations with respect to D, thereby
simplifying much. In fact, Scheibner (in the reports of the Soc., Soc., Science, 1873)
has shown that one has approximate (without regard to a special law of

distribution) where q 2 is the mean of the squares of the deviations of


M, But q 2 is of the same order of magnitude withe 2. Thus , if q 2 and
consequently e 2 are very small, G coincides markedly with M. Now, however, v, 2not
very small, if q 2 and e 2 are very small, because with the relative smallness of the
deviations with respect to M and G such is given with respect to D 'itself; but this is
transferred to the logarithms. Thus, according to Proposition 6), the deviation of D
from D 'can also be neglected. The substitutability arithmetic for logarithmic
deviations depends on the proportionality of both with relative smallness of the first.
7) Further provisions on the state of the investigation.

The classes are so determined.


a) Religious pictures, the pictures with Old Testament and Christian religious
content. For this purpose, not only compositions with several figures were counted,
but also individual heads and figures, such as Christ's heads, images of saints,
representations of martyrs, even landscapes with sacred staffage, so that this class is
actually a poorly defined hodgepodge; hence a very irregular distribution of measure
and number took place in it; only here too the distribution boards as a whole had the
paper dragon-like form of Tab. II.
b) Mythological, ie images with a content from the Greek and Roman gods and
heroes world, accordingly broad, therefore also poorly distributed.
c) genre pictures, in the usual sense, without war and hunting scenes.
d) Landscapes, including marines, but without port and city views.
e) Still life, the images of dead objects (apart from the architecture excluded), such
as compilations of eating utensils, implements, flowers and fruit pieces, with the
exception of those which include human figures, but including those in which
animals incidentally occur.
Secular historical images, architectural images, portraits, and images that are not
understood in previous classes are not included in the investigation. Everywhere are
excluded fresco and wallpaper pictures, diptychs and triptychs and such panels, in
which various representations were contained in delimited departments.
Of course, several doubts could arise as to whether a picture as a genre picture
should be included under c) or left aside as a secular historical picture, whether an
image should be taken as a landscape under d) or left aside as a mere cattle piece,
etc .; and indeed others could have classified the dubious cases a little
differently. However, this does not matter much, because the uncertainty always
affects relatively few pictures, so that the conditions can not be significantly
involved. A very sharp separation principle can not be set up at all; I went to the
apercu of the predominant impression of the picture designation in the catalogs.
In many cases, two or even a number of related pictures of the same format are
listed one after the other in the catalogs. Thus, in the third part of the Louvre catalog
École francaise p. 342 ff. From no. 525 to 547 under the common title "Les
principaux traits de la vie de St. Bruno" 22 pictures of Le Sueur before, which, with
the exception of no. 533, all the same dimensions, h = 1,93; b = 1.30 meters.
The question arose whether in such cases all specimens as a single one, or as often
as they occurred, should be included in the distribution table and charged.
If this were to be the case, but which would have little interest in determining the
actual mean values of the images contained in given galleries of a given kind and the
factual distributional relations, then of course only the latter procedure could be
observed; but since it was not to be expected that in other galleries the same
dimensions would return on the average in the same ratio, this would give an
inappropriate contribution to the general determination of the mean, and thus
considerably change the general distributional relations. Thus, in the 22 galleries, the
following figures of religious images were found in the following size intervals of
height
height number
1,865 - 1,893 91
1,895 - 1,995 89
1,995-1,205 93
which numbers closely match, as expected at adjacent intervals. But in this case all
22 Sueur pictures of 1.93 meters in height are calculated only twice; if they had been
calculated 22 times, instead of the successive numbers, one would have 91; 89; 93
obtained: 91; 109; 93; which would have made the distribution very
irregular. Correspondingly in other cases. Since, however, a large number of related
images of the same dimensions presupposes a certain strong preference for these
dimensions, and thus takes on an increased weight, I have made a brief and round
decision in all cases where there were two or more related images of the same
dimensions 2 times, but not more than 2 times, count in the distribution board.
If the total number of images examined is given as 10558, this figure is not strict in
so far as, according to the previous remark, only two are accounted for by a larger
number of related images of the same dimensions, but on the other hand landscapes,
in which religious ones or mythological staffage, both in the landscape paintings as
religious or mythological images, so doubly recorded, are. Since, however, the
influence of both circumstances is not at all considerable and, moreover, from the
opposite direction, the above figure remains sufficiently close enough.

