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programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of industrial processes

PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements.These connect the PLC to sensors and actuators
resistance to vibration and impact

i/p side > can be Digital or analog signals

o/p side > PLCs operate electric motors, pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders, magnetic relays
PLC is an example of a real time system which output results must be produced in response to input conditions
invent as replacements to relays, cam timers, and drum sequencers
economic due to the lower cost

simple ladder logic which appeared similar to electrical schematic diagrams.

Digital or discrete (like Pushbuttons) signals behave as binary switches, yielding simply an On or Off signal
Discrete signals are sent using either voltage or current
For example, a PLC might use 24 V DC I/O, with values above 22 V DC = On, below 22v= off

Pressure, temperature, flow, and weight are often represented by analog signals
PLCs typically use 16-bit signed binary processors,the integer values are limited between -32,768 and +32,767
Analog signals can use voltage or current with a magnitude proportional for the value of the process signal
0 - 10 V input would be converted into an integer value of 0 - 32767.

5 programming languages for programmable control systems:

1.FBD (Function block diagram),
2. LD (Ladder diagram),
3. ST (Structured text, similar to the Pascal programming language),
4. IL (Instruction list, similar to assembly language)
5.SFC (Sequential function chart)

PLC brands are Siemens, Allen-Bradley, ABB, Mitsubishi, Omron, and General Electric.

1.you need to select an instrument or a system that you wish to control

2.you need to specify all input and output instruments that will be connected to a PLC controller
3.make a ladder diagram for a program by following the sequence of operations
Finally, program is entered into the PLC controller memory
need to check once again whether all input and output
bringing supply in, system starts working
ADVANTAGE PLC disadvantages of a classic control panel are:
Cost effective for controlling complex systems. - Too much work required in connecting wires
Flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems - Difficulty with changes or replacements
quickly and easily.
Computational abilities allow more sophisticated control - Difficulty in finding errors; requiring skillful work force

Trouble shooting aids make programming easier and When a problem occurs, hold-up time is indefinite, usually
reduce downtime long
Reliable components make these likely to operate for years
before failure