Addition to Th. IS 176. About the color impression of the


vowels.
In the place mentioned above it has been remarked that one is more inclined to find
the impression of given vowels corresponding to the impressions of given colors,
white and black, and that, although different persons in the positive indications differ
very much from each other, one Agreement on certain negative points is not
lacking. Since I have found that several places have been interested in the comparison
of the two impressions, I have, without attaching an important significance to it in its
great vagueness, yet by collecting a greater number of voices, in which I was
supported by some acquaintances, sought to determine what can be found out of it as
a constant or decided overwhelming predominant, and share the following results
with it. If the task had a greater interest,
Not all persons to whom a question is addressed, therefore, respond to the
comparison in question, even if some declare that they do not know how to draw one
at all; but the number of those who decide on what not a few find themselves who
have previously employed them on their own account is decidedly outweighed. But
many of them make only these or those vowels a certain color impression, while they
find that of the others undetermined. Some express themselves with the utmost
certainty and decisiveness about the impression of some or all vowels, as if it could
not be found otherwise, others less decidedly and surely. But there is hardly any
greater agreement between the former and the latter,
The interviewed persons, who were even involved in the comparison, including the
one already mentioned in the first note (whose statements are included again below),
were altogether 73, including 35 male, 38 female, all educated, and, with the
exception of 2 pupils and 3 upper grade students, adult or at least beyond the school
years.
The overall results are summarized in the following main table, the male and
female judgments under m. and w. separately. Namely, this table contains the number
of persons who united in a given color impression with respect to a given
vowel. Where a person swayed between two different color impressions, it is noted in
each of the two colors with 0.5. Of diphthongs is merely aclosed and asked only for a
few people. Persons who did not compare at all are not included in the
table; however, where persons gave an opinion on the impression of some vowels,
while leaving that indeterminate to others, these indeterminate judgments are under
the horizontal heading "unbest." recorded. Since not a few people determine the color
impression as dark (d.) Or light (h.) Or a special nuance closer, so these additional
provisions are particularly noted below the table. This is followed by a second table,
in which the comparative judgments of some persons whose specification might have
an interest are specially composed, namely, 1) by Prof. C. Hermann, who was much
concerned with the aesthetic impression of color; 2) the brother of Prof. Zöllner, as a
sample artist; 3) the painter Krause; 4) the composer Franz v. Holstein; 5) a musically
very educated lady, Anna Anschütz, b. Volkmann; finally 4 male and 6 female
persons, whose judgments are recorded in the registers as such, which were given
with particular determination. In addition to the unambiguous abbreviations, it means,
as in the list of detailed provisions, g. yellow, gn. green, gr. gray, or. orange, h. bright,
d. dark. In addition to the unambiguous abbreviations, it means, as in the list of
detailed provisions, g. yellow, gn. green, gr. gray, or. orange, h. bright, d. dark. In
addition to the unambiguous abbreviations, it means, as in the list of detailed
provisions, g. yellow, gn. green, gr. gray, or. orange, h. bright, d. dark.
Table on the color impression of the vowels.

a e i O u ä

m. w. m. w. m. w. m. w. m. w. m. w.

White 11 15 3 4.5 3 3 0 0 0 0
black 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 6 10 14
red 7 8th 1 1 4 5.5 8th 8th 0 1
orange 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
yellow 0 0 10 11 13 14.5 0 2 0 0
green 0 1 7 6 5 7 2 3 1 2 1 1
blue 2 8th 1 8.5 1 1 5 6 6 2
purple 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0
violet 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0.5 6 0 1
Gray 0 0 3 1 0 1 1 3 1 0 3 5
brown 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 2 5.5 8th 1 0
glittering 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
by sight. 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
unbest. 14 4 10 2 7 4 10 5 11 4
Individual details.
a . male d. bl., not d. bl. - female something d. r., carmoisinr. not dr, royal, h. bl.
e . male fahlg., citrong., dg, not sure gn., zieml. Safe gn. - female pink, h. bl. 3
times, d. bl., h. holzbr.
i . male h. citrong., undeutl. r., and. gn. 2 times, in addition, is listed under
glossy at i : metallic, pungent shine, pungent yellow, feuerg., Of which the two
yellow also count under yellow.
o. male purple, d. gn., d. bl., full bl., blue-gray, black - female purple, dr,
golden, d. bl. 2 times, royal bl.
u . male dark green-brown, d. br., sepiaschw. - female d. gn., d. purple 2 times,
d. br. 4 times, sepiabr.
a . male sulfur, gypsum, yellow, aqua. - female gelblichgr.
Special judgments.

a e i O u ä

C. Hermann, color w. bl. G. r. gn. gr.


aesthetics
Customs officer, r. w. metal. d. bl. schw.
pattern illustrator
Krause, painter r. or. w. bl. schw.
v. Holstein, musician w. gn. G. purp. br. wass. bl.
A. Anschütz, mus. w. by sight. fire schw. viol. gr.
color.
Very determined.
Prof. Emil Kuntze r. gn. G. bl. bl.
Mr. Platzmann w. G. r. sattbl. schw.
Otto Moser w. gn. G. r. schw.
Karl Volkmann, w. gn. G. r. br. gr.
Stud.
Mrs. schw. w. hellbl. viol. br. gr.
Lisb. Volkmann
Miss Isid. Grimmer bl. w. Hochr. br. schw. gr.
Miss E. Mayer r. w. or h. gn. br. schw.
Miss. Kühn r. bl. gn. gr. schw.
Miss. V. Plalzmann w. h.bl. or. dr viol.
Dr. med. contactor r. bl. G. gn. schw.
Here are some of the more general rules you can draw from previous tables.
On the whole, a , e , i appear as lighter, o, u as darker. The most definite impression
among the vowels is i as yellow, a as white, u as black; for which the numbers are
close to the same. But even e , with a lesser predominance than i , has yellow as the
main character, while o appears red with the main character, but both probably only
because e in the word appears yellow, o in the word red, whereas for isuch an
association can not be asserted. If one disregards white and black, which are not
actual colors, then red would fall on a , brown, and soon blue on u ; but also o, next
to probably only associative red, is entitled to blue. If some persons, especially ladies,
have found o black, then, according to a remark by dr. Grabau (one of my co-
collectors of voices) contribute to the fact that o is often used as the tone of
pain. With respect to the green e and i are in second order, as in the case of yellow in
the first order, competition, in which i probably has influence, that iis related to the ü
occurring in the word green. Terms that indicate gloss are only found in i .
Never was a yellow, e and i black, o and u white, u yellow been found; a only once
black, u only once red. The exception a = black, which can be explained by
association, falls to Ms Lisb, listed in the second table. V., which at the same time has
the comparison i = blue , which also occurs only once , nevertheless made its
judgment with great decisiveness. The exception u = red comes to the woman or the
Miss Luise Fischer, who also a green, e deutl. yellow, i Deutl. white, and also from
the consonants k and w had an impression relative as brown and gray.
Although the associative influence of the vowel, which enters into the verbal
designation of a color, is not to be misunderstood here and there, it is much less
conspicuous than I had suspected, and seems to play only a minor role; otherwise the
results would have been quite different, especially for a , i, and u .
Very characteristic differences between the male and female comparative
judgments are not to be found on the whole; and in any case, the number of mutual
judgments should be much greater in order to decide on it. Remarkable is the
comparatively strong predominance of the impression of blue in a and e , and of
black at o on the female side compared with the male.
Apart from colors, the impression of the vowels also allows for many other
comparisons. Prof. C. Hermann mentioned a comparison with the temperaments
against me. While arepresenting a balance between the various temperaments,
corresponds e phlegmatic, i the sanguine, choleric o, u the melancholy
temperaments. In fact, not only do I myself want to agree with these comparisons, but
others I interviewed did so; only that one found e too lively for the phlegm. - Mrs
Anna A., who is listed in the second table, found a , e , ithe musical major, o
and u corresponding to the minor.

Used catalogs.

Amsterdam. Beschriving the Schilderijen ops Rijks Museum te Amsterdam. 1858th


Antwerp. Catalog of the Musée d'Anvers, without year.
Berlin . a) Directory d. Gemäldesamml. d. königl. Mus. to Berlin. 1834th
b) d. d. Gemäldesamml. of the Consul Wagener. 1,861th
Brunswick . Pape, Verz. D. Gemäldesamml. d. Ducal. Mus. z. Braunschweig. 1849th
Brussels. Fétis, Catalog descript. et histor. you mus. roy. de Belgique. 1804th
Darmstadt. Müller, description. d. Gemäldesamml. in
d. Großherzogl. Mus. z. Darmst.
Dijon. Notice of the object d'art exposés au Mus. de Dijon. 1860th
Dresden . Hübner, Verz. The king. Gem. Gall. z. Dr. 1856th
Florence. Chiavacchi, Guida della R. Gall. del Palazzo Pitti. 1864th
Frankfurt . Passavant, Verz. D. public. -equipped kitchenette. Kunstgeg. d. Städel
Art Institute. 1844th
Leipzig. a) d. d. Artworks d. Urban Mus. z. Leipzig. 1,862th
b) d. d. Löhrschen Gem. S. z. L. 1859.
London. The National Gallery, its pictures etc. Without year.
Madrid . Pedro da Madrazo, Catalogo de los quadros del real Mus. De Pintura y
Escultura. 1,843th
Milan. Guida per la regia Pinacotheca di Brera.
Munich. a) d. d. Gem. In d. königl. Pinakothek z. M. 1860.
b) d. d. Gem. D. new king Pinak. in M. 1861.
Paris . Villot, Notice of the tabl. exp. dans les gal. du mus. imp. you Louvre. 1859th
Petersburg . Scales, the paintings. in d. kaiserl. Hermitage at St. Pet. 1864.
Venice . Catalogo degli oggetti d'arte exposti al Publico nella L. Roy. Acad. di belli
arti in V. 1864.
Vienna. v. Mechel, Verz. D. Gem. The kk Bildersamml. 1,781th
The catalogs of several galleries that I still had at my disposal could not be used,
partly because they did not contain any measurements, partly because the dimensions
were not included in feet, inches were not included, which foot was needed, and it did
not seem safe everywhere to understand that in the country usual among them